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Sample records for organic carbon iron

  1. Importance of Iron and Soil Physicochemical Properties to Stabilize Organic Carbon in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Poulson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming can potentially accelerate the decomposition of forest soil organic matter (SOM), as a source of greenhouse gas emissions. Understanding the fate of forest SOM is important for evaluating and managing the global carbon cycle during climate change. Iron minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycle in the soil environment, but there is only limited information available concerning how iron-mediated OC stabilization is affected by physicochemical properties of soil. This study investigated the behavior of iron-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests across the United States, and the impact of soil physicochemical properties on the stabilization of OC by iron minerals. The bicarbonate-citrate-dithionite (BCD) method was used to reduce iron in soil samples, and OC content was characterized prior and after reduction to quantify iron-bound OC. We found that iron-bound OC contributed 1.2 - 57.7 weight % of total OC in forest soils. Atomic ratios of iron-bound OC:Fe ranged from 0.006 to 0.178, indicating the importance of sorptive interactions. The fraction of iron-bound OC was more closely correlated to the molar ratio of iron-bound OC:Fe than the absolute concentration of reactive iron, which is ranged from 0.08 to 19.31 mg/g. Iron-bound OC was enriched in 13C compared to the non-iron-bound SOM. There were significant correlations between the total N concentration and total or non-iron bound OC, but not with iron-bound OC. Overall, iron minerals mainly stabilize 13C-enriched non-nitrogenous OC, which was almost regulated by the sorptive association between iron and OC. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the stabilization of OC in soil, and the coupled biogeochemical processes of carbon and iron.

  2. The rate of iron corrosion for different organic carbon sources during biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Park, S K; Choi, S C; Kim, Y K

    2007-01-01

    The effects of total organic carbon and biofilm on microbial corrosion were quantified using serum bottles in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Both organic carbon and biofilm bacteria had a significant effect on the iron corrosion rate, irrespective of the levels of the other variable (p = 0.05). There was no evidence of interaction between organic carbon and biofilm bacteria. Within the tested levels, the addition of exogenous organic carbon increased the corrosion rate by an average of 3.838 mg dm(-2) day(-1) (mdd), but the presence of biofilm bacteria decreased the rate by an average of 2.305 mdd. More iron was released from the coupon in response to organic carbon. Powder x-ray diffractometry indicated that the scales deposited on the corroded iron surface consisted primarily of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (alpha-Fe203). Corrosion rates by different organic carbon sources, i.e. acetate, glucose and humic substances, were compared using an annular biofilm reactor. One-way ANOVA suggested that the effect of each carbon source on corrosion was not the same, with the iron corrosion rate highest for glucose, followed by acetate, humic substances and the control. Magnetite was a major constituent of the corrosion products scraped from iron slides. Examination of community-level physiological profile patterns on the biofilms indicated that acetate was a carbon source that could promote the metabolic and functional potentials of biofilm communities.

  3. Asynchronous Reductive Release of Iron and Organic Carbon from Hematite-Humic Acid Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, D.; Poulson, S.; Sumaila, S.; Dynes, J.; McBeth, J. M.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Association with solid-phase iron plays an important role in the accumulation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM). Ferric minerals are subject to redox reactions, which can compromise the stability of iron-bound SOM. To date, there is limited information available concerning the fate of iron-bound SOM during redox reactions. In this study, we investigated the release kinetics of hematite-bound organic carbon (OC) during the abiotic reduction of hematite-humic acid (HA) complexes by dithionite, as an analog for the fate of iron-bound SOM in natural redox reactions. Carbon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was used to examine the ratio of the aromatic, phenolic and carboxylic/imide functional groups of the adsorbed OC before and after reduction. Our results indicate that the reductive release of iron obeyed first-order kinetics with release rate constants of 6.67×10-3 to 13.0×10-3 min-1. The iron-bound OC was released rapidly during the initial stage with release rate constants of 0.011 to 1.49 min-1, and then became stable with residual fractions of 4.6% to 58.2% between 120 and 240 min. The release rate of aromatic OC was much faster than for the non-aromatic fraction of HA, and 90% of aromatic OC was released within the first hour for most samples. The more rapid release of aromatic OC was attributed to its potential distribution on the outer layer because of steric effects and the possible reduction of quinoids. Our findings show that in the reductive reaction the mobilization of iron-bound organic carbon was asynchronous with the reduction of iron, and aromatic carbon was released more readily than other organic components. This study illustrates the importance of evaluating the stability of iron-bound SOM, especially under aerobic-anaerobic transition conditions.

  4. Entrapment of ancient and modern organic carbon by iron on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvado, Joan A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2015-04-01

    Given the potential for climate-carbon feedbacks in the Siberian-Arctic land-ocean system, there is a need for improved understanding of carbon cycle processes (Vonk et al., 2012). The entrapment of organic carbon in sediments is a key factor to attenuate the outgassing of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, there is a pressing need to understand the mechanisms that control preservation and accumulations of organic carbon in marine sediments. Recently, the role of iron oxides in the preservation of organic matter globally has been outlined (Lalonde et al., 2012). In the present study, the composition of organic carbon associated to reactive iron (OC-Fe) on the Eurasian Arctic Shelf is evaluated. For this purpose, sediment cores and grab samples were collected in the shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea from 9 to 69 m water depth. Experiments were conducted to extract the OC-Fe from the sediments by applying a citrate-dithionite iron reduction method -accurately control corrected- and analyze the δ13C, % OC and Δ14C of the bulk and iron-associated fractions. The results show that 11.0 ± 5.5% of organic carbon in surface-sediments of the Siberian Arctic Shelf is attached to reactive iron. The Δ14C and δ13C signatures presented sharply contrasting offsets between the sedimentary bulk and the OC-Fe. The OC-Fe is much younger than the OC-bulk in the eastern East Siberian Sea and older in the Laptev Sea. The same offsets were observed using a dual-carbon endmember mixing model showing that the iron fraction is mainly composed by young marine plankton organic carbon in the eastern East Siberian Sea and pre-aged thawing permafrost in the Laptev Sea. Overall, it seems that (i) some of this pre-aged organic carbon still remains bound to iron oxides after permafrost thawing and (ii) the iron oxides are transferring dissolved organic carbon to the sediment. This study presents the first analyses of Δ14C ever done in the OC

  5. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  6. Enhancing zero valent iron based natural organic matter removal by mixing with dispersed carbon cathodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-04-15

    Former studies have shown that adding granular activated carbon (GAC) cathodes could enhance the overall performance of the zero valent iron (ZVI) process for organics removal. The present study evaluates for the first time the performance of such an enhanced ZVI process to remove natural organic matter (NOM), an important water quality parameter in drinking water. Lab-scale batch tests were conducted with surface reservoir feed water from a drinking water plant. In the GAC enhanced ZVI process dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV254 were reduced by 61±3% and 70±2%, respectively, during 24h treatment corresponding to 1.8min empty bed contact time. The process was superior to ZVI alone, particularly during the earlier stages of the process due to the synergistically increased iron dissolution rate. Besides GAC, graphite and anthracite also prove to be suitable and potentially more cost-effective options as cathode materials for the enhanced ZVI process, whereby electrically conductive graphite clearly outperformed anthracite. The dominant mechanisms in terms of NOM removal from surface water were found to be coagulation following iron dissolution and adsorption in the case of employing GAC. Oxidation was also occurring to a lesser degree, converting some non-biodegradable into biodegradable DOC.

  7. Soil organic carbon stabilization by iron in permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, C. C.; Zhang, T. J.; Zhao, Q.; Guo, H.; Zhong, W.; Su, H.; Wu, Q. B.

    2016-10-01

    A close relationship exists between soil organic carbon (SOC) and reactive iron; however, little is known about the role of iron in SOC preservation in permafrost regions. We determined the amount of SOC associated with reactive iron phases (OC-Fe) in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The results showed that the percentage of OC-Fe ranged between 0.9% and 59.5% in the upper 30 cm of soil and that the OC-Fe represented 19.5 ± 12.3% of the total SOC pool. No clear vertical distribution pattern in OC-Fe was present in the upper 1 m of soil. Throughout the year, the OC-Fe accounted for relatively stable proportions of the total SOC pool. This study suggests that approximately 20% of SOC is a potential rusty OC pool in the permafrost regions of the QTP. Biogeochemical processes related to the reaction of iron may play important roles in soil carbon cycles in permafrost regions.

  8. Organic carbon, sulphur, and iron in recent semi-euxinic sediments of Kau Bay, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelburg, Jack J.

    1991-03-01

    Kau Bay (island of Halmahera, Eastern Indonesia) is a 470 m deep basin separated from the Pacific Ocean by a sill that is at present only 40 m below sea-level. During Weichselian time, the sea-level dropped below the depth of the sill and freshwater sediments were deposited. These sediments are rich in organic matter ( C org = 2-6 wt% ) with terrigenous isotope characteristics ( δ 13C org = -28 to -30%. ), and are also rich in sulphur (S ≈ 4 wt%). This sulphur enrichment is interpreted to be a late diagenetic feature related to diffusion of dissolved sulphate and sulphide from the marine sediments into the freshwater sediments; the sulphur in these sediments has a δ 34S value of + 15%.. The overlying Holocene sediments consist of marine muds deposited in alternating low-oxygen and H 2S-bearing bottom waters. The marine sediments are also rich in organic matter (C org = 2-6 wt%), but of mixed terrigenous and marine origin ( δ 13C = -25 to -19%. ). Moreover, the sulphur content of these Holocene sediments is lower (S = 1-2 wt%) and isotopically lighter ( δ 34S = -20%. ). In addition to pyrite, large amounts of acid-volatile sulphur (AVS) compounds accumulate in Kau Bay. The reactive iron content of the sediment limits the amount of iron that is sulphidized, while the supply of oxidants controls the limited conversion of AVS to pyrite. Total and reactive iron contents are strongly correlated with the amount of terrigenous organic matter as a consequence of their common provenance and depositional histories. The marine sediments in Kau Bay show no simple relation between organic carbon and sulphur.

  9. Distinct iron isotope signatures in suspended matter in the northern Baltic Sea; implications for cycling of organic carbon and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingri, Johan; Conrad, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct groups of iron isotope signatures can be identified both in river water and in the Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. Particles and colloids with negative iron isotope signatures (enriched in the light isotope) are mobilised in the riparian zone during high discharge. Due to high concentration of DOC the oxidation of Fe(II) is incomplete, and un-oxidised Fe(II) is associated with Fe(III)-OH and OC (organic carbon), forming Fe(II,III)-OC colloids, and particles, with a negative iron isotope signature. Colloidal iron with a negative signature is a labile fraction that transforms during freshwater transport. Photo reduction of Fe(II,III)-OC particles and colloids will release Fe(II) and reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and formed Fe(II) is oxidised forming Fe(III)-OH colloids with a heavy iron isotope signature. Phosphorus and organic carbon are to different extent associated to these two suspended iron complexes during transport and early diagenesis. Flocculation of negative Fe(II,III)-OC colloids produce negative Fe(II,III)-OC particles, without changes in the isotopic composition. Most of the suspended iron is rapidly removed below 1.0 psu, due to flocculation and sedimentation. Negative Fe(II,III)-OC particles may serve as an efficient 'rusty sink' for organic carbon, when deposited in the coastal zone.

  10. Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation. [Precambrian rock analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghoorn, E. S.; Knoll, A. H.; Dembicki, H., Jr.; Meinschein, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an isotopic analysis of the kerogen separated from 15 samples of the Gunflint Iron Formation, Ontario, and the conformably overlying Rove Formation. Reasons for which the Gunflint Iron Formation is suitable for such a study of a single Precambrian formation are identified. The general geology of the formation is outlined along with sample selection, description, and preparation. Major conclusions are that the basal Gunflint algal chert and shale facies are depleted in C-13 relative to the chert-carbonate and taconite facies, that differences in the delta C-13 values between Gunflint facies correlate with marked differences in their biological source materials as evidenced by their respective microbiotas, that the anthraxolites are anomalously depleted in C-13 relative to the kerogen of their encompassing cherts and shales, and that the effects of igneous intrusion and concomitant thermal alteration are shown by a marked loss of C-12 at the contact. The demonstration that not all kerogens are isotopically alike stresses the importance of facies data to the interpretation of C-13/C-12 ratios of ancient organic matter.

  11. The effect of induced anoxia and reoxygenation on benthic fluxes of organic carbon, phosphate, iron, and manganese.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Annelie C; Arias-Esquivel, Victor A

    2009-11-15

    Eutrophication causes seasonally anoxic bottom waters in coastal environments, but we lack information on effects of onset of anoxia and subsequent reoxygenation on benthic fluxes of redox-sensitive minerals and associated organic carbon (OC). As the first study, we determined the effect of inducing anoxia and subsequently restoring oxic conditions in mesocosms with surface sediment and water from a coastal environment. These concentration changes were compared with those in an oxygenated control. We determined water column concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), iron, manganese, and phosphate. Benthic fluxes of DOC, POC, and iron increased at the onset of anoxia in oxygen-depleted treatments. DOC and iron concentrations increased concomitantly towards maxima, which may have indicated reductive dissolution of FeOOH and release of associated OC. The subsequent concomitant concentration decreases may have been the result of coprecipitation of OC with iron-containing minerals. In contrast, the phosphate-concentration increase occurred several days after the onset of anoxia and the manganese concentration was not affected by the onset of anoxia. Restoring oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in DOC, POC, and phosphate concentrations, which may indicate coprecipitation of OC with phosphate-containing minerals. The high DOC fluxes at the onset of anoxia indicate that redox oscillations may be important in OC degradation. Further, our results indicate a close coupling between OC cycling and dissolution/precipitation of iron-containing minerals in intermittently anoxic sediments.

  12. Biogeochemistry of Two Types of Permeable Reafctive Barriers, Organic Carbon and Iron-bearing Organic Carbon for Mine Drainage treatment: Column experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Q.; Blowes, D

    2009-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are an alternative technology to treat mine drainage containing sulfate and heavy metals. Two column experiments were conducted to assess the suitability of an organic carbon (OC) based reactive mixture and an Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon (FeOC) based reactive mixture, under controlled groundwater flow conditions. The organic carbon mixture contains about 30% (volume) organic carbon (composted leaf mulch) and 70% (volume) sand and gravel. The Fe{sup 0}-bearing organic carbon mixture contains 10% (volume) zero-valent iron, 20% (volume) organic carbon, 10% (volume) limestone, and 60% (volume) sand and gravel. Simulated groundwater containing 380 ppm sulfate, 5 ppm As, and 0.5 ppm Sb was passed through the columns at flow rates of 64 (the OC column) and 62 (the FeOC column) ml d{sup -1}, which are equivalent to 0.79 (the OC column) and 0.78 (the FeOC column) pore volumes (PVs) per week or 0.046 m d{sup -1} for both columns. The OC column showed an initial sulfate reduction rate of 0.4 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} and exhausted its capacity to promote sulfate reduction after 30 PVs, or 9 months of flow. The FeOC column sustained a relatively constant sulfate reduction rate of 0.9 {mu}mol g (OC){sup -1} d{sup -1} for at least 65 PVs (17 months). In the FeOC column, the {delta}34S values increase with the decreasing sulfate concentration. The {delta}34S fractionation follows a Rayleigh fractionation model with an enrichment factor of 21.6%. The performance decline of the OC column was caused by the depletion of substrate or electron donor. The cathodic production of H{sub 2} by anaerobic corrosion of Fe probably sustained a higher level of SRB activity in the FeOC column. These results suggest that zero-valent iron can be used to provide an electron donor in sulfate reducing PRBs. A sharp increase in the {delta}13C value of the dissolved inorganic carbon and a decrease in the concentration of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} indicate that

  13. Iron-bound organic carbon in forest soils: quantification and characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Qian; Poulson, Simon R.; Obrist, Daniel; ...

    2016-08-24

    Iron oxide minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycles of OC on the earth surface. To predict the fate of OC, it is essential to understand the amount, spatial variability, and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in natural soils. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States and determined the impact of ecogeographical variables and soil physicochemical properties on the association of OC and Fe minerals. On average, Fe-bound OC contributed 37.8 % of total OC (TOC) in forest soils.more » Atomic ratios of OC : Fe ranged from 0.56 to 17.7, with values of 1–10 for most samples, and the ratios indicate the importance of both sorptive and incorporative interactions. The fraction of Fe-bound OC in TOC (fFe-OC) was not related to the concentration of reactive Fe, which suggests that the importance of association with Fe in OC accumulation was not governed by the concentration of reactive Fe. Concentrations of Fe-bound OC and fFe-OC increased with latitude and reached peak values at a site with a mean annual temperature of 6.6 °C. Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analyses revealed that Fe-bound OC was less aliphatic than non-Fe-bound OC. Fe-bound OC also was more enriched in 13C compared to the non-Fe-bound OC, but C ∕ N ratios did not differ substantially. In summary, 13C-enriched OC with less aliphatic carbon and more carboxylic carbon was associated with Fe minerals in the soils, with values of fFe-OC being controlled by both sorptive and incorporative associations between Fe and OC. Overall, this study demonstrates that Fe oxides play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of C in forest soils and uncovers the governing factors for the spatial variability and characteristics of

  14. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  15. Activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced removal of bisphenol A and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Park, Hak-Soon; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Byungwhan

    2015-04-09

    The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is important for the provision of safe drinking water, but its removal in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) is challenging. Thus, the present study involved the fabrication and characterization of powdered activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPACs) with respect to the simultaneous removal of BPA and NOM. The number of Fe ions loaded into the PAC pores was optimized in terms of exposure time. Impregnation with iron oxide reduced the surface area and pore volume, but the pore size was maintained. IONPAC adsorbents had considerably greater sorption capabilities for BPA and NOM compared to native, bare PAC particles. The adsorption capacities of BPA and NOM were in the following sequence: bare PACiron oxides (e.g., hydroxyl groups) and organics (e.g., phenolic/carboxyl groups). Iron oxide impregnation enabled the BPA uptake to be maintained in the presence of NOM, indicating that the hybrid adsorbent provided synergistic adsorption characteristics for BPA and NOM. Although the solution pH had a negligible impact on BPA uptake, the ionic strength showed a significant effect, particularly in the presence of divalent Ca ions.

  16. Iron, phytoplankton growth, and the carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Street, Joseph H; Paytan, Adina

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. Iron is required for the synthesis of chlorophyll and of several photosynthetic electron transport proteins and for the reduction of CO2, SO4(2-), and NO3(-) during the photosynthetic production of organic compounds. Iron concentrations in vast areas of the ocean are very low (<1 nM) due to the low solubility of iron in oxic seawater. Low iron concentrations have been shown to limit primary production rates, biomass accumulation, and ecosystem structure in a variety of open-ocean environments, including the equatorial Pacific, the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean and even in some coastal areas. Oceanic primary production, the transfer of carbon dioxide into organic carbon by photosynthetic plankton (phytoplankton), is one process by which atmospheric CO2 can be transferred to the deep ocean and sequestered for long periods of time. Accordingly, iron limitation of primary producers likely plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. It has been suggested that variations in oceanic primary productivity, spurred by changes in the deposition of iron in atmospheric dust, control atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and hence global climate, over glacial-interglacial timescales. A contemporary application of this "iron hypothesis" promotes the large-scale iron fertilization of ocean regions as a means of enhancing the ability of the ocean to store anthropogenic CO2 and mitigate 21st century climate change. Recent in situ iron enrichment experiments in the HNLC regions, however, cast doubt on the efficacy and advisability of iron fertilization schemes. The experiments have confirmed the role of iron in regulating primary productivity, but resulted in only small carbon export fluxes to the depths necessary for long-term sequestration. Above all, these experiments and other studies of iron biogeochemistry over the last two decades have begun to illustrate the great complexity of the ocean system. Attempts to

  17. Preservation of organic matter in sediments promoted by iron.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Karine; Mucci, Alfonso; Ouellet, Alexandre; Gélinas, Yves

    2012-03-07

    The biogeochemical cycles of iron and organic carbon are strongly interlinked. In oceanic waters, organic ligands have been shown to control the concentration of dissolved iron. In soils, solid iron phases shelter and preserve organic carbon, but the role of iron in the preservation of organic matter in sediments has not been clearly established. Here we use an iron reduction method previously applied to soils to determine the amount of organic carbon associated with reactive iron phases in sediments of various mineralogies collected from a wide range of depositional environments. Our findings suggest that 21.5 ± 8.6 per cent of the organic carbon in sediments is directly bound to reactive iron phases. We further estimate that a global mass of (19-45) × 10(15) grams of organic carbon is preserved in surface marine sediments as a result of its association with iron. We propose that these associations between organic carbon and iron, which are formed primarily through co-precipitation and/or direct chelation, promote the preservation of organic carbon in sediments. Because reactive iron phases are metastable over geological timescales, we suggest that they serve as an efficient 'rusty sink' for organic carbon, acting as a key factor in the long-term storage of organic carbon and thus contributing to the global cycles of carbon, oxygen and sulphur.

  18. Metal organic frameworks derived porous lithium iron phosphate with continuous nitrogen-doped carbon networks for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Gu, Junjie; Zhang, Jinli; Yu, Feng; Dong, Lutao; Nie, Ning; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) nanoparticles embedded in the continuous interconnected nitrogen-doped carbon networks (LFP/N-CNWs) is an optimal architecture to fast electron and Li+ conduction. This paper, for the first time, reports a reasonable design and successful preparation of porous hierarchical LFP/N-CNWs composites using unique Fe-based metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) as both template and starting material of Fe and C. Such nitrogen-doped carbon networks (N-CNWs) surrounding the lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles facilitate the transfer of Li+ and electrons throughout the electrodes, which significantly decreases the internal resistance for the electrodes and results in the efficient utilization of LiFePO4. The synthesized LFP/N-CNWs composites possess a porous structure with an amazing surface area of 129 m2 g-1, considerably enhanced electrical conductivities of 7.58 × 10-2 S cm-1 and Li+ diffusion coefficient of 8.82 × 10-14 cm2 s-1, thereby delivering excellent discharge capacities of 161.5 and 93.6 mAh·g-1 at 0.1C and 20C, respectively.

  19. Iron(III)-reduction in a low-organic-carbon brackish-marine system

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, L.K.; Macquaker, J.H.S.; Marshallf, J.D.

    2006-05-15

    Siderite rhizocretions are generally considered to be an indicator of fresh-water conditions. The presence of siderite rhizocretions with a marine{delta}{sup 18}O isotope signature in the Rutland Formation, Ketton, U.K. seems to contradict this belief. Commonly, in marine settings pyrite is more prevalent than siderite because of the high concentrations of sulfate in seawater. The Rutland Formation is a fine-grained mixed carbonate-clastic succession with interbedded coals that was deposited in marginal marine conditions. Analysis of siderite revealed that it was chemically zoned, predated pyrite, and has an average {delta}{sup 18}O signature of +0.44 parts per thousand. This siderite is interpreted as having precipitated during early diagenesis from brackish to marine porewaters containing low concentrations of bioavailable organic matter. Despite the porewaters being dominantly marine, under conditions of restricted organic-matter quality and/or quantity Fe(III)-reducing bacteria can outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for the organic substrate, resulting in the precipitation of siderite at the expense of pyrite.

  20. Reactive-transport modeling of iron diagenesis and associated organic carbon remineralization in a Florida (USA) subterranean estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Smith, Christopher G.; Cable, Jaye E.

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxides are important terminal electron acceptors for organic carbon (OC) remineralization in subterranean estuaries, particularly where oxygen and nitrate concentrations are low. In Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA, terrestrial Fe-oxides dissolve at the seaward edge of the seepage face and flow upward into overlying marine sediments where they precipitate as Fe-sulfides. The dissolved Fe concentrations vary by over three orders of magnitude, but Fe-oxide dissolution rates are similar across the 25-m wide seepage face, averaging around 0.21 mg/cm2/yr. The constant dissolution rate, but differing concentrations, indicate Fe dissolution is controlled by a combination of increasing lability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and slower porewater flow velocities with distance offshore. In contrast, the average rate constants of Fe-sulfide precipitation decrease from 21.9 × 10-8 s-1 to 0.64 × 10-8 s-1 from the shoreline to the seaward edge of the seepage face as more oxygenated surface water circulates through the sediment. The amount of OC remineralized by Fe-oxides varies little across the seepage face, averaging 5.34 × 10-2 mg/cm2/yr. These rates suggest about 3.4 kg of marine DOC was remineralized in a 1-m wide, shore-perpendicular strip of the seepage face as the terrestrial sediments were transgressed over the past 280 years. During this time, about 10 times more marine solid organic carbon (SOC) accumulated in marine sediments than were removed from the underlying terrestrial sediments. Indian River Lagoon thus appears to be a net sink for marine OC.

  1. Novel Mode of Microbial Energy Metabolism: Organic Carbon Oxidation Coupled to Dissimilatory Reduction of Iron or Manganese

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, Derek R.; Phillips, Elizabeth J. P.

    1988-01-01

    A dissimilatory Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-reducing microorganism was isolated from freshwater sediments of the Potomac River, Maryland. The isolate, designated GS-15, grew in defined anaerobic medium with acetate as the sole electron donor and Fe(III), Mn(IV), or nitrate as the sole electron acceptor. GS-15 oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide with the concomitant reduction of amorphic Fe(III) oxide to magnetite (Fe3O4). When Fe(III) citrate replaced amorphic Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, GS-15 grew faster and reduced all of the added Fe(III) to Fe(II). GS-15 reduced a natural amorphic Fe(III) oxide but did not significantly reduce highly crystalline Fe(III) forms. Fe(III) was reduced optimally at pH 6.7 to 7 and at 30 to 35°C. Ethanol, butyrate, and propionate could also serve as electron donors for Fe(III) reduction. A variety of other organic compounds and hydrogen could not. MnO2 was completely reduced to Mn(II), which precipitated as rhodochrosite (MnCO3). Nitrate was reduced to ammonia. Oxygen could not serve as an electron acceptor, and it inhibited growth with the other electron acceptors. This is the first demonstration that microorganisms can completely oxidize organic compounds with Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor and that oxidation of organic matter coupled to dissimilatory Fe(III) or Mn(IV) reduction can yield energy for microbial growth. GS-15 provides a model for how enzymatically catalyzed reactions can be quantitatively significant mechanisms for the reduction of iron and manganese in anaerobic environments. Images PMID:16347658

  2. Activated Biochars with Iron for In-Situ Sequestration of Organics, Metals and Carbon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Research Center. Total mercury analysis (EPA Method 1631) was performed following digestion , reduction, and gold-trapping. Methylmercury analysis...effective carbon at removing high Hg concentrations from solution in the pH edge study. Apart from having relatively high levels of sulfur, broiler ...Pyrolysis of Broiler Manure: Char and Product Gas Characterization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48, 1292-1297. 48 Lohmann, R

  3. Relationships between sulphur, organic carbon, and iron in the modern sediments of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, S. E.; Karlin, R. E.

    1991-09-01

    The ratio of sedimentary S to organic C has been used as a diagnostic criterion for recognizing anoxic environments in the sedimentary record. Here we examine the relationship between pyrite S and organic C in the modern (Unit 1) sediments of the Black Sea to re-evaluate this suggested relationship. In box cores from shallow oxic or near-oxic water, pyrite S contents, ranging from 0.1 and 2.5% by weight, do not correlate with organic C contents. In cores from the deep anoxic basin, pyrite S concentrations range between 1.0 and 2.5% and are linearly related to organic C contents with an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. The S/C ratio is around 0.31 in these sediments, which is somewhat lower than the ratio of 0.36 considered to be characteristic of "normal" marine oxic sediments. Thus, the Black Sea anoxic sediments appear to be depleted in S relative to organic C. The degree of pyritization (DOP) of the sediments may be a better measure of anoxic conditions of sedimentation. The DOP values measured here show that pyrite formation is Fe limited, the correlation between organic C and pyrite S probably being induced by a positive correlation between fine-grained sediment components (the original Fe source for pyrite formation in the sediments) and organic matter. Such Fe-limitation is probably characteristic of anoxic basins where pyrite formation can take place in the water column and Fe oxyhydroxides do not accumulate in the surface sediments. The results on the sample set examined here are at variance with earlier data and interpretations for the Black Sea. In particular, the suggested S enrichment of anoxic Black Sea sediments was not found because of Fe limitation.

  4. Effect of landscape form on export of dissolved organic carbon, iron, and phosphorus from forested stream catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, P. J.; Molot, L. A.

    1997-11-01

    Predicting the effects of climate change and atmospheric deposition on water quality requires predicting the effects of landscape form on export of substances downstream. In this paper, we present dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total phosphorus (TP), and iron (Fe) export data (1980-1992) for 20 relatively undisturbed, forested catchments draining into seven lakes in central Ontario and develop regression models of chemical export as functions of landscape composition. The extent of wetlands was correlated with export of DOC and TP; the proportion of the catchment covered by peatlands accounted for 78% of the variance in a regression model of long-term average DOC export and 76% of the variance in a model of color "export." Peatland coverage and Fe export together explained 76% of the variance in a long-term average TP export model, which is consistent with published experimental evidence that Fe facilitates P complexation with DOC in surface waters. The long-term average Fe export model was not significant when all 20 catchments were included. However, Fe export from the 14 catchments with thin tills was a function only of peatland coverage (R2 = 0.71), suggesting that Fe export is dependent to a large extent upon either the export of organic material or the reducing conditions. The long-term export models worked well when export of a substance was dominated by peatlands but was not very sensitive to the influence of mineral soils. The long-term average TP/DOC ratio was remarkably constant among most whole-lake catchments, ranging from 1.4 to 2.0 mg P/g C, the exception being the catchment of anthropogenically acidified Plastic Lake with a ratio of 0.8. Fe export to Plastic lake was also enriched relative to TP export compared with the other lakes. Therefore TP export to Plastic Lake may be limited by some mechanism related to acidification.

  5. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  6. Variations of iron flux and organic carbon remineralization in a subterranean estuary caused by interannual variations in recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the inter-annual variations in diagenetic reaction rates of sedimentary iron (Fe ) in an east Florida subterranean estuary and evaluate the connection between metal fluxes and recharge to the coastal aquifer. Over the three-year study period (from 2004 to 2007), the amount of Fe-oxides reduced at the study site decreased from 192 g/yr to 153 g/yr and associated organic carbon (OC) remineralization decreased from 48 g/yr to 38 g/yr. These reductions occurred although the Fe-oxide reduction rates remained constant around 1 mg/cm2/yr. These results suggest that changes in flow rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) related to changes in precipitation may be important to fluxes of the diagenetic reaction products. Rainfall at a weather station approximately 5 km from the field area decreased from 12.6 cm/month to 8.4 cm/month from 2004 to 2007. Monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from Thornthwaite’s method indicated potential evapotranspiration cycled from about 3 cm/month in the winter to about 15 cm/month in the summer so that net annual recharge to the aquifer decreased from 40 cm in 2004 to -10 cm in 2007. Simultaneously, with the decrease in recharge of groundwater, freshwater SGD decreased by around 20% and caused the originally 25 m wide freshwater seepage face to decrease in width by about 5 m. The smaller seepage face reduced the area under which Fe-oxides were undergoing reductive dissolution. Consequently, the observed decrease in Fe flux is controlled by hydrology of the subterranean estuary. These results point out the need to better understand linkages between temporal variations in diagenetic reactions and changes in flow within subterranean estuaries in order to accurately constrain their contribution to oceanic fluxes of solutes from subterranean estuaries.

  7. Optical Measurements Reveal Interplay Between Surface and Bottom Processes Involving Phytoplankton, Organic Carbon, Iron, Light, and Oxygen in Two Stratified Mesotrophic Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, B. R.; Vaidya, A.; Wiles, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Water column distribution of phytoplankton, organic carbon, particulate and dissolved iron are described through detailed vertical optical measurements that include downwelling cosine irradiance, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence by CDOM, Chl-a, phycobilin pigments, and diffuse attenuation for several UV wavebands, plus pH, temperature, and specific conductance. These measurements were completed with a group of profiling instruments during summer in two mid-latitude small lakes. Special calibration allowed for correcting the impact of CDOM and turbidity on the pigment fluorescence signals. These in situ data were combined with laboratory analysis of discrete water column samples for methanol-extracted chlorophyll-a, spectral absorbance of particles, concentration of particulates (dry mass and ash-free mass), total particulate and "dissolved" iron, DOC and CDOM (the "dissolved fraction" passes through a GF/F filter). Surface processes revealed by these measurement include solar heating and photobleaching of CDOM (partly distributed by wind-driven mixing), and nonphotochemical quenching of phytoplankton chlorophyll-a fluorescence. Bottom processes revealed by these measurements include oxygen consumption by net heterotrophic metabolism, release of DOC, CDOM, and iron from anoxic bottom sediments, and the development of a biological community structured by the light and temperature gradients and absence or scarcity of dissolved oxygen near the bottom. The iron associated with CDOM and particles in the deep samples substantially increased the latter's DOC-specific absorption once there was an opportunity for oxidation. A model for mass-specific spectral absorption of particulates accounts for the contribution of organic matter and iron associated with the particles. A detailed hydrologic budget for one of the lakes will allow the water column processes to be explored further by accounting for inputs and outputs of water and organic carbon (via precipitation

  8. Sorption of dissolved organic carbon by hydrous aluminum and iron oxides occurring at the confluence of deer creek with the Snake River, Summit County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, K.E.; Zellweger, G.W.; Aiken, G.R.; Feder, G.L.; Thorn, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    Organic solute sorption by hydrous iron and aluminum oxides was studied in an acidic, metal-enriched stream (the Snake River) at its confluence with a pristine stream (Deer Creek). From 1979 to 1986, typically 40% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was removed from solution by sorption onto aluminum and iron oxides, which precipitate as the two streamwaters mix. Upstream DOC concentrations, which increase during snowmelt, were identified as the most significant variables in a multiple regression for determining the DOC concentration below the confluence, and the extent of Al and Fe precipitation was much less significant. On hourly timescales, removal of Al and Fe varied erratically but DOC removal was steady, indicating that "sorbable" organic solutes are sorbed either by precipitating oxides or by oxides on the streambed. Characterization of two reactive DOC fractions (fulvic and hydrophilic acids) showed that sorption results in chemical fractionation. Molecules with greater contents of aromatic moieties, carboxylic acid groups, and amino acid residues were preferentially sorbed, which is consistent with the ligand exchange-surface complexation model.

  9. Organic sulfur compounds resulting from the interaction of iron sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in an anaerobic aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Heinen, W; Lauwers, A M

    1996-04-01

    The reaction of iron sulfide (FeS) with H2S in water, in presence of CO2 under anaerobic conditions was found to yield H2 and a variety of organic sulfur compounds, mainly thiols and small amounts of CS2 and dimethyldisulfide. The same compounds were produced when H2S was replaced by HCl, in the H2S-generating system FeS/HCl/CO2. The identification of the products was confirmed by GC-MS analyses and the incorporation of H2 in the organic sulfur compounds was demonstrated by experiments in which all hydrogen compounds were replaced by deuterium compounds. Generation of H2 and the synthesis of thiols were both dependent upon the relative abundance of FeS and HCl or H2S, i.e. the FeS/HCl- or FeS/H2S-proportions. Whether thiols or CS2 were formed as the main products depended also on the FeS/HCl-ratio: All conditions which create a H2 deficiency were found to initiate a proportional increase in the amount of CS2. The quantities of H2 and thiols generated depended on temperature: the production of H2 was significantly accelerated from 50 degrees C onward and thiol synthesis above 75 degrees C. The yield of thiols increased with the amount of FeS and HCl (H2S), given a certain FeS/HCl-ratio and a surplus of CO2. A deficiency of CO2 results in lower thiol synthesis. The end product, pyrite (FeS2), was found to appear as a silvery granular layer floating on the aqueous surface. The identity of the thiols was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and the reduction of CO2 demonstrated by the determination of deuterium incorporation with DCl and D2O. The described reactions can principally proceed under the conditions comparable to those obtaining around submarine hydrothermal vents, or the global situation about 4 billion years ago, before the dawn of life, and could replace the need for a reducing atmosphere on the primitive earth.

  10. Manganese and iron reduction dominate organic carbon oxidation in surface sediments of the deep Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Han; Mok, Jin-Sook; Cho, Hyeyoun; Lee, Tongsup; Vandieken, Verona; Thamdrup, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Rates and pathways of benthic organic carbon (Corg) oxidation were investigated in surface sediments of the Ulleung Basin (UB) characterized by high Corg contents ( > 2.5 %, dry wt.) and very high contents of Mn oxides ( > 200 µmol cm-3) and Fe oxides (up to 100 µmol cm-3). The combination of geochemical analyses and independently executed metabolic rate measurements revealed that Mn and Fe reduction were the dominant Corg oxidation pathways in the center of the UB, comprising 45 and 20 % of total Corg oxidation, respectively. By contrast, sulfate reduction was the dominant Corg oxidation pathway, accounting for 50 % of total Corg mineralization in sediments of the continental slope. The relative significance of each Corg oxidation pathway matched the depth distribution of the respective electron acceptors. The relative importance of Mn reduction for Corg oxidation displays saturation kinetics with respect to Mn oxide content with a low half-saturation value of 8.6 µmol cm-3, which further implies that Mn reduction can be a dominant Corg oxidation process even in sediments with lower MnO2 content as known from several other locations. This is the first report of a high contribution of manganese reduction to Corg oxidation in offshore sediments on the Asian margin. The high manganese oxide content in the surface sediment in the central UB was maintained by an extreme degree of recycling, with each Mn atom on average being reoxidized ˜ 3800 times before permanent burial. This is the highest degree of recycling so far reported for Mn-rich sediments, and it appears linked to the high benthic mineralization rates resulting from the high Corg content that indicate the UB as a biogeochemical hotspot for turnover of organic matter and nutrient regeneration.

  11. Impact of Organic Carbon Electron Donors on Microbial Community Development under Iron- and Sulfate-Reducing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Boyanov, Maxim I; Brulc, Jennifer M; Johnston, Eric R; Kemner, Kenneth M; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A

    2016-01-01

    Although iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in subsurface environments have crucial roles in biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S, how specific electron donors impact the compositional structure and activity of native iron- and/or sulfate-reducing communities is largely unknown. To understand this better, we created bicarbonate-buffered batch systems in duplicate with three different electron donors (acetate, lactate, or glucose) paired with ferrihydrite and sulfate as the electron acceptors and inoculated them with subsurface sediment as the microbial inoculum. Sulfate and ferrihydrite reduction occurred simultaneously and were faster with lactate than with acetate. 16S rRNA-based sequence analysis of the communities over time revealed that Desulfotomaculum was the major driver for sulfate reduction coupled with propionate oxidation in lactate-amended incubations. The reduction of sulfate resulted in sulfide production and subsequent abiotic reduction of ferrihydrite. In contrast, glucose promoted faster reduction of ferrihydrite, but without reduction of sulfate. Interestingly, the glucose-amended incubations led to two different biogeochemical trajectories among replicate bottles that resulted in distinct coloration (white and brown). The two outcomes in geochemical evolution might be due to the stochastic evolution of the microbial communities or subtle differences in the initial composition of the fermenting microbial community and its development via the use of different glucose fermentation pathways available within the community. Synchrotron-based x-ray analysis indicated that siderite and amorphous Fe(II) were formed in the replicate bottles with glucose, while ferrous sulfide and vivianite were formed with lactate or acetate. These data sets reveal that use of different C utilization pathways projects significant changes in microbial community composition over time that uniquely impact both the geochemistry and mineralogy of subsurface environments.

  12. Impact of Organic Carbon Electron Donors on Microbial Community Development under Iron- and Sulfate-Reducing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; O’Loughlin, Edward J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Eric R.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.

    2016-01-01

    Although iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in subsurface environments have crucial roles in biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S, how specific electron donors impact the compositional structure and activity of native iron- and/or sulfate-reducing communities is largely unknown. To understand this better, we created bicarbonate-buffered batch systems in duplicate with three different electron donors (acetate, lactate, or glucose) paired with ferrihydrite and sulfate as the electron acceptors and inoculated them with subsurface sediment as the microbial inoculum. Sulfate and ferrihydrite reduction occurred simultaneously and were faster with lactate than with acetate. 16S rRNA-based sequence analysis of the communities over time revealed that Desulfotomaculum was the major driver for sulfate reduction coupled with propionate oxidation in lactate-amended incubations. The reduction of sulfate resulted in sulfide production and subsequent abiotic reduction of ferrihydrite. In contrast, glucose promoted faster reduction of ferrihydrite, but without reduction of sulfate. Interestingly, the glucose-amended incubations led to two different biogeochemical trajectories among replicate bottles that resulted in distinct coloration (white and brown). The two outcomes in geochemical evolution might be due to the stochastic evolution of the microbial communities or subtle differences in the initial composition of the fermenting microbial community and its development via the use of different glucose fermentation pathways available within the community. Synchrotron-based x-ray analysis indicated that siderite and amorphous Fe(II) were formed in the replicate bottles with glucose, while ferrous sulfide and vivianite were formed with lactate or acetate. These data sets reveal that use of different C utilization pathways projects significant changes in microbial community composition over time that uniquely impact both the geochemistry and mineralogy of subsurface environments

  13. Segregation of carbon in iron and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabczyk, W.; Narkiewicz, U.

    1996-05-01

    The segregation of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and carbon in iron causes the formation of FeXX bonds on the surface. The system metal (Fe(111),Mo(100))-carbon has been studied using the AES method. The bonds FeC observed for lower surface coverages were transformed to FeCC bonds for higher coverages and the interaction between iron atoms and carbon atoms decreased. In the case of molybdenum the two different adsorption states were observed without a formation of CC bonding. The enthalpy of segregation for both adsorption states for iron and molybdenum has been determined using the Langmuir-McLean equation. The enthalpy of carbon segregation at the first adsorption state (lower carbon coverages) was - 140 and - 68 kJ/mol for Fe(111) and Mo(100) surfaces, respectively, and for the second adsorption state - 60 and - 47 kJ/mol, respectively. The further increase of the carbon surface concentration caused the formation of 3D graphite on the Fe(111) surface and of carbide-like compounds on the Mo(100) surface.

  14. Iron cycling at corroding carbon steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; McBeth, Joyce M; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J; Emerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Surfaces of carbon steel (CS) exposed to mixed cultures of iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in seawater media under aerobic conditions were rougher than surfaces of CS exposed to pure cultures of either type of microorganism. The roughened surface, demonstrated by profilometry, is an indication of loss of metal from the surface. In the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the presence of FeRB, some surface oxides were removed. However, when the same FeOB and FeRB were grown together in an aerobic medium, FeOB stalks were less encrusted with iron oxides and appeared less tightly coiled. These observations suggest that iron oxides on the stalks were reduced and solubilized by the FeRB. Roughened surfaces of CS and denuded stalks were replicated with culture combinations of different species of FeOB and FeRB under three experimental conditions. Measurements of electrochemical polarization resistance established different rates of corrosion of CS in aerobic and anaerobic media, but could not differentiate rate differences between sterile controls and inoculated exposures for a given bulk concentration of dissolved oxygen. Similarly, total iron in the electrolyte could not be used to differentiate treatments. The experiments demonstrate the potential for iron cycling (oxidation and reduction) on corroding CS in aerobic seawater media.

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshanova, A.; Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B.; Medyanova, B.; Mansurova, M.; Aliev, B.; Jiang, Xin

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNs) by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. To study the process of nucleation and growth of individual carbon nanostructures, experiments were conducted not only on nanopowders, but also on the separated clusters. To determine the optimum conditions of the carbon nanostructures synthesis and lower temperature limit, experiments were performed at different temperatures (300-700°C) and pressures (100-400 mbar). The experiments have shown that the lower temperature limit for carbon nanostructures synthesis on the iron nanopowders is 350°C and in this process the growth of carbon nanostructures is not so massive. Stable growth of carbon nanostructures for nanopowders began from 400°C during the entire range of pressures. The analysis of Raman spectroscopy showed that the most optimum conditions for obtaining nanotubes of high quality are P = 100 mbar and T = 425°C.

  16. Soil Iron Content as a Predictor of Carbon and Nutrient Mobilization in Rewetted Fens

    PubMed Central

    Emsens, Willem-Jan; Aggenbach, Camiel J. S.; Schoutens, Ken; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Zak, Dominik; van Diggelen, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Rewetted, previously drained fens often remain sources rather than sinks for carbon and nutrients. To date, it is poorly understood which soil characteristics stimulate carbon and nutrient mobilization upon rewetting. Here, we assess the hypothesis that a large pool of iron in the soil negatively affects fen restoration success, as flooding-induced iron reduction (Fe3+ to Fe2+) causes a disproportionate breakdown of organic matter that is coupled with a release of inorganic compounds. We collected intact soil cores in two iron-poor and two iron-rich drained fens, half of which were subjected to a rewetting treatment while the other half was kept drained. Prolonged drainage led to the mobilization of nitrate (NO3-, > 1 mmol L-1) in all cores, regardless of soil iron content. In the rewetted iron-rich cores, a sharp increase in pore water iron (Fe) concentrations correlated with concentrations of inorganic carbon (TIC, > 13 mmol L-1) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, > 16 mmol L-1). Additionally, ammonium (NH4+) accumulated up to phytotoxic concentrations of 1 mmol L-1 in the pore water of the rewetted iron-rich cores. Disproportionate mobilization of Fe, TIC, DOC and NH4+ was absent in the rewetted iron-poor cores, indicating a strong interaction between waterlogging and iron-mediated breakdown of organic matter. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) rose slightly in all cores upon rewetting, but remained low throughout the experiment. Our results suggest that large pools of iron in the top soil of drained fens can hamper the restoration of the fen’s sink-service for ammonium and carbon upon rewetting. We argue that negative effects of iron should be most apparent in fens with fluctuating water levels, as temporary oxygenation allows frequent regeneration of Fe3+. We conclude that rewetting of iron-poor fens may be more feasible for restoration. PMID:27050837

  17. Study of adsorption process of iron colloid substances on activated carbon by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhina, K. I.; Shiyan, L. N.; Yurmazova, T. A.; Voyno, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reports on the adsorption of iron colloid substances on activated carbon (PAC) Norit SA UF with using ultrasound. It is found that time of adsorption is equal to three hours. High-frequency electrical oscillation is 35 kHz. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was determined and it is equal to about 0.25 mg iron colloid substances /mg PAC. The iron colloid substances size ranging from 30 to 360 nm was determined. The zeta potential of iron colloid substances which consists of iron (III) hydroxide, silicon compounds and natural organic substances is about (-38mV). The process of destruction iron colloid substances occurs with subsequent formation of a precipitate in the form of Fe(OH)3 as a result of the removal of organic substances from the model solution.

  18. Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Raymond T; Salter, Ian; Sanders, Richard J; Lucas, Mike I; Moore, C Mark; Mills, Rachel A; Statham, Peter J; Allen, John T; Baker, Alex R; Bakker, Dorothee C E; Charette, Matthew A; Fielding, Sophie; Fones, Gary R; French, Megan; Hickman, Anna E; Holland, Ross J; Hughes, J Alan; Jickells, Timothy D; Lampitt, Richard S; Morris, Paul J; Nédélec, Florence H; Nielsdóttir, Maria; Planquette, Hélène; Popova, Ekaterina E; Poulton, Alex J; Read, Jane F; Seeyave, Sophie; Smith, Tania; Stinchcombe, Mark; Taylor, Sarah; Thomalla, Sandy; Venables, Hugh J; Williamson, Robert; Zubkov, Mike V

    2009-01-29

    The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon. Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified. Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment in the Southern Ocean, which was conducted to test the hypothesis that the observed north-south gradient in phytoplankton concentrations in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands is induced by natural iron fertilization that results in enhanced organic carbon flux to the deep ocean. We report annual particulate carbon fluxes out of the surface layer, at three kilometres below the ocean surface and to the ocean floor. We find that carbon fluxes from a highly productive, naturally iron-fertilized region of the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean are two to three times larger than the carbon fluxes from an adjacent high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll area not fertilized by iron. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased iron supply to the glacial sub-Antarctic may have directly enhanced carbon export to the deep ocean. The CROZEX sequestration efficiency (the amount of carbon sequestered below the depth of winter mixing for a given iron supply) of 8,600 mol mol(-1) was 18 times greater than that of a phytoplankton bloom induced artificially by adding iron, but 77 times smaller than that of another bloom initiated, like CROZEX, by a natural supply of iron. Large losses of purposefully added iron can explain the lower efficiency of the induced bloom(6). The discrepancy between the blooms naturally supplied with iron may result in part from an underestimate of horizontal iron supply.

  19. Fabrication of Iron-Containing Carbon Materials From Graphite Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh

    1996-01-01

    Carbon materials containing iron alloy, iron metal, iron oxide or iron halide were fabricated. Typical samples of these metals were estimated to contain 1 iron atom per 3.5 to 5 carbon atoms. Those carbon materials containing iron alloy, iron metal, and/or Fe3O4 were magnetic. The kinetics of the fabrication process were studied by exposing graphite fluoride (CF(0.68)) to FeCl3 over a 280 to 420 C temperature range. Between 280 and 295 C, FeCl3 quickly entered the structure of CF(0.68), broke the carbon-fluorine bonds, and within 10 to 30 min, completely converted it to carbon made up of graphite planes between which particles of crystalline FeF3 and noncrystalline FeCl3 were located. Longer reaction times (e.g., 28 hr) or higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 420 C) produced materials containing graphite, a FeCl3-graphite intercalation compound, FeCl2(center dot)4H2O, and FeCl2(center dot)2H2O. These products were further heat treated to produce iron-containing carbon materials. When the heating temperature was kept in the 750 to 850 C range, and the oxygen supply was kept at the optimum level, the iron halides in the carbon structure were converted to iron oxides. Raising the heat to temperatures higher than 900 C reduced such iron oxides to iron metal. The kinetics of these reactions were used to suggest processes for fabricating carbon materials containing iron alloy. Such processes were then tested experimentally. In one of the successful trial runs, commercially purchased CF(0.7) powder was used as the reactant, and NiO was added during the final heating to 1200 C as a source of both nickel and oxygen. The product thus obtained was magnetic and was confirmed to be a nickel-iron alloy in carbon.

  20. Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume

    SciTech Connect

    Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-09-20

    Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

  1. Synthesis and properties of a novel structural binder utilizing the chemistry of iron carbonation.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumanta; Souliman, Beshoy; Stone, David; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2014-06-11

    This paper explores, for the first time, the possibility of carbonating waste metallic iron powder to develop sustainable binder systems for concrete. The fundamental premise of this work is that metallic iron will react with aqueous CO2 under controlled conditions to form complex iron carbonates which have binding capabilities. Chosen additives containing silica and alumina are added to facilitate iron dissolution and to obtain beneficial rheological and later-age properties. Water is generally only a medium for mass transfer in these systems thereby making the common reaction schemes in portland cement concretes inapplicable. The compressive and flexural strengths of the chosen iron-based binder systems increase with carbonation duration and the specimens carbonated for 4 days exhibit mechanical properties that are comparable to those of companion ordinary portland cement systems that are most commonly used as the binder in building and infrastructural construction. The influence of the additives, carbonation duration, and the air curing duration after carbonation are explored in detail. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate the presence of an organic carbonate complex (the dissolution agent used to dissolve iron is organic), the amount of which increases with carbonation duration. Thermal analysis also confirms the participation of some amount of limestone powder in the reaction product formation. The viability of this binder type for concrete applications is proved in this study.

  2. Low temperature synthesis of iron containing carbon nanoparticles in critical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasumura, Takashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Whitby, Raymond L. D.; Aschenbrenner, Ortrud; Maekawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    We develop a low temperature, organic solvent-free method of producing iron containing carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles. We show that Fe@C nanoparticles are self-assembled by mixing ferrocene with sub-critical (25.0 °C), near-critical (31.0 °C) and super-critical (41.0 °C) carbon dioxide and irradiating the solutions with UV laser of 266-nm wavelength. The diameter of the iron particles varies from 1 to 100 nm, whereas that of Fe@C particles ranges from 200 nm to 1 μm. Bamboo-shaped structures are also formed by iron particles and carbon layers. There is no appreciable effect of the temperature on the quantity and diameter distributions of the particles produced. The Fe@C nanoparticles show soft ferromagnetic characteristics. Iron particles are crystallised, composed of bcc and fcc lattice structures, and the carbon shells are graphitised after irradiation of electron beams.

  3. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  4. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  5. Iron hydroxy carbonate formation in zerovalent iron permeable reactive barriers: Characterization and evaluation of phase stability

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkin, Richard T.; Lee, T.R.

    2010-10-22

    Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently observed as a secondary mineral precipitate in granular iron PRBs. Mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy on materials collected from three field-based PRBs in the US (East Helena, MT; Elizabeth City, NC; Denver Federal Center, CO). These PRBs were installed to treat a range of contaminants, including chlorinated organics, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Results obtained indicate that chukanovite is a prevalent secondary precipitate in the PRBs. Laboratory experiments on high-purity chukanovite separates were carried out to constrain the room-temperature solubility for this mineral. An estimated Gibbs energy of formation ({Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}) for chukanovite is - 1174.4 {+-} 6 kJ/mol. A mineral stability diagram is consistent with observations from the field. Water chemistry from the three reactive barriers falls inside the predicted stability field for chukanovite, at inorganic carbon concentrations intermediate to the stability fields of siderite and ferrous hydroxide. These new data will aid in developing better predictive models of mineral accumulation in zerovalent iron PRBs.

  6. In-Situ Regeneration of Saturated Granular Activated Carbon by an Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) can remove trace organic pollutants and natural organic matter (NOM) from industrial and municipal waters. This paper evaluates an iron nanocatalyst approach, based on Fenton-like oxidation reactions, to regenerate spent GAC within a packed bed con...

  7. Responses of Sugar Beet Roots to Iron Deficiency. Changes in Carbon Assimilation and Oxygen Use1

    PubMed Central

    López-Millán, Ana Flor; Morales, Fermín; Andaluz, Sofía; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Abadía, Anunciación; Rivas, Javier De Las; Abadía, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Different root parts with or without increased iron-reducing activities have been studied in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient control sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Monohil hybrid). The distal root parts of iron-deficient plants, 0 to 5 mm from the root apex, were capable to reduce Fe(III)-chelates and contained concentrations of flavins near 700 μm, two characteristics absent in the 5 to 10 mm sections of iron-deficient plants and the whole root of iron-sufficient plants. Flavin-containing root tips had large pools of carboxylic acids and high activities of enzymes involved in organic acid metabolism. In iron-deficient yellow root tips there was a large increase in carbon fixation associated to an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Part of this carbon was used, through an increase in mitochondrial activity, to increase the capacity to produce reducing power, whereas another part was exported via xylem. Root respiration was increased by iron deficiency. In sugar beet iron-deficient roots flavins would provide a suitable link between the increased capacity to produce reduced nucleotides and the plasma membrane associated ferric chelate reductase enzyme(s). Iron-deficient roots had a large oxygen consumption rate in the presence of cyanide and hydroxisalycilic acid, suggesting that the ferric chelate reductase enzyme is able to reduce oxygen in the absence of Fe(III)-chelates. PMID:11027736

  8. Parameterized electronic description of carbon cohesion in iron grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Nicholas; Madsen, Georg K H; Drautz, Ralf

    2014-04-09

    We employ a recently developed iron-carbon orthogonal tight-binding model in calculations of carbon in iron grain boundaries. We use the model to evaluate the properties of carbon near and on the Σ5 (3 1 0)[0 0 1] symmetric tilt grain boundary (GB) in iron, and calculations show that a carbon atom lowers the GB energy by 0.29 eV/atom in accordance with DFT. Carbon segregation to the GB is analyzed, and we find an energy barrier of 0.92 eV for carbon to segregate to the carbon-free interface while segregation to a fully filled interface is disfavored. Local volume (via Voronoi tessellation), magnetic, and electronic effects are correlated with atomic energy changes, and we isolate two different mechanisms governing carbon's behavior in iron: a volumetric strain which increases the energy of carbon in interstitial α iron and a non-strained local bonding which stabilizes carbon at the GB.

  9. Iron and carbon metabolism by a mineral-oxidizing Alicyclobacillus-like bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Adibah; Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-04-01

    A novel iron-oxidizing, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium (strain "GSM") was isolated from mineral spoil taken from a gold mine in Montana. Biomolecular analysis showed that it was most closely related to Alicyclobacillus tolerans, although the two bacteria differed in some key respects, including the absence (in strain GSM) of varpi-alicyclic fatty acids and in their chromosomal base compositions. Isolate GSM was able to grow in oxygen-free media using ferric iron as terminal electron acceptor confirming that it was a facultative anaerobe, a trait not previously described in Alicyclobacillus spp.. The acidophile used both organic and inorganic sources of energy and carbon, although growth and iron oxidation by isolate GSM was uncoupled in media that contained both fructose and ferrous iron. Fructose utilization suppressed iron oxidation, and oxidation of ferrous iron occurred only when fructose was depleted. In contrast, fructose catabolism was suppressed when bacteria were harvested while actively oxidizing iron, suggesting that both ferrous iron- and fructose-oxidation are inducible in this acidophile. Isolate GSM accelerated the oxidative dissolution of pyrite in liquid media either free of, or amended with, organic carbon, although redox potentials were significantly different in these media. The potential of this isolate for commercial mineral processing is discussed.

  10. Chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon and colour reduction in slaughterhouse wastewater by unmodified and iron-modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff.

    PubMed

    Torres-Pérez, J; Solache-Ríos, M; Martínez-Miranda, V

    2014-01-01

    In this study, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, and total organic carbon in effluents from a slaughterhouse in central Mexico was performed using clinoptilolite-rich tuff. The experimental parameters considered were initial concentration of the adsorbate, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Surface morphology of the materials was tested by using scanning electron microscopy. Specific surface area was analysed by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and phase composition was analysed by using X-ray diffraction. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The highest COD removal was observed in slightly acidic pH conditions. The maximum reduction efficiency of COD was accomplished with unmodified clinoptilolite-rich tuff at a contact time of 1440 min. In these conditions, the adsorbent was efficient for treating wastewater from a slaughterhouse. Moreover, after several regeneration cycles with Fenton reagent or hydrogen peroxide, the regenerated zeolite with H2O2 (3%) showed the best reduction efficiencies.

  11. Iron Hydroxy Carbonate Formation in Zerovalent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: Characterization and Evaluation of Phase Stability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting the long-term potential of permeable reactive barriers for treating contaminated groundwater relies on understanding the endpoints of biogeochemical reactions between influent groundwater and the reactive medium. Iron hydroxy carbonate (chukanovite) is frequently obs...

  12. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  13. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    SciTech Connect

    Sheinberg, H.

    2000-07-25

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  14. Organics Synthesized Using Iron-Grain Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. M.; Cody, G. D.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2003-01-01

    We use Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis to produce hydrocarbons by hydrogenating carbon monoxide via catalytic reactions. The products of these reactions have been studied using 'natural' catalysts and calculations of the efficiency of FTT synthesis in the Solar Nebula suggest that these types of reactions could make significant contributions to the composition of material near three AU. We coat Fe-silicate grains with organic material using FTT synthesis to simulate the chemistry in the early Solar Nebula. In our experimental setup, we roughly model a nebular environment where grains are successively transported from hot to cold regions of the nebula. In other words, the starting gases and FTT products are continuously circulated through the grains at high temperature with intervals of cooling. Organics generated in this manner could represent the carbonaceous material incorporated in comets and meteorites. We analyze the resulting organics and present the results.

  15. Preservation of organic matter in marine sediments by inner-sphere interactions with reactive iron.

    PubMed

    Barber, Andrew; Brandes, Jay; Leri, Alessandra; Lalonde, Karine; Balind, Kathryn; Wirick, Sue; Wang, Jian; Gélinas, Yves

    2017-03-23

    Interactions between organic matter and mineral matrices are critical to the preservation of soil and sediment organic matter. In addition to clay minerals, Fe(III) oxides particles have recently been shown to be responsible for the protection and burial of a large fraction of sedimentary organic carbon (OC). Through a combination of synchrotron X-ray techniques and high-resolution images of intact sediment particles, we assessed the mechanism of interaction between OC and iron, as well as the composition of organic matter co-localized with ferric iron. We present scanning transmission x-ray microscopy images at the Fe L3 and C K1 edges showing that the organic matter co-localized with Fe(III) consists primarily of C=C, C=O and C-OH functional groups. Coupling the co-localization results to iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy fitting results allowed to quantify the relative contribution of OC-complexed Fe to the total sediment iron and reactive iron pools, showing that 25-62% of total reactive iron is directly associated to OC through inner-sphere complexation in coastal sediments, as much as four times more than in low OC deep sea sediments. Direct inner-sphere complexation between OC and iron oxides (Fe-O-C) is responsible for transferring a large quantity of reduced OC to the sedimentary sink, which could otherwise be oxidized back to CO2.

  16. Recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon fractions.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Dennis A

    2013-01-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exhibits a spectrum of reactivity, from very fast turnover of the most bioavailable forms in the surface ocean to long-lived materials circulating within the ocean abyss. These disparate reactivities group DOC by fractions with distinctive functions in the cycling of carbon, ranging from support of the microbial loop to involvement in the biological pump to a hypothesized major source/sink of atmospheric CO(2) driving paleoclimate variability. Here, the major fractions constituting the global ocean's recalcitrant DOC pool are quantitatively and qualitatively characterized with reference to their roles in carbon biogeochemistry. A nomenclature for the fractions is proposed based on those roles.

  17. Iron [Fe(0)]-rich substrate based on iron-carbon micro-electrolysis for phosphorus adsorption in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Xing, Wei; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    The phosphorus (P) adsorption properties of an iron [Fe(0)]-rich substrate (IRS) composed of iron scraps and activated carbon were investigated based on iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) and compared to the substrates commonly used in constructed wetlands (CWs) to provide an initial characterization of the [Fe(0)]-rich substrate. The results showed that P was precipitated by Fe(III) dissolved from the galvanic cell reactions in the IRS and the reaction was suppressed by the pH and stopped when the pH exceeded 8.90 ± 0.09. The adsorption capacity of the IRS decreased by only 4.6% in the second round of adsorption due to Fe(0) consumption in the first round. Substrates with high Ca- and Mg-oxide contents and high Fe- and Al-oxide contents had higher P adsorption capacities at high and low pH values, respectively. Substrates containing high Fe and Al concentrations and low Ca concentrations were more resistant to decreases in the P adsorption capacity resulting from organic matter (OM) accumulation. The IRS with an iron scrap to activated carbon volume ratio of 3:2 resulted in the highest P adsorption capacity (9.34 ± 0.14 g P kg(-1)), with minimal pH change and strong adaptability to OM accumulation. The Fe(0)-rich substrate has the considerable potential for being used as a CW substrate.

  18. Iron-mediated stabilization of soil carbon amplifies the benefits of ecological restoration in degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lucas C R; Doane, Timothy A; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Valverde, Vinicius; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2015-07-01

    Recent observations across a 14-year restoration chronosequence have shown an unexpected accumulation of soil organic carbon in strip-mined areas of central Brazil. This was attributed to the rapid plant colonization that followed the incorporation of biosolids into exposed regoliths, but the specific mechanisms involved in the stabilization of carbon inputs from the vegetation remained unclear. Using isotopic and elemental analyses, we tested the hypothesis that plant-derived carbon accumulation was triggered by the formation of iron-coordinated complexes, stabilized into physically protected (occluded) soil fractions. Confirming this hypothesis, we identified a fast formation of microaggregates shortly after the application of iron-rich biosolids, which was characterized by a strong association between pyrophosphate-extractable iron and plant-derived organic matter. The formation of microaggregates preceded the development of macroaggregates, which drastically increased soil carbon content (-140 Mg C/ha) a few years after restoration. Consistent with previous theoretical work, iron-coordinated organic complexes served as nuclei for aggregate formation, reflecting the synergistic effect of biological, chemical, and physical mechanisms of carbon stabilization in developing soils. Nevertheless, iron was not the only factor affecting soil carbon content. The highest carbon accumulation was observed during the period of highest plant diversity (> 30 species; years 3-6), declining significantly with the exclusion of native species by invasive grasses (years 9-14). Furthermore, the increasing dominance of invasive grasses was associated with a steady decline in the concentration of soil nitrogen and phosphorus per unit of accumulated carbon. These results demonstrate the importance of interdependent ecological and biogeochemical processes, and the role of soil-plant interactions in determining the success of restoration efforts. In contrast with previous but

  19. Iron-carbon composites for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkara, Bhanu Kiran

    This research is focused on engineering submicron spherical carbon particles as effective carriers/supports for nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to address the in situ remediation of soil and groundwater chlorinated contaminants. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) form a class of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) toxic contaminants in soil and groundwater. The in situ injection of NZVI particles to reduce DNAPLs is a potentially simple, cost-effective, and environmentally benign technology that has become a preferred method in the remediation of these compounds. However, unsupported NZVI particles exhibit ferromagnetism leading to particle aggregation and loss in mobility through the subsurface. This work demonstrates two approaches to prepare carbon supported NZVI (iron-carbon composites) particles. The objective is to establish these iron-carbon composites as extremely useful materials for the environmental remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and suitable materials for the in situ injection technology. This research also demonstrates that it is possible to vary the placement of iron nanoparticles either on the external surface or within the interior of carbon microspheres using a one-step aerosol-based process. The simple process of modifying iron placement has significant potential applications in heterogeneous catalysis as both the iron and carbon are widely used catalysts and catalyst supports. Furthermore, the aerosol-based process is applied to prepare new class of supported catalytic materials such as carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles for ex situ remediation of contaminated water. The iron-carbon composites developed in this research have multiple functionalities (a) they are reactive and function effectively in reductive dehalogenation (b) they are highly adsorptive thereby bringing the chlorinated compound to the proximity of the reactive sites and also serving as adsorption

  20. Carbon content of austenite in austempered ductile iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.C.

    1998-06-05

    The development of austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a major achievement in cast iron technology. The austempering heat treatment enables the ductile cast iron containing mainly strong bainitic ferrite and ductile carbon-enriched austenite, with some martensite transforms from austenite during cooling down to room temperature. A key factor controlling the stability of the retained austenite can be evaluated soundly using the thermodynamics principles. It is the purpose here to demonstrate that the data of ADI from numerous sources have a similar trend.

  1. Enriched Iron(III)-Reducing Bacterial Communities are Shaped by Carbon Substrate and Iron Oxide Mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Lentini, Christopher J; Wankel, Scott D; Hansel, Colleen M

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) oxides exist in a spectrum of structures in the environment, with ferrihydrite widely considered the most bioavailable phase. Yet, ferrihydrite is unstable and rapidly transforms to more crystalline Fe(III) oxides (e.g., goethite, hematite), which are poorly reduced by model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms. This begs the question, what processes and microbial groups are responsible for reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides within sedimentary environments? Further, how do changes in Fe mineralogy shape oxide-hosted microbial populations? To address these questions, we conducted a large-scale cultivation effort using various Fe(III) oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite, hematite) and carbon substrates (glucose, lactate, acetate) along a dilution gradient to enrich for microbial populations capable of reducing Fe oxides spanning a wide range of crystallinities and reduction potentials. While carbon source was the most important variable shaping community composition within Fe(III)-reducing enrichments, both Fe oxide type and sediment dilution also had a substantial influence. For instance, with acetate as the carbon source, only ferrihydrite enrichments displayed a significant amount of Fe(III) reduction and the well-known dissimilatory metal reducer Geobacter sp. was the dominant organism enriched. In contrast, when glucose and lactate were provided, all three Fe oxides were reduced and reduction coincided with the presence of fermentative (e.g., Enterobacter spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desulfovibrio spp.). Thus, changes in Fe oxide structure and resource availability may shift Fe(III)-reducing communities between dominantly metal-respiring to fermenting and/or sulfate-reducing organisms which are capable of reducing more recalcitrant Fe phases. These findings highlight the need for further targeted investigations into the composition and activity of speciation-directed metal-reducing populations within natural environments.

  2. Carbon in the Metal of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, N.; Beckett, J. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Stolper, E. M.

    1996-03-01

    Magmatic iron meteorites (e.g., group IIIAB) are believed to represent the slowly cooled cores of asteroidal-sized bodies. Concentration gradients of Ni in taenite (gamma-alloy) adjacent to kamacite (alpha-alloy) have been studied extensively following the early work of Wood and Goldstein and Ogilvie, and can be used to constrain the rate at which the meteorite cooled through -700 degrees-400 degrees C. Studies on non-anomalous irons have also shown zoning profiles in C, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge. Zoning patterns of elements other than Ni can provide independent constraints on the thermal histories of iron meteorites at lower temperatures, provided as in the case of C, N and P, that the elements diffuse significantly faster than Ni. We report here ion microprobe measurements of the distribution

  3. Cold catalytic recovery of loaded activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bach, Altai; Zelmanov, Grigory; Semiat, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for the recovery of spent activated carbon by an advanced oxidation process using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts was proposed and investigated. Model organic contaminants, such as ethylene glycol and phenol, were chosen for this study as water pollutants. It was shown that there are several advantages in using catalytic oxidation recovery of activated carbon with iron oxide-based nanocatalysts: low temperature reactivity of catalytic recovery without heating; and a relatively large number of adsorption-recovery cycles, without a reduction in the adsorptive properties of the virgin activated carbon or without a performance decrease from the first adsorption-recovery cycle of the new modified adsorptive properties of the activated carbon. The catalytic recovery takes place without ultraviolet light or any visible radiation sources. Results show a high efficiency of catalytic recovery of spent activated carbon using iron oxide-based nanocatalysts. A 97-99% efficiency of spent activated carbon catalytic regeneration was achieved under chosen conditions after 15-20 min of reaction. The process may be also considered as cold in situ recovery of active carbon.

  4. Organic iron (III) complexing ligands during an iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.

    2008-06-01

    Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the <200 kDa fraction. Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.

  5. Carbon cycle: Ocean dissolved organics matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amon, Rainer M. W.

    2016-12-01

    Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in the ocean, but its biogeochemical behaviour is elusive. Size-age-composition relations now quantify the production of tiny organic molecules as a major pathway for carbon sequestration.

  6. Carbonate petrography, kerogen distribution, and carbon and oxygen isotope variations in an early Proterozoic transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Beukes, N J; Klein, C; Kaufman, A J; Hayes, J M

    1990-01-01

    The transition zone comprises Campbellrand microbialaminated (replacing "cryptalgalaminate") limestone and shale, with minor dolomite, conformably overlain by the Kuruman Iron Formation of which the basal part is characterized by siderite-rich microbanded iron-formation with minor magnetite and some hematite-containing units. The iron-formation contains subordinate intraclastic and microbialaminated siderite mesobands and was deposited in deeper water than the limestones. The sequence is virtually unaltered with diagenetic mineral assemblages reflecting a temperature interval of about 110 degrees to 170 degrees C and pressures of 2 kbars. Carbonate minerals in the different rock types are represented by primary micritic precipitates (now recrystallized to microsparite), early precompactional sparry cements and concretions, deep burial limpid euhedral sparites, and spar cements precipitated from metamorphic fluids in close contact with diabase sills. Paragenetic pathways of the carbonate minerals are broadly similar in all lithofacies with kerogen intimately associated with them. Kerogen occurs as pigmentation in carbonate crystals, as reworked organic detritus in clastic-textured carbonate units, and as segregations of kerogen pigment around late diagenetic carbonate crystals. Locally kerogen may also be replaced by carbonate spar. Carbon isotope compositions of the carbonate minerals and kerogen are dependent on their mode of occurrence and on the composition of the dominant carbonate species in a specific lithofacies. Integration of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic results makes it possible to distinguish between depositional, early diagenetic, deep burial, and metamorphic effects on the isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals and the kerogen in the sequence. Major conclusions are that deep burial thermal decarboxylation led to 13C depletion in euhedral ferroan sparites and 13C enrichment in kerogen (organic carbon). Metamorphic

  7. Carbonate petrography, kerogen distribution, and carbon and oxygen isotope variations in an early Proterozoic transition from limestone to iron-formation deposition, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beukes, N. J.; Klein, C.; Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The transition zone comprises Campbellrand microbialaminated (replacing "cryptalgalaminate") limestone and shale, with minor dolomite, conformably overlain by the Kuruman Iron Formation of which the basal part is characterized by siderite-rich microbanded iron-formation with minor magnetite and some hematite-containing units. The iron-formation contains subordinate intraclastic and microbialaminated siderite mesobands and was deposited in deeper water than the limestones. The sequence is virtually unaltered with diagenetic mineral assemblages reflecting a temperature interval of about 110 degrees to 170 degrees C and pressures of 2 kbars. Carbonate minerals in the different rock types are represented by primary micritic precipitates (now recrystallized to microsparite), early precompactional sparry cements and concretions, deep burial limpid euhedral sparites, and spar cements precipitated from metamorphic fluids in close contact with diabase sills. Paragenetic pathways of the carbonate minerals are broadly similar in all lithofacies with kerogen intimately associated with them. Kerogen occurs as pigmentation in carbonate crystals, as reworked organic detritus in clastic-textured carbonate units, and as segregations of kerogen pigment around late diagenetic carbonate crystals. Locally kerogen may also be replaced by carbonate spar. Carbon isotope compositions of the carbonate minerals and kerogen are dependent on their mode of occurrence and on the composition of the dominant carbonate species in a specific lithofacies. Integration of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic results makes it possible to distinguish between depositional, early diagenetic, deep burial, and metamorphic effects on the isotopic compositions of the carbonate minerals and the kerogen in the sequence. Major conclusions are that deep burial thermal decarboxylation led to 13C depletion in euhedral ferroan sparites and 13C enrichment in kerogen (organic carbon). Metamorphic

  8. Thermodynamics of the iron-carbon-zinc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wenzhong; Schlesinger, Mark E.

    1994-08-01

    A two-zone isopiestic experimental technique was used to determine the solubility of zinc vapor in liquid and solid iron-carbon alloys as a function of zinc partial pressure (0.1 to 1 atm), carbon content (0 to 4.6 wt Pct), and temperature (1473 to 1873 K). The solubility of zinc at a given partial pressure decreases with both increasing temperature and carbon content in both liquid alloys and solid austenite; its activity in these solutions, and in pure δ-ferrite, deviates more positively from ideality than previous model-based predictions have suggested. The Bale-Pelton unified interaction parameter formalism was successfully applied to the results of liquid-alloy experiments, but the degree of experimental scatter in the austenite equilibrations was too great to allow its application in the calculation of solid-solution iron-carbon-zinc thermodynamic parameters. Using the available results, values were calculated for the equilibrium partition coefficient K zn in solidifying iron-carbon alloys as a function of alloy carbon content; the results suggest that significant segregation of zinc between solid and liquid phases is not likely.

  9. Effects of iron deficiency on the composition of the leaf apoplastic fluid and xylem sap in sugar beet. Implications for iron and carbon transport.

    PubMed

    López-Millán, A F; Morales, F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2000-10-01

    The effects of iron deficiency on the composition of the xylem sap and leaf apoplastic fluid have been characterized in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris Monohil hybrid). pH was estimated from direct measurements in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap obtained by centrifugation and by fluorescence of leaves incubated with 5-carboxyfluorescein and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Iron deficiency caused a slight decrease in the pH of the leaf apoplast (from 6.3 down to 5.9) and xylem sap (from 6.0 down to 5.7) of sugar beet. Major organic acids found in leaf apoplastic fluid and xylem sap were malate and citrate. Total organic acid concentration in control plants was 4.3 mM in apoplastic fluid and 9.4 mM in xylem sap and increased to 12.2 and 50.4 mM, respectively, in iron-deficient plants. Inorganic cation and anion concentrations also changed with iron deficiency both in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap. Iron decreased with iron deficiency from 5.5 to 2.5 microM in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap. Major predicted iron species in both compartments were [FeCitOH](-1) in the controls and [FeCit(2)](-3) in the iron-deficient plants. Data suggest the existence of an influx of organic acids from the roots to the leaves via xylem, probably associated to an anaplerotic carbon dioxide fixation by roots.

  10. Iron Cycling at Corroding Carbon Steel Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    transport chain in anaerobic respiration , or by using Fe3+ as an electron sink during fermentation. FeRB can be either strict anaerobes (eg members of the...acceptors in anaerobic respiration . Coleman et al. (1993) demonstrated that some sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce Fe3+. Investigators have...the presence of CS, aerobically grown FeOB produced tight, twisted helical stalks encrusted with iron oxides. When CS was exposed anaerobically in the

  11. Formation of magnetite and iron-rich carbonates by thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Liu, S.; Roh, Y.; Cole, D.; Phelps, T.; Vali, H.; Kirschvink, J.L.; Onsttot, T.; McKay, D.

    1997-06-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study the formation of iron minerals by a thermophilic (45 to 75 C) fermentative iron-reducing bacterial culture (TOR39) obtained from the deep subsurface. Using amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as an electron acceptor and glucose as an electron donor, TOR39 produced magnetite and iron-rich carbonates at conditions consistent, on a thermodynamic basis, with Eh ({minus}200 mV to {minus}415 mV) and pH (6.2 to 7.7) values determined for these experiments. Analyses of the precipitating solid phases by X-ray diffraction showed that the starting amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide was nearly completely converted to magnetite and Fe-rich carbonate after 20 days of incubation. Increasing bicarbonate concentration in the chemical milieu resulted in increased proportions of siderite relative to magnetite and the addition of MgCl{sub 2} caused the formation of magnesium-rich carbonate in addition to siderite. The results suggest that the TOR39 bacterial culture may have the capacity to form magnetite and iron-rich carbonates in a variety of geochemical conditions. These results may have significant implications for studying the past biogenic activities in the Martian meteorite ALH84001.

  12. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.

  13. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1991-01-10

    Although promoted cobalt and iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis of gasoline feedstock were first developed more than three decades ago, a major technical problem still limiting the commercial use of these catalysts today is carbon deactivation. This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for FT synthesis, the objectives of which are to: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; and model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. To accomplish the above objectives, the project is divided into the following tasks: (1) determine the kinetics of reaction and of carbon deactivation during CO hydrogenation on Fe and Fe/K catalysts coated on monolith bodies. (2) Determine the reactivities and types of carbon deposited during reaction on the same catalysts from temperature-programmed-surface-reaction spectroscopy (TPSR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Determine the types of iron carbides formed at various temperatures and H{sub 2}/CO ratios using x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (3) Develop mathematical deactivation models which include heat and mass transport contributions for FT synthesis is packed-bed reactors. Progress to date is described. 48 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The elements just beyond iron - Formation during explosive carbon burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Schramm, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Pridmore-Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the details of the synthesis of the elements just beyond iron are unclear. Thus, a reexamination of the role played by neutron-capture reactions during explosive carbon burning is indicated. A description is given of calculations of explosive carbon-burning nucleosynthesis using a complete neutron capture (n-process) computer code with a network extending from Cr through Zr and including not only (n,gamma), (gamma,n) reactions and beta-decay but also (p,n), (n,p), (p,gamma), and (p,alpha) reactions. Initial conditions indicative of the composition of a massive star following core helium burning were selected, and a comparison is made with conditions similar to those used by Howard et al. (1972). It is found that neutron reactions during explosive carbon burning are an important source for the elements just beyond iron.

  15. Effect of carbon content on friction and wear of cast irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with cast irons and wrought steels containing various amounts of carbon in the alloy structure in contact with 52100 steel. Gray cast irons were found to exhibit lower friction and wear characteristics than white cast irons. Further, gray cast iron wear was more sensitive to carbon content than was white. Wear with gray cast iron was linearly related to load, and friction was found to be sensitive to relative humidity and carbon content. The form, in which the carbon is present in the alloy, is more important, as the carbon content and no strong relationship seems to exist between hardness of these ferrous alloys and wear.

  16. Uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide–carbon nanospheres for superior sodium–iron sulfide batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Xiao; Yang, Jianping; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua Kun; Zhang, Wei-xian; Zhao, Dongyuan; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-01-01

    Sodium–metal sulfide battery holds great promise for sustainable and cost-effective applications. Nevertheless, achieving high capacity and cycling stability remains a great challenge. Here, uniform yolk-shell iron sulfide–carbon nanospheres have been synthesized as cathode materials for the emerging sodium sulfide battery to achieve remarkable capacity of ∼545 mA h g−1 over 100 cycles at 0.2 C (100 mA g−1), delivering ultrahigh energy density of ∼438 Wh kg−1. The proven conversion reaction between sodium and iron sulfide results in high capacity but severe volume changes. Nanostructural design, including of nanosized iron sulfide yolks (∼170 nm) with porous carbon shells (∼30 nm) and extra void space (∼20 nm) in between, has been used to achieve excellent cycling performance without sacrificing capacity. This sustainable sodium–iron sulfide battery is a promising candidate for stationary energy storage. Furthermore, this spatially confined sulfuration strategy offers a general method for other yolk-shell metal sulfide–carbon composites. PMID:26507613

  17. Atomistic modeling of carbon Cottrell atmospheres in bcc iron.

    PubMed

    Veiga, R G A; Perez, M; Becquart, C S; Domain, C

    2013-01-16

    Atomistic simulations with an EAM interatomic potential were used to evaluate carbon-dislocation binding energies in bcc iron. These binding energies were then used to calculate the occupation probability of interstitial sites in the vicinity of an edge and a screw dislocation. The saturation concentration due to carbon-carbon interactions was also estimated by atomistic simulations in the dislocation core and taken as an upper limit for carbon concentration in a Cottrell atmosphere. We obtained a maximum concentration of 10 ± 1 at.% C at T = 0 K within a radius of 1 nm from the dislocation lines. The spatial carbon distributions around the line defects revealed that the Cottrell atmosphere associated with an edge dislocation is denser than that around a screw dislocation, in contrast with the predictions of the classical model of Cochardt and colleagues. Moreover, the present Cottrell atmosphere model is in reasonable quantitative accord with the three-dimensional atom probe data available in the literature.

  18. Effects of carbon on intergranular fracture of iron

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, K.S.; Meshii, M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of carbon on the grain boundary strength of iron which had been already reduced by sulfur segregation was investigated by a slow strain-rate tensile test at 77/sup 0/K. The amounts of sulfur and carbon segregation at grain boundaries were controlled by carbon contents and heat treatments of specimens and were determined by Auger electron spectroscopy after in-situ fracture under ultra-high vacuum. It was found that the primary effect of carbon is to displace sulfur from grain boundaries and thus to improve the grain boundary strength by reducing the embrittling effect of sulfur. The second effect of carbon is to increase the resistance to dislocation motion and thus to increase the apparent stress for intergranular fracture.

  19. Natural organic matter and iron export from the Tanner Moor, Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jirsa, Franz; Neubauer, Elisabeth; Kittinger, Richard; Hofmann, Thilo; Krachler, Regina; von der Kammer, Frank; Keppler, Bernhard K.

    2013-01-01

    Samples from a pristine raised peat bog runoff in Austria, the Tannermoor creek, were analysed for their iron linked to natural organic matter (NOM) content. Dissolved organic carbon < 0.45 μm (DOC) was 41–64 mg L−1, iron 4.4–5.5 mg L−1. Samples were analysed applying asymmetric field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) coupled to UV–vis absorption, fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples showed an iron peak associated with the NOM peak, one sample exhibiting a second peak of iron independent from the NOM peak. As highland peat bogs with similar climatic conditions and vegetation to the Tanner Moor are found throughout the world, including areas adjacent to the sea, we examined the behaviour of NOM and iron in samples brought to euhaline (35‰) conditions with artificial sea salt. The enhanced ionic strength reduced NOM by 53% and iron by 82%. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the samples at sea-like salinity revealed two major fractions of NOM associated with different iron concentrations. The larger one, eluting sharply after the upper exclusion limits of 4000–5000 g mol−1, seems to be most important for iron chelating. The results outline the global importance of sub-mountainous and mountainous raised peat bogs as a source of iron chelators to the marine environment at sites where such peat bogs release their run-offs into the sea. PMID:23805012

  20. Tracing iron-fueled microbial carbon production within the hydrothermal plume at the Loihi seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Hansman, Roberta L.; Sessions, Alex L.; Nakamura, Ko-ichi.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2011-10-01

    The Loihi hydrothermal plume provides an opportunity to investigate iron (Fe) oxidation and microbial processes in a system that is truly Fe dominated and distinct from mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. The lack of hydrogen sulfide within the Loihi hydrothermal fluids and the presence of an oxygen minimum zone at this submarine volcano's summit, results in a prolonged presence of reduced Fe within the dispersing non-buoyant plume. In this study, we have investigated the potential for microbial carbon fixation within the Loihi plume. We sampled for both particulate and dissolved organic carbon in hydrothermal fluids, microbial mats growing around vents, and the dispersing plume, and carried out stable carbon isotope analysis on the particulate fraction. The δ13C values of the microbial mats ranged from -23‰ to -28‰, and are distinct from those of deep-ocean particulate organic carbon (POC). The mats and hydrothermal fluids were also elevated in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to background seawater. Within the hydrothermal plume, DOC and POC concentrations were elevated and the isotopic composition of POC within the plume suggests mixing between background seawater POC and a 13C-depleted hydrothermal component. The combination of both DOC and POC increasing in the dispersing plume that cannot solely be the result of entrainment and DOC adsorption, provides strong evidence for in-situ microbial productivity by chemolithoautotrophs, including a likelihood for iron-oxidizing microorganisms.

  1. Adsorbent 2D and 3D carbon matrices with protected magnetic iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carreño, N L V; Escote, M T; Valentini, A; McCafferty, L; Stolojan, V; Beliatis, M; Mills, C A; Rhodes, R; Smith, C T G; Silva, S R P

    2015-11-07

    We report on the synthesis of two and three dimensional carbonaceous sponges produced directly from graphene oxide (GO) into which functionalized iron nanoparticles can be introduced to render it magnetic. This simple, low cost procedure, wherein an iron polymeric resin precursor is introduced into the carbon framework, results in carbon-based materials with specific surface areas of the order of 93 and 66 m(2) g(-1), compared to approx. 4 m(2) g(-1) for graphite, decorated with ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles giving coercivity fields postulated to be 216 and 98 Oe, values typical for ferrite magnets, for 3.2 and 13.5 wt% Fe respectively. The strongly magnetic iron nanoparticles are robustly anchored to the GO sheets by a layer of residual graphite, on the order of 5 nm, formed during the pyrolysis of the precursor material. The applicability of the carbon sponges is demonstrated in their ability to absorb, store and subsequently elute an organic dye, Rhodamine B, from water as required. It is possible to regenerate the carbon-iron hybrid material after adsorption by eluting the dye with a solvent to which it has a high affinity, such as ethanol. The use of a carbon framework opens the hybrid materials to further chemical functionalization, for enhanced chemical uptake of contaminants, or co-decoration with, for example, silver nanoparticles for bactericidal properties. Such analytical properties, combined with the material's magnetic character, offer solutions for environmental decontamination at land and sea, wastewater purification, solvent extraction, and for the concentration of dilute species.

  2. Adsorbent 2D and 3D carbon matrices with protected magnetic iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, N. L. V.; Escote, M. T.; Valentini, A.; McCafferty, L.; Stolojan, V.; Beliatis, M.; Mills, C. A.; Rhodes, R.; Smith, C. T. G.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the synthesis of two and three dimensional carbonaceous sponges produced directly from graphene oxide (GO) into which functionalized iron nanoparticles can be introduced to render it magnetic. This simple, low cost procedure, wherein an iron polymeric resin precursor is introduced into the carbon framework, results in carbon-based materials with specific surface areas of the order of 93 and 66 m2 g-1, compared to approx. 4 m2 g-1 for graphite, decorated with ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles giving coercivity fields postulated to be 216 and 98 Oe, values typical for ferrite magnets, for 3.2 and 13.5 wt% Fe respectively. The strongly magnetic iron nanoparticles are robustly anchored to the GO sheets by a layer of residual graphite, on the order of 5 nm, formed during the pyrolysis of the precursor material. The applicability of the carbon sponges is demonstrated in their ability to absorb, store and subsequently elute an organic dye, Rhodamine B, from water as required. It is possible to regenerate the carbon-iron hybrid material after adsorption by eluting the dye with a solvent to which it has a high affinity, such as ethanol. The use of a carbon framework opens the hybrid materials to further chemical functionalization, for enhanced chemical uptake of contaminants, or co-decoration with, for example, silver nanoparticles for bactericidal properties. Such analytical properties, combined with the material's magnetic character, offer solutions for environmental decontamination at land and sea, wastewater purification, solvent extraction, and for the concentration of dilute species.

  3. Advanced oxidation of natural organic matter using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles.

    PubMed

    Kitis, M; Kaplan, S S

    2007-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters using hydrogen peroxide and iron-coated pumice particles as heterogeneous catalysts was investigated. Two NOM sources were tested: humic acid solution and a natural source water. Iron coated pumice removed about half of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration at a dose of 3000 mg l(-1) in 24 h by adsorption only. Original pumice and peroxide dosed together provided UV absorbance reductions as high as 49%, mainly due to the presence of metal oxides including Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3) and TiO(2) in the natural pumice, which are known to catalyze the decomposition of peroxide forming strong oxidants. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. A strong linear correlation was found between iron contents of coated pumices and UV absorbance reductions. Peroxide consumption also correlated with UV absorbance reduction. Control experiments proved the effective coating and the stability of iron oxide species bound on pumice surfaces. Results overall indicated that in addition to adsorptive removal of NOM by metal oxides on pumice surfaces, surface reactions between iron oxides and peroxide result in the formation of strong oxidants, probably like hydroxyl radicals, which further oxidize both adsorbed NOM and remaining NOM in solution, similar to those in Fenton-like reactions.

  4. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on iron nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, А B.; Mansurova, M. E.; Aliyev, B. А; Jiang, Xin

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the results of experiments on synthesis of carbon nanostructures by the method of thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using iron nanopowders obtained by the method of electrical explosion of wires as catalysts. The process parameters that are optimal for low-temperature growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified during performed experiments. Results of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray analysis showed that samples grown at temperatures below the normally used have the highest crystallinity. Studies by scanning electron microscopy using SE2 mode and results of transmission electron microscopy indicate that the synthesized structures are multi-walled CNTs with the metal clusters inside the channel of the tube. The experimental modes of synthesis of CNTs by low-temperature CVD using iron nanopowders as catalyst have been found for the first time.

  5. Removal of trichloroethylene by zerovalent iron/activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuh-fan; Cheng, Yu-ling; Shih, Yang-hsin

    2013-11-15

    Activated carbon (AC) and zerovalent iron (ZVI) have been widely used in the adsorption and dehalogenation process, respectively, for the removal of organic compounds in environmental treatments. This study aims to prepare ZVI/AC derived from an agricultural waste, coir pith, through simple one-step pyrolysis. The effect of activation temperature and time on the surface area, iron content, and zerovalent iron ratio of ZVI/AC was systemically investigated. The results indicated that the activation of AC by FeSO4 significantly increased surface area of AC and distributed elemental iron over the AC. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of ZVI/AC revealed that zerovalent iron was present. As compared to AC without FeSO4 activation, ZVI/AC increased the trichloroethylene removal rate constant by 7 times. The dechlorination ability of ZVI/AC was dominated by the zerovalent iron content. We have shown that lab-made ZVI/AC from coir pith can effectively adsorb and dehalogenate the chlorinated compounds in water.

  6. Electro- and thermotransport of carbon in iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, I.C.I.

    1980-03-01

    Results of studies on the electrotransport, thermotransport and chemical diffusion of carbon in ..gamma..-phase iron - 32.5 wt % nickel alloys are described. The transport parameters, Z, Q and D were measured as a fucntion of temperature and carbon concentration and values for the activation energies for diffusion and electrotransport were obtained. The solubility limit of carbon in ..gamma..-Fe-32.5 wt % Ni for the temperature range 850 to 1200/sup 0/C and the electrical resistivity versus temperature for carbon concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.86 wt % C between 25 and 1350/sup 0/C were determined. An anomalously large mass transport effect observed in two-phase alloy during thermotransport experiments was investigated for the Fe-Ni-C system.

  7. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  8. Comparison of methods for the removal of organic carbon and extraction of chromium, iron and manganese from an estuarine sediment standard and sediment from the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Hatcher, S.A.; Demas, C.

    1992-01-01

    U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) estuarine sediment 1646 from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and surface sediment collected at two sites in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, were used to evaluate the dilute hydrochloric acid extraction of Cr, Fe and Mn from air-dried and freeze-dried samples that had been treated by one of three methods to remove organic carbon. The three methods for the oxidation and removal of organic carbon were: (1) 30% hydrogen peroxide; (2) 30% hydrogen peroxide plus 0.25 mM pyrophosphate; and (3) plasma oxidation (low-temperature ashing). There was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between air- and freeze-dried samples with respect to the percent of organic carbon removed by the three methods. Generally, there was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between air- and freeze-dried samples with respect to the concentration of Cr, Fe and Mn that was extracted, regardless of the extraction technique that was used. Hydrogen peroxide plus pyrophosphate removed the most organic carbon from sediment collected at the site in the Calcasieu River that was upstream from industrial outfalls. Plasma oxidation removed the most organic carbon from the sediment collected at a site in the Calcasieu River close to industrial outfalls and from the NBS estuarine sediment sample. Plasma oxidation merits further study as a treatment for removal of organic carbon. Operational parameters can be chosen to limit the plasma oxidation of pyrite which, unlike other Fe species, will not be dissolved by dilute hydrochloric acid. Preservation of pyrite allows the positive identification of Fe present as pyrite in sediments. ?? 1992.

  9. CO₂ sequestration through mineral carbonation of iron oxyhydroxides.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Kristin; Murphy, Riley; Riendeau, Amber; Smirnov, Alexander; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2011-12-15

    Carbon dioxide sequestration via the use of sulfide reductants and mineral carbonation of the iron oxyhydroxide polymorphs lepidocrocite, goethite, and akaganeite with supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) was investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The exposure of the different iron oxyhydroxides to aqueous sulfide in contact with scCO(2) at ∼70-100 °C resulted in the partial transformation of the minerals to siderite (FeCO(3)) and sulfide phases such as pyrite (FeS(2)). The relative yield of siderite to iron sulfide bearing mineral product was a strong function of the initial sulfide concentration. The order of mineral reactivity with regard to the amount of siderite formation in the scCO(2)/sulfide environment for a specific reaction time was goethite < lepidocrocite ≤ akaganeite. Given the presence of goethite in sedimentary formations, this conversion reaction may have relevance to the subsurface sequestration and geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

  10. Geochemical modeling of iron, sulfur, oxygen and carbon in a coastal plain aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. J.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Candela, J. L.

    2000-11-01

    Fe(III) reduction in the Magothy aquifer of Long Island, NY, results in high dissolved-iron concentrations that degrade water quality. Geochemical modeling was used to constrain iron-related geochemical processes and redox zonation along a flow path. The observed increase in dissolved inorganic carbon is consistent with the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter coupled to the reduction of O 2 and SO 42- in the aerobic zone, and to the reduction of SO 42- in the anaerobic zone; estimated rates of CO 2 production through reduction of Fe(III) were relatively minor by comparison. The rates of CO 2 production calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon mass transfer (2.55×10 -4 to 48.6×10 -4 mmol l -1 yr-1) generally were comparable to the calculated rates of CO 2 production by the combined reduction of O 2, Fe(III) and SO 42- (1.31×10 -4 to 15×10 -4 mmol l -1 yr-1). The overall increase in SO 42- concentrations along the flow path, together with the results of mass-balance calculations, and variations in δ34S values along the flow path indicate that SO 42- loss through microbial reduction is exceeded by SO 42- gain through diffusion from sediments and through the oxidation of FeS 2. Geochemical and microbial data on cores indicate that Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment grains in local, organic carbon- and SO 42--rich zones have been depleted by microbial reduction and resulted in localized SO 42--reducing zones in which the formation of iron disulfides decreases dissolved iron concentrations. These localized zones of SO 42- reduction, which are important for assessing zones of low dissolved iron for water-supply development, could be overlooked by aquifer studies that rely only on groundwater data from well-water samples for geochemical modeling.

  11. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2007-02-20

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  12. Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

    2007-02-15

    We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

  13. Linkage of iron elution and dissolved oxygen consumption with removal of organic pollutants by nanoscale zero-valent iron: Effects of pH on iron dissolution and formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Nanae; Suzuki, Moe; Kurosu, Shunji; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The iron elution and dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption in organic pollutant removal by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was examined in the range of solution pH from 3.0 to 9.0. Their behaviors were linked with the removal of organic pollutant through the dissolution of iron and the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer affected strongly by solution pH and DO. As an example of organic pollutants, azo-dye Orange II was chosen in this study. The chemical composition analyses before and after reaction confirmed the corrosion of nZVI into ions, the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer on nZVI surface and the adsorption of the pollutant and its intermediates. The complete decolorization of Orange II with nZVI was accomplished very quickly. On the other hand, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal was considerably slow and the maximum TOC removal was around 40% obtained at pH 9.0. The reductive cleavage of azo-bond by emitted electrons more readily took place as compared with the cleavage of aromatic rings of Orange II leading to the degradation to smaller molecules and subsequently the mineralization. A reaction kinetic model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood/Eley-Rideal approach was developed to elucidate mechanisms for organic pollutant removal controlled by the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer, the progress of which could be characterized by considering the dynamic concentration changes in Fe(2+) and DO. The dynamic profiles of Orange II removal linked with Fe(2+) and DO could be reasonably simulated in the range of pH from 3.0 to 9.0.

  14. The synthesis of organic carbonates from carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Kohno, Kazufumi

    2009-03-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is an easily available, renewable carbon resource, which has the advantages of being non-toxic, abundant and economical. CO(2) is also attractive as an environmentally friendly chemical reagent, and is especially useful as a phosgene substitute. CO(2) is an "anhydrous carbonic acid" that rapidly reacts with basic compounds. Nucleophilic attack at CO(2) conveniently produces carboxyl and carbamoyl groups. Further reactions of these species with electrophiles lead to the formation of organic carbonates and carbamates. The present article deals with the synthetic technologies leading to organic carbonates using CO(2) as a raw material.

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon sequ...

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon (C) input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon ...

  17. Dissolution of carbon from alumina-carbon mixtures into liquid iron: Influence of carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Rita; Sahajwalla, Veena; Rodgers, Brenton; McCarthy, Fiona

    2006-08-01

    Due to their excellent thermal shock and wear resistance at high temperatures, alumina-carbon based refractories are used extensively in the steel industry. A clear understanding of factors affecting the dissolution of carbon from refractories is of crucial importance, as carbon depletion from the refractory can significantly deteriorate refractory performance and metal quality. Atomistic simulations on the alumina-graphite/liquid iron system have shown that nonwetting between alumina and liquid iron is an important factor inhibiting the penetration of liquid metal in the refractory matrix and limiting carbon dissolution. This study investigates the role played by the carbonaceous material in the dissolution of carbon from the refractory composite. Two carbonaceous materials, namely, petroleum coke and natural graphite, respectively, containing 0.35 and 5.26 pct ash, were used in this study. Substrates were prepared from mixtures of alumina and carbon over a wide concentration range. Using a sessile drop arrangement, carbon pickup by liquid iron from alumina-carbon mixtures was measured at 1550 °C and was compared with the carbon pickup from alumina-synthetic graphite mixtures. These studies were supplemented with wettability measurements and microscopic investigations on the interfacial region. For high alumina concentrations (>40 wt pct), carbon dissolution from refractory mixtures was found to be negligible for all carbonaceous materials under investigation. Significant differences however were observed at lower alumina concentrations. Carbon dissolution from alumina-petroleum coke mixtures was much lower than the corresponding dissolution from alumina synthetic graphite-mixtures and was attributed to poor wettability of petroleum coke with liquid iron, its structural disorder, and the presence of sulfur. Very high levels of carbon dissolution, however, were observed from alumina-natural graphite mixtures, with carbon pickup by liquid iron from mixtures with up

  18. Carbon nanotube electrodes in organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Valitova, Irina; Amato, Michele; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Cantele, Giovanni; Maffucci, Antonio; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2013-06-07

    The scope of this Minireview is to provide an overview of the recent progress on carbon nanotube electrodes applied to organic thin film transistors. After an introduction on the general aspects of the charge injection processes at various electrode-semiconductor interfaces, we discuss the great potential of carbon nanotube electrodes for organic thin film transistors and the recent achievements in the field.

  19. Voronoi analysis of the short–range atomic structure in iron and iron–carbon melts

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, Andrey; Mirzoev, Alexander

    2015-08-17

    In this work, we simulated the atomic structure of liquid iron and iron–carbon alloys by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. Voronoi analysis was used to highlight changes in the close environments of Fe atoms as carbon concentration in the melt increases. We have found, that even high concentrations of carbon do not affect short–range atomic order of iron atoms — it remains effectively the same as in pure iron melts.

  20. Photochemical Flocculation of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter (tDOM) and Iron: Mechanisms and Geochemical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mopper, K.; Helms, J. R.; Mao, J.; Abdulla, H. A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2013-12-01

    Photoflocculation of DOM has received relatively little attention. No previous studies have examined the chemical composition of the flocs nor investigated the coagulation mechanisms. We observed that, after 30 days of simulated solar UV irradiation of 0.1-um filtered Great Dismal Swamp (Virginia) water, 7.1% of the DOC was converted to POC while 75% was remineralized. Approximately 87% of the iron was removed from the dissolved phase after 30 days, but iron did not flocculate until a major fraction of DOM was removed by photochemical degradation and flocculation (>10 days); thus, during the initial 10 days, there were sufficient organic ligands present and/or the pH was low enough to keep iron in solution. Although photoflocculation of iron did eventually occur, it is not clear if iron is required for the initial flocculation of DOM. Using NMR and FT-IR techniques, we found that photochemically flocculated POM was enriched in aliphatics and amide functionality relative to the residual non-flocculated DOM, while carbohydrate-like material was neither photochemical degraded nor flocculated. Based on this spectroscopic evidence, we propose several mechanisms for the formation of the flocs during irradiation. We also speculate that abiotic photochemical flocculation may remove a significant fraction of tDOM and iron from the upper water column between headwaters and the ocean, including estuaries. Fig. 1. Concentrations of dissolved (gray), particulate (black), and adsorbed (white) material as a function of irradiation time: (a) organic carbon, (b) absorption at 300 nm, (c) total iron by atomic absorption, and (d) total nitrogen. Error bars represent the combined standard deviations of the 'total,' 'dissolved,' and 'adsorbed' terms from which the 'particulate' term was calculated. Total nitrogen was not determined for the 'adsorbed' material

  1. Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

  2. Iron nanoparticles embedded in carbon films: structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Shafiekhani, Azizollah; Sebt, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In the present work amorphous hydrogenated carbon films with sputtered iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs @ a-C:H) were deposited by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods using acetylene gas and iron target on quartz and silicon substrates. Samples were prepared in different initial pressures and during constant deposition time. The crystalline structure of Fe NPs @ a-C:H was studied using X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction patterns. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis presents that increasing the initial pressure decreases the atomic ratio of Fe/C and the sp3-hybridized carbon content in prepared samples. The transmission electron microscope image shows the encapsulated Fe NPs in carbon films. The optical properties and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of samples were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry, which is shown that increasing of Fe content decreases the intensity of LSPR peak and increases the optical band gap.

  3. Microstructure and properties of pure iron/copper composite cladding layers on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Huang, Yong-xian; Lü, Shi-xiong; Huang, Ti-fang; Lü, Zong-liang

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, pure iron/copper composite metal cladding was deposited onto carbon steel by tungsten inert gas welding. The study focused on interfacial morphological, microstructural, and mechanical analyses of the composite cladding layers. Iron liquid-solid-phase zones were formed at copper/steel and iron interfaces because of the melting of the steel substrate and iron. Iron concentrated in the copper cladding layer was observed to exhibit belt, globule, and dendrite morphologies. The appearance of iron-rich globules indicated the occurrence of liquid phase separation (LPS) prior to solidification, and iron-rich dendrites crystallized without the occurrence of LPS. The maximum microhardness of the iron/steel interface was lower than that of the copper/steel interface because of the diffusion of elemental carbon. All samples fractured in the cladding layers. Because of a relatively lower strength of the copper layer, a short plateau region appeared when shear movement was from copper to iron.

  4. Resistive switching in iron-oxide-filled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cava, Carlos E; Persson, Clas; Zarbin, Aldo J G; Roman, Lucimara S

    2014-01-07

    Iron-oxide-filled carbon nanotubes exhibit an intriguing charge bipolarization behavior which allows the material to be applied in resistive memory devices. Raman analysis conducted with an electric field applied in situ shows the Kohn anomalies and a strong modification of the electronic properties related to the applied voltage intensity. In addition, the I(D)/I(G) ratio indicated the reversibility of this process. The electrical characterization indicated an electronic transport governed by two main kinds of charge hopping, one between the filling and the nanotube and the other between the nanotube shells.

  5. Development of carbon composite iron ore micropellets by using the microfines of iron ore and carbon-bearing materials in iron making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jagannath; Ghorai, Satadal; Das, Avimanyu

    2015-02-01

    Iron ore microfines and concentrate have very limited uses in sintering processes. They are used in pelletization; however, this process is cost intensive. Furthermore, the microfines of non-coking coal and other carbon-bearing materials, e.g., blast-furnace flue dust (BFD) and coke fines, are not used extensively in the metallurgical industry because of operational difficulties and handling problems. In the present work, to utilize these microfines, coal composite iron oxide micropellets (2-6 mm in size) were produced through an innovative technique in which lime and molasses were used as binding materials in the micropellets. The micropellets were subsequently treated with CO2 or the industrial waste gas to induce the chemical bond formation. The results show that, at a very high carbon level of 22wt% (38wt% coal), the cold crushing strength and abrasion index of the micropellets are 2.5-3 kg/cm2 and 5wt%-9wt%, respectively; these values indicate that the pellets are suitable for cold handling. The developed micropellets have strong potential as a heat source in smelting reduction in iron making and sintering to reduce coke breeze. The micropellets produced with BFD and coke fines (8wt%-12wt%) were used in iron ore sintering and were observed to reduce the coke breeze consumption by 3%-4%. The quality of the produced sinter was at par with that of the conventional blast-furnace sinter.

  6. Nitrogen controlled iron catalyst phase during carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, Bernhard C.; Baehtz, Carsten; Kidambi, Piran R.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Caneva, Sabina; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Hofmann, Stephan; Mangler, Clemens; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C.; Goddard, Caroline J. L.

    2014-10-06

    Close control over the active catalyst phase and hence carbon nanotube structure remains challenging in catalytic chemical vapor deposition since multiple competing active catalyst phases typically co-exist under realistic synthesis conditions. Here, using in-situ X-ray diffractometry, we show that the phase of supported iron catalyst particles can be reliably controlled via the addition of NH{sub 3} during nanotube synthesis. Unlike polydisperse catalyst phase mixtures during H{sub 2} diluted nanotube growth, nitrogen addition controllably leads to phase-pure γ-Fe during pre-treatment and to phase-pure Fe{sub 3}C during growth. We rationalize these findings in the context of ternary Fe-C-N phase diagram calculations and, thus, highlight the use of pre-treatment- and add-gases as a key parameter towards controlled carbon nanotube growth.

  7. Mossbauer effect in the ion-implanted iron-carbon alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration dependence of Mossbauer effect in four carbon ion-implanted iron absorbers, which contain carbon as the solute atoms, has been investigated over the range of concentration 0.05 through 1 atomic percent. The specimens were prepared by implanting carbon atoms on each reference iron foil with four different bombarding energies of 250 keV, 160 keV, 140 keV and 80 keV, respectively. Thus, the specimen contains a uniform dosage of carbon atoms which penetrated up to 3,000 A depth of the reference iron. In the measurement of Mossbauer spectra, the backscattering conversion electron counting geometry was used. Typical results of Mossbauer parameters of iron-carbon alloys show that the isomer shift, quadrupole shift, the effective hyperfine splitting of Fe-57, and the intensity ratio exhibit a large variation with the increase of carbon concentration in the environment of iron atoms.

  8. CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

  9. Equilibrium carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauble, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies (e.g., [1-3]) have suggested that Si- and Fe-isotopic signatures can be used to characterize the compositions and conditions of segregation of metallic cores in planetary interiors. This study expands the theoretical framework to include carbon and hydrogen, which may also be alloying elements. Hydrogen (D/H) and carbon (13C/12C) fractionations in iron-rich metallic melts are estimated by modeling analogous iron-rich crystals, i.e., dhcp-FeH and η-Fe2C. C- and H-atoms in these crystals are completely coordinated by iron. The driving energy for equilibrium fractionation is assumed to come from the reduction of vibrational frequencies when heavy isotopes are substituted for light ones; vibrations are assumed to be harmonic. This treatment is crude at high temperature, and for the relatively anharmonic vibrations typical of hydrogen-bearing substances, but may provide a reasonably accurate, semi-quantitative approximation of real fractionation behavior. Vibrational frequencies of all crystals are modeled with density functional theory, using gradient-corrected functionals and ultrasoft pseudopotentials. For both carbon and hydrogen, the models suggest that the metal phase will be strongly depleted in heavy isotopes. At 2000 K, 1 atm, η-Fe2C will have 3‰ lower 13C/12C than coexisting diamond. Combining this result with previous high-temperature theoretical and experimental studies (e.g., [4]), metal-graphite fractionation is expected to be very similar, while metal-CO2 fractionation will be almost twice as large, ca. -5‰. Deuterium/hydrogen fractionations are expected to be an order of magnitude larger, with 50-70‰ lower D/H in dhcp-FeH than in coexisting H2 gas at 2000 K, and approximately 100‰ lower D/H than water vapor. These fractionations are much larger than those inferred for silicon and iron, as expected given the differences in atomic mass. References: 1. Georg et al. (2007) Nature 447:1102; 2. Rustad & Yin

  10. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

  11. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Organic carbon feedbacks and Paleogene hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    The climatic and evolutionary record of the Early Paleogene is peppered with a series of abrupt, catastrophic, transient hyperthermal events. These episodes involved global perturbation of the carbon cycle and climate, and in many cases sparked biotic change including extinction, migration, and origination. It is widely accepted that the Paleogene hyperthermals are characterized by the redistribution of reduced carbon within the active (exogenic) carbon cycle (including shallow sedimentary reservoirs). As such they offer a set of case studies documenting patterns and modes of volatility in the reservoirs relevant to our understanding of future carbon cycle change. Drawing on a range of data from terrestrial and marine records and simplified global carbon cycle models, I demonstrate that patterns of carbon isotope and temperature change from the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and other hyperthermal events are not consistent with catastrophic release of carbon from a single source, but require a multi-stage release from multiple 13C-depleted carbon sources. The sum of data is consistent with amplification of an initial CO2/thermal pulse through organic carbon oxidation within hotter and more highly seasonal continental interiors, followed by regrowth of these carbon stocks as climate impacts were ameliorated. This pattern suggests a level of volatility and non-linear behaviour in terrestrial organic carbon pools that, if relevant within the boundary conditions of the Anthropocene, could contribute significantly to determining the pace and pattern of future global change.

  13. Organic-carbon-rich rocks: Fast or slow organic-carbon accumulation?

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, C.M.; Piper, D.Z.; Keller, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Organic-carbon-rich rocks and sediments are generally attributed in the marine geologic literature to high rates of organic carbon accumulation, resulting either from rapid input and/or excellent preservation. An alternate interpretation suggested by evidence from both oil-source rocks and modern sediments is that many organic-carbon-rich strata result from comparatively slow accumulation of organic carbon that is little diluted. The idea that organic-carbon-rich rocks represent rapid organic-carbon accumulation derives partly from the enhanced organic-carbon preservation associated with faster burial. Re-evaluation of published sediment trap and accumulation rate data in modern oceans shows, however, that sedimentation rate has been highly over-rated as a cause of high organic carbon abundance. As sedimentation rate increases, increased dilution outpaces increased preservation such that, other things being equal, more abundant organic carbon is associated with slower (not faster) sedimentation rates. Compared to an equal thickness of rapidly accumulated organic-carbon-lean sediment in the geologic record, slowly accumulated organic-carbon-rich sediment can represent 10-20 times more time-but be misinterpreted as reflecting rapid organic carbon accumulation by the common practice of interpolating age linearly with strata thickness. This relation explains the {open_quotes}enigma{close_quotes} of transgressive black shales, including numerous oil source-rocks worldwide associated with early phases of sea level rise. In offshore locations (20-200 km from the coast), rising sea level may sharply reduce terrigenous supply without significantly affecting productivity. The result is an organic-carbon-rich condensed zone reflecting neither high productivity nor low bottom-water oxygen nor rapid sedimentation, but simply lack of dilution.

  14. Organic-carbon-rich rocks: Fast or slow organic-carbon accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, C.M.; Piper, D.Z.; Keller, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Organic-carbon-rich rocks and sediments are generally attributed in the marine geologic literature to high rates of organic carbon accumulation, resulting either from rapid input and/or excellent preservation. An alternate interpretation suggested by evidence from both oil-source rocks and modern sediments is that many organic-carbon-rich strata result from comparatively slow accumulation of organic carbon that is little diluted. The idea that organic-carbon-rich rocks represent rapid organic-carbon accumulation derives partly from the enhanced organic-carbon preservation associated with faster burial. Re-evaluation of published sediment trap and accumulation rate data in modern oceans shows, however, that sedimentation rate has been highly over-rated as a cause of high organic carbon abundance. As sedimentation rate increases, increased dilution outpaces increased preservation such that, other things being equal, more abundant organic carbon is associated with slower (not faster) sedimentation rates. Compared to an equal thickness of rapidly accumulated organic-carbon-lean sediment in the geologic record, slowly accumulated organic-carbon-rich sediment can represent 10-20 times more time-but be misinterpreted as reflecting rapid organic carbon accumulation by the common practice of interpolating age linearly with strata thickness. This relation explains the [open quotes]enigma[close quotes] of transgressive black shales, including numerous oil source-rocks worldwide associated with early phases of sea level rise. In offshore locations (20-200 km from the coast), rising sea level may sharply reduce terrigenous supply without significantly affecting productivity. The result is an organic-carbon-rich condensed zone reflecting neither high productivity nor low bottom-water oxygen nor rapid sedimentation, but simply lack of dilution.

  15. Closed system Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy. [deuterium-carbon monoxide reaction catalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nooner, D. W.; Gibert, J. M.; Gelpi, E.; Oro, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed in which meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy were used to catalyze (in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) the reaction of deuterium and carbon monoxide in a closed vessel. Normal alkanes and alkenes and their monomethyl substituted isomers and aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized. Iron oxide and oxidized-reduced Canyon Diablo used as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts were found to produce aromatic hydrocarbons in distributions having many of the features of those observed in carbonaceous chondrites, but only at temperatures and reaction times well above 300 C and 6-8 h.

  16. Carbon-depleted outer core revealed by sound velocity measurements of liquid iron-carbon alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yoichi; Imada, Saori; Hirose, Kei; Komabayashi, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Haruka; Tateno, Shigehiko; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2015-11-01

    The relative abundance of light elements in the Earth's core has long been controversial. Recently, the presence of carbon in the core has been emphasized, because the density and sound velocities of the inner core may be consistent with solid Fe7C3. Here we report the longitudinal wave velocity of liquid Fe84C16 up to 70 GPa based on inelastic X-ray scattering measurements. We find the velocity to be substantially slower than that of solid iron and Fe3C and to be faster than that of liquid iron. The thermodynamic equation of state for liquid Fe84C16 is also obtained from the velocity data combined with previous density measurements at 1 bar. The longitudinal velocity of the outer core, about 4% faster than that of liquid iron, is consistent with the presence of 4-5 at.% carbon. However, that amount of carbon is too small to account for the outer core density deficit, suggesting that carbon cannot be a predominant light element in the core.

  17. Tuning Organic Carbon Dioxide Absorbents for Carbonation and Decarbonation

    PubMed Central

    Rajamanickam, Ramachandran; Kim, Hyungsoo; Park, Ji-Woong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of carbon dioxide with a mixture of a superbase and alcohol affords a superbase alkylcarbonate salt via a process that can be reversed at elevated temperatures. To utilize the unique chemistry of superbases for carbon capture technology, it is essential to facilitate carbonation and decarbonation at desired temperatures in an easily controllable manner. Here, we demonstrate that the thermal stabilities of the alkylcarbonate salts of superbases in organic solutions can be tuned by adjusting the compositions of hydroxylic solvent and polar aprotic solvent mixtures, thereby enabling the best possible performances to be obtained from the various carbon dioxide capture agents based on these materials. The findings provides valuable insights into the design and optimization of organic carbon dioxide absorbents. PMID:26033537

  18. Iron oxide particles as a catalyst in chemical oxidation of organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, M.D.; Lin, S.S.; Bhat, N.

    1995-12-31

    This research addresses the use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron oxide particles which provide a catalytic surface for conversion to hydroxyl free radical. N-butylchloride (BuCl) and monochlorobenzene (MCB) were oxidized using goethite as the catalyst. The effect of varying the dosage of hydrogen peroxide or ozone, the mass and the size of the geothite particles, the mixing speed, and the gas flow rate for ozonation was investigated. The effect of water quality in terms of pH, carbonate alkalinity and initial organic concentration on reaction rates was addressed as well. Experimental observations showed that varying the stirring speed in the reactor or the size of the iron oxide particles did not have any significant effect on the oxidation rates, indicating that the rate was controlled by the intrinsic reaction rates on iron oxide surfaces. The presence of hydrogen peroxide significantly increased the removal of BuCl, and higher dosages caused considerably higher removal. Results also demonstrated a strong dependence of BuCl removal on the iron oxide dosage. MCB adsorbed strongly on goethite, but was oxidized effectively by ozone. Hydrogen peroxide decomposed rapidly in the presence of goethite at a rate directly proportional to the rate of BuCl oxidation. These results indicate that the interaction of hydrogen peroxide with goethite particles leads to the formation of hydroxyl free radical, which is responsible for oxidation of BuCl. Similarly, ozone decomposed in the presence of goethite. The oxidation efficiency for hydrogen peroxide/goethite remained unaffected when the pH and the alkalinity were varied. Furthermore, the ozone/goethite system provided mineralization as measured by the removal of the total organic carbon. Hence, both of these oxidation processes promise to be effective in oxidation of organic compounds, and may not suffer from the limitations of other radical processes.

  19. A carbon budget for a naturally iron fertilized bloom in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Sanders, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Subantarctic islands in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) Southern Ocean are natural sources of iron and stimulate blooms in their proximity, such as the one observed close to the Crozet Islands (52°E, 46°S). During 2004/2005, particulate organic carbon (POC) export was measured using the 234Th technique in the Crozet bloom and compared with an HNLC control region. Initial results showed that iron release had no effect on daily POC export rates, thus any iron-driven enhancement in POC export was due to a longer export phase in the bloom region when compared to the control region. The duration of the export event was empirically estimated by closing the silicon budget, thus allowing seasonal POC export to be calculated by applying the export duration to the daily rates of POC export. This yields a seasonal estimate of POC export that is 3.6 times larger (range 1.9-7.1) in the iron-fertilized region than in the HNLC control region. These estimates of POC export were then compared to independent estimates of organic matter storage in the upper ocean, which are significant in both the HNLC and control regions. Overall, integrated POC export was significantly (approximately 50%) lower than estimated seasonal new production, the fraction of production that is supported by inputs of new nutrients. Finally, the sequestration efficiency, the numerical relationship between the supply of the limiting nutrient, iron, and the key ecosystem function of POC export at 100 m, is estimated to be 16,790 mol:mol.

  20. Intracellular degradation of functionalized carbon nanotube/iron oxide hybrids is modulated by iron via Nrf2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Elgrabli, Dan; Dachraoui, Walid; Marmier, Hélène de; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Bégin, Dominique; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Bianco, Alberto; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The in vivo fate and biodegradability of carbon nanotubes is still a matter of debate despite tremendous applications. In this paper we describe a molecular pathway by which macrophages degrade functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) designed for biomedical applications and containing, or not, iron oxide nanoparticles in their inner cavity. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that intracellularly-induced structural damages appear more rapidly for iron-free CNTs in comparison to iron-loaded ones, suggesting a role of iron in the degradation mechanism. By comparing the molecular responses of macrophages derived from THP1 monocytes to both types of CNTs, we highlight a molecular mechanism regulated by Nrf2/Bach1 signaling pathways to induce CNT degradation via NOX2 complex activation and O2•−, H2O2 and OH• production. CNT exposure activates an oxidative stress-dependent production of iron via Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Ferritin H and Heme oxygenase 1 translation. Conversely, Bach1 was translocated to the nucleus of cells exposed to iron-loaded CNTs to recycle embedded iron. Our results provide new information on the role of oxidative stress, iron metabolism and Nrf2-mediated host defence for regulating CNT fate in macrophages. PMID:28120861

  1. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  2. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  3. Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on the variation and cycling of carbon source in integrated wastewater treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhimiao, Zhao; Xinshan, Song; Yufeng, Zhao; Yanping, Xiao; Yuhui, Wang; Junfeng, Wang; Denghua, Yan

    2017-02-01

    Iron and calcium carbonate were added in wastewater treatments as the adjusting agents to improve the contaminant removal performance and regulate the variation of carbon source in integrated treatments. At different temperatures, the addition of the adjusting agents obviously improved the nitrogen and phosphorous removals. TN and TP removals were respectively increased by 29.41% and 23.83% in AC-100 treatment under 1-day HRT. Carbon source from dead algae was supplied as green microbial carbon source and Fe(2+) was supplied as carbon source surrogate. COD concentration was increased to 30mg/L and above, so the problem of the shortage of carbon source was solved. Dead algae and Fe(2+) as carbon source supplement or surrogate played significant role, which was proved by microbial community analysis. According to the denitrification performance in the treatments, dead algae as green microbial carbon source combined with iron and calcium carbonate was the optimal supplement carbon source in wastewater treatment.

  4. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  5. Iron-catalysed cross-coupling of organolithium compounds with organic halides

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhenhua; Liu, Qiang; Peng, Xiao-Shui; Wong, Henry N. C.

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, catalytic cross-coupling reactions between organic halides and organometallic reagents to construct carbon–carbon bond have achieved a tremendous progress. However, organolithium reagents have rarely been used in cross-coupling reactions, due mainly to their high reactivity. Another limitation of this transformation using organolithium reagents is how to control reactivity with excellent selectivity. Although palladium catalysis has been applied in this field recently, the development of an approach to replace catalytic systems of noble metals with nonprecious metals is currently in high demand. Herein, we report an efficient synthetic protocol involving iron-catalysed cross-coupling reactions employing organolithium compounds as key coupling partners to unite aryl, alkyl and benzyl fragments and also disclose an efficient iron-catalysed release-capture ethylene coupling with isopropyllithium. PMID:26847602

  6. Carbon isotopic exchange between dissolved inorganic and organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Freeman, K. H.; House, C. H.; Arthur, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The pools of inorganic and organic carbon are often considered to be separate and distinct. Isotopic exchange between the inorganic and organic carbon pools in natural waters is rarely considered plausible at low temperatures owing to kinetic barriers to exchange. In certain circumstances, however carboxyl carbon of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may be subject to exchange with the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. We report results from an isotopic labeling experiment that resulted in rapid methanogen-catalyzed isotopic exchange between DIC and the carboxyl carbon of acetate. This exchange rapidly mixes the isotopic composition of the DIC pool into the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) acetate pool. This exchange is likely associated with the reversible nature of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzyme. In nature, many decarboxylase enzymes are also reversible and some can be shown to facilitate similar exchange reactions. Those decarboxylase enzymes that are important in lignin decomposition and other organic carbon (OC) transformations may help to mask the isotopic composition of the precursor DOC with as much as 15% contribution from DIC. Though this dilution is unlikely to matter in soils where DOC and DIC are similar in composition, this exchange may be extremely important in systems where the stable or radioisotope composition of DOC and DIC differ significantly. As an example of the importance of this effect, we demonstrate that the stable and radiocarbon isotopic composition of fluvial DOC could be altered by mixing with marine DIC to produce a DOC composition similar to those observed in the deep marine DOC pool. We hypothesize that this exchange resolves the conundrum of apparently old (>5 kyr) marine-derived DOC. If most of the carboxyl carbon of pre-aged, terrestrial-derived DOC (15% of total carbon) is subject to exchange with marine DIC, the resulting carbon isotopic composition of deep DOC will be similar to that observed in deep marine studies

  7. Structure and ductility of eutectic type iron-carbon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhnikovskaya, P. F.

    1984-09-01

    The ductility of iron-carbon alloys of the eutectic type is governed by the structure of eutectic carbides and it may be increased by two methods. The first envisages formation during prior heat treatment of dislocations in eutectic carbides and creation of subgrain boundaries along which during deformation there is carbide fragmentation. This method, as a result of the specific effect of the metal base on formation of dislocations in carbides and prevention of carbide failure under the action of compressive stresses from the surrounding solid solution, may only be used for alloys in which the carbide phase reinforces a metal matrix. The second method involves a marked increase in carbide ductility as a result of transformation occurring in them under the action of deformation [10]. This method may be used to increase the ductility of cast irons around the eutectic composition with eutectics whose matrix phase is carbide. In this way forming may be accomplished by rolling in the range of rates used in metallurgical production practice.

  8. Codeposition of organic carbon and arsenic in Bengal Delta aquifers.

    PubMed

    Meharg, Andrew A; Scrimgeour, Charlie; Hossain, Shahid A; Fuller, Kenneth; Cruickshank, Kenneth; Williams, Paul N; Kinniburgh, David G

    2006-08-15

    We present data showing that arsenic (As) was codeposited with organic carbon (OC) in Bengal Delta sediments as As and OC concentrations are highly (p < 0.001) positively correlated in core profiles collected from widely dispersed geographical sites with different sedimentary depositional histories. Analysis of modern day depositional environments revealed that the As-OC correlations observed in cores are due to As retention and high OC inputs in vegetated zones of the deltaic environment. We hypothesize that elevated concentrations of As occur in vegetated wetland sediments due to concentration and retention of arsenate in aerated root zones and animal burrows where copious iron(III) oxides are deposited. On burial of the sediment, degradation of organic carbon from plant and animal biomass detritus provides the reducing conditions to dissolve iron(III) oxides and release arsenite into the porewater. As tubewell abstracted aquifer water is an invaluable resource on which much of Southeast Asia is now dependent, this increased understanding of the processes responsible for As buildup and release will identify, through knowledge of the palaeosedimentary environment, which sediments are at most risk of having high arsenic concentrations in porewater. Our data allow the development of a new unifying hypothesis of how As is mobilized into groundwaters in river flood plains and deltas of Southeast Asia, namely that in these highly biologically productive environments, As and OC are codeposited, and the codeposited OC drives As release from the sediments.

  9. Removal of arsenic(V) from aqueous solutions using iron-oxide-coated modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, Nai-Yun; Lin, Y C; Xu, Bin; Le, Lin-sheng

    2007-08-01

    Removal of arsenic(V) from aqueous solutions was evaluated with the following three different sorption materials: coal-based activated carbon 12 x 40 (activated carbon), iron(II) oxide (FeO)/activated carbon-H, and iron oxide. The apparent characteristics and physical chemistry performances of these adsorbents were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning electronic microscope. Also, batch experiments for arsenic removal were performed, and the effects of pH value on arsenic(V) removal were studied. The results suggest that the main phases of the iron oxide surface are magnetite, maghemite, hematite, and goethite; fine and uniform iron oxide particles can cover activated carbon surfaces and affect the surface area or pore structures of activated carbon; adsorption kinetics obey a pseudo-first-order rate equation; and adsorption capacities of adsorbents are affected by the values of pH. The optimum value of pH for iron oxide lies in a narrow range between 4.0 and 5.5, and arsenic(V) removal by FeO/activated carbon-H is ideal and stable in the pH range 3 to 7, while activated carbon has the lowest adsorption capacity in the entire pH range. Also, the adsorption characteristics of FeO/activated carbon-H composites and virgin activated carbon match well the Langmuir adsorption model, while those of iron oxide fit well the Freundlich adsorption model.

  10. The role of iron and reactive oxygen in the degradation of dissolved organic matter draining permafrost soils (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Page, S. E.; Kling, G. W.; Sander, M.; Harrold, K. H.; McNeill, K.

    2013-12-01

    As the permafrost boundary deepens from climate warming it will create conditions for redox reactions between soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and iron where those conditions did not previously exist. These new conditions will facilitate the transformation of DOM, and the overarching question is whether the pathway to CO2 released to the atmosphere or the export of DOM to coastal oceans will be favored. Our findings suggest that in either dark soils or sunlit surface waters, the presence of iron promotes the degradation of DOM to CO2. Evidence in support of iron-mediated oxidation of DOM to CO2 includes (1) strong positive correlations between iron and formation of hydroxyl radical (●OH), a highly reactive oxygen species implicated in DOM mineralization, (2) complete oxidation of DOM in the presence of high iron concentrations, and (3) loss of permafrost-derived DOM and iron from a thermokarst-impacted lake over time. For example, iron and DOM-rich soils or surface waters had the highest dark or photochemical ●OH formation respectively, both consistent with a dark or light Fenton source of ●OH and subsequent oxidation of DOM by ●OH. Photo-oxidation of DOM to CO2 was favored over partial photo-oxidation in surface waters characterized by high DOM and dissolved iron concentrations, consistent with photochemical reactions mediated by iron. Changes in DOM quality and quantity over time in a lake receiving permafrost carbon via a landslide (thermokarst slump) were also consistent with iron-mediated photodegradation of DOM. Given differences in DOM degradation across tundra ecosystems varying in iron, along with the abundance of water-logged soils supplying reduced iron to soil water or shallow streams, preliminary calculations at the landscape scale indicate that iron-mediated mineralization of DOM in soils and surface waters may be at least as important to carbon cycling as is bacterial respiration of DOM in the water column of streams and lakes

  11. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  12. Iron and Carbon Dynamics during Aging and Reductive Transformation of Biogenic Ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Cismasu, A Cristina; Williams, Kenneth H; Nico, Peter S

    2016-01-05

    increase in microbial activity, or biomass production under anoxic conditions. By the end of this experiment, a substantial fraction of organic matter remained in identifiable Fe containing stalks, but carbon was also present in additional pools, for example, organic matter globules and iron carbonate minerals.

  13. The archetype gamma-class carbonic anhydrase (Cam) contains iron when synthesized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Sheridan R; Zimmerman, Sabrina A; Apolinario, Ethel E; Evilia, Caryn; Hou, Ya-Ming; Ferry, James G; Sowers, Kevin R

    2009-02-10

    A recombinant protein overproduction system was developed in Methanosarcina acetivorans to facilitate biochemical characterization of oxygen-sensitive metalloenzymes from strictly anaerobic species in the Archaea domain. The system was used to overproduce the archetype of the independently evolved gamma-class carbonic anhydrase. The overproduced enzyme was oxygen sensitive and had full incorporation of iron instead of zinc observed when overproduced in Escherichia coli. This, the first report of in vivo iron incorporation for any carbonic anhydrase, supports the need to reevaluate the role of iron in all classes of carbonic anhydrases derived from anaerobic environments.

  14. Carbon nanomaterial Formation on Fresh-Reduced Iron by Converted Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebesnyi, A.; Kotov, V.; Sviatenko, A.; Filonenko, D.; Khovavko, A.; Bondarenko, B.

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism of carbon nanomaterial formation at moderate temperatures while processing fresh-reduced iron by products of air conversion of natural gas is considered. It is shown that under given conditions, the size and the shape of the resulting carbon are dependent on the temperature and the size of microscopic iron grains formed during reduction. These iron grains are the catalyzer of the reaction of carbon monoxide disproportionation. It is concluded that the formation of a nucleus of the new carbon phase occurs at the contact boundaries of neighboring grains of newly reduced iron with the subsequent formation in these places of ring-shaped carbon cuffs. Nanotubes are forming as a result of further carbon crystallization, and separation of iron particles from the main mass is occurring, i.e., there is a fragmentation of the substance of the catalyst. According to the results of laboratory studies, the optimum temperature of carbon nanotube formation in the environment of converted gas is 600-650 °C. The evidence of the hypothesis that the mechanism of the reaction of carbon monoxide disproportionation flows through the intermediate stage of iron oxides formation is given.

  15. Susceptibility of Permafrost Soil Organic Carbon under Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Liang, L.; Graham, D. E.; Gu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) that has been stored in permafrost is a key concern under warming climate because it could provide a positive feedback. Studies and conceptual models suggest that SOC degradation is largely controlled by the decomposability of SOC, but it is unclear exactly what portions of SOC are susceptible to rapid breakdown and what mechanisms may be involved in SOC degradation. Using a suite of analytical techniques, we examined the dynamic consumption and production of labile SOC compounds, including sugars, alcohols, and small molecular weight organic acids in incubation experiments (up to 240 days at either -2 or 8 °C) with a tundra soil under anoxic conditions, where SOC respiration and iron(III) reduction were monitored. We observe that sugars and alcohols are main components in SOC accounting for initial rapid release of CO2 and CH4 through anaerobic fermentation, whereas the fermentation products such as acetate and formate are subsequently utilized as primary substrates for methanogenesis. Iron(III) reduction is correlated to acetate production and methanogenesis, suggesting its important roles as an electron acceptor in tundra SOC respiration. These observations corroborate strongly with the glucose addition during incubation, in which rapid CO2 and CH4 production is observed concurrently with rapid production and consumption of organics such as acetate. Thus, the biogeochemical processes we document here are pertinent to understanding the accelerated SOC decomposition with temperature and could provide basis for model predicting feedbacks to climate warming in the Arctic.

  16. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  17. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    PubMed

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  18. Geochemical modeling of iron, sulfur, oxygen and carbon in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Candela, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Fe(III) reduction in the Magothy aquifer of Long Island, NY, results in high dissolved-iron concentrations that degrade water quality. Geochemical modeling was used to constrain iron-related geochemical processes and redox zonation along a flow path. The observed increase in dissolved inorganic carbon is consistent with the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter coupled to the reduction of O2 and SO4/2- in the aerobic zone, and to the reduction of SO4/2- in the anaerobic zone; estimated rates of CO2 production through reduction of Fe(III) were relatively minor by comparison. The rates of CO2 production calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon mass transfer (2.55 x 10-4 to 48.6 x 10-4 mmol 1-1 yr-1) generally were comparable to the calculated rates of CO2 production by the combined reduction of O2, Fe(III) and SO4/2- (1.31 x 10-4 to 15 x 10-4 mmol 1-1 yr-1). The overall increase in SO4/2- concentrations along the flow path, together with the results of mass-balance calculations, and variations in ??34S values along the flow path indicate that SO4/2- loss through microbial reduction is exceeded by SO4/2- gain through diffusion from sediments and through the oxidation of FeS2. Geochemichal and microbial data on cores indicate that Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment grains in local, organic carbon- and SO4/2- -rich zones have localized SO4/2- -reducing zones in which the formation of iron disulfides been depleted by microbial reduction and resulted in decreases dissolved iron concentrations. These localized zones of SO4/2- reduction, which are important for assessing zones of low dissolved iron for water-supply development, could be overlooked by aquifer studies that rely only on groundwater data from well-water samples for geochemical modeling. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.Fe(III) reduction in the Magothy aquifer of Long Island, NY, results in high dissolved-iron concentrations that degrade water quality. Geochemical modeling was used to constrain iron

  19. Atmospheric deposition of organic carbon via precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iavorivska, Lidiia; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; DeWalle, David R.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the major pathway for removal of organic carbon (OC) from the atmosphere, affecting both atmospheric and landscape processes. Transfers of OC from the atmosphere to land occur as wet deposition (via precipitation) and as dry deposition (via surface settling of particles and gases). Despite current understanding of the significance of organic carbon inputs with precipitation to carbon budgets, transfers of organic matter between the atmosphere and land are not explicitly included in most carbon cycle models due to limited data, highlighting the need for further information. Studies regarding the abundance of OC in precipitation are relatively sparse, in part due to the fact that concentrations of organics in precipitation and their associated rates of atmospheric deposition are not routinely measured as a part of major deposition monitoring networks. Here, we provide a new data synthesis from 83 contemporary studies published in the peer reviewed literature where organic matter in precipitation was measured around the world. We compiled data regarding the concentrations of organic carbon in precipitation and associated rates of atmospheric deposition of organic carbon. We calculated summary statistics in a common set of units, providing insights into the magnitude and regional variability of OC in precipitation. A land to ocean gradient is evident in OC concentrations, with marine sites generally showing lower values than continental sites. Our synthesis highlights gaps in the data and challenges for data intercomparison. There is a need to concentrate sampling efforts in areas where anthropogenic OC emissions are on the rise (Asia, South America), as well as in remote sites suggesting background conditions, especially in Southern Hemisphere. It is also important to acquire more data for marine rainwater at various distances from the coast in order to assess a magnitude of carbon transfer between the land and the ocean. Our integration of

  20. ESTIMATING DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR NONIONIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature search was performed for dissolved organic carbon/water partition coefficients for nonionic chemicals (Kdoc) and Kdoc data was taken from more than sixty references. The Kdoc data were evaluated as a function of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow). A pre...

  1. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C).

  2. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Agafonov, Oleg; Selstø, Christina Helen; Thorsen, Kristian; Xu, Xiang Ming; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system's response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake.

  3. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Agafonov, Oleg; Selstø, Christina Helen; Thorsen, Kristian; Xu, Xiang Ming; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake. PMID:26800438

  4. Comparison of Carbon XANES Spectra from an Iron Sulfide from Comet Wild 2 with an Iron Sulfide Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Sanford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, Nakamura K.; Jacobsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    Among one of the first particles removed from the aerogel collector from the Stardust sample return mission was an approx. 5 micron sized iron sulfide. The majority of the spectra from 5 different sections of this particle suggests the presence of aliphatic compounds. Due to the heat of capture in the aerogel we initially assumed these aliphatic compounds were not cometary but after comparing these results to a heated iron sulfide interplanetary dust particle (IDP) we believe our initial interpretation of these spectra was not correct. It has been suggested that ice coating on iron sulfides leads to aqueous alteration in IDP clusters which can then lead to the formation of complex organic compounds from unprocessed organics in the IDPs similar to unprocessed organics found in comets [1]. Iron sulfides have been demonstrated to not only transform halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons but also enhance the bonding of rubber to steel [2,3]. Bromfield and Coville (1997) demonstrated using Xray photoelectron spectroscopy that "the surface enhancement of segregated sulfur to the surface of sulfided precipitated iron catalysts facilitates the formation of a low-dimensional structure of extraordinary properties" [4]. It may be that the iron sulfide acts in some way to protect aliphatic compounds from alteration due to heat.

  5. Fate of Organic Carbon Deposited in Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, T. G.; Rhoton, F. E.; Bennett, S. J.; Hudnall, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    Sedimentation of soil organic carbon (SOC) eroded from uplands and deposited in reservoirs could be an important mechanism for carbon sequestration provided that it is conserved during transport and burial and that uplands are not experiencing net loss. There are uncertainties in both these assumptions and gaining a better understanding of these processes is a key objective of ongoing carbon-cycle investigations. The U.S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and Louisiana State University Agricultural Center are collaborating on an investigation of soils and sediments in the Yalobusha River Basin in Mississippi. Sediment cores were collected from upland soils and from Grenada Lake, a flood control reservoir, in the basin. Suspended sediments have been collected from the Yalobusha River and one of its tributaries upstream of the lake. We are measuring carbon mineralization potential in conjunction with carbon and nitrogen concentrations, 13C, mineralogy, and texture on sediments and upland soils to determine whether eroding SOC is conserved or oxidized during transport and burial. Differences in mineralization potential and other chemical and physical properties are used to infer net changes in the original eroding SOC. Autochthonous production of SOC within reservoirs could replace labile SOC oxidized during transport and burial thereby masking losses due to oxidation. Autochthonous sources can be evaluated by chemical and physical characterization of the sediments. Stable carbon isotope (13C) geochemistry provides a tool for distinguishing the two primary sources of organic carbon incorporated in lake sediments because allochthonous SOC from the surrounding watershed is, in general, less depleted in stable 13C than autochthonous SOC produced in the lake by aquatic organisms such as macrophytes and phytoplankton. The integration of the 13C signature recorded in the organic fraction of the lake sediments with total organic carbon, C/N ratio

  6. Efficiency of inorganic and organic iron sources under iron depleted conditions in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shinde, P L; Ingale, S L; Choi, J Y; Kim, J S; Pak, S I; Chae, B J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 d-old male Ross chicks (average BW 37·15 ± 0·49 g) were fed on an iron (Fe)-deficient semi-synthetic diet (45 mg Fe/kg) from d 1-7 post hatching. At d 7, all 240 chicks (average BW 140·15 ± 1·4 g) with depleted Fe-stores were randomly assigned to three treatments on the basis of BW to study the efficiency of dietary inorganic and organic iron (Fe) utilisation. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 20 birds in each. Dietary treatments were: maize-soyabean meal-based basal diet, containing 103 to 106 mg Fe/kg (control); and basal diets supplemented with an additional 80 mg/kg Fe either from an inorganic (FeSO₄ · H₂O, 28% Fe) or organic (ferrous methionine chelate, 10% Fe) source. The starter and finisher diets were fed from d 7 to 21 and d 21 to 35, respectively. Improved body weight gain and FCR during finisher phase and overall study period; and greater DM and CP retention, and excreta Fe excretion, at d 20 to 21 and d 34 to 35; were observed in birds fed on Fe supplemented diets when compared with birds fed on control diet. At d 35, the RBC, Hb, haematocrit, and Fe concentration in plasma, tibia and liver were higher in birds fed on Fe supplemented diets than birds fed on the control diet. Supplementation of Fe in organic form resulted in greater Fe concentration in the tibia and liver and less Fe excretion at d 34 to 35, when compared with birds receiving inorganic Fe. These results indicate the necessity to supplement Fe in the commercial diets of broilers; however, organic and inorganic sources of Fe supplementation at 80 mg/kg were equally effective in improving performance, nutrient retention and haematological indices. In addition, Fe supplementation through an organic source seems to be more efficient in depositing Fe in the haemopoietic organs (liver and tibia) of birds under Fe depleted conditions.

  7. Thick-shelled, grazer-protected diatoms decouple ocean carbon and silicon cycles in the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Smetacek, Victor; Montresor, Marina; Klaas, Christine; Henjes, Joachim; Strass, Volker H; Arrieta, Jesús M; Bathmann, Ulrich; Berg, Gry M; Breitbarth, Eike; Cisewski, Boris; Friedrichs, Lars; Fuchs, Nike; Herndl, Gerhard J; Jansen, Sandra; Krägefsky, Sören; Latasa, Mikel; Peeken, Ilka; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Scharek, Renate; Schüller, Susanne E; Steigenberger, Sebastian; Webb, Adrian; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2013-12-17

    Diatoms of the iron-replete continental margins and North Atlantic are key exporters of organic carbon. In contrast, diatoms of the iron-limited Antarctic Circumpolar Current sequester silicon, but comparatively little carbon, in the underlying deep ocean and sediments. Because the Southern Ocean is the major hub of oceanic nutrient distribution, selective silicon sequestration there limits diatom blooms elsewhere and consequently the biotic carbon sequestration potential of the entire ocean. We investigated this paradox in an in situ iron fertilization experiment by comparing accumulation and sinking of diatom populations inside and outside the iron-fertilized patch over 5 wk. A bloom comprising various thin- and thick-shelled diatom species developed inside the patch despite the presence of large grazer populations. After the third week, most of the thinner-shelled diatom species underwent mass mortality, formed large, mucous aggregates, and sank out en masse (carbon sinkers). In contrast, thicker-shelled species, in particular Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, persisted in the surface layers, sank mainly empty shells continuously, and reduced silicate concentrations to similar levels both inside and outside the patch (silica sinkers). These patterns imply that thick-shelled, hence grazer-protected, diatom species evolved in response to heavy copepod grazing pressure in the presence of an abundant silicate supply. The ecology of these silica-sinking species decouples silicon and carbon cycles in the iron-limited Southern Ocean, whereas carbon-sinking species, when stimulated by iron fertilization, export more carbon per silicon. Our results suggest that large-scale iron fertilization of the silicate-rich Southern Ocean will not change silicon sequestration but will add carbon to the sinking silica flux.

  8. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  9. Preparation of iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qigang; Lin, Wei; Ying, Wei-chi

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated with iron through a new multi-step procedure using ferrous chloride as the precursor for removing arsenic from drinking water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was distributed evenly on the internal surface of the GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles, and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron forms. Iron-impregnated GACs (Fe-GACs) were treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize iron in GAC and impregnated iron was found very stable at the common pH range in water treatments. Synthetic arsenate-contaminated drinking water was used in isotherm tests to evaluate arsenic adsorption capacities and iron use efficiencies of Fe-GACs with iron contents ranging from 1.64% to 12.13% (by weight). Nonlinear regression was used to obtain unbiased estimates of Langmuir model parameters. The arsenic adsorption capacity of Fe-GAC increased significantly with impregnated iron up to 4.22% and then decreased with more impregnated iron. Fe-GACs synthesized in this study exhibited higher affinity for arsenate as compared with references in literature and shows great potential for real implementations.

  10. Catalytic effect of different forms of iron in purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Inoue, Sakae; Ando, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    In the arc plasma jet (APJ) method, a large amount of soot including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be produced in a short time. However, as-grown soot contains a lot of impurities, such as metallic particles used as catalyst and amorphous carbon. Hence it is necessary to purify the soot to obtain pure SWNTs. The biggest problem in purifying APJ-SWNTs is how to remove the thick amorphous carbon covering the catalyst metal particles. By refluxing APJ-SWNTs in hydrogen peroxide using iron particle as catalyst, it can be purified. The added fine particle of pure iron is found to be effective. Then, we examine whether SWNTs can be purified more effectively by adding solution containing the Fe ion instead of the iron particle. We used iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate, hydrogen peroxide decomposing agent which contains catalase and ammonium iron (II) sulfate hexahydrate. In the case of iron (III) nitrate and catalase, purification effect is not obvious. Under these conditions hydrogen peroxide was decomposed into H2O and O2, and the hydroxyl radical was not generated. On the other hand, ammonium iron (II) sulfate is effective. Because of existence of Fe2+ in solution Fenton's reaction takes place. Reaction rate is increased at high temperature. Therefore, APJ-SWNT is purified more effectively if refluxed in hydrogen peroxide using ammonium iron (II) sulfate as catalyst.

  11. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; Lea, Alan S.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.; Miehr, R.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of reaction sites on iron particles exposed to water containing carbon tetrachloride has been examined by measuring the locations of reaction products. The uniformity or localization of reaction sites has implications for understanding and modeling the reduction of environmental contaminants by iron in ground water systems. Granular iron surfaces similar to those being used for environmental remediation applications were studied using surfaces analysis techniques to develop an understanding of the physical and chemical structure of the surface and oxide films. Scanning Auger microscopy and imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that granular iron exposed to carbon tetrachloride-saturated water exhibits chloride-enriched regions occurred at pits rather than on the passive oxide film on the metal. Understanding the nature of the local solute reduction sites will play an important role in modeling the kinetics of reaction at passive iron oxide films in environmental systems.

  12. Chemical Degradation of the Cathodic Electrical Contact Between Carbon and Cast Iron in Aluminum Production Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, Martin; Désilets, Martin; Soucy, Gervais; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Forté, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The cathodic carbon to cast iron electrical contact degradation is one of the factors to consider in the cathode voltage drop (CVD) increase over the lifetime of aluminum production cells. Lab-scale experiments were carried out to study the cast iron to carbon interface chemical degradation and the impact of important cell parameters like temperature and bath chemistry. Laboratory degradation results were compared with industrial samples. A thermoelectric Ansys numerical model was then used to predict the effect of cast iron surface degradation over CVD. Results show that the aluminum formation on the cast iron surface and its subsequent diffusion creates an immiscible mixture of Fe-Al metal alloy and electrolytic bath. Disparities were also observed between industrial samples taken from two different technologies, suggesting that the degradation can be slowed down. Thermoelectric calculations finally revealed that the impact of the contact resistance augmentation is by far greater than the cast iron degradation.

  13. [Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon

  14. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of iron catalyst on C-fiber textiles for the growth of carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2014-11-01

    In this study, carbon nanofibers synthesis has been conducted by chemical vapor deposition on C-fiber textiles coated with an iron catalyst via electrophoretic deposition. C-fiber textiles were oxidized with nitric acid before the iron catalyst was plated by electrophoretic deposition. Due to oxidation, the hydroxyl group was created on the C-fiber textiles and was used as an active site for iron catalyst deposition. It was verified that the iron catalyst was deposited on the C-fiber textiles, while current, voltage, and deposition time varied and the concentration of electrolyte was kept constant in electrophoretic deposition. After being deposited, the iron particles were dried in oven for 24 hours and reduced by hydrogen gas in a furnace. Ethylene gas was introduced for the growth of carbon nanofibers and the growth temperature was then varied to find the optimal growth temperature of the carbon nanofibers. Thus, the characteristics of carbon nanofibers were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), N2-sorption (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It is verified that the iron particles were most evenly deposited at 0.1 A for 3 minutes. Carbon nanofibers grew to 150-200 nm most evenly at 600 degrees C via temperature variations in CVD.

  16. Pore- and micro-structural characterization of a novel structural binder based on iron carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumanta; Stone, David; Convey, Diana; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2014-12-15

    The pore- and micro-structural features of a novel binding material based on the carbonation of waste metallic iron powder are reported in this paper. The binder contains metallic iron powder as the major ingredient, followed by additives containing silica and alumina to facilitate favorable reaction product formation. Compressive strengths sufficient for a majority of concrete applications are attained. The material pore structure is investigated primarily through mercury intrusion porosimetry whereas electron microscopy is used for microstructural characterization. Reduction in the overall porosity and the average pore size with an increase in carbonation duration from 1 day to 4 days is noticed. The pore structure features are used in predictive models for gas and moisture transport (water vapor diffusivity and moisture permeability) through the porous medium which dictates its long-term durability when used in structural applications. Comparisons of the pore structure with those of a Portland cement paste are also provided. The morphology of the reaction products in the iron-based binder, and the distribution of constituent elements in the microstructure are also reported. - Highlights: • Carbonation of iron produces a dense microstructure. • Pore volume in iron carbonate lower, critical size higher than those in OPC pastes • Reaction product contains iron, carbon, silicon, aluminum and calcium. • Power-law for porosity-moisture permeability relationship was established.

  17. Effects of iron type in Fenton reaction on mineralization and biodegradability enhancement of hazardous organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Khan, Eakalak; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Sermsai, Nawarat

    2009-01-30

    The mineralization and biodegradability increase and their combination of two traditional and two relatively new organic contaminants by Fenton reagents with three different types of iron, Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and Fe(0) were investigated. The traditional contaminants examined were trichloroethene (TCE) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) while 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) were studied for the relatively new contaminants. The mineralization and biodegradability were represented by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction and the ratio of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and DOC, respectively. For all four contaminants, Fenton reagent using Fe(2+) was more effective in the DOC reduction than Fenton reagents using Fe(3+) and Fe(0) in most cases. The types of Fe that provided maximum biodegradability increase were not the same for all four compounds, Fe(3+) for TCE, Fe(0) for 2,4-DCP, Fe(2+) for 1,4-D, and Fe(3+) for TCP. When the combination of DOC elimination and biodegradability increase (least refractory fraction) was considered, Fe(2+) was the best choice except for 2,4-DCP which was susceptible to Fe(0) catalyzed Fenton reagent the most. The least refractory fractions remaining after 120 min of reaction were 20-25% for TCE, 2,4-DCP, and TCP and 30-40% for 1,4-D. The iron type in Fenton reaction also affected the type of mineralization kinetics of TCE, 2,4-DCP, and TCP as well as the types of degradation by-products of these contaminants. Some of the by-products found, such as isopropanol and propionic aldehyde, which were produced from Fe(0) catalyzed Fenton degradation of TCP, have not been previously reported.

  18. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  19. Dispersion and separation of nanostructured carbon in organic solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, Brian J. (Inventor); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Ruf, Herbert J. (Inventor); Evans, Christopher M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to dispersions of nanostructured carbon in organic solvents containing alkyl amide compounds and/or diamide compounds. The invention also relates to methods of dispersing nanostructured carbon in organic solvents and methods of mobilizing nanostructured carbon. Also disclosed are methods of determining the purity of nanostructured carbon.

  20. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    (kaolinitic) and thus the clay plus silt fraction was the best correlate for SOC but with crystalline iron oxides (dithionite-citrate minus ammonium oxalate - oxalic acid extractable iron) being also correlated to SOC in these soils (R2 = 0.74). Most of SOC in these soils was found on the clay+silt fraction and in stable, clay rich aggregates. However, SOC of high activity clays and other less weathered soils such as Alisols, Cambisols and Plinthosols showed no correlation with particle size or iron oxides, being mostly stabilized by aluminium complexes. We found SOC of these soils to be better explained by a three way interaction among soil pH, carbon quality and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (R2 = 0.85). Consistent with this observation, SOC in the less weathered soils was mostly found in the colloidal fraction (75%). SOC of Podzols and Arenosols on the other hand had only a small but significant influence from their clay plus silt fraction (R2 = 0.31), with particulate organic matter accounting for most of its SOC.

  1. Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Trish J; Roudnew, Ben; Gill, Peter; Seymour, Justin; Seuront, Laurent; Johnson, Genevieve; Mitchell, James G; Smetacek, Victor

    2010-11-22

    The iron-limited Southern Ocean plays an important role in regulating atmospheric CO(2) levels. Marine mammal respiration has been proposed to decrease the efficiency of the Southern Ocean biological pump by returning photosynthetically fixed carbon to the atmosphere. Here, we show that by consuming prey at depth and defecating iron-rich liquid faeces into the photic zone, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) instead stimulate new primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean. We estimate that Southern Ocean sperm whales defecate 50 tonnes of iron into the photic zone each year. Molar ratios of C(export):Fe(added) determined during natural ocean fertilization events are used to estimate the amount of carbon exported to the deep ocean in response to the iron defecated by sperm whales. We find that Southern Ocean sperm whales stimulate the export of 4 × 10(5) tonnes of carbon per year to the deep ocean and respire only 2 × 10(5) tonnes of carbon per year. By enhancing new primary production, the populations of 12 000 sperm whales in the Southern Ocean act as a carbon sink, removing 2 × 10(5) tonnes more carbon from the atmosphere than they add during respiration. The ability of the Southern Ocean to act as a carbon sink may have been diminished by large-scale removal of sperm whales during industrial whaling.

  2. Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Trish J.; Roudnew, Ben; Gill, Peter; Seymour, Justin; Seuront, Laurent; Johnson, Genevieve; Mitchell, James G.; Smetacek, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The iron-limited Southern Ocean plays an important role in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels. Marine mammal respiration has been proposed to decrease the efficiency of the Southern Ocean biological pump by returning photosynthetically fixed carbon to the atmosphere. Here, we show that by consuming prey at depth and defecating iron-rich liquid faeces into the photic zone, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) instead stimulate new primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean. We estimate that Southern Ocean sperm whales defecate 50 tonnes of iron into the photic zone each year. Molar ratios of Cexport ∶Feadded determined during natural ocean fertilization events are used to estimate the amount of carbon exported to the deep ocean in response to the iron defecated by sperm whales. We find that Southern Ocean sperm whales stimulate the export of 4 × 105 tonnes of carbon per year to the deep ocean and respire only 2 × 105 tonnes of carbon per year. By enhancing new primary production, the populations of 12 000 sperm whales in the Southern Ocean act as a carbon sink, removing 2 × 105 tonnes more carbon from the atmosphere than they add during respiration. The ability of the Southern Ocean to act as a carbon sink may have been diminished by large-scale removal of sperm whales during industrial whaling. PMID:20554546

  3. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Black Carbon Contribution to Organic Carbon Stocks in Urban Soil.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Potter, Jonathan; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Manning, David A C; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2015-07-21

    Soil holds 75% of the total organic carbon (TOC) stock in terrestrial ecosystems. This comprises ecosystem-derived organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), a recalcitrant product of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Urban topsoils are often enriched in BC from historical emissions of soot and have high TOC concentrations, but the contribution of BC to TOC throughout the urban soil profile, at a regional scale is unknown. We sampled 55 urban soil profiles across the North East of England, a region with a history of coal burning and heavy industry. Through combined elemental and thermogravimetic analyses, we found very large total soil OC stocks (31-65 kg m(-2) to 1 m), exceeding typical values reported for UK woodland soils. BC contributed 28-39% of the TOC stocks, up to 23 kg C m(-2) to 1 m, and was affected by soil texture. The proportional contribution of the BC-rich fraction to TOC increased with soil depth, and was enriched in topsoil under trees when compared to grassland. Our findings establish the importance of urban ecosystems in storing large amounts of OC in soils and that these soils also capture a large proportion of BC particulates emitted within urban areas.

  5. The role of the iron catalyst in the toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Facciolà, Alessio; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Pistone, Alessandro; Di Pietro, Angela

    2017-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of iron, used as a catalyst, in the biological response to pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p/fMWCNTs) with an iron content of 2.5-2.8%. Preliminarily, we assessed the pro-oxidant activity of MWCNTs-associated iron by an abiotic test. To evaluate iron bioavailability, we measured intracellular redox-active iron in A549 cells exposed to both MWCNT suspensions and to the cell medium preconditioned by MWCNTs, in order to assess the iron dissolution rate under physiological conditions. Moreover, in exposed cells, we detected ROS levels, 8-oxo-dG and mitochondrial function. The results clearly highlighted that MWCNTs- associated iron was not redox-active and that iron leakage did not occur under physiological conditions, including the oxidative burst of specialized cells. Despite this, in MWCNTs exposed cells, higher level of intracellular redox-active iron was measured in comparison to control and a significant time-dependent ROS increase was observed (P<0.01). Higher levels of 8-oxo-dG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased mitochondrial function, confirmed the oxidative stress induced by MWCNTs. Based on the results we believe that oxidative damage could be attributable to the release of endogenous redox-active iron. This was due to the damage of acidic vacuolar compartment caused by endocytosis-mediated MWCNT internalization.

  6. Impacts of amount of impregnated iron in granular activated carbon on arsenate adsorption capacities and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qigang; Lin, Wei; Ying, Wei-Chi

    2012-06-01

    Iron-impregnated granular activated carbons (Fe-GAC) can remove arsenic effectively from water. In this study, Fe-GACs with iron content of 1.64 to 28.90% were synthesized using a new multi-step procedure for the investigation of effects of iron amount on arsenic adsorption capacities and kinetics. Langmuir model satisfactorily fit arsenic adsorption on Fe-GACs. The maximum arsenic adsorption capacity (q(m)) increased significantly with iron impregnation and reached 1,867 to 1,912 microg/g with iron content of 9.96 to 13.59%. Further increase of iron content (> 13.59%) caused gradual decrease of q(m). It was found that the amount of impregnated iron showed little impact on the affinity for arsenate. Kinetic study showed that the amount of impregnated iron affected the arsenic intraparticle diffusion rate greatly. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fit arsenic adsorption kinetics on Fe-GACs better than the pseudo-first-order model. The arsenic adsorption rate increased with increasing of iron content from 1.64% to 13.59%, and then decreased with more impregnated iron (13.59 to 28.90%).

  7. The Modification of Carbon with Iron Oxide Synthesized in Electrolysis Using the Arc Discharge Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endah Saraswati, Teguh; Dewi Indah Prasiwi, Oktaviana; Masykur, Abu; Handayani, Nestri; Anwar, Miftahul

    2017-02-01

    The modification of carbon-based nanomaterials with metals is widely studied due to its unique properties. Here, the modification of carbon nanomaterial with iron oxide has been successfully carried out. This modification was achieved using arc discharge in 50% ethanol liquid media. The anode used in the arc discharge was prepared from a mixture of carbon and iron oxide that was synthesized in electrolysis and was then calcined at 250°C with silicon binder with a mass ratio of 3:1:1, and the cathode used was graphite rod. Both electrodes were set in the nearest gap that could provide an arc during arc-discharging, leading to carbon-based nanoparticle formation. The diffractogram pattern of the X-ray diffraction of the fabricated nanoparticles confirmed the typical peak of carbon, iron oxide and iron. The magnetization value of the result analysis of the vibrating sample magnetometer was 9.9 emu/g. The bandgap energy measurement using diffuse reflectance ultra violet was estimated to be 2.18 eV. Using the transmission electron microscopy, the structure of the nanomaterial produced was observed as carbon-encapsulated iron compound nanoparticles.

  8. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  9. Enhanced terrestrial carbon preservation promoted by reactive iron in deltaic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Michael R.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Gélinas, Yves; Allison, Mead A.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2016-02-01

    We examined the role of reactive iron (FeR) in preserving organic carbon (OC) across a subaerial chronosequence of the Wax Lake Delta, a prograding delta within the Mississippi River Delta complex. We found that ~15.0% of the OC was bound to FeR, and the dominant binding mechanisms varied from adsorption in the youngest subaerial region to coprecipitation at the older, vegetated sites. The δ13C of the iron-associated OC was more negative than the total OC (mean = -2.6‰), indicating greater preference for terrestrial material and/or compounds with more negative δ13C values. However, only the adsorbed OC displayed preferential binding of lignin phenols. We estimate that ~8% of the OC initially deposited in deltaic systems is bound to FeR (equivalent to 6 × 1012 gC yr-1), and this percentage increases postdepositionally, as coprecipitation of FeR and OC allows for an even greater amount of OC to be bound to FeR.

  10. Transport of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in carbonate-rich porous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumann, S.; Micic, V.; Hofmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    Use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for in situ dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater is a promising remediation technology, due to a high dechlorination efficiency of nZVI and possible applications in e.g., great depth or under above-ground infrastructure. The success of the in situ nZVI dechlorination strongly depends on the particle delivery to the contaminants. Previous studies reported a limited transport of nZVI through porous media (cm- to dm-range) and this has been recognized as one of the major obstacles in a widespread utilization of this technology (TRATNYEK & JOHNSON, 2006). Factors that limit the transport are particle aggregation and deposition onto the aquifer solids. Both depend on particle properties (e.g., size, shape, iron content, surface coating, surface charge), on concentrations of suspensions, and on site-specific parameters, such as the groundwater chemistry and the properties and inhomogeneity of the aquifer material. Adsorbed anionic polyelectrolyte coatings provide electrostatic double layer repulsions between negatively charged nZVI particles (SALEH ET AL., 2007), hindering their aggregation and also deposition on the negatively charged quartz surfaces (usually prevailing in aquifers). However, it is shown that the presence of surface charge heterogeneities in the aquifer effects the particle transport (JOHNSON ET AL., 1996). Carbonates, iron oxides, and the edges of clay minerals, for instance, carry a positive surface charge at neutral pH (often encountered in groundwater). This leads to a favorable deposition of negatively charged nZVI particles onto carbonates, metal oxide impurities or clay edges, and finally to a decreased particle transport. Considering the high proportion of carbonates commonly encountered in Alpine porous aquifers, in this study we aimed to evaluate the transport of commercially available polyelectrolyte coated nZVI (polyacrylic acid coated-nZVI, NANOIRON s.r.o., CZ) in both quartz and

  11. Initial Characterization of Carbon Metabolism in Iron Oxidizing Microbial Communities of Acidic Hot Springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, H. W.; Jennings, R. D.; Whitmore, L.; Inskeep, W. P.; Moran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park is home to several acidic, sulfidic hot springs. Visual inspection of the springs reveals distinct geochemical regions starting with a sulfur deposition zone followed by a transition to iron oxide deposition downstream. The microbial communities in the iron oxidation zones are dominated by Archaea, including several members that appear to define previously unrecognized taxa. Abiotic iron oxidation rates are very slow at these temperatures (typically ~ 65-70 oC) and pH's (typically ~3). Therefore, the relatively rapid iron oxide deposition rate strongly suggests the process is microbially mediated, and an organism previously isolated from these springs, Metallosphaera yellowstonensis, has been shown to oxide iron in culture. M. yellowstonensis has been observed in the all microbial communities analyzed in the iron oxidizing zones of these springs, though metagenomic profiling suggests it constitutes only ~20% of the community membership. When we began our studies of C flow in the iron-oxidizing community, no C source had been demonstrated. Observed potential carbon sources in the springs include dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, as well as random inputs of heterotrophic carbon in the forms of insect carcasses, pine needles, and animal scat. The temperatures in the iron oxidation zones are above the photosynthetic upper temperature limit, thus precluding photosynthetic-based autotrophy within the community itself. We are employing geochemical and stable isotope techniques to assess carbon inventories in the system. We have demonstrated that M. yellowstonensis as well as excised samples of iron oxide mat communities can fix CO2, and our estimated isotopic fractionation factor is consistent with the 3-hydroxypropionate 4-hydroxybutyrate pathway. Genes of this pathway have been identified in the M. yellowstonensis genome. We have tentatively identified small amounts of organic compounds

  12. Green Carbon, Black Carbon, White Carbon: Simultaneous Differentiation Between Soil Organic Matter, Pyrogenic Carbon and Carbonates Using Thermal Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Peltre, C.; Chan, J.; Baumgartl, T.; Erskine, P.; Apesteguía, M.; Virto, I.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of soil carbon stocks and fluxes continues to be an important endeavor in assessments of soil quality, and more broadly in assessments of ecosystem functioning. The quantification of soil carbon in alkaline, carbonate-containing soils, such as those found in Mediterranean areas, is complicated by the need to differentiate between organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC), which continues to present methodological challenges. Acidification is frequently used to eliminate carbonates prior to soil OC quantification, but when performed in the liquid phase, can promote the dissolution and loss of a portion of the OC. Acid fumigation (AF) is increasingly preferred for carbonate removal, but its effectiveness is difficult to assess using conventional elemental and isotopic analyses. The two-step approach is time, labor and cost intensive, and generates additional uncertainties from the calculations. Quantification of the actively cycling pool of soil organic C (SOC) in many soils is further complicated by the potential presence of more recalcitrant/stable forms such as pyrogenic or black carbon (BC) derived from incomplete combustion of vegetation, or even geogenic carbon such as coal. The wide spectrum of materials currently considered BC makes its quantification challenging. The chemical method using benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as markers of condensed aromatic structures indicative of pyrogenic C is highly time, labor and cost intensive, and can generate artifacts. Several research groups are now developing method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of these various forms of soil carbon using thermal analysis techniques such as thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and evolved gas analysis. The objective of this presentation is to provide a general overview and specific examples of the current progress and technical challenges in this evolving methodology.

  13. Effect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Desboeufs, K. V.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies reported that the effect of organic complexation may be a potentially important process to be considered by models estimating atmospheric iron flux to the ocean. In this study, we investigated this process effect by a series of dissolution experiments on iron-bearing dust in the presence or the absence of various organic compounds (acetate, formate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, glycolate, lactate, tartrate and humic acid as an analogue of humic like substances, HULIS) typically found in atmospheric waters. Only 4 of tested organic ligands (oxalate, malonate, tartrate and humic acid) caused an enhancement of iron solubility which was associated with an increase of dissolved Fe(II) concentrations. For all of these organic ligands, a positive linear dependence of iron solubility to organic concentrations was observed and showed that the extent of organic complexation on iron solubility decreased in the following order: oxalate >malonate = tartrate > humic acid. This was attributed to the ability of electron donors of organic ligands and implies a reductive ligand-promoted dissolution. This study confirms that among the known atmospheric organic binding ligands of Fe, oxalate is the most effective ligand promoting dust iron solubility and showed, for the first time, the potential effect of HULIS on iron dissolution under atmospheric conditions.

  14. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  15. Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Deborah; Crocket, Kirsty; Brand, Tim; Stutter, Marc; Wilson, Clare; Schröder, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Linking carbon and iron cycles by investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids from peat-draining rivers - Scotland as model for high-latitude rivers Wood, D.A¹, Crocket, K², Brand, T², Stutter, M³, Wilson, C¹ & Schröder, C¹ ¹Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA ²Scottish Association for Marine Science, University of the Highlands and Islands, Dunbeg, Oban, PA37 1QA ³James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH The biogeochemical iron cycle exerts significant control on the carbon cycle¹. Iron is a limiting nutrient in large areas of the world's oceans and its bioavailability controls CO2 uptake by marine photosynthesizing microorganisms. While atmospheric iron inputs to the open ocean have been extensively measured, global river inputs have likely been underestimated because most major world rivers exhibit extensive iron removal by flocculation and sedimentation during seawater mixing. Iron minerals and organic matter mutually stabilise each other², which results in a 'rusty carbon sink' in sediments³ on the one hand but may also enhance transport beyond the salinity gradient on the other. Humic-rich, high latitude rivers have a higher iron-carrying capacity⁴-⁶ but are underrepresented in iron flux calculations. The West Coast sea lochs in Scotland are fed by predominantly peatland drainage catchments, and the rivers entering the sea lochs carry a high load of organic matter. The short distance between many of these catchments and the coastal ocean facilitates source-to-sea research investigating transport, fate and mineralogy of iron-bearing colloids providing a good analogue for similar high latitude fjordic systems. We use SeaFAST+ICP-MS and Mössbauer spectroscopy to survey trace metal concentrations, with emphasis on iron concentrations, speciation and mineralogy, across salinity gradients. In combination with ultra-filtration techniques, this allows

  16. Epitaxial Approaches to Carbon Nanotube Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismach, Ariel

    Carbon nanotubes have unique electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties, which make them ideal candidates as building blocks in nano-electronic and electromechanical systems. However, their organization into well-defined geometries and arrays on surfaces remains a critical challenge for their integration into functional nanosystems. In my PhD, we developed a new approach for the organization of carbon nanotubes directed by crystal surfaces. The principle relies on the guided growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by atomic features presented on anisotropic substrates. We identified three different modes of surface-directed growth (or 'nanotube epitaxy'), in which the growth of carbon nanotubes is directed by crystal substrates: We first observed the nanotube unidirectional growth along atomic steps ('ledge-directed epitaxy') and nanofacets ('graphoepitaxy') on the surface of miscut C-plane sapphire and quartz. The orientation along crystallographic directions ('lattice-directed epitaxy') was subsequently observed by other groups on different crystals. We have proposed a "wake growth" mechanism for the nanotube alignment along atomic steps and nanofacets. In this mechanism, the catalyst nanoparticle slides along the step or facet, leaving the nanotube behind as a wake. In addition, we showed that the combination of surface-directed growth with external forces, such as electric-field and gas flow, can lead to the simultaneous formation of complex nanotube structures, such as grids and serpentines. The "wake growth" model, which explained the growth of aligned nanotubes, could not explain the formation of nanotube serpentines. For the latter, we proposed a "falling spaghetti" mechanism, in which the nanotube first grows by a free-standing process, aligned in the direction of the gas flow, then followed by absorption on the stepped surface in an oscillatory manner, due to the competition between the drag force caused by the gas flow on the suspended

  17. Temporal fluctuations in grain size, organic materials and iron concentrations in intertidal surface sediment of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson-Becker, E. A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the oxidized surface sediment in an estuary fluctuate temporally in response to physical forces and apparently-fluctuating inputs. These characteristics, which include grain size and concentrations of organic materials and iron, will influence both trace-metal geochemistry and bioavailability. Temporal trends in the abundance of fine particles, total organic carbon content (TOC), absorbance of extractable organic material (EOM), and concentration of extractable iron in the sediment of San Francisco Bay were assessed using data sets containing approximately monthly samples for periods of two to seven years. Changes in wind velocity and runoff result in monthly changes in the abundance of fine particles in the intertidal zone. Fine-grained particles are most abundant in the late fall/early winter when runoff is elevated and wind velocities are low; particles are coarser in the summer when runoff is low and wind velocities are consistently high. Throughout the bay, TOC is linearly related to fine particle abundance (r = 0.61). Temporal variability occurs in this relationship, as particles are poor in TOC relative to percent of fine particles in the early rainy season. Iron-poor particles also appear to enter the estuary during high runoff periods; while iron is enriched on particle surfaces in the summer. Concentrations of extractable iron and absorbance of EOM vary strongly from year to year. Highest absorbances of EOM occurred in the first year following the drought in 1976-77, and in 1982 and 1983 when river discharge was unusually high. Extractable-iron concentrations were also highest in 1976-77, but were very low in 1982 and 1983. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  18. Urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Jill L; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Inger, Richard; Potter, Jonathan; McHugh, Nicola; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-01-01

    Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth) compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered.

  19. Urban Tree Effects on Soil Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Jill L.; O'Sullivan, Odhran S.; Inger, Richard; Potter, Jonathan; McHugh, Nicola; Gaston, Kevin J.; Leake, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth) compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered. PMID:25003872

  20. Ion microprobe analyses of carbon in Fe-Ni metal in iron meteorites and mesosiderites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.; Huss, Gary R.; Scott, Edward R. D.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon concentrations in kamacite, taenite, and plessite (kamacite-taenite intergrowths) were measured in 18 iron meteorites and 2 mesosiderites using the Cameca ims 1280 ion microprobe at the University of Hawai'i with a 5-7 μm beam and a detection limit of <1 ppm. Our goal was to investigate the effects of carbon on the microstructure of iron meteorites during cooling and to evaluate how carbon partitions between metal phases and other carbon-bearing minerals (graphite, haxonite, cohenite) in various meteorite groups. Carbon concentrations range from ∼100 to ∼1000 ppm in taenite and plessite in groups IAB, IIICD, and IIIAB, which contain graphite and/or carbides, but only 2-6 ppm in groups IVA, IVB and the ungrouped iron, Tishomingo, which lack graphite and carbides. Carbon contents in kamacite range from ∼2 to ∼10 ppm in most studied meteorites, including IIAB, but higher abundances were found in kamacite from IAB Pitts subgroup meteorites Pitts and Woodbine (12-15 ppm). Our carbon abundances for kamacite are lower than most published ion probe data, indicating that earlier carbon measurements had contamination problems. Grains of taenite and fine-grained plessite in carbon-rich meteorites, which all have normal M-shaped nickel profiles due to slow cooling, have diverse carbon contents and zoning profiles. This is because taenite decomposed by diverse mechanisms over a range of temperatures, when nickel could only diffuse over sub-μm distances. Carbon diffusion through taenite to growing carbides was rapid at the upper end of this temperature range, but was very limited at the lower end of the temperature range. In mesosiderites, carbon increases from 12 ppm in tetrataenite to 40-115 ppm in cloudy taenite as nickel decreases from 50% to 35%. Low carbon levels in tetrataenite may reflect ordering of iron and nickel; higher carbon in cloudy taenite is attributed to metastable bcc phase, possibly martensite, with ∼300 ppm carbon intergrown with

  1. Effects of Carbon Addition on Iron and Phosphorus in a Highly Weathered Tropical Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Silver, W. L.

    2008-12-01

    In the highly weathered iron (Fe)-rich soils of wet tropical forests, Fe may play a key role in controlling ecosystem processes because of its interactions with carbon (C) and phosphorus (P). The high NPP typical of tropical forests contributes significantly to the global C cycle. In Fe-rich tropical soils, NPP is thought to be limited by P. The periodic reducing conditions that occur in upland tropical soils may be associated with pulses of increased P availability because of the release of Fe-bound P during iron reduction. While little is known about the factors controlling Fe reduction in soils, it is likely that C availability plays a role. Typically, only simple C sources like acetate or glucose have been used to examine this limitation. However, the source of much of the C in nature is the complex mixture of organic compounds leached from leaves and litter. To investigate the linkages between Fe, C, and P, we compared the effects adding either acetate (200 mg C/L) or leaf leachate in low (50-100 mg C/L) or high (150-200 mg C/L) concentrations to incubated soils from a tropical rain forest in Puerto Rico under ambient atmospheric conditions. We measured pools of iron and phosphorus as well as pH at four time points over a month. Both Fe(II) and pH exhibited significant treatment effects, but not until the last sampling date. At this time, the Fe(II) concentration could explain 49% of the variability in soil pH. The pH was significantly higher in the acetate treatments than both the leaf leachate treatments. While Fe(II) concentration was significantly higher in the acetate treatment than the control and low leaf leachate treatment, there was no difference compared to the high leaf leachate treatment After one month microbial biomass P had increased significantly while the NaOH extractable organic P had decreased significantly. These changes suggest the rapid microbial uptake of P liberated from Fe. In conclusion, microbes appear to utilize more complex C in

  2. Giant Magnetoresistance Behavior of an Iron/Carbonized Polyurethane Nanocomposite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    SIP method, both the catalyst (a liquid containing aliphatic amine, parachlorobenzotrifluoride and methyl propyl ketone) and the accelerator...polyurethane STD-102, containing organo -titanate) are added into an iron-nanoparticle suspended tetrahydrofuran solution. The two-part monomers

  3. Origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a naturally iron-fertilized region of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, L.; Caparros, J.; Leblanc, K.; Obernosterer, I.

    2014-10-01

    Natural iron fertilization of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters induces annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms off Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). To examine the origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM), D- and L-amino acids (AA) were quantified at bloom and HNLC stations. Total hydrolysable AA accounted for 21-25% of surface particulate organic carbon (%POCAA) at the bloom sites, but for 10% at the HNLC site. A marked decrease in %POCAA with depth was observed at the most productive stations leading to values between 3 and 5% below 300 m depth. AA contributed to only 0.9-4.4% of dissolved organic carbon (%DOCAA) at all stations. The only consistent vertical trend was observed at the most productive station (A3-2) where %DOCAA decreased from ∼2% in the surface waters to 0.9% near 300 m. These AA yields and other markers revealed that POM and DOM were more rapidly altered or mineralized at the bloom sites compared to the HNLC site. Different molecular markers indicated that POM mostly originated from diatoms and bacteria. The estimated average proportion of POM from intact phytoplankton cells in surface waters was 45% at the bloom station A3-2, but 14% at the HNLC site. Estimates based on D-AA yields indicated that ∼15% of POM and ∼30% of DOM was of bacterial origin (cells and cell fragments) at all stations. Surprisingly, the DOM in HNLC waters appeared less altered than the DOM from the bloom, had slightly higher dissolved AA concentrations, and showed no sign of alteration within the water column. Unfavorable conditions for bacterial degradation in HNLC regions can explain these findings. In contrast, large inputs of labile organic molecules and iron, likely stimulate the degradation of organic matter (priming effect) and the production of more recalcitrant DOM (microbial carbon pump) during iron-fertilized blooms.

  4. Diatom resting spore ecology drives enhanced carbon export from a naturally iron-fertilized bloom in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Ian; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Moore, C. Mark; Lampitt, Richard S.; Wolff, George A.; Holtvoeth, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Southern Ocean Island systems sustain phytoplankton blooms induced by natural iron fertilization that are important for the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide and serve as analogues for past and future climate change. We present data on diatom flux assemblages and the biogeochemical properties of sinking particles to explain the enhanced particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes observed in response to natural iron supply in the Crozet Islands region (CROZeX). Moored deep-ocean sediment traps (>2000 m) were located beneath a naturally fertilized island bloom and beneath an adjacent High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) control site. Deep-ocean carbon flux from the naturally-fertilized bloom area was tightly correlated (R = 0.83, n = 12, P < 0.0006) with the resting spore flux of a single island-associated diatom species,Eucampia antarctica var. antarctica. The unusually well preserved state of the Eucampia-associated carbon flux, determined by amino acid studies of organic matter degradation, was likely influenced by their ecology, since diatom resting spores are adapted to settle rapidly out of the surface ocean preserving viable cells. The naturally fertilized bloom enhanced carbon flux and the resulting Si/C and Si/N ratios were 2.0-3.4-fold and 2.2-3.5-fold lower than those measured in the adjacent HNLC control area. The enhanced carbon export and distinctive stoichiometry observed in naturally fertilized systems is therefore largely not attributable to iron relief of open ocean diatoms, but rather to the advection and growth of diatom species characteristic of island systems and the subsequent flux of resting spores. Carbon export estimates from current natural iron fertilization studies therefore represent a highly specific response of the island systems chosen as natural laboratories and may not be appropriate analogues for the larger Southern Ocean response. The broader implications of our results emphasize the role of phytoplankton diversity and

  5. Methyl red removal from water by iron based metal-organic frameworks loaded onto iron oxide nanoparticle adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadfarnia, S.; Haji Shabani, A. M.; Moradi, S. E.; Emami, S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective followed by this research is the synthesis of iron based metal organic framework loaded on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe)) and the study of its capability for the removal of methyl red. Effective parameters in the selection of a new adsorbent, i.e. adsorption capacity, thermodynamics, and kinetics were investigated. All the studies were carried out in batch experiments. Removal of methyl red from aqueous solutions varied with the amount of adsorbent, methyl red contact time, initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage, and solution pH. The capability of the synthesized adsorbent in the removal of methyl red was compared with the metal organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) and iron oxide nanoparticles. The results show that Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) nanocomposite exhibits an enhanced adsorption capacity.

  6. Interfacial Reactions between Alumina and Carbon Refractories and Molten Iron at 1,823 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikram-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Khanna, Rita; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-10-01

    High temperature interactions of alumina-carbon refractories with molten iron were investigated at 1,823 K in argon atmosphere. These studies were specifically focussed on the decomposition of alumina in the simultaneous presence of carbon and iron, and associated refractory degradation. Refractory mixtures were prepared by blending 90 wt% alumina with 10 wt% synthetic graphite; 5-15 wt% iron powder was then mixed with the refractory mixture. Using phenol formaldehyde as a binder, pellets were prepared from various blends; these were heat treated at 1,823 K for 30 min in Ar atmosphere. The presence of molten iron significantly enhanced the decomposition of alumina resulting in an enhanced refractory degradation as well as the formation of a new reactant product. This product was identified as a Fe-Al intermetallic phase from SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy) and x-ray microdiffraction investigations.

  7. Effect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Desboeufs, K. V.

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies reported that the effect of organic complexation may be a potentially important process to be considered in models to estimate atmospheric iron flux to the ocean. In this study, we investigated this effect by a series of dissolution experiments on iron-bearing dust in presence or absence of various organic compounds typically found in the atmospheric waters (acetate, formate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, glycolate, lactate, tartrate and humic acid as an analogue of humic like substances (HULIS)). Only 4 of tested organic ligands (oxalate, malonate, tartrate and humic acid) caused an enhancement of iron solubility which was associated with an increase of dissolved Fe(II) concentrations. For all of these organic ligands, a positive linear dependence of iron solubility to organic concentrations was observed and showed that the extent of organic complexation on iron solubility decreased in order oxalate > malonate = tartrate > humic acid. This was attributed to the ability of electron donors of organic ligands and implied a reductive ligand-promoted dissolution. This study confirmed that oxalate is the most effective ligand playing on dust iron solubility and showed, for the first time, the potential effect of HULIS on iron dissolution in atmospheric conditions.

  8. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  9. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO₂ emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  10. Carbon-14 dating of an iron bloom associated with the voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W. Washburn, W.; Olin, J.S.; Fitzhugh, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recounts the history of the iron bloom associated with the English Elizabethan explorer Sir Martin Frobisher who made 3 voyages to the North American mainland in the 1570's. Specifically the paper deals with the use of proportional counters in carbon-14 dating of the Frobisher iron bloom which is located at the Smithsonian Institution. The procedures for preparing the samples for counting are described. (KRM)

  11. Iron-catalysed carbon-heteroatom and heteroatom-heteroatom bond forming processes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Arkaitz; García Mancheño, Olga; Bolm, Carsten

    2008-06-01

    Given its ready availability, low price and environmentally friendly character, iron is an attractive and often advantageous alternative to other transition metals in the field of catalysis. This tutorial review summarises recent progress in the development of novel and practical iron-catalysed reactions with a particular focus on those which provide access to new carbon-heteroatom and heteroatom-heteroatom linkages. It shall be of interest for both the academic as well as the industrial community.

  12. Effect of carbon species on the reduction and melting behavior of boron-bearing iron concentrate/carbon composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Ding, Yin-gui; Wang, Jing-song; She, Xue-feng; Xue, Qing-guo

    2013-06-01

    Iron nugget and boron-rich slag can be obtained in a short time through high-temperature reduction of boronbearing iron concentrate by carbonaceous material, both of which are agglomerated together as a carbon composite pellet. This is a novel flow sheet for the comprehensive utilization of boron-bearing iron concentrate to produce a new kind of man-made boron ore. The effect of reducing agent species (i.e., carbon species) on the reduction and melting process of the composite pellet was investigated at a laboratory scale in the present work. The results show that, the reduction rate of the composite pellet increases from bituminite, anthracite, to coke at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1300°C. Reduction temperature has an important effect on the microstructure of reduced pellets. Carbon species also affects the behavior of reduced metallic iron particles. The anthracite-bearing composite pellet melts faster than the bituminitebearing composite pellet, and the coke-bearing composite pellet cannot melt due to the high fusion point of coke ash. With anthracite as the reducing agent, the recovery rates of iron and boron are 96.5% and 95.7%, respectively. This work can help us get a further understanding of the new process mechanism.

  13. Energy of interaction between carbon impurities in paramagnetic γ-iron

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomareva, A. V.; Gornostyrev, Yu. N.; Abrikosov, I. A.

    2015-04-15

    The energies of interaction between carbon impurity atoms in paramagnetic fcc iron (austenite) are calculated using electron density functional theory. Point defects in the paramagnetic matrix are described using a statistical approach that takes into account local magnetic fluctuations and atomic relaxation in the environment of impurity atoms. It is shown that, in addition to local deformations, magnetism significantly contributes to the energies of dissolution and interaction of carbon atoms. The values of the carbon-carbon interaction energy are indicative of a significant repulsion between these atoms in the first and second coordination spheres. The results of calculations are consistent with estimates obtained from experimental data on the activity of carbon impurity atoms in iron.

  14. Development of iron-containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes for MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xuanfeng; Singh, Ravi; Burke, Andrew; Hatcher, Heather; Olson, John; Kraft, Robert A; Schmid, Michael; Carroll, David; Bourland, J Daniel; Akman, Steven; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2011-01-01

    Aims To test iron-containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as bifunctional nanomaterials for imaging and thermal ablation of tumors. Materials & Methods MWCNTs entrapping iron were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The T2-weighted contrast enhancement properties of MWCNTs containing increasing amounts of iron were determined in vitro. Suspensions of these particles were injected into tumor-bearing mice and tracked longitudinally over 7 days by MRI. Heat-generating abilities of these nanomaterials following exposure to near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo. Results The magnetic resonance contrast properties of carbon nanotubes were directly related to their iron content. Iron-containing nanotubes were functional T2-weighted contrast agents in vitro and could be imaged in vivo long-term following injection. Iron content of nanotubes did not affect their ability to generate thermoablative temperatures following exposure to NIR and significant tumor regression was observed in mice treated with MWCNTs and NIR laser irradiation. Conclusion These data demonstrate that iron-containing MWCNTs are functional T2-weighted contrast agents and efficient mediators of tumor-specific thermal ablation in vivo. PMID:21506687

  15. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  16. Characterization of pure iron and (130 ppm) carbon-iron binary alloy by Barkhausen noise measurements: Study of the influence of stress and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Gatelier-Rothea, C.; Chicois, J.; Fougeres, R.; Fleischmann, P.

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this work is to measure and characterize the ferromagnetic noise from high purity iron and 130 ppm carbon-iron alloy in various physical and metallurgical conditions. This is the basis of an industrial development of Barkhausen noise as a non-destructive evaluation technique of microstructural changes. The amplitudes and shapes of Barkhausen signals are correlated with the grain size in pure iron and with the presence of interstitial carbon atoms in the iron matrix (magnetic after effect phenomena) in 130 ppm carbon-iron alloy. This technique is also very sensitive to the location (inter- or intragranular precipitations), the nature (cementite or epsilon carbide), the density and size (coalescence effect) of carbide precipitates and internal stresses. The influence of microstructure is analyzed in terms of Bloch wall interactions with crystal defects as pinning joints, closure domains or dislocation configurations.

  17. PHOTOCHEICAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYL RADICAL IN NATURAL WATER - THE ROLE OF IRON AND DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical hydroxyl radical (OH) production was measured in several natural waters to investigate the importance of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and iron-CDOM complexes as sources of OH. High rates of OH photoproduction in highly colored, iron-rich, acidic waters a...

  18. Removal of arsenic from water by supported nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huijie; Jia, Yongfeng; Wu, Xing; Wang, He

    2009-12-30

    Nano-sized zero-valent iron is an effective adsorbent for arsenic removal from drinking water. However, its application may be limited in public water system and small scale water treatment system due to its tiny particle size. In the present work, nanoscale zero-valent iron was supported onto activated carbon (NZVI/AC) by impregnating carbon with ferrous sulfate followed by chemical reduction with NaBH(4). Approximate 8.2 wt% of iron was loaded onto carbon and SEM analysis showed that the iron particles in the pores of carbon were needle-shaped with the size of 30-500 x 1000-2000 nm. Kinetics study revealed that adsorption of arsenite and arsenate by NZVI/AC was fast in the first 12h and the equilibrium was achieved in approximately 72 h. The adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for arsenite and arsenate at pH 6.5 calculated from Langmuir adsorption isotherms in batch experiments was 18.2 and 12.0mg/g, respectively. Phosphate and silicate markedly decreased the removal of both arsenite and arsenate, while the effect of other anions and humic acid was insignificant. Common metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) enhanced arsenate adsorption but ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was found to suppress arsenite adsorption. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated by elution with 0.1M NaOH.

  19. Transport of carbon colloid supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jan; Meißner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret; Oswald, Sascha E

    2014-08-01

    Injection of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has recently gained great interest as emerging technology for in-situ remediation of chlorinated organic compounds from groundwater systems. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is able to reduce organic compounds and to render it to less harmful substances. The use of nanoscale particles instead of granular or microscale particles can increase dechlorination rates by orders of magnitude due to its high surface area. However, classical nZVI appears to be hampered in its environmental application by its limited mobility. One approach is colloid supported transport of nZVI, where the nZVI gets transported by a mobile colloid. In this study transport properties of activated carbon colloid supported nZVI (c-nZVI; d50=2.4μm) are investigated in column tests using columns of 40cm length, which were filled with porous media. A suspension was pumped through the column under different physicochemical conditions (addition of a polyanionic stabilizer and changes in pH and ionic strength). Highest observed breakthrough was 62% of the injected concentration in glass beads with addition of stabilizer. Addition of mono- and bivalent salt, e.g. more than 0.5mM/L CaCl2, can decrease mobility and changes in pH to values below six can inhibit mobility at all. Measurements of colloid sizes and zeta potentials show changes in the mean particle size by a factor of ten and an increase of zeta potential from -62mV to -80mV during the transport experiment. However, results suggest potential applicability of c-nZVI under field conditions.

  20. Storage of Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Human Settlements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown that urban areas have carbon density comparable with tropical forest. Carbon density of urban areas may be even higher, because the density of organic carbon only was taking into account. Human settlements store carbon in two forms such as organic and inorganic. Carbon is stored in organic form in living biomass such as trees, grasses or in artifacts derived from biomass such as wooden furniture, building structures, paper, clothes and shoes made from natural materials. Inorganic carbon or fossil carbon, meanwhile, is primarily stored in objects fabricated by people like concrete, plastic, asphalt, and bricks. The key difference between organic and inorganic forms of carbon is how they return to the gaseous state. Organic carbon can be returned to the atmosphere without applying additional artificial energy through decomposition of organic matter, whereas energy input such as burning is needed to release inorganic carbon. In this study I compare inorganic with organic carbon storage, discuss their carbon residence time, decomposition rates, and possible implications for carbon emissions.

  1. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  2. The synthesis, structure, and properties of carbon-containing nanocomposites based on nickel, palladium, and iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. E.; Uimin, M. A.; Lokteva, E. S.; Mysik, A. A.; Kachevskii, S. A.; Turakulova, A. O.; Gaviko, V. S.; Lunin, V. V.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel, iron, palladium, and bimetallic nickel-palladium nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon were synthesized by contactless levitation fusion of metals in a magnetic field in a flow of an inert gas containing a hydrocarbon. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and adsorption. A layered carbon shell preventing agglomeration and oxidation formed on the surface of nickel- and iron-containing particles. The size of particles depended on preparation conditions and could be of 5-15 nm.

  3. Understanding drivers of the export of dissolved organic carbon from a German headwater catchment using Generalised Additive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Musolff, Andreas; Tittel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, several causes of recently increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in headwaters across eastern North America and northern and central Europe have been debated. One likely driver of the widespread increase of DOC concentrations since the early 1990s are decreasing depositions of acid rain resulting in an increased solubility of organic carbon compounds including humic acids. Here, we tested the hypothesis if the reduced availability of nitrate stimulated the microbial reduction of ferric iron soil minerals and the mobilisation of DOC. Forested catchments are relatively unaffected by agricultural and urban nitrate inputs. In these catchments, decreasing depositions often resulted in a reduced availability of nitrate, which are preferred electron acceptors in microbial decomposition processes. As ferric iron minerals act as efficient sorbents of organic compounds in soils its reduction may cause a release of humic substances and hence an export of DOC. To test this hypothesis, time series of DOC, dissolved iron and nitrate from a forested headwater catchment in Germany were examined using Generalised Additive Models. We found that rising DOC concentrations most likely resulted from a reductive dissolution of iron(III) minerals in soils and the associated mobilisation of adsorbed organic carbon. Phosphate, which can trigger undesired algal growth and is also known to be adsorbed by particulate iron(III), was released as well.

  4. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  5. Reaction of carbon and water as catalyzed by nickel and iron surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The individual steps of the reaction of carbon and water to produce CO and H/sub 2/ were quantified on nickel and iron surfaces using temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface graphite and carbide, two metastable surface carbon forms, were prepared by dehydrogenation of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and served as reactant carbon. UPS of the graphite monolayer in contact with the metal yielded a valence electronic structure that could be interpreted in terms of the bulk band structure of graphite. The CO formation step is rate limiting in the uncatalyzed H/sub 2/O gasification reaction of graphite. The nickel surface in contact with graphitic carbon lowers the barrier for the CO formation step. The catalytic action occurs directly without isolated prior breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. The estimated activation energy for the direct reaction was 44 kcal/mole. The fully carbided surfaces of Ni and Fe were active for H/sub 2/O dissociation with an estimated activation energy between 5.0 and 10.0 kcal/mole. A different catalytic reaction cycle involving carbon-carbon bond breaking followed by oxidation of the carbide is energetically more demanding. The activation energy for direct carbon-carbon bond breaking was estimated between 65-70 kcal/mole on both nickel and iron. Following this demanding step, the reaction between carbidic carbon and oxygen proceeded on nickel and iron with estimated activation energies of 31 and 39 kcal/mole, respectively. This indirect carbide reaction cycle changed the energetics of the steam gasification of carbon.

  6. Fate of Organic Micropollutants during Hydrothermal Carbonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, B.; Baskyr, I.; Pörschmann, J.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2012-04-01

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an exothermic process, in which biomass in an aqueous suspension is transformed into a bituminous coal-like material (hydrochar) at temperatures between 180-250°C and under moderate pressure. With these process conditions, little gas is generated (1-5%), and a fraction of the organic carbon is dissolved in the aqueous phase (10-30%) but the largest part is obtained as solid char. The respective yields and the molecular composition depend on the choice of educts and the process conditions, such as temperature, pH-value, and reaction time. Various biomass-educts have recently been studied, such as waste materials from agriculture, brewer's spent grains, sewage sludge, as well as wood and paper materials. Besides their use for energy generation, the hydrochars have also been investigated as soil amendments. Prior to addition of the chars to soil, these should be free of toxic components that could be released into the environment as harmful organic pollutants. Herein, the potential for the degradation of trace organic pollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, under typical HTC conditions will be presented. The degradation of selected organic pollutants with different polarity and hydrophobicity was investigated. Scope and limitations of the degradation potential of the HTC are discussed on examples of micro pollutants such as hormones, residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including their metabolites, and pesticides. We will show that the target analytes are partially and in some cases completely degraded. The degree of degradation depends on the HTC process conditions such as reaction temperature and time, the solution pH value, the presence of catalysts or additional reagents. The biotic and abiotic degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, in particular chlorinated aromatics, has been a well-known environmental problem and remains a challenging issue for the development of a HTC process for

  7. Reburial of fossil organic carbon in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Angela F; Gélinas, Yves; Masiello, Caroline A; Wakeham, Stuart; Hedges, John I

    2004-01-22

    Marine sediments act as the ultimate sink for organic carbon, sequestering otherwise rapidly cycling carbon for geologic timescales. Sedimentary organic carbon burial appears to be controlled by oxygen exposure time in situ, and much research has focused on understanding the mechanisms of preservation of organic carbon. In this context, combustion-derived black carbon has received attention as a form of refractory organic carbon that may be preferentially preserved in soils and sediments. However, little is understood about the environmental roles, transport and distribution of black carbon. Here we apply isotopic analyses to graphitic black carbon samples isolated from pre-industrial marine and terrestrial sediments. We find that this material is terrestrially derived and almost entirely depleted of radiocarbon, suggesting that it is graphite weathered from rocks, rather than a combustion product. The widespread presence of fossil graphitic black carbon in sediments has therefore probably led to significant overestimates of burial of combustion-derived black carbon in marine sediments. It could be responsible for biasing radiocarbon dating of sedimentary organic carbon, and also reveals a closed loop in the carbon cycle. Depending on its susceptibility to oxidation, this recycled carbon may be locked away from the biologically mediated carbon cycle for many geologic cycles.

  8. From metal-organic framework to intrinsically fluorescent carbon nanodots.

    PubMed

    Amali, Arlin Jose; Hoshino, Hideto; Wu, Chun; Ando, Masanori; Xu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Highly photoluminescent carbon nanodots (CNDs) were synthesized for the first time from metal-organic framework (MOF, ZIF-8) nanoparticles. Coupled with fluorescence and non-toxic characteristics, these carbon nanodots could potentially be used in biosafe color patterning.

  9. Diffusivity of carbon in iron and steels at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, Gary G.

    1980-09-01

    Although the literature contains many measurements of the diffusivity of carbon in Fe and steels, recent progress in plasma carburizing has made this regime around 1050 °C and over 1% carbon concentration of great interest. We have measured the diffusivity of carbon in steel from 975 to 1075 °C up to 1.3% carbon concentration by the steady-state method. Our results are in agreement with previous measurements of Smith and Wells, Batz, and Mehl in the regime of low temperatures and carbon concentrations. Using activation energies determined over a wider temperature range by the latter authors, we derive as an empirical expression for D throughout the range of temperatures and concentrations investigated, D=0.47 exp (-1.6 C) ×exp[-(37 000-6600 C)/RT] cm2/sec. Here, C is expressed in weight percent carbon and the energies are in cal/mole.

  10. Cu Binding to Iron Oxide-Organic Matter Coprecipitates in Solid and Dissolved Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, T. M.; Koenigsmark, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that Cu is released from wetlands following storm events. Assymetrical field flow field fractionation (AF4) analyses as well as total and dissolved metal concentration measurements suggest iron oxide-organic matter complexes control Cu retention and release. Coprecipitation products of Fe oxide and organic matter were prepared under conditions similar to the wetland to assess Cu partitioning to and availability from solid phases that settle from solution as well as phases remaining suspended. Cu coprecipitation and sorption to organomineral precipitation solids formed at different Fe:organic carbon (OC) ratios were compared for net Cu removal and extractability. As more humic acid was present during precipitation of Fe, TEM images indicated smaller Fe oxide particles formed within an organic matrix as expected. In coprecipitation reactions, as the ratio of Fe:OC decreased, more Cu was removed from solution at pH 5.5 and below. However, in sorption reactions, there was an inhibition of Cu removal at low OC concentrations. As the pH increased from 5.5 to 7 and as solution phase OC concentration increased, more Cu remained dissolved in both coprecipitation and sorption reactions. The addition of Ca2+, glycine, histidine and citric acid or lowering the pH resulted in more extractable Cu from the coprecipitation compared with the sorption reactions. The variations in Cu extraction were likely due to a combination of a more amorphous structure in CPT products, and the relative abundance of available Fe oxide or OC binding sites. Suspended Fe oxide-organic matter coprecipitates were assessed using AF4 coupled to online TOC analysis and ICP-MS. In laboratory prepared samples, Cu was observed in a mixture of small 1-5 nm colloids of Fe oxide-organic matter precipitates, but the majority was observed in larger organic matter colloids and were not UV absorbing, suggesting more aliphatic carbon materials. In field samples, up to 60% of the dissolved Cu

  11. A method for quantifying bioavailable organic carbon in aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rectanus, H.V.; Widdowson, M.; Novak, J.; Chapelle, F.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that naturally occurring microorganisms can biodegrade PCE and TCE allows the use of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. Research at numerous chlorinated solvent sites indicates an active dechlorinating microbial population coupled with an ample supply of organic carbon are conditions needed to sustain reductive dechlorination. A series of extraction experiments was used to compare the ability of the different extractants to remove organic carbon from aquifer sediments. The different extractants included pyrophosphate, sodium hydroxide, and polished water. Pyrophosphate served as a mild extractant that minimally alters the organic structure of the extracted material. Three concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1%) of pyrophosphate extracted 18.8, 24.9, and 30.8% of sediment organic carbon, respectively. Under alkali conditions (0.5 N NaOH), which provided the harshest extractant, 30.7% of the sediment organic carbon was recovered. Amorphous organic carbon, measured by potassium persulfate oxidization, consisted of 44.6% of the sediment organic carbon and served as a baseline control for maximum carbon removal. Conversely, highly purified water provided a minimal extraction control and extracted 5.7% of the sediment organic carbon. The removal of organic carbon was quantified by aqueous TOC in the extract and residual sediment organic carbon content. Characterization of the organic carbon extracts by compositional analysis prior and after exposure to the mixed culture might indicate the type organic carbon and functional groups used and/or generated by the organisms. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  12. Carbon production and export from Biscayne Bay, Florida. II. Episodic export of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incze, Michael L.; Roman, M. R.

    1983-07-01

    Seasonal meteorological events of high wind energy are important in the export of organic carbon from Biscayne Bay, Florida, by altering circulation and tidal flushing patterns coincident with increased resuspension. The accumulation of detrital organic carbon in the bay during productive summer months with light south-east breezes is reversed by the onset of the winter season and associated weekly cold fronts with sustained 15 knot northerly winds. The reversal of Biscayne Bay circulation patterns and increased discharge at Caesar's Creek result in an outwelling of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon. Southward advection at the seaward extremes of exchange channels prevents reintroduction of exported organic carbon by tidal currents.

  13. Understanding and assessing the feasibility of ocean iron fertilization to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, K.; Lampitt, R. S.; de Baar, H. J.; Blain, S.; Chai, F.; Coale, K. H.; Dai, M.; Karl, D. M.; Leinen, M.; Lohan, M. C.; Rothstein, L.; Trull, T. W.; Whaley, D.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Zhou, M.

    2011-12-01

    Regardless of the strategy for fossil fuel use, atmospheric CO2 is predicted to increase and then decrease such that after 10,000 years, levels will still be much higher than pre-industrial. The objectives of geoengineering CO2 reduction techniques are to reduce the rate of CO2 increase and the height of the CO2 peak. Because the oceans represent such a large reservoir of carbon, small perturbations of the system could cause large changes to carbon flows. The objective of ocean carbon sequestration would be to encourage the oceans to take up carbon at a faster rate than they currently do but with predictable and acceptable consequences. From iron addition experiments in the laboratory and in the open ocean and from studies where there are natural additions of iron to the ocean several conclusions can be drawn. Relief of iron stress increases the biomass of marine phytoplankton and as a consequence reduces surface water CO2. This leads to increased export of carbon from the upper ocean and probably enhanced sequestration in the deep ocean. However, the experiments were not planned from the perspective of geoengineering and conclusions about the potential of this approach as a means of reducing atmospheric CO2 have large uncertainties. In addition, few experiments have addressed the unintended consequences of deliberate additions. This has been a major focus of recent discussion of a risk assessment framework for experimentation by the London Convention and London Protocol. Given the uncertainties, there is an urgent requirement to carry out more studies on ocean iron fertilization with three clear objectives 1: To develop coupled global scale computation models so that predictions can become more reliable and so that in situ experiments are effective. 2: To carry out experiments on a sufficiently large scale and duration to determine the extent, efficiencies and time scales of carbon sequestration. 3: To explore the consequences of ocean iron fertilization, and not

  14. Relative contribution of iron reduction to sediments organic matter mineralization in contrasting habitats of a shallow eutrophic freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo; Jiang, He-Long

    2016-06-01

    Iron reduction is one of the important organic matter (OM) mineralization pathway in sediments. Here we investigated the rates and the relative contribution of iron reduction to OM mineralization in Zhushan bay (ZSB, cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB)-dominated habitats) and East Taihu Lake (ETL, submerged macrophypes (SM)-dominated habitats) of Lake Taihu, China. Anaerobic microcosm incubation revealed that the rate of iron reduction at ZSB (4.42 μmol cm(-3) d(-1)) in summer was almost 1.5 times higher than at ETL (3.13 μmol cm(-3) d(-1)). Iron reduction accounted for 66.5% (ZSB) and 31.8% (ETL) of total anaerobic carbon mineralization, respectively. No detectable methanogenesis was found at ZSB, while methanogenesis was responsible for 16.7% of total anaerobic respiration in sediments of ETL. Geochemical analysis of solid phase constituents indicated that ZSB surface sediments experienced highly oxidizing conditions with much higher amorphous Fe(III) (71 mmol m(-2)) than ETL (11 mmol m(-2)). Conversely, AVS inventories at ETL (38 mmol m(-2)) were up to 30 times higher than at ZSB (1.27 mmol m(-2)), indicating significant sulfate reduction in sediments of ETL. Overall results suggested that varying carbon sources and distinct geochemical characterizations of the sediments in contrasting habitats significantly influenced the rate of iron reduction and the pathway of C mineralization in a large freshwater lake.

  15. Iron-catalyzed hydrogenation of bicarbonates and carbon dioxide to formates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Zhu-Ge, Ling; Yang, Guangfu; Zhou, Shaolin

    2015-02-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate to formate has been explored extensively. The vast majority of the known active catalyst systems are based on precious metals. Herein, we describe an effective, phosphine-free, air- and moisture-tolerant catalyst system based on Knölker's iron complex for the hydrogenation of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide to formate. The catalyst system can hydrogenate bicarbonate at remarkably low hydrogen pressures (1-5 bar).

  16. Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Salovaara, Susan; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Andlid, Thomas

    2003-12-17

    Previous studies have shown that organic acids have an impact on both Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake in Caco-2 cell. However, to what extent this effect is correlated with the anion of organic acids per se, or with the resulting decrease in pH, has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we studied the effect of five organic acids (tartaric, succinic, citric, oxalic, and propionic acid) on the absorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Caco-2 cells and compared this with sample solutions without organic acids but set to equivalent pH by HCl. The results showed that the mechanisms behind the enhancing effect of organic acids differed for the two forms of iron. For ferric iron the organic acids promoted uptake both by chelation and by lowering the pH, whereas for ferrous iron the promoting effect was caused only by the lowered pH.

  17. The catalytic activity of the iron-coated pumice particles used as heterogeneous catalysts in the oxidation of natural organic matter by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Alver, Alper; Karaarslan, Mihrican; Kılıç, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters was investigated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron-coated pumice particles in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation process (HCOP). Removal of trihalomethane (THM) precursors, which is formed THM by the reacts with chloride, was performed with the hydroxyl radicals. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. The studies were carried out in two sections: (1) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in pure water with iron-coated pumice and (2) oxidation of THM Precursor (NOM) by hydrogen peroxide with iron-coated pumice. The monitored parameters in this study include dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethanes formation potential. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. Results show that the oxidation of NOM and remaining NOM with H2O2 is improved by the addition of iron-coated pumice particles which activate the H2O2 molecule, leading to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like process.

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Degradation during Incubation, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer

    Elizabeth Herndon; Ziming Yang; Baohua Gu

    2017-01-05

    This dataset provides information about soil organic carbon decomposition in Barrow soil incubation studies. The soil cores were collected from low-center polygon (Area A) and were incubated in the laboratory at different temperatures for up to 60 days. Transformations of soil organic carbon were characterized by UV and FT-IR, and small organic acids in water-soluble carbons were quantified by ion chromatography during the incubation (Herndon et al., 2015).

  19. The addition of organic carbon and nitrate affects reactive transport of heavy metals in sandy aquifers.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Seuntjens, Piet; Van Roy, Sandra; Joris, Ingeborg; Vangeel, Silvia; Dejonghe, Winnie; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2011-04-25

    Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus affecting the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various electron acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive transport model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs.

  20. Magnetic studies of polystyrene/iron-filled multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, T. L.; Zakharchuk, I.; Geydt, P.; Lahderanta, E.; Komlev, A. A.; Zyrianova, A. A.; Kanygin, M. A.; Sedelnikova, O. V.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Okotrub, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Polystyrene/iron-filled multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films were prepared by solution processing, forge-rolling and stretching methods. Elongated iron carbide nanoparticles formed because of catalytic growth are situated inside the hollow cavity of the nanotubes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as records of isothermal hysteresis loops performed in three perpendicular directions of magnetic field confirmed that the nanotubes have a preferential alignment in the matrix. Strong diamagnetic anisotropy in the composites emerges not only from the MWCNTs but also from the polystyrene matrix. The polymer sticks to the honeycomb lattice through the interaction of the π-orbitals of the phenyl ring and those of the carbon nanotube, contributing to anisotropic diamagnetic response. The contribution of iron nanoparticles to overall magnetic response strongly depends on nanotube concentration in the composite as well as on matrix-filler non-covalent stacking, which influences magnetic interparticle interactions.

  1. Effects of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on zinc and iron retention in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Seligson, F.H.; Hughes, V.A.

    1986-07-01

    We measured the effect of calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite on whole-body retention of zinc-65 in 11 and iron-59 in 13 healthy, postmenopausal women. In a single-blind, controlled, crossover study, each subject, on three occasions, ingested a standard test meal supplemented with iron-59 or zinc-65 and capsules containing placebo or 500 mg elemental calcium as calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite. Whole-body countings were performed prior to, 30 min after, and 2 wk after each meal. Mean (SEM) zinc retention was 18.1 +/- 1.0% with placebo (control) and did not vary significantly with calcium carbonate (110.0 +/- 8.6% of control) or hydroxyapatite (106.0 +/- 7.9% of control). Iron retention, 6.3 +/- 2.0% with placebo, was significantly reduced with both calcium carbonate (43.3 +/- 8.8% of control, p = 0.002) and hydroxyapatite (45.9 +/- 10.0% of control, p = 0.003). Iron absorption may be significantly reduced when calcium supplements are taken with meals.

  2. [Removal of arsenite from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-Jie; Jia, Yong-Feng; Wu, Xing; Wang, He

    2009-06-15

    Nano zero-valent iron was loaded onto activated carbon by deoxidizing Fe2+ in aqueous solution and approximately 8.2% (wt) of iron was loaded it. The size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) x (1 000-3 000) nm. The adsorption capacity for arsenic was approximately 1.997 mg/g activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI/AC) in the 2 mg/L As(III) solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The uptake of arsenic by NZVI/AC was rapid in the first 12 h (94.3%) and equilibrium was achieved at 72 h (99.86%). As(III) was partly oxidized by the absorbent in the process of absorption. The presence of phosphate and silicate ions significantly decreased arsenic removal rate while the effect of other common ions such as sulfate, carbonate and oxalate was insignificant. NZVI/AC was effectively regenerated after adsorption of arsenic when elution was applied with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The results suggest that NZVI/AC is an ideal candidate for the treatment of arsenic contaminated drinking water.

  3. Iron Amendment and Fenton Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton-driven regeneration of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves Fe amendment to the GAC to catalyze H2O2 reactions and to enhance the rate of MTBE oxidation and GAC regeneration. Four forms of iron (ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, fer...

  4. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  5. THE EFFECT OF PH AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON ON THE PROPERTIES OF IRON COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discolored water resulting from suspended iron particles is a relatively common drinking water consumer complaint. These particles result from the oxygenation of Fe(II), and this study shows that pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) have important effects on their properties....

  6. Computer simulation of cascade damage in -iron with carbon in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Andrew F; Bacon, David J; Barashev, Aleksandr; Osetsky, Nickolai

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulation of cascade damage in -iron with carbon in solution Original Research Article Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 382, Issues 2 3, 1 December 2008, Pages 91-95 Andrew F. Calder, David J. Bacon, Alexander V. Barashev, Yuri N. Osetsky

  7. IRON OPTIMIZATION FOR FENTON-DRIVEN OXIDATION OF MTBE-SPENT GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton-driven chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) is accomplished through the addition of H2O2 and iron (Fe) to spent GAC. The overall objective of this treatment process is to transform target contaminants into less toxic byproducts, re-establish the sorpti...

  8. Using carbon dioxide as a building block in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-01-20

    Carbon dioxide exits in the atmosphere and is produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, the fermentation of sugars and the respiration of all living organisms. An active goal in organic synthesis is to take this carbon--trapped in a waste product--and re-use it to build useful chemicals. Recent advances in organometallic chemistry and catalysis provide effective means for the chemical transformation of CO₂ and its incorporation into synthetic organic molecules under mild conditions. Such a use of carbon dioxide as a renewable one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis could contribute to a more sustainable use of resources.

  9. [Organic Carbon and Elemental Carbon in Forest Biomass Burning Smoke].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Li-min; Li, Jiu-hai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Dan; Hong, Lei; Chen, Hui-yu; Yang, Wei-zong

    2015-06-01

    Ten kinds of trees were selected for preparing dry and wet stick samples. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) in particular matter produced by sticks samples in the flaming and smoldering were analyzed through the Thermal Optical Carbon Analyzer (Model 2001A). The results showed that mean values of OC (EF(OC)), EC (EF(EC)), PM (EF(PM)) emission factors were 6.8, 2.1, 16.5 g x kg(-1) in the dry stick flaming smoke, 57.5, 11.1, 130.9 g x kg(-1) in the dry stick smoldering smoke, 13.6, 3.3, 30.5 g x kg(-1) in the wet stick flaming smoke, 57.6, 9.6, 125.6 g x kg(-1) in the wet stick smoldering smoke. Compared to the flaming condition, EF(OC), EF(EC), EF(PM), were much higher in the smoldering condition. In the flaming condition, EF(OC), EF(EC), EF(PM) had positive correlations with the moisture content. The mean values of OC/PM, EC/PM, TC/PM (TC = OC + EC) were 45%, 10%, 55%, and the mass fractions of OC was much higher in smoldering condition than those in flaming condition, but the mass fractions of EC was lower in the smoldering condition. Compared to dry sticks, the smoke of wet sticks combustion had higher mass fractions of OC and lower mass fractions of EC. The mean value of OC/EC was 3.3 (2.5-5.2) in the dry stick flaming smoke, and was 5.2 (4.3-6.3) in the dry stick smoldering smoke, in the wet stick flaming smoke was 4.1 (3.1-5.3), and was 6.2 (4.2-8.4) in the wet stick smoldering smoke. Compared to the flaming condition, the mean value of OC/EC was higher in the smoldering condition, and the mean value of OC/EC was much higher in high moisture content stick combustion smoke. The correlation coefficient between OC and EC was 0.985 in dry stick combustions, and was 0.915 in wet stick combustions. So, based on the flaming and smoldering condition, the correlation between OC and EC was significant in different moisture contents of sticks.

  10. Adsorption of natural organic matter from waters by iron coated pumice.

    PubMed

    Kitis, M; Kaplan, S S; Karakaya, E; Yigit, N O; Civelekoglu, G

    2007-01-01

    Natural pumice particles were used as granular support media and coated with iron oxides to investigate their adsorptive natural organic matter (NOM) removal from waters. The impacts of natural pumice source, particle size fraction, pumice dose, pumice surface chemistry and specific surface area, and NOM source on the ultimate extent and rate of NOM removal were studied. All adsorption isotherm experiments were conducted employing the variable-dose completely mixed batch reactor bottle-point method. Iron oxide coating overwhelmed the surface electrical properties of the underlying pumice particles. Surface areas as high as 20.6m(2)g(-1) were achieved after iron coating of pumice samples, which are above than those of iron coated sand samples reported in the literature. For all particle size fractions, iron coating of natural pumices significantly increased their NOM uptakes both on an adsorbent mass- and surface area-basis. The smallest size fractions (<63 microm) of coated pumices generally exhibited the highest NOM uptakes. A strong linear correlation between the iron contents of coated pumices and their Freundlich affinity parameters (K(F)) indicated that the enhanced NOM uptake is due to iron oxides bound on pumice surfaces. Iron oxide coated pumice surfaces preferentially removed high UV-absorbing fractions of NOM, with UV absorbance reductions up to 90%. Control experiments indicated that iron oxide species bound on pumice surfaces are stable, and potential iron release to the solution is not a concern at pH values of typical natural waters. Based on high NOM adsorption capacities, iron oxide coated pumice may be a promising novel adsorbent in removing NOM from waters. Furthermore, due to preferential removal of high UV-absorbing NOM fractions, iron oxide coated pumice may also be effective in controlling the formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water treatment.

  11. Photolysis of iron(III)-organic complexes in cloud droplets and deliquescent particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, C.; Herrmann, H.

    2009-04-01

    Iron and suitable coordination compounds for complexation such as carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in atmospheric waters. The forming iron-organic complexes are very good absorbers in the UV-VIS actinic region and therefore highly photoreactive. The photoreduction of an iron(III)-organic complex results into the production of an organic radical which can take part in further radical chain reactions and the formation of iron(II), whose budget is important for the Fenton reaction. Accordingly, iron complex photochemistry is involved in radical producing processes and the decomposition of the coordination compounds, which makes it interesting for atmospheric aqueous phase chemistry. Several iron-complexes with environmentally relevant coordination compounds e.g., oxalate, malonate, succinate, pyruvate and glyoxalate have been flash-photolyzed with an excimer laser at wavelengths 308 and 351 nm. Flash photolysis holds the advantage that formed products are not irradiated as compared to continuous wave photolysis studies. Photochemically produced Fe2+ has been measured by UV-VIS spectrometry as Fe(phenantroline)32+ and Fe2+ overall effective quantum yields have been calculated with the measured energy of the excimer laser pulse and the initial concentration of the iron-complexes obtained by a speciation program.

  12. Temperature Dependence of Photodegradation of Dissolved Organic Matter to Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Particulate Organic Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Porcal, Petr; Dillon, Peter J.; Molot, Lewis A.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been studied for more than two decades. Usually, laboratory or “in-situ” experiments are used to determine photodegradation variables. A common problem with these experiments is that the photodegradation experiments are done at higher than ambient temperature. Five laboratory experiments were done to determine the effect of temperature on photochemical degradation of DOM. Experimental results showed strong dependence of photodegradation on temperature. Mathematical modeling of processes revealed that two different pathways engaged in photochemical transformation of DOM to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) strongly depend on temperature. Direct oxidation of DOM to DIC dominated at low temperatures while conversion of DOM to intermediate particulate organic carbon (POC) prior to oxidation to DIC dominated at high temperatures. It is necessary to consider this strong dependence when the results of laboratory experiments are interpreted in regard to natural processes. Photodegradation experiments done at higher than ambient temperature will necessitate correction of rate constants. PMID:26106898

  13. Highly magnetic nanoporous carbon/iron-oxide hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sher; Anand, Chokkalingam; Lakhi, Kripal Singh; Choy, Jin-Ho; Cha, Wang Soo; Elzhatry, Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ohya, Yutaka; Vinu, Ajayan

    2014-11-10

    The preparation of size-controllable Fe2O3 nanoparticles grown in nanoporous carbon with tuneable pore diameters is reported. These hybrid materials exhibit strong non-linear magnetic properties and a magnetic moment of approximately 229 emu g(-1), which is the highest value ever reported for nanoporous hybrids, and can be attributed to the nanosieve effect and the strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the carbon walls.

  14. Surface complexation of ferrous iron and carbonate on ferrihydrite and the mobilization of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Appelo, C A J; Van Der Weiden, M J J; Tournassat, C; Charlet, L

    2002-07-15

    Surface complexation models are commonly used to predict the mobility of trace metals in aquifers. For arsenic in groundwater, surface complexation models cannot be used because the database is incomplete. Both carbonate and ferrous iron are often present at a high concentration in groundwater and will influence the sorption of arsenic, but the surface complexation constants are absent in the database of Dzombak and Morel. This paper presents the surface complexation constants for carbonate and ferrous iron on ferrihydrite as derived for the double-layer model. For ferrous iron the constants were obtained from published data supplemented by new experiments to determine the sorption on the strong sites of ferrihydrite. For carbonate the constants were derived from experiments by Zachara et al., who employed relatively low concentrations of carbonate. The double-layer model, optimized for low concentrations, was tested against sorption experiments of carbonate on goethite at higher concentration by Villalobos and Leckie, and reasonable agreement was found. Sorption was also estimated using linear free energy relations (LFER), and results compared well with our derived constants. Model calculations confirm that sorption of particularly carbonate at common soil and groundwater concentrations reduces the sorption capacity of arsenic on ferrihydrite significantly. The displacing effect of carbonate on sorbed arsenate and arsenite has been overlooked in many studies. It may be an important cause for the high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater in Bangladesh. Sediments containing high amounts of sorbed arsenic are deposited in surface water with low carbonate concentrations. Subsequently the sediments become exposed to groundwater with a high dissolved carbonate content, and arsenic is mobilized by displacement from the sediment surface.

  15. Carbon accumulation in arid croplands of northwest China: pedogenic carbonate exceeding organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiujun; Wang, Jiaping; Xu, Minggang; Zhang, Wenju; Fan, Tinglu; Zhang, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Soil carbonate (SIC) exceeds organic carbon (SOC) greatly in arid lands, thus may be important for carbon sequestration. However, field data for quantifying carbonate accumulation have been lacking. This study aims to improve our understanding of SIC dynamics and its role in carbon sequestration. We analyzed two datasets of SOC and SIC and their 13C compositions , one with over 100 soil samples collected recently from various land uses in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, and the other with 18 archived soil samples from a long-term experiment (LTE) in Pingliang, Gansu. The data from the Yanqi Basin showed that SOC had a significant relationship with SIC and pedogenic carbonate (PIC); converting shrub land to cropland increased PIC stock by 5.2 kg C m-2, which was 3.6 times of that in SOC stock. The data from the LTE showed greater accumulation of PIC (21-49 g C m-2 year-1) than SOC (10-39 g C m-2 year-1) over 0-20 cm. Our study points out that intensive cropping in the arid and semi-arid regions leads to an increase in both SOC and PIC. Increasing SOC through straw organic amendments enhances PIC accumulation in the arid cropland of northwestern China.

  16. The structural-phase state of iron-carbon coatings formed by the ultradispersed particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manakova, Irina A. Ozernoy, Alexey N. Tuleushev, Yuriy Zh. Vereshchak, Mikhail F. Volodin, Valeriy N. Zhakanbayev, Yeldar A.

    2014-10-27

    The methods of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy, elemental microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to study nanoscale coatings. The samples were prepared by magnetron sputtering of carbon and iron particles. They alternately were deposited on monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline corundum substrate moving relative to the plasma flows in the form of sublayers with a thickness of less than 0.6 nm up to the total thickness of 150-500 nm. Solid solutions with the carbon concentrations of up to 7.5, 12.0, 17.6, and 23.9 at% were produced by co-precipitation of ultradispersed particles of iron and carbon. Using method of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, we detected the anisotropy of orientation of magnetic moments of iron atoms due to texturing of the formed coatings. The deviation of the crystallite orientation from the average value depends on the degree of carbonization. At 550°C, the pearlite eutectic α‐Fe(C)+Fe{sub 3}C is formed from the amorphous structure without formation of intermediate carbides. The relative content of cementite correlates with the amount of carbon in the coating. The formation of the solid solutions-alloys directly during the deposition process confirms the theory of thermal-fluctuation melting of small particles.

  17. A field investigation on transport of carbon-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Meißner, T; Potthoff, A; Bleyl, S; Georgi, A; Mackenzie, K; Trabitzsch, R; Werban, U; Oswald, S E

    2015-10-01

    The application of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for subsurface remediation of groundwater contaminants is a promising new technology, which can be understood as alternative to the permeable reactive barrier technique using granular iron. Dechlorination of organic contaminants by zero-valent iron seems promising. Currently, one limitation to widespread deployment is the fast agglomeration and sedimentation of nZVI in colloidal suspensions, even more so when in soils and sediments, which limits the applicability for the treatment of sources and plumes of contamination. Colloid-supported nZVI shows promising characteristics to overcome these limitations. Mobility of Carbo-Iron Colloids (CIC) - a newly developed composite material based on finely ground activated carbon as a carrier for nZVI - was tested in a field application: In this study, a horizontal dipole flow field was established between two wells separated by 5.3m in a confined, natural aquifer. The injection/extraction rate was 500L/h. Approximately 1.2kg of CIC was suspended with the polyanionic stabilizer carboxymethyl cellulose. The suspension was introduced into the aquifer at the injection well. Breakthrough of CIC was observed visually and based on total particle and iron concentrations detected in samples from the extraction well. Filtration of water samples revealed a particle breakthrough of about 12% of the amount introduced. This demonstrates high mobility of CIC particles and we suggest that nZVI carried on CIC can be used for contaminant plume remediation by in-situ formation of reactive barriers.

  18. Mössbauer study of carbon coated iron magnetic nanoparticles produced by simultaneous reduction/pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Fernanda G.; Ardisson, José D.; Rosmaninho, Marcelo G.; Lago, Rochel M.; Tristão, Juliana C.

    2011-11-01

    Magnetic iron nanoparticles immersed in a carbon matrix were produced by a combined process of controlled dispersion of Fe3 + ions in sucrose, thermal decomposition with simultaneous reduction of iron cores and the formation of the porous carbonaceous matrix. The materials were prepared with iron contents of 1, 4 and 8 in %wt in sucrose and heated at 400, 600 and 800°. The samples were analyzed by XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, TG, SEM and TEM. The materials prepared at 400° are composed essentially of Fe3O4 particles and carbon, while treatments at higher temperatures, e.g. 600 and 800° produced as main phases Fe0 and Fe3C. The Mössbauer spectra of samples heated at 400° showed two sextets characteristic of a magnetite phase and other contributions compatible with Fe3 + and Fe2 + phases in a carbonaceous matrix. Samples treated at temperatures above 600° showed the presence of metallic iron with concentrations between 16-43%. The samples heated at 800° produced higher amounts of Fe3C (between 20% and 58%). SEM showed for the iron 8% sample treated at 600-800°C particle sizes smaller than 50 nm. Due to the presence of Fe0 particles in the carbonaceous porous matrix the materials have great potential for application as magnetic adsorbents.

  19. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  20. Magnetically anisotropic additive for scalable manufacturing of polymer nanocomposite: iron-coated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Namiko; Manohara, Harish; Platzman, Ellen

    2016-02-01

    Novel nanoparticles additives for polymer nanocomposites were prepared by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with ferromagnetic iron (Fe) layers, so that their micro-structures can be bulk-controlled by external magnetic field application. Application of magnetic fields is a promising, scalable method to deliver bulk amount of nanocomposites while maintaining organized nanoparticle assembly throughout the uncured polymer matrix. In this work, Fe layers (˜18 nm thick) were deposited on CNTs (˜38 nm diameter and ˜50 μm length) to form thin films with high aspect ratio, resulting in a dominance of shape anisotropy and thus high coercivity of ˜50-100 Oe. The Fe-coated CNTs were suspended in water and applied with a weak magnetic field of ˜75 G, and yet preliminary magnetic assembly was confirmed. Our results demonstrate that the fabricated Fe-coated CNTs are magnetically anisotropic and effectively respond to magnetic fields that are ˜103 times smaller than other existing work (˜105 G). We anticipate this work will pave the way for effective property enhancement and bulk application of CNT-polymer nanocomposites, through controlled micro-structure and scalable manufacturing.

  1. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ariel S; Huntington, Thomas G; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-05-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  2. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Ariel S.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  3. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement.

  4. Does Iron Fertilization Lead to Enhanced Carbon Sequestration? A Synthesis of Polar Star Results.

    SciTech Connect

    Buesseler, K.O.

    2002-12-01

    This research synthesized activities related to work conducted as part of the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) which investigated the effects of iron fertilization on enhanced carbon sequestration. The primary interest was in the fate of sinking particles which carry carbon to the deep ocean, where it can be sequestered from the atmosphere for >100-1000 year time scales. This was accomplished through direct measurements of thorium-234, a naturally occurring particle reactive radionuclide that traces shallow particle export; SF6 measurements to track the position of the Fe fertilized region; and the collection of ancillary data and samples to augment the study of major C, nutrient and elemental budgets as well as appropriate samples for biological study. Results of this work show a small, but progressively increasing flux of particulate organic C to depth as a consequence of Fe fertilization. This is the first data set to show any effect of Fe fertilization on C sequestration in the Southern Ocean. The changes in particle export during SOFeX are significant, but only possible to detect given what is arguably the largest 234Th data set ever collected as part of an oceanographic experiment. Most prior 234Th studies, simply use a steady-state approximation and ignore advective and diffusive fluxes in the calculation of 234Th fluxes. High resolution time-series of average 0-50m 234Th activities in and out of the Southern patch find a clear steady decrease in 234Th flux that is slightly larger in vs. out of the Fe fertilized patch. This decrease must be included in the full 234Th flux calculation and the deliberate tagging of this water mass with SF6 combined with time-series sampling allowed for a careful evaluation of this non-steady state (NSS) term. Likewise, the addition of SF6 allows for the evaluation of vertical exchange (via the gradient of SF6 below the patch) and dilution effects (after correction for atmospheric losses). In most set tings these physical

  5. Study of Organic and Inorganic Binders on Strength of Iron Oxide Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Urvashi; Kawatra, S. Komar; Eisele, Timothy C.

    2013-08-01

    Bentonite is a predominant binder used in iron ore pelletization. However, the presence of a high content of silica and alumina in bentonite is considered undesirable for ironmaking operations. The objective of this study was to identify the alternatives of bentonite for iron ore pelletization. To achieve this goal, different types of organic and inorganic binders were utilized to produce iron oxide pellets. The quality of these iron oxide pellets was compared with pellets made using bentonite. All pellets were tested for physical strength at different stages of pelletization to determine their ability to survive during shipping and handling. The results show that organic binders such as lactose monohydrate, hemicellulose, and sodium lignosulfonate can provide sufficient strength to indurated pellets.

  6. Formation and transformation of a short range ordered iron carbonate precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dideriksen, Knud; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bovet, Nicolas; Wallace, Adam F.; Sel, Ozlem; Arbour, Tyler; Navrotsky, Alexandra; De Yoreo, James J.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-09-01

    Fe(II)-carbonates, such as siderite, form in environments where O2 is scarce, e.g., during marine sediment diagenesis, corrosion and possibly CO2 sequestration, but little is known about their formation pathways. We show that early precipitates from carbonate solutions containing 0.1 M Fe(II) with varying pH produced broad peaks in X-ray diffraction and contained dominantly Fe and CO3 when probed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Reduced pair distribution function (PDF) analysis shows only peaks corresponding to interatomic distances below 15 Å, reflecting a material with no long range structural order. Moreover, PDF peak positions differ from those for known iron carbonates and hydroxides. Mössbauer spectra also deviate from those expected for known iron carbonates and suggest a less crystalline structure. These data show that a previously unidentified iron carbonate precursor phase formed. Its coherent scattering domains determined from PDF analysis are slightly larger than for amorphous calcium carbonate, suggesting that the precursor could be nanocrystalline. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of Fe-carbonate polynuclear complexes yield PDF peak positions that agree well with those from experiments, offering the possibility that the material is a condensate of such complexes, assembled in a relatively unorganised fashion. If this is the case, the material could be nearly amorphous, rather than being composed of well defined nanocrystals. PDF measurements of samples ageing in solution coupled with refinement with the software PDFgui show that the material transforms to siderite or siderite/chukanovite mixtures within hours and that the transformation rate depends on pH. The identified Fe-carbonate precursor may potentially form during anaerobic corrosion or bacterial Fe reduction.

  7. Proteomics, pigment composition, and organization of thylakoid membranes in iron-deficient spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna Maria; D'Amici, Gian Maria; Barta, Csengele; Loreto, Francesco; Zolla, Lello

    2007-01-01

    The changes induced in the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seedlings exposed to iron deficiency shortly after germination were characterized with two proteomic approaches coupled with chlorophyll and xanthophyll analysis and in vivo measurements of photosynthesis. During the first 10 d of iron deficiency the concentrations of chlorophyll b and violaxanthin were greatly reduced, but all xanthophylls recovered after 13-17 d of iron deficiency, when both chlorophylls were negatively affected. No new protein was formed in iron-deficient leaves, and no protein disappeared altogether. Photosystem I (PSI) proteins were largely reduced, but the stoichiometry of the antenna composition of PSI was not compromised. On the contrary, PSII proteins were less affected by the stress, but the specific antennae Lhcb4 and Lhcb6, Lhcb2 and its isoform Lhcb1.1 were all reduced, while the concentration of Lhcb3 increased. A strong reduction in thylakoid bending and an altered distribution pattern for the reduced PSI and PSII complexes were observed microscopically in iron-deficient leaves. Supercomplex organization was also affected by the stress. The trimeric organization of Lhcb and the dimerization of Lhca were reduced, while monomerization of Lhcb increased. However, the trimerization of Lhcb was partially recovered after 13-17 d of iron deficiency. In iron-deficient leaves, photosynthesis was strongly inhibited at different light intensities, and a high de-epoxidation status of the xanthophylls was observed, in association with a strong impairment of photochemical efficiency and an increase of heat dissipation as monitored by the non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence. All these negative effects of iron deficiency were attenuated but not fully reversed after again supplying iron to iron-deficient leaves for 7-13 d. These results indicate that iron deficiency has a strong impact on the proteomic structure of spinach photosystems and suggest that, in

  8. Study of the analytical methods for iron determination in complex organic liquids by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Torre, M.; Gonzalez, M.C.; Jimenez, O.; Rodriquez, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    In the determination of iron in complex organic liquids by atomic absorption spectrometry (A.A.S.), methods of sample preparation, such as dilution with an organic solvent and sample pretreatment to destroy organic material, are investigated. Moreover, methods of analysis using calibration curve and standard additions are presented. The possible cause of error associated with iron determination in organic samples by flame (F-A.A.S.) and graphite furnace (GF-A.A.S.) atomic absorption spectrometry are discussed. From all of these studies, the use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after sample dilution with methyl isobutyl ketone, and the use of the method of standard additions are advised for iron determination.

  9. Black Carbon in Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannino, Antonio; Harvey, H. Rodger

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two estuaries in the northwest Atlantic Ocean reveals that black carbon (BC) is a significant component of previously uncharacterized DOM, suggesting that river-estuary systems are important exporters of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon to the ocean.

  10. Degradation of carbon tetrachlorine in the presence of iron and sulphur containing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, S.; Lipczynska-Kochany, E.; Milburn, R.

    1995-12-01

    The effect of several sulphur compounds: sodium sulphate, sodium sulphide, ferrous sulphide, pyrite and organosulphonic acid on the kinetics of the iron (Fe{sup 0}) induced degradation of carbon tetrachloride was examined under aerobic conditions. It was observed that all of the sulphur compounds investigated significantly accelerated the reaction. The mechanisms of the processes studied as well as their possible influence of the efficiency of the iron-induced dehalogenation of pollutants, both in situ and in above-ground treatment are discussed.

  11. Iron filled carbon nanotubes as novel monopole-like sensors for quantitative magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolny, F.; Mühl, T.; Weissker, U.; Lipert, K.; Schumann, J.; Leonhardt, A.; Büchner, B.

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel ultrahigh stability sensor for quantitative magnetic force microscopy (MFM) based on an iron filled carbon nanotube. In contrast to the complex magnetic structure of conventional MFM probes, this sensor constitutes a nanomagnet with defined properties. The long iron nanowire can be regarded as an extended dipole of which only the monopole close to the sample surface is involved in the imaging process. We demonstrate its potential for high resolution imaging. Moreover, we present an easy routine to determine its monopole moment and prove that this calibration, unlike other approaches, is universally applicable. For the first time this enables straightforward quantitative MFM measurements.

  12. Carbon diffusion in solid iron as function of pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagno, V.; Crispin, K. L.; Fei, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The knowledge of carbon diffusion in metallic iron is of importance for both industrial and geological applications. In industry the diffusion properties of carbon apply to the massive production of steel through carburizing and galvanization processes at high temperature with the aim to improve the hardness and rust resistance of such materials. In geoscience the diffusion of carbon in metallic phases at high pressure and temperature is important for determining the rate of reactions and crystal growth of carbide phases likely coexisting with mantle silicates. Due to a small atomic radius, carbon is expected to dissolve by interstitial diffusion in solid metals. However, to date there are no experimental data available to understand the role that pressure plays on the mobilization of carbon through solid iron. Further, for light elements such as carbon or sulfur the activation energy is assumed to be lower than in case of lattice diffusion. However, with increasing pressure the activation volume must be taken into account to better understand diffusion processes at the atomic scale. We performed experiments using multianvil and piston cylinder devices at pressures between 1.5 and 6 GPa and temperature of 700-1200°C. Experiments were carried out using cylindrical glassy carbon sandwiched between layers of pure iron rods of known thickness enclosed in MgO capsule. Analytical techniques included FE-SEM for textural observation and accurate analyses of the interface between layers, while concentration profiles were measured using the electron microprobe with an optimized standardization procedure. Concentration profiles of carbon in iron were computed to determine the diffusion coefficients based on Fick's second law formulation assuming isotropic one dimension diffusion. Preliminary results confirm the positive temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient for carbon widely discussed in literature. However, our results also show that a significant increase in

  13. Apparent Disequilibrium of Inorganic and Organic Carbon Compounds in Serpentinizing Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    During serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, ferrous iron in silicates is oxidized to ferric minerals and H2O is reduced to H2. This process is accompanied by the reduction of inorganic carbon, as observed in experiments and natural systems. To test the extent to which stable and metastable equilibria are reached among aqueous organic compounds during serpentinization, we sampled water and dissolved gases from circumneutral surface pools and hyperalkaline seeps in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman and analyzed for various carbon constituents, including dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, methane, carbon monoxide, formate, acetate, and other small organic acid anions. Measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved H2, O2, major cations, major anions, and major and trace elements were also made. The aqueous composition of the analyzed samples was speciated based on ionic equilibrium interactions in order to obtain activities for inorganic carbon species, reduced carbon species, H2, and O2. The redox disequilibria among carbon species was then assessed using data and parameters for the revised HKF equations of state. This analysis demonstrates that the carbon species in this system are out of equilibrium with respect to one another in ways that cannot be compensated by altering the abundance of the other constituents within analytical uncertainties. Specifically, there is too much formate and too little methane relative to stable and metastable equilibria. This result implies the following: 1) Methane and formate equilibrated in separate parts of the system, given that no reasonable temperature, pressure, or composition changes satisfy equilibrium with their measured abundances. 2) Methane production is kinetically inhibited, as seen in experiments. 3) Microbial methane oxidation altered the abundance of methane and formate; methane oxidation to formate or carbonate is calculated to be extremely thermodynamically favorable in these fluids.

  14. Binary iron-carbon nanoparticle synthesis in photolysis of Fe(CO)5 with methane and acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.; Mikheyeva, E. Yu; Musikhin, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The experimental investigation of iron-carbon nanoparticles synthesis by joint laser photolysis of iron pentacarbonyl in the mixture with methane or acetylene has been carried out. The radiation source used for photo-dissociation of precursors was a pulsed Nd:Yag laser operated at a wavelength of 266 nm. Under uv radiation the molecules of Fe(CO)5 decomposed, forming atomic iron vapor and unsaturated carbonyls at well-known and readily controllable parameters. The subsequent condensation of supersaturated metal vapor resulted in small iron clusters and nanoparticles formation. It was assumed that the active catalytic surface of metal nanoparticles could activate the hydrocarbon molecules up to carbon layer formation on their surface. The growth process of the nanoparticles was observed by a method of laser light extinction. Additionally nanoparticle samples were investigated by a transmission electron microscope. The particle sizes were measured by microphotographs treatment. The sizes of synthesized particles from methane-iron-pentacarbonyl mixture were found to be in a range of 4-16 nm with a count median diameter of 8.9 nm and standard deviation of 1.13. These particles consisted of iron oxide without any carbon content. The particles formed in photolysis of acetylene-iron-pentacarbonyl mixture had the sizes of 3-7 nm with count median diameter of 4 nm and standard deviation of 1.28 and contained the essential amount of carbon. The iron cores were surrounded with a carbon shell.

  15. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  16. Organo-Mineral Interaction on the Adsorption Hysteresis, Transport and Vulnerability of Soil Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Liang, L.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between natural soil organic matter and mineral surfaces are of primary importance in determining the partitioning, transport, and preservation or storage of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural environment. SOM is a complex mixture of a variety of polyfunctional organic moieties with a range of chemical and structural properties, such as pKa values, functional groups, aromaticities, and molecular sizes. These organic compounds exhibit varying affinities and capacities during interactions with mineral surfaces, resulting in sorption-desorption hysteresis, fractionation and competitive reactions, and degrative transformation during transport over time and depth. In this study, fractionation reactions, sorption mechanisms, and competitive reactions were investigated using advanced spectroscopic techniques and microcosm flow experiments. We show that strongly-binding organic moieties of SOM can competitively interact with minerals such as iron oxide and displace those weakly-bound organics during the reaction. These reactions lead to the adsorption and desorption hysteresis of SOM on minerals and kinetically limited exchange among different organic moieties during the transport of SOM under a controlled column flow system. Those strong-binding organic moieties of SOM are generally characterized by high molecular weight and poly-condensed, conjugated aromatics, which are sorbed onto iron oxide minerals primarily through surface complexation or ligand exchange processes. These observations highlight the importance of soil organo-mineral interactions on transformation, mobilization and decomposition of SOM and their controls on soil carbon balance, cycling, and vulnerability to climate change.

  17. Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battin, Tom J.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Findlay, Stuart; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Marti, Eugenia; Packman, Aaron I.; Newbold, J. Denis; Sabater, Francesc

    2008-02-01

    Metabolism of terrestrial organic carbon in freshwater ecosystems is responsible for a large amount of carbon dioxide outgassing to the atmosphere, in contradiction to the conventional wisdom that terrestrial organic carbon is recalcitrant and contributes little to the support of aquatic metabolism. Here, we combine recent findings from geophysics, microbial ecology and organic geochemistry to show geophysical opportunity and microbial capacity to enhance the net heterotrophy in streams, rivers and estuaries. We identify hydrological storage and retention zones that extend the residence time of organic carbon during downstream transport as geophysical opportunities for microorganisms to develop as attached biofilms or suspended aggregates, and to metabolize organic carbon for energy and growth. We consider fluvial networks as meta-ecosystems to include the acclimation of microbial communities in downstream ecosystems that enable them to exploit energy that escapes from upstream ecosystems, thereby increasing the overall energy utilization at the network level.

  18. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  19. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    DelVecchia, Amanda G; Bruno, John F; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; Banerjee, Ovik; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks.

  20. Inferring Absorbing Organic Carbon Content from AERONET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arola, A.; Schuster, G.; Myhre, G.; Kazadzis, S.; Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Black carbon, light-absorbing organic carbon (often called brown carbon) and mineral dust are the major light-absorbing aerosols. Currently the sources and formation of brown carbon aerosol in particular are not well understood. In this study we estimated globally the amount of light absorbing organic carbon and black carbon from AERONET measurements. We find that the columnar absorbing organic carbon (brown carbon) levels in biomass burning regions of South-America and Africa are relatively high (about 15-20 magnesium per square meters during biomass burning season), while the concentrations are significantly lower in urban areas in US and Europe. However, we estimated significant absorbing organic carbon amounts from the data of megacities of newly industrialized countries, particularly in India and China, showing also clear seasonality with peak values up to 30-35 magnesium per square meters during the coldest season, likely caused by the coal and biofuel burning used for heating. We also compared our retrievals with the modeled organic carbon by global Oslo CTM for several sites. Model values are higher in biomass burning regions than AERONET-based retrievals, while opposite is true in urban areas in India and China.

  1. Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Sébastien; Barot, Sébastien; Barré, Pierre; Bdioui, Nadia; Mary, Bruno; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2007-11-08

    The world's soils store more carbon than is present in biomass and in the atmosphere. Little is known, however, about the factors controlling the stability of soil organic carbon stocks and the response of the soil carbon pool to climate change remains uncertain. We investigated the stability of carbon in deep soil layers in one soil profile by combining physical and chemical characterization of organic carbon, soil incubations and radiocarbon dating. Here we show that the supply of fresh plant-derived carbon to the subsoil (0.6-0.8 m depth) stimulated the microbial mineralization of 2,567 +/- 226-year-old carbon. Our results support the previously suggested idea that in the absence of fresh organic carbon, an essential source of energy for soil microbes, the stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers is maintained. We propose that a lack of supply of fresh carbon may prevent the decomposition of the organic carbon pool in deep soil layers in response to future changes in temperature. Any change in land use and agricultural practice that increases the distribution of fresh carbon along the soil profile could however stimulate the loss of ancient buried carbon.

  2. EFFECT OF IRON SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE EROSIVE POTENTIAL OF CARBONATED OR DECARBONATED BEVERAGE

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Maria, Andrea Gutierrez; Vaz, Luís Guilherme Matiazi; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the effect of iron (previously exposed with enamel powder or added directly to the beverage) on the erosive potential of carbonated or decarbonated beverage. Four sets of experiments were done. For groups E1 and E3, a solution containing 30 mmol/L FeSO4 was added to bovine enamel powder (particles between 75-106 mm) before exposure to the carbonated or decarbonated beverage (Sprite Zero®), respectively. For groups E2 and E4, 15 mmol/L FeSO4 was added directly to the carbonated or decarbonated beverage, respectively. Control groups were included for comparison. In controls C1 and C3, the experiments E1 and E3 were repeated, but the iron solution was replaced by deionized water. For controls C2 and C4, the carbonated and decarbonated beverage, respectively, was used, without addition of iron. After addition of the beverage to the powdered enamel (40 mg enamel powder/400 µL of final volume), the sample was vortexed for 30 s and immediately centrifuged for 30 s (11,000 rpm). The supernatant was removed after 1 min 40 s. This procedure was repeated in quintuplicate and the phosphate released was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The results were analyzed by Student’s t-test (p<0.05). E2 presented the best results with a significant inhibition (around 36%) of phosphate released. For E3 and E4 a non-significant inhibition (around 4 and 12%, respectively), was observed. For E1 an increase in phosphate loss was detected. Thus, the protective effect of iron seems to be better when this ion is directly added to the carbonated beverage. PMID:19089102

  3. Variability in carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene during degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron: Effects of inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunde; Zhou, Aiguo; Gan, Yiqun; Li, Xiaoqian

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis has the potential to be used for assessing the performance of in situ remediation of organic contaminants. Successful application of this isotope technique requires understanding the magnitude and variability in carbon isotope fractionation associated with the reactions under consideration. This study investigated the influence of inorganic anions (sulfate, bicarbonate, and chloride) on carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) during its degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The results demonstrated that the significant carbon isotope fractionation (enrichment factors ε ranging from -3.4±0.3 to -4.3±0.3‰) was independent on the zero-iron dosage, sulfate concentration, and bicarbonate concentration. However, the ε values (ranging from -7.0±0.4 to -13.6±1.2‰) were dependent on the chloride concentration, indicating that chloride could significantly affect carbon isotope fractionation during TCE degradation by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron. The dependence of ε values on chloride concentration, indicated that TCE degradation mechanisms may be different from the degradation mechanism caused by sulfate radical (SO4(-)). Ignoring the effect of chloride on ε value may cause numerous uncertainties in quantitative assessment of the performance of the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO).

  4. Investigation of reductive dechlorination supported by natural organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rectanus, H.V.; Widdowson, M.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Kelly, C.A.; Novak, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Because remediation timeframes using monitored natural attenuation may span decades or even centuries at chlorinated solvent sites, new approaches are needed to assess the long-term sustainability of reductive dechlorination in ground water systems. In this study, extraction procedures were used to investigate the mass of indigenous organic carbon in aquifer sediment, and experiments were conducted to determine if the extracted carbon could support reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes. Aquifer sediment cores were collected from a site without an anthropogenic source of organic carbon where organic carbon varied from 0.02% to 0.12%. Single extraction results showed that 1% to 28% of sediment-associated organic carbon and 2% to 36% of the soft carbon were removed depending on nature and concentration of the extracting solution (Nanopure water; 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% sodium pyrophosphate; and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide). Soft carbon is defined as organic carbon oxidized with potassium persulfate and is assumed to serve as a source of biodegradable carbon within the aquifer. Biodegradability studies demonstrated that 20% to 40% of extracted organic carbon was biodegraded aerobically and anaerobically by soil microorganisms in relatively brief tests (45 d). A five-step extraction procedure consisting of 0.1% pyrophosphate and base solutions was investigated to quantify bioavailable organic carbon. Using the extracted carbon as the sole electron donor source, tetrachloroethene was transformed to cis-1,2- dichloroethene and vinyl chloride in anaerobic enrichment culture experiments. Hydrogen gas was produced at levels necessary to sustain reductive dechlorination (>1 nM). ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Organic carbon flow in a swamp-stream ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    An annual organic carbon budget is presented for an 8-km segment of Creeping Swamp, an undisturbed, third-order swamp-stream in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Annual input of organic carbon (588 gC/m/sup 2/) was 96% allochthonous and was dominated by leaf litter inputs (36%) and fluvial, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs (31%). Although the swamp-stream was primarily heterotrophic, autochthonous organic carbon input, primarily from filamentous algae, was important during February and March when primary production/ecosystem respiration (P/R) ratios of the flooded portions were near one. Annual output of organic carbon via fluvial processes (214 gC/m/sup 2/), 95% as DOC, was 36% of total annual inputs, indicating that the swamp-stream segment ecosystem was 64% efficient at retaining organic carbon. Organic carbon dynamics in the Creeping Swamp segment were compared to those reported for upland stream segments using indices of organic matter processing suggested by Fisher (1977) and a loading potential index suggested here. Creeping Swamp, while loading at a high rate, retains a much larger portion of its organic carbon inputs than two upland streams. Despite the high degree of retention and oxidation of organic inputs to Creeping Swamp, there is a net annual fluvial export of 21 gC/m/sup 2/, mostly in the dissolved form. Watersheds drained by swamp-streams in the southeastern United States are thought to have large organic carbon exports compared to upland forested drainages, because the stream network covers a much greater proportion of the total watershed area.

  6. A general approach towards carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial architecture and its lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Ni, Jiangfeng; Wang, Wencong; Li, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Coaxial architectures consisting of metal oxide and carbon nanotube are promising for many energy applications due to their synergetic interaction. The engineering and development of coaxial structures through a simple approach are highly desirable but remain a challenge. Herein, we present a general and facile ethylene glycol bath approach to fabricate coaxial architectures in which the metal oxide component is sandwiched by carbon nanotube and amorphous carbon. These unique architectures can serve as efficient electrode for lithium storage. The internal carbon nanotube allows rapid electron transport, while the external amorphous carbon acts as flexible buffer to accommodate volume variation upon lithium uptake. When evaluated in lithium cells, the carbon nanotube and iron oxide coaxial material exhibits a remarkable electrochemical lithium storage. It affords a capacity of 1083 mAh g-1 over 60 cycles, and retains 529 mAh g-1 at a high rate of 5 A g-1, drastically outperforming the pure iron oxide counterpart. This facile approach is in principle applicable to constructing other coaxial electrodes, and thus holds great potential in the manipulation of battery materials for lithium storage application.

  7. [Organic and element carbon in foliar smoke].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-yu; Liu Gang; Xu, Hui; Li, Jiu-hai; Wu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    A home-made combustion and sampling apparatus was used to burn green leaves under flaming and smoldering conditions and to collect the smoke generated. The smoke was measured with Organic/Elemental Carbon (OC/EC) Analyzer using IMPROVE thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) method, to investigate the mass fractions and the distribution of OC, EC and eight carbon fractions in foliar smoke. The results showed that in smoldering condition, the mean OC, EC mass fractions of ten foliar smokes were 48.9% and 4.5%, respectively. The mean mass fraction of char-EC (EC1 - POC) was 4.4%. The average emission factors (EF) of particulate matters, OC and EC in smoldering foliar smoke were 102.4 g x kg(-1), 50.0 g x kg(-1) and 4.7 g x kg(-1), respectively. The mean ratios of OC/EC, OC1/OC2 and char-EC/soot-EC (EC1 - POC/EC2 + EC3) in this condition were 11.5, 1.9 and 48.1, respectively. For the foliar smoke emitted in flaming condition, the mean mass fractions of OC, EC and char-EC were 44.9%, 10.9% and 10.7%, respectively. The average EF of PM, OC and EC in flaming smoke were 59.2 g x kg(-1), 26.6 g x kg(-1) and 6.0 g x kg(-1). And the three ratios mentioned above in this condition were 4.8, 1.1 and 133.0, respectively. In conclusion, foliar smoke had higher OC1 mass fractions and OC1/OC2 values in smoldering condition. While flaming foliar smoke had higher char-EC mass fractions and char-EC/soot-EC values. The compositions of OC, EC in foliar smoke varied between different tree species and different combustion conditions. The composition was also obviously different from those of other biomass smoke.

  8. Dislocation core reconstruction induced by carbon segregation in bcc iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventelon, Lisa; Lüthi, B.; Clouet, E.; Proville, L.; Legrand, B.; Rodney, D.; Willaime, F.

    2015-06-01

    The relative stability of dislocation core configurations in body-centered-cubic metals is profoundly modified by the presence of solutes. Considering the Fe(C) system, we demonstrate by using density functional theory that carbon atoms destabilize the usual easy core to the benefit of the hard core configuration of the screw dislocation, which is unstable in pure metals. The carbon atom is at the center of a regular prism in a cementitelike local environment. The same dislocation core reconstruction is also found with other solutes (B, N, O) and in W(C). This unexpected low-energy configuration induces a strong solute-dislocation attraction, leading to dislocation core saturation by solute atoms, even for very low bulk solute concentrations. This core reconstruction will constitute an essential factor to account for in solute-segregation related phenomena, such as strain aging.

  9. Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, Margaret S.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Hendricks, David M.

    1997-09-01

    A large source of uncertainty in present understanding of the global carbon cycle is the distribution and dynamics of the soil organic carbon reservoir. Most of the organic carbon in soils is degraded to inorganic forms slowly, on timescales from centuries to millennia. Soil minerals are known to play a stabilizing role, but how spatial and temporal variation in soil mineralogy controls the quantity and turnover of long-residence-time organic carbon is not well known. Here we use radiocarbon analyses to explore interactions between soil mineralogy and soil organic carbon along two natural gradients-of soil-age and of climate-in volcanic soil environments. During the first ~150,000 years of soil development, the volcanic parent material weathered to metastable, non-crystalline minerals. Thereafter, the amount of non-crystalline minerals declined, and more stable crystalline minerals accumulated. Soil organic carbon content followed a similar trend, accumulating to a maximum after 150,000 years, and then decreasing by 50% over the next four million years. A positive relationship between non-crystalline minerals and organic carbon was also observed in soils through the climate gradient, indicating that the accumulation and subsequent loss of organic matter were largely driven by changes in the millennial scale cycling of mineral-stabilized carbon, rather than by changes in the amount of fast-cycling organic matter or in net primary productivity. Soil mineralogy is therefore important in determining the quantity of organic carbon stored in soil, its turnover time, and atmosphere-ecosystem carbon fluxes during long-term soil development; this conclusion should be generalizable at least to other humid environments.

  10. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Tin-Iron-Carbon Nanocomposite as the Anode of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Rongyu; Bie, Xiaofei; Wang, Chunzhong; Li, Malin; Chen, Nan; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Du, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Tin-iron-carbon nanocomposite is successfully prepared by a sol-gel method followed by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process with acetylene gas as the carbon source. The structural properties, morphology, and electrochemical performances of the nanocomposite are comprehensively studied in comparison with those properties of tin-carbon and iron-carbon nanocomposites. Sheet-like carbon architecture and different carbon contents are induced thanks to the catalytic effect of iron during CVD. Among three nanocomposites, tin-iron-carbon demonstrates the highest reversible capacity of 800 mA h g(-1) with 96.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles. It also exhibits the best rate capability with a discharge capacity of 420 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1). This enhanced performance is strongly related to the carbon morphology and content, which can not only accommodate the large volume change, but also improve the electronic conductivity of the nanocomposite. Hence, the tin-iron-carbon nanocomposite is expected to be a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Adsorption of selected volatile organic vapors on multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yang-hsin; Li, Mei-syue

    2008-06-15

    Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. This study examines the adsorption behaviors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), n-hexane, benzene, trichloroethylene and acetone on two multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), CNT1 and CNT2. Among these VOCs, acetone exhibits the highest adsorption capacity. The highest adsorption enthalpies and desorption energies of acetone were also observed. The strong chemical interactions between acetone and both MWCNTs may be the result from chemisorption on the topological defects. The adsorption heats of trichloroethylene, benzene, and n-hexane are indicative of physisorption on the surfaces of both MWCNTs. CNT2 presents a higher adsorption capacity than CNT1 due to the existence of an exterior amorphous carbon layer on CNT2. The amorphous carbon enhances the adsorption capacity of organic chemicals on carbon nanotubes. The morphological and structure order of carbon nanotubes are the primary affects on the adsorption process of organic chemicals.

  12. Origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a naturally iron-fertilized region of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, L.; Caparros, J.; Leblanc, K.; Obernosterer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural iron fertilization of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters induces annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms off the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). To examine the origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM), D- and L-amino acids (AA) were quantified at bloom and HNLC stations. Total hydrolyzable AA accounted for 21-25% of surface particulate organic carbon (%POCAA) at the bloom sites, but for 10% at the HNLC site. A marked decrease in %POCAA with depth was observed at the most productive stations leading to values between 3 and 5% below 300 m depth. AA contributed to only 0.9-4.4% of dissolved organic carbon (%DOCAA) at all stations. The only consistent vertical trend was observed at the most productive station (A3-2) where %DOCAA decreased from ~ 2% in the surface waters to 0.9% near 300 m. These AA yields revealed that POM and DOM were more rapidly altered or mineralized at the bloom sites compared to the HNLC site. Alteration state was also assessed by trends in C / N ratio, %D-AA and degradation index. Different molecular markers indicated that POM mostly originated from diatoms and bacteria. The estimated average proportion of POM from intact phytoplankton cells in surface waters was 45% at the bloom station A3-2, but 14% at the HNLC site. Estimates based on D-AA yields indicated that ~ 15% of POM and ~ 30% of DOM was of bacterial origin (cells and cell fragments) at all stations. Surprisingly, the DOM in HNLC waters appeared less altered than the DOM from the bloom, had slightly higher dissolved AA concentrations, and showed no sign of alteration within the water column. Unfavorable conditions for bacterial degradation in HNLC regions can explain these findings. In contrast, large inputs of labile organic molecules and iron likely stimulate the degradation of organic matter (priming effect) and the production of more recalcitrant DOM (microbial carbon pump) during iron-fertilized blooms.

  13. Volatile organic compound constituents from an integrated iron and steel facility.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lai, Nina; Ma, Sen-Yi; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2008-09-15

    This study measured the volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents of four processes in an integrated iron and steel industry; cokemaking, sintering, hot forming, and cold forming. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, isopentane, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were the predominant VOC species in these processes. However, some of the chlorinated compounds were high (hundreds ppbv), i.e., trichloroethylene in all four processes, carbon tetrachloride in the hot forming process, chlorobenzene in the cold forming process, and bromomethane in the sintering process. In the sintering process, the emission factors of toluene, benzene, xylene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and ethylbenzene were over 9 g/tonne-product. In the vicinity of the manufacturing plant, toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene and ethylbenzene were high. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, xylene, 1-butene and isopentane were the major ozone formation species. Aromatic compounds were the predominant VOC groups, constituting 45-70% of the VOC concentration and contributing >70% to the high ozone formation potential in the stack exhaust and workplace air. The sequence of VOC concentration and ozone formation potential was as follows: cold forming>sintering>hot forming>cokemaking. For the workplace air, cokemaking was the highest producer, which was attributed to the fugitive emissions of the coke oven and working process release.

  14. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers—including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments—all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  15. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  16. Temporal evolution of organic carbon concentrations in Swiss lakes: trends of allochthonous and autochthonous organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Murillo, J C; Filella, M

    2015-07-01

    Evaluation of time series of organic carbon (OC) concentrations in lakes is useful for monitoring some of the effects of global change on lakes and their catchments. Isolating the evolution of autochthonous and allochthonous lake OC might be a useful way to differentiate between drivers of soil and photosynthetic OC related changes. However, there are no temporal series for autochthonous and allochthonous lake OC. In this study, a new approach has been developed to construct time series of these two categories of OC from existing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data. First, temporal series (longer than ten years) of OC have been compiled for seven big Swiss lakes and another 27 smaller ones and evaluated by using appropriate non-parametric statistical methods. Subsequently, the new approach has been applied to construct time series of autochthonous and allochthonous lake OC in the seven big lakes. Doing this was possible because long term series of DOC concentrations at different depths are available for these lakes. Organic carbon concentrations generally increase in big lakes and decrease in smaller ones, although only in some cases are these trends statistically significant. The magnitude of the observed changes is generally small in big lakes (<1% annual change) and larger in smaller lakes. Autochthonous DOC concentrations in big lakes increase or decrease depending on the lake and the station but allochthonous DOC concentrations generally increase. This pattern is consistent with an increase in the OC input from the lakes' catchments and/or an increase in the refractoriness of the OC in question, and with a temporal evolution of autochthonous DOC depending on the degree of recovery from past eutrophication of each particular lake. In small lakes, OC dynamics are mainly driven by decreasing biological productivity, which in many, but not all cases, outweighs the probable increase of allochthonous OC.

  17. Thermodynamic estimation on the reduction behavior of iron-chromium ore with carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Mitsutaka; Higuchi, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya; Banya, Shiro

    1998-04-01

    Recently, a number of efforts have been made to produce a crude stainless steel melt by direct smelting of iron-chromium ore in a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) without use of ferrochromium alloys, in order to save electric energy and production costs. In this paper, the thermodynamics for reduction of iron-chromium ore by carbon is discussed. The thermodynamic properties of iron-chromium ore were evaluated from previous work on the activities of constituents in the FeO {center_dot} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO {center_dot} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MgO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} iron-chromite spinel-structure solid solution saturated with (Cr, Al){sub 2}O{sub 3}, and those of the Fe-Cr-C alloy were estimated by a sublattice model. The stability diagrams were drawn for carbon reduction of pure FeO {center_dot} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Fe{sub 0.5}Mg{sub 0.5})O {center_dot} (Cr{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 2}O{sub 3} iron-chromite solid solution, and South African iron-chromium ore. The evaluated stability diagrams agreed well with the literature data. It was concluded that the lowest temperature for reduction of FeO {center_dot} Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the iron-chromium ore was 1390 K and a temperature higher than 1470 K would be necessary to reduce Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in MgO {center_dot} (Cr,Al){sub 2}O{sub 3} in the prereduction process of iron-chromium ore. The composition of liquid Fe-Cr-C alloy in equilibrium with iron-chromium ore was also estimated under 1 atm of CO at steelmaking temperature. The predicted metal composition showed reasonable agreement with the literature values.

  18. Remediation of Nitrate-contaminated Groundwater by a Mixture of Iron and Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoxin; Liu, Fei; Jin, Aifang; Qin, Xiaopeng

    2010-11-01

    Nitrate contamination in groundwater has become a major environmental and health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study is to remediate groundwater contaminated by nitrate and develop potential reactive materials to be used in PRBs (Permeable Reactive Barriers). A new approach was proposed for abiotic groundwater remediation by reactive materials of iron chips and granular activated carbon particles. Batch tests were conducted and remediation mechanisms were discussed. The results show that nitrate decreases from 86.31 to 33.79 mgṡL-1 under the conditions of near neutral pH and reaction time of 1h. The combination of iron chips and activated carbon particles is cost-effective and suitable for further use as denitrification media in PRBs. Nitrogen species don't change significantly with the further increase in reaction time (>1 h). The iron-activated carbon-water-nitrate system tends to be steady-state. Small amounts of ammonium and nitrite (0.033-0.039 and 0.14-3.54 mgṡL-1, respectively) appear at reaction time from 0 h to 5 h. There is no substantial accumulation of nitrogen products in the system. The removal rate of nitrate only reaches 16.11% by sole iron chips at reaction time of 5 h, while 63.57% by the mixture of iron chips and activated carbon particles. There is significantly synergistic and promotive effect of mixing the two different types of materials on nitrate treatment. Fe/C ratio (1/1.5-1/2.5) doesn't cause dramatically different residual nitrate concentrations (24.09-26.70 mgṡL-1). Nitrate can't be limitlessly decreased with decreasing Fe/C ratio. The concomitant occurrences of chemical reduction, galvanic cell reaction, electrophoretic accumulation, chemical coagulation, and physical adsorption are all responsible for the overall nitrate removal by iron allied with activated carbon. To accurately quantify various nitrogen species, further studies on adsorption mechanisms of nitrite and nitrate are needed.

  19. Dissolved organic carbon release by marine macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón, C.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Duarte, C. M.

    2012-02-01

    Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds) were obtained experimentally using in situ benthic chambers. The effect of light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined in two communities both by comparing net DOC release under light and dark, and by examining the response of net DOC release to longer-term (days) experimental shading of the communities. All most 85% of the seagrass communities and almost all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. There was a weak tendency for higher DOC fluxes under light than under dark conditions in seagrass meadow. There is no relationship between net DOC fluxes and gross primary production (GPP) and net community production (NCP), however, this relationship is positive between net DOC fluxes and community respiration. Net DOC fluxes were not affected by shading of a T. testudinum community in Florida for 5 days, however, shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in the Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Based on published and unpublished results we also estimate the global net DOC production by marine macrophytes. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophyte is about 0.197 ± 0.015 Pg C yr-1 or 0.212 ± 0.016 Pg C yr-1 depending if net DOC flux by seagrass meadows was estimated by taking into account the low or high global seagrass area, respectively.

  20. Wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation of phenol with FeAC (iron-embedded activated carbon) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Chen, Shih-Hsiung; Huang, Cheng-Hsien; Hung, Mu-Ya; Chang, Jing-Song; Lai, Cheng-Lee

    2010-01-01

    This investigation aims at exploring the catalytic oxidation activity of iron-embedded activated carbon (FeAC) and the application for the degradation of phenol in the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO). FeAC catalysts were prepared by pre-impregnating iron in coconut shell with various iron loadings in the range of 27.5 to 46.5% before they were activated. The FeAC catalysts were characterised by measuring their surface area, pore distribution, functional groups on the surface, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The effects of iron loading strongly inhibited the pore development of the catalyst but benefited the oxidation activity in WHPCO. It was found that the complete conversion of phenol was observed with all FeAC catalysts in oxidation. High level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) abatement can be achieved within the first 30 minutes of oxidation. The iron embedded in the activated carbon showed good performance in the degradation and mineralisation of phenol during the oxidation due to the active sites as iron oxides formed on the surface of the activated carbon. It was found that the embedding irons were presented in gamma-Fe(2)O(3), alpha-Fe(2)O(3), and alpha-FeCOOH forms on the activated carbon. The aging tests on FeAC catalysts showed less activity loss, and less iron leaching was found after four oxidation runs.

  1. Acetone Sensing Properties of a Gas Sensor Composed of Carbon Nanotubes Doped With Iron Oxide Nanopowder

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Fang, Jiahua; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanopowder was prepared by a precipitation method and then mixed with different proportions of carbon nanotubes. The composite materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A fabricated heater-type gas sensor was compared with a pure Fe2O3 gas sensor under the influence of acetone. The effects of the amount of doping, the sintering temperature, and the operating temperature on the response of the sensor and the response recovery time were analyzed. Experiments show that doping of carbon nanotubes with iron oxide effectively improves the response of the resulting gas sensors to acetone gas. It also reduces the operating temperature and shortens the response recovery time of the sensor. The response of the sensor in an acetone gas concentration of 80 ppm was enhanced, with good repeatability. PMID:26569253

  2. Laser sintering of separated and uniformly distributed multiwall carbon nanotubes integrated iron nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dong; Richard Liu, C.; Cheng, Gary J.

    2014-03-01

    Uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in metal matrix during additive manufacturing of nanocomposites is always a challenge since the CNTs tend to aggregate in the molten pool. In this study, Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were separated and distributed uniformly into iron matrix by laser sintering process. MWNTs and iron powders were mixed together by magnetic stir, coated on steel 4140 surface, followed by laser sintering. Due to the fast heating and cooling rate, the CNTs are evenly distributed in the metal matrix. The temperature field was calculated by multiphysics simulation considering size effects, including size dependent melting temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The SEM, TEM, and XRD were used to understand the laser sintering of CNT integrated nanocomposites. The results proved the feasibility of this technique to synthesize MWNTS integrated metal matrix nanocomposites.

  3. "Conjugate channeling" effect in dislocation core diffusion: carbon transport in dislocated BCC iron.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akio; Li, Ju; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Dislocation pipe diffusion seems to be a well-established phenomenon. Here we demonstrate an unexpected effect, that the migration of interstitials such as carbon in iron may be accelerated not in the dislocation line direction ξ, but in a conjugate diffusion direction. This accelerated random walk arises from a simple crystallographic channeling effect. c is a function of the Burgers vector b, but not ξ, thus a dislocation loop possesses the same everywhere. Using molecular dynamics and accelerated dynamics simulations, we further show that such dislocation-core-coupled carbon diffusion in iron has temperature-dependent activation enthalpy like a fragile glass. The 71° mixed dislocation is the only case in which we see straightforward pipe diffusion that does not depend on dislocation mobility.

  4. “Conjugate Channeling” Effect in Dislocation Core Diffusion: Carbon Transport in Dislocated BCC Iron

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akio; Li, Ju; Ogata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Dislocation pipe diffusion seems to be a well-established phenomenon. Here we demonstrate an unexpected effect, that the migration of interstitials such as carbon in iron may be accelerated not in the dislocation line direction , but in a conjugate diffusion direction. This accelerated random walk arises from a simple crystallographic channeling effect. is a function of the Burgers vector b, but not , thus a dislocation loop possesses the same everywhere. Using molecular dynamics and accelerated dynamics simulations, we further show that such dislocation-core-coupled carbon diffusion in iron has temperature-dependent activation enthalpy like a fragile glass. The 71° mixed dislocation is the only case in which we see straightforward pipe diffusion that does not depend on dislocation mobility. PMID:23593255

  5. Measuring the Kinetics of the Reduction of Iron Oxide with Carbon Monoxide in a Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnt, C. D.; Cleeton, J. P.; Miiller, C. M.; Scotr, S. A.; Dennis, J. S.

    Combusting a solid fuel in the presence of a metal oxide rather than air, chemical looping combustion, generates CO2suitable for sequestration and the reduced metal. For the case of iron, the reduced oxide can be re-oxidized with steam to produce high-purity hydrogen. The reduction reactions of iron oxide in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide mixtures were investigated in a fluidized bed. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors for the reactions (i) 3 Fe2O3+CO⇌2 Fe3O4+CO2 and⇌(ii)0.947 Fe3O4+0.788 CO⇌3 Fe0.947O+0.788 CO2⇌were determined. The reaction order was verified to be unity, and the change in rate with conversion was examined.

  6. Structure and properties of a steel/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.

    1985-11-01

    Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.

  7. Effect Of Reaction Environments On The Reactivity Of PCB (2-Chlorobiphenyl) Over Activated Carbon Impregnated With Palladized Iron

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles has been developed to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated the effects of various reaction environments on the adsorption-mediated dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-...

  8. Effects Of Aging And Oxidation Of Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On The Dechlorination Of 2-Chlorobiphenyl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron has been developed to effectively treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment by coupling adsorption and dechlorination of PCBs. In this study, we addressed the dechlorination reactivity and capacity ...

  9. Does iron fertilization lead to rapid carbon export in the Southern Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charette, Matthew A.; Buesseler, Ken O.

    2000-10-01

    The Southern Ocean has the potential to influence climate due to its large inventory of excess macronutrients such as nitrate and phosphate. It has been hypothesized that if the supply of the micronutrient iron increased, it would lead to enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 and hence the sequestration of carbon via sinking particles [Martin, 1990]. While much has been learned about iron limitation and low phytoplankton biomass in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions [Martin, 1991; Coale et al., 1996], less is known about the effect of Fe on particle export. Here we present results from the first detailed study of particle export during a mesoscale iron fertilization experiment (the Southern Ocean Iron Release Experiment (SOIREE)). Measurements of the natural tracer thorium-234 indicate negligible particle export within 14 days after the initial infusion of iron. We attribute this lack of response to colder water temperatures that promote slower cell metabolism in phytoplankton and hence slower secondary responses of herbivores and particle aggregation.

  10. Friction induced surface activity of some simple organic chlorides and hydrocarbons with iron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on an iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons and organic chlorides. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene, ethyl chloride, methyl chloride and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical-mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon and organic chlorides with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction-induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and, accordingly, friction. Unlike results with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction-induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  11. Mobility enhancement of nanoscale zero-valent iron in carbonate porous media through co-injection of polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-03-01

    The mobility of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), which is used for in situ groundwater remediation, is affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities within aquifers. Carbonate minerals in porous aquifers and the presence of divalent cations reduce nZVI mobility. This study assesses the potential for enhancing the mobility of polyacrylic acid coated nZVI (PAA-nZVI) in such aquifers through the co-injection of polyelectrolytes (natural organic matter, humic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose, and lignin sulfonate). When applied at the same concentration, all of the polyelectrolytes produced similar enhancement of PAA-nZVI mobility in carbonate porous media. This increase in mobility was a result of increased repulsion between PAA-nZVI and the carbonate matrix. Lignin sulfonate, an environmentally friendly and inexpensive agent, was identified as the most suitable polyelectrolyte for field applications. The greatest increase in PAA-nZVI mobility was achieved with co-injection of lignin sulfonate at concentrations ≥50 mg L(-1); at these concentrations the maximum PAA-nZVI travel distance in carbonate porous media was twice of that in the absence of lignin sulfonate.

  12. Comparison of Ultrastructural Cytotoxic Effects of Carbon and Carbon/Iron Particulates on Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Long, John F.; Waldman, W. James; Kristovich, Robert; Williams, Marshall; Knight, Deborah; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of iron in carbon particulates enhances ultrastructural perturbation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) after phagocytosis. We used 1-μm synthetic carbon-based particulates, designed to simulate environmental particulates of mass median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Cultures of human MDMs or T-lymphocytes (as a nonphagocytic control) were exposed to carbon or carbon/iron particulates for various time periods and examined by transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural changes. T-cells failed to internalize either of the particulates and showed no organelle or nuclear changes. Conversely, MDMs avidly phagocytized the particulates. MDMs treated with C particulates exhibited morphologic evidence of macrophage activation but no evidence of lysis of organelles. In contrast, MDMs treated with C/Fe particulates exhibited coalescence of particulate-containing lysosomes. This phenomenon was not observed in the case of C particulates. By 24 hr there was a tendency of the C/Fe particulates to agglomerate into loose or compact clusters. Surrounding the compact C/Fe agglomerates was a uniform zone of nearly total organelle lysis. The lytic changes diminished in proportion to the distance from the agglomerate. In such cells, the nucleus showed loss of chromatin. Although C particles induced no detectable oxidative burst on treated MDMs, C/Fe particles induced a nearly 5-fold increase in the extracellular oxidative burst by treated MDMs compared with untreated controls. Iron bound to C particles catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals. Results of these studies suggest that, among particulates of similar size, biologic activity can vary profoundly as a function of particulate physicochemical properties. PMID:15687054

  13. A new nanoscale metastable iron phase in carbon steels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianwei; Zhang, Danxia; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yanjun; Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Xinqing; Yin, Jiang; Song, Minghui; Ping, Dehai

    2015-10-27

    Metastable ω phase is common in body-centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, including high-alloying steels. Recent theoretical calculations also suggest that the ω structure may act as an intermediate phase for face-centred cubic (fcc)-to-bcc transformation. Thus far, the role of the ω phase played in fcc-bcc martensitic transformation in carbon steels has not been reported. In previous investigations on martensitic carbon steels, extra electron diffraction spots were frequently observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and these spots were historically ascribed to the diffraction arising from either internal twins or carbides. In this paper, an intensive TEM investigation revealed that the extra spots are in fact attributed to the metastable ω phase in particle-like morphology with an overall size of several or dozens of nanometres. The strict orientation relationships between the ω phase and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with those of the hexagonal (P6/mmm) ω phase in other bcc metals and alloys. The identification of the ω phase as well as the extra diffraction spots might provide a clue to help understand the physical mechanism of martensitic transformation in steels.

  14. A new nanoscale metastable iron phase in carbon steels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianwei; Zhang, Danxia; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yanjun; Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Xinqing; Yin, Jiang; Song, Minghui; Ping, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Metastable ω phase is common in body-centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, including high-alloying steels. Recent theoretical calculations also suggest that the ω structure may act as an intermediate phase for face-centred cubic (fcc)-to-bcc transformation. Thus far, the role of the ω phase played in fcc-bcc martensitic transformation in carbon steels has not been reported. In previous investigations on martensitic carbon steels, extra electron diffraction spots were frequently observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and these spots were historically ascribed to the diffraction arising from either internal twins or carbides. In this paper, an intensive TEM investigation revealed that the extra spots are in fact attributed to the metastable ω phase in particle-like morphology with an overall size of several or dozens of nanometres. The strict orientation relationships between the ω phase and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with those of the hexagonal (P6/mmm) ω phase in other bcc metals and alloys. The identification of the ω phase as well as the extra diffraction spots might provide a clue to help understand the physical mechanism of martensitic transformation in steels. PMID:26503890

  15. A new nanoscale metastable iron phase in carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianwei; Zhang, Danxia; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yanjun; Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Xinqing; Yin, Jiang; Song, Minghui; Ping, Dehai

    2015-10-01

    Metastable ω phase is common in body-centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, including high-alloying steels. Recent theoretical calculations also suggest that the ω structure may act as an intermediate phase for face-centred cubic (fcc)-to-bcc transformation. Thus far, the role of the ω phase played in fcc-bcc martensitic transformation in carbon steels has not been reported. In previous investigations on martensitic carbon steels, extra electron diffraction spots were frequently observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and these spots were historically ascribed to the diffraction arising from either internal twins or carbides. In this paper, an intensive TEM investigation revealed that the extra spots are in fact attributed to the metastable ω phase in particle-like morphology with an overall size of several or dozens of nanometres. The strict orientation relationships between the ω phase and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with those of the hexagonal (P6/mmm) ω phase in other bcc metals and alloys. The identification of the ω phase as well as the extra diffraction spots might provide a clue to help understand the physical mechanism of martensitic transformation in steels.

  16. Growth of bridging carbon nanofibers in cracks formed by heat-treating iron oxide thin sheets in acetylene gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikata, Takeshi; Okubo, Soichiro; Higashi, Yugo; Matsuba, Teruaki; Utsunomiya, Risa; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We produced novel carbon nanofibers (CNFs) by oxidizing high-purity iron foil and then carburizing it in acetylene gas flow. This formed cracks in the heat-treated iron foil with CNFs bridging the two walls of each crack. The CNFs were drawn out from the walls as the crack opened during heat treatment. This will be a new method to grow and arrange carbon nanotubes and nanosheets without using metal nanoparticles or template substrates.

  17. Microscopic insight into the bilateral formation of carbon spirals from a symmetric iron core

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Stangl, Andreas; Cox, David C.; Silva, S. Ravi P.; Rümmeli, Mark H.; Pichler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Mirrored carbon-spirals have been produced from pressured ferrocene via the bilateral extrusion of the spiral pairs from an iron core. A parametric plot of the surface geometry displays the fractal growth of the conical helix made with the logarithmic spiral. Electron microscopy studies show the core is a crystalline cementite which grows and transforms its shape from spherical to biconical as it extrudes two spiralling carbon arms. In a cross section along the arms we observe graphitic flakes arranged in a herringbone structure, normal to which defects propagate. Local-wave-pattern analysis reveals nanoscale defect patterns of two-fold symmetry around the core. The data suggest that the bilateral growth originates from a globular cementite crystal with molten surfaces and the nano-defects shape emerging hexagonal carbon into a fractal structure. Understanding and knowledge obtained provide a basis for the controlled production of advanced carbon materials with designed geometries. PMID:23670649

  18. Organic chemistry of Murchison meteorite: Carbon isotopic fractionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Cronin, J. R.; Chang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual organic compounds of meteoritic origin remains unknown, as most reported carbon isotopic ratios are for bulk carbon or solvent extractable fractions. The researchers managed to determine the carbon isotopic ratios for individual hydrocarbons and monocarboxylic acids isolated from a Murchison sample by a freeze-thaw-ultrasonication technique. The abundances of monocarboxylic acids and saturated hydrocarbons decreased with increasing carbon number and the acids are more abundant than the hydrocarbon with the same carbon number. For both classes of compounds, the C-13 to C-12 ratios decreased with increasing carbon number in a roughly parallel manner, and each carboxylic acid exhibits a higher isotopic number than the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms. These trends are consistent with a kinetically controlled synthesis of higher homologues for lower ones.

  19. Organic Ligands And The Dissolution Of Iron- Laden Dust In Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RS, S. T.; Sander, S.; Boyd, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospherically supplied dust deposition has proven to be a critical source of iron (Fe) to high nitrate - low chlorophyll (HNLC) oceanic regions. The low solubility (Ksp = 2 x 10-39) of the hydrolysis species of Fe (Fe (III) oxyhydroxide solids) renders Fe to become less bioavailable. Fe is kept in the dissolved form by organic ligands above this solubility limit. The dissolution of Fe (III) bearing minerals in the presence of siderophores has been the subject of numerous recent studies. For our study, different dust dissolution experiments were carried out on Australian dust and iron minerals (goethite and lepidocrocite) using surface ocean water from different latitudes collected during the GEOTRACES Pacific ocean cruise in June 2011 and Iron Cycle III - Spring Bloom voyage in September 2012 to determine the effect of the presence or absence of siderophore (desferrioxamine B (DFB)), oxalate and light on the dissolution of Fe from dust. Short- and long- term dissolution experiments were performed at ambient seawater pH. Iron species were measured by electrochemical methods or chemiluminescence, and HPLC-ESI-MS was used to study structural changes of the organic ligands. In all cases iron dissolution was observed, with the largest increase being observed in the presence of DFB and light. Addition of the weak ligand and electron donor oxalate had no significant effect on the dissolution. The results indicate that light and the complexing capacity of the ligands critically affects the dissolution process. Preliminary results show that a maximum dissolved iron concentration was reached three hours after the addition of the dust, which subsequently decreased again. This observation might be due to the onsetting precipitation of iron. We will also present results from an artificial iron-mineral dissolution experiment conducted under comparable conditions.

  20. [Removal of arsenate from drinking water by activated carbon supported nano zero-valent iron].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui-jie; Jia, Yong-feng; Yao, Shu-hu; Wu, Xing; Wang, Shu-ying

    2009-12-01

    A new adsorbent, activated carbon impregnated with nano zero-valent iron was prepared, which size of the needle-shaped iron particles in the pores of carbon was (30-500) nm x (1000-3000) nm and approximately 8.2% of iron was loaded onto it. The arsenate removal percentage was 99.5% by 1.5 g/L NZVI/AC in the 2 mg/L arsenic solution at pH 6.5 and (25 +/- 2) degrees C. The adsorption capacity was about 15.4 mg/g when equilibrium concentration was 1.0 mg/L. Kinetics revealed that uptake of arsenate ion by NZVI/AC was 91.4% in the first 12 h and equilibrium time was about 72 h. The intraparticle diffusion model was applied to study the mechanics of arsenate in the activated carbon. The presence of phosphate and silicate could significantly decrease arsenate removal while the effects of the other anions and cations on the arsenic removal were neglectable. NZVI/AC can be effectively regenerated when elution is done with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. Our results suggest that NZVI/AC is a suitable candidate for drinking water treatment due to its high reactivity.

  1. Interfacial Phenomena among Liquid Iron-Carbon Alloy, Liquid Slag, and Solid CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2012-06-01

    Interfacial phenomena between hot metal, liquid slag and solid CaO are important to the understanding of the desulfurization reaction in hot-metal treatment processes. In the current work, the surface tension of molten iron-carbon alloy and liquid slag as well as the interfacial tensions among molten iron-carbon alloy-solid CaO, liquid slag-solid CaO, as well as molten iron-carbon alloy-liquid slag were measured in the temperature range 1623 K to 1723 K (1350 °C to 1450 °C). The sessile drop method has been used for these measurements. To analyze the experimental results, two types of graphical analysis programs have been developed to determine the coordinates of the X-ray shadow or charge-coupled device (CCD) image of the droplet. Furthermore, a software package that uses the Gauss-Newton method to minimize an error function between the physically observed and a theoretical Laplacian curve has also been developed in this work.

  2. Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: Magnitude, mechanisms and its implications for the carbon cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion is an important component of the global carbon cycle. However, little attention has been given to the role of aeolian processes in influencing soil organic carbon (SOC) flux and the release of greenhouse gasses, such as carbon-dioxide (CO2), to the atmosphere. Understanding the magnitu...

  3. Limits to soil carbon stability; Deep, ancient soil carbon decomposition stimulated by new labile organic inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon (C) pools store about one-third of the total terrestrial organic carbon. Deep soil C pools (below 1 m) are thought to be stable due to their low biodegradability, but little is known about soil microbial processes and carbon dynamics below the soil surface, or how global change might aff...

  4. Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Livia

    2013-04-01

    We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed

  5. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III )

    1988-09-01

    Soil organic carbon in active exchange with the atmosphere constitutes approximately two-thirds of the carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The large size and long residence time of this pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. The amount of carbon stored in soils and the rate of exchange of soil carbon with the atmosphere depends on many factors related to the chemistry of soil organic matter. The amount of carbon stored in soil is determined by the balance of two biotic processes associated with productivity of terrestrial vegetation and decomposition of organic matter. Each of these processes have strong physical controls that can be related to the climate variables temperature and precipitation at a regional or global scale. Soil carbon density generally increases with increasing precipitation, and there is an increase in soil carbon with decreasing temperature for any particular level of precipitation. Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production and decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivation. The amount of soil carbon and nitrogen change resulting from cultivation depends on the initial amounts of each. Average changes in nitrogen are about one half to one forth the corresponding average carbon changes. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen linkages in soil shed some light on soil carbon dynamics after conversion to agriculture. The amount of initial carbon lost is associated with the amount of carbon in excess of C/N ratio of about 12 to 14. Soils with a high C/N ratio lose a larger fraction of the initial carbon then those with low C/N ratios. Soils with high C/N ratios have a larger percentage of organic matter in slowly decomposing forms. Cultivation results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels.

  6. Organic carbon isotope constraints on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir at the Cryogenian-Ediacaran transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ganqing; Wang, Xinqiang; Shi, Xiaoying; Zhang, Shihong; Xiao, Shuhai; Dong, Jin

    2010-10-01

    Prominent negative carbonate carbon isotope (δ 13C carb) anomalies from some Ediacaran successions are accompanied by invariant or decoupled organic carbon isotope (δ 13C org) values and have been interpreted as resulting from the remineralization of a large dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoir capable of buffering carbon isotopes of organic matter. This inferred oceanic DOC reservoir was thought to have initiated with the onset of Cryogenian glaciations (ca. 720 Ma) and lasted for millions of years until the late Ediacaran Period (< 560 Ma). Carbon isotope analyses of the basal Doushantuo Formation (ca. 635 Ma) in south China reveal that (1) the cap carbonate has δ 13C org around -26‰ (VPDB) and relatively low Δδ 13C (22 ± 2‰) and (2) the overlying organic-rich black shale and shaly dolostone have more negative δ 13C org (-28‰ to -35‰) and higher Δδ 13C (28‰-30‰). Both δ 13C carb and δ 13C org show a + 6‰ shift within a 4-m-thick interval overlying the Doushantuo cap carbonate. The δ 13C org values of the cap carbonate are associated with low TOC (mostly < 0.1%); their paleoceanographic significance requires further tests in other Ediacaran basins. The co-varying positive shift in δ 13C carb and δ 13C org following cap carbonate deposition is best interpreted as resulting from a rapid increase in organic carbon burial, which may have resulted in the rise of oxygen and heralded the first appearance of animals a few meters above the Doushantuo cap carbonate. The data suggest that a large oceanic DOC reservoir did not exist in the early Ediacaran ocean. Excess oceanic DOC required to explain the Ediacaran Shuram and upper Doushantuo δ 13C excursions, if it existed, had to be developed during the Ediacaran Period after cap carbonate deposition.

  7. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g-1 (298 K), 196.1 mg g-1 (303 K) and 185.2 mg g-1 (308 K). It was much higher than that of AC-Fe and AC-Al. And the process was controlled by both film diffusion and intra particle mass transport. The results also showed that, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm fit the adsorption well.

  8. Estimation of the annual yield of organic carbon released from carbonates and shales by chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di-Giovanni, Christian; Disnar, Jean Robert; Macaire, Jean Jacques

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an initial estimation of the annual organic matter yield induced by chemical weathering of carbonates and shales, considering their global surface at outcrop and their organic matter content. The calculation also uses data on river fluxes resulting from carbonate rocks and shales weathering in major world watersheds, published by numerous authors. The results obtained from the studied watersheds have then been extrapolated to a global scale. Despite rather large uncertainty to such an approach, the calculated value of ca. 0.1 Gt implies that the annual organic carbon yield related to carbonates and shales chemical weathering might be a non-negligible component of the global carbon cycle. The individual contributions of different watersheds necessarily depend on the organic matter content of altered rocks. They are also obviously controlled by climatic parameters. The calculated yields do not constitute a direct supply to soils and rivers because of mineralisation when organic carbon is brought in contact with the atmosphere. Even so, the release of fossil organic matter would have implications for the global carbon cycle through the efficiency of the global chemical weathering as a carbon sink. Whatever the chosen hypothesis, the results of this study suggest that the recycled organic yield is a neglected component in the global organic carbon cycle assessment. Because it exists and, in addition, because it might represent a non-negligible carbon pool, fossil organic carbon deserves to be taken into account for a better evaluation of the organic stocks in soils and rivers presently only based on climatic data and current vegetal production.

  9. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  10. [Effects of Chinese fir litter on soil organic carbon decomposition and microbial biomass carbon].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Si-Long; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2013-09-01

    By using 13C stable isotope tracer technique, this paper studied the effects of Chinese fir litter addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, microbial biomass carbon, and dissolved organic carbon in 0-5 cm and 40-45 cm layers. The decomposition rate of SOC in 40-45 cm layer was significantly lower than that in 0-5 cm layer, but the priming effect induced by the Chinese fir litter addition showed an opposite trend. The Chinese fir litter addition increased the soil total microbial biomass carbon and the microbial biomass carbon derived from native soil significantly, but had less effects on the soil dissolved organic carbon. Turning over the subsoil to the surface of the woodland could accelerate the soil carbon loss in Chinese fir plantation due to the priming effect induced by the litters.

  11. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of organic carbon analyzers for space application. [for water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The state-of-the-art technology for organic carbon analysis in space applications is evaluated. An investigation into total organic carbon (TOC) analysis has identified a variety of schemes which include different methods for: (1) separation of inorganic carbon from organic carbon and/or differentiation of inorganic carbon from organic carbon; (2) reaction of organic carbon to form a quantifiable species; and (3) detection and measurement of that species. Each method option is discussed.

  13. Chlorine and carbon isotope measurements can help assessing the effectivenes of a zero valent iron barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretnik, S.; Audi, C.; Bernstein, A.; Palau, J.; Soler, A.; Elsner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH's) such as trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinylchloride (VC) are extensively used in industrial applications. One of the most promising remediation techniques for CAH's in groundwater is their removal via abiotic reductive dechlorination using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI). This is applied for the treatment of contaminated sites by installing permeable reactive barriers (PRB). In this study, isotope fractionation of chlorinated ethylenes in transformation by cast iron has been investigated, because such types of iron are commonly used in PRBs. Batch experiments have been carried out in closed flasks, containing cast iron with aqueous solutions of TCE, cDCE and VC. These substrates and their respective products have been monitored by headspace samplings for their concentration (by GC-FID) and isotope fractionation of carbon and chlorine (by GC-IRMS). A decreasing reactivity trend was observed when compounds contain less chlorine atoms, with differences in rate constants of about one order of magnitude between each of the substances TCE > cDCE > VC. This resulted in the accumulation of products with fewer chlorine atoms. Therefore a similar observation can be expected if degradation in the field is incomplete, for example in the case of aged or improperly designed PRB. Pronounced carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation was measured for each of the compounds, and characteristic dual isotope plots (C, Cl) were obtained for TCE and cDCE. These results may serve as an important reference for the interpretation of isotope data from field sites, since stable isotope fractionation is widely recognized as robust indicator for such pollutant transformations. However, carbon isotope fractionation in a given parent compound may be caused by either abiotic or biotic degradation. In the field, it can therefore be difficult to delineate the contribution of abiotic transformation by PRB in the presence of ongoing

  14. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  15. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to aromatic hydrocarbons by using an iron/iron oxide nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwang; Hodgson, Jim; Shrestha, Tej B; Thapa, Prem S; Moore, David; Wu, Xiaorong; Ikenberry, Myles; Troyer, Deryl L; Wang, Donghai; Hohn, Keith L; Bossmann, Stefan H

    2014-01-01

    The quest for renewable and cleaner energy sources to meet the rapid population and economic growth is more urgent than ever before. Being the most abundant carbon source in the atmosphere of Earth, CO2 can be used as an inexpensive C1 building block in the synthesis of aromatic fuels for internal combustion engines. We designed a process capable of synthesizing benzene, toluene, xylenes and mesitylene from CO2 and H2 at modest temperatures (T = 380 to 540 °C) employing Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles as catalyst. The synthesis of the catalyst and the mechanism of CO2-hydrogenation will be discussed, as well as further applications of Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles in catalysis.

  16. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  17. Natural carbon-14 activity of organic substances in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, A.A.; Rubin, M.

    1964-01-01

    Carbon-14 measurements made on organic contaminants extracted from streams show percentages of industrial waste and domestic sewage. The method, used previously for studies of the atmosphere, can be used in studies of pollution sources.

  18. Iron Redox Dynamics in Humid Tropical Forest Soils: Carbon Stabilization vs. Degradation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. J.; Silver, W. L.; Hammel, K.

    2015-12-01

    Most terrestrial soils exhibit a patchwork of oxygen (O2) availability that varies over spatial scales of microsites to catenas to landscapes, and over temporal scales of minutes to seasons. Oxygen fluctuations often drive microbial iron (Fe) reduction and abiotic/biotic Fe oxidation at the microsite scale, contributing to anaerobic carbon (C) mineralization and changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, especially the dissolution and precipitation of short-range ordered Fe phases thought to stabilize C. Thus, O2 fluctuations and Fe redox cycling may have multiple nuanced and opposing impacts on different soil C pools, illustrated by recent findings from Fe-rich Oxisols and Ultisols in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Spatial patterns in surface soil C stocks at the landscape scale correlated strongly (R2 = 0.98) with concentrations of reduced Fe (Fe(II)), reflecting constitutive differences in reducing conditions within and among sites that promote C accumulation in mineral soil horizons. Similarly, turnover times of a decadal-cycling pool of mineral-associated organic matter increased with Fe(II) across a catena, possibly reflecting the role of anaerobic microsites in long-term C stabilization. However, two different indices of short-range order Fe showed highly significant opposing relationships (positive and negative) with spatial variation in soil C concentrations, possibly reflecting a dual role of Fe in driving C stabilization via co-precipitation, and C solubilization and loss following dissimilatory Fe reduction. Consistent with the field data, laboratory incubations demonstrated that redox fluctuations can increase the contribution of biochemically recalcitrant C (lignin) to soil respiration, whereas addition of short-range order Fe dramatically suppressed lignin mineralization but had no impact on bulk soil respiration. Thus, understanding spatial and temporal patterns of Fe redox cycling may provide insight into explaining the

  19. Organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate the important role of the marine environment in the circulation of CO2. This is due to the occurrence of the so called "biological pump" mechanism. A special role in this process is played by the shelf seas. The paper presents estimates of organic carbon burial rates in the Baltic Sea sediments. Quantification of the burial rate required the determination of organic carbon accumulation rate to the Baltic sediments and the carbon return flux from sediments to the water column. Results of both sediment and mass accumulation rates as well as profiles of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used. Sediment accumulation rates were based on 210Pb method validated by 137Cs measurements and ranged from 66 g m-2 yr-1 to 744 g m-2 yr-1 as regards mass accumulation rates and from 0.07 cm yr-1 to 0.25 cm yr-1 as regards linear accumulation rates. Carbon deposition to the Baltic sediments amounts to 1.955 ± 0.585 Tg m-2 yr-1, while 0.759 ± 0.020 g m-2 yr-1 of carbon returns from sediments to the water column. Thus the organic carbon burial rate in the Baltic Sea sediments is equal to 1.197 ± 0.584 Tg C m-2 yr-1.

  20. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  1. Anomalous 13C enrichment in modern marine organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.; Claypool, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Marine organic carbon is heavier isotopically (13C enriched) than most land-plant or terrestrial organic C1. Accordingly, ??13C values of organic C in modern marine sediments are routinely interpreted in terms of the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial sources of the preserved organic matter2,3. When independent geochemical techniques are used to evaluate the source of organic matter in Cretaceous or older rocks, those rocks containing mostly marine organic C are found typically to have lighter (more-negative) ??13C values than rocks containing mostly terrestrial organic C. Here we conclude that marine photosynthesis in mid-Cretaceous and earlier oceans generally resulted in a greater fractionation of C isotopes and produced organic C having lighter ??13C values. Modern marine photosynthesis may be occurring under unusual geological conditions (higher oceanic primary production rates, lower PCO2) that limit dissolved CO2 availability and minimize carbon isotope fractionation4. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in γ-Fe temperature region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Duan, Guosheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Effects of magnetic field intensity on carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region were investigated using carburizing technology. The carbon penetration profiles from the iron surface to interior were measured by field emission electron probe microanalyzer. The carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron carburized with different magnetic field intensities was calculated according to the Fick's second law. It was found that the magnetic field intensity could obviously affect the carbon diffusion coefficient in pure iron in the γ-Fe temperature region, and the carbon diffusion coefficient decreased obviously with the enhancement of magnetic field intensity, when the magnetic field intensity was higher than 1 T, the carbon diffusion coefficient in field annealed specimen was less than half of that of the nonfield annealed specimen, further enhancing the magnetic field intensity, the carbon diffusion coefficient basically remains unchanged. The stiffening of lattice due to field-induced magnetic ordering was responsible for an increase in activation barrier for jumping carbon atoms. The greater the magnetic field intensity, the stronger the inhibiting effect of magnetic field on carbon diffusion.

  3. Isotopic compositions of carbonates and organic carbon from upper Proterozoic successions in Namibia: stratigraphic variation and the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Hayes, J. M.; Knoll, A. H.; Germs, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Proterozoic seawater. Within the Damara basin, carbon-isotopic compositions of carbonates provide a potentially useful tool for the correlation of units between the Kalahari and Congo cratons. Carbonates depleted in 13C were deposited during and immediately following three separate glacial episodes in Namibia. The correspondence between ice ages and negative delta 13C excursions may reflect the effects of lowered sea levels; enhanced circulation of deep, cold, O2-rich seawater; and/or the upwelling of 13C-depleted deep water. Iron-formation is additionally associated with one of the glacial horizons, the Chuos tillite. Carbon-13 enriched isotopic abundances in immediately pre-glacial carbonates suggest that oceanographic conditions favored high rates of organic burial. It is likely that marine waters were stratified, with deep waters anoxic. A prolonged period of ocean stratification would permit the build-up of ferrous iron, probably from hydrothermal sources. At the onset of glaciation, upwelling would have brought 13C-depleted and iron-rich deep water onto shallow shelves where contact with cold, oxygenated surface waters led to the precipitation of ferric iron.

  4. Isotopic compositions of carbonates and organic carbon from upper Proterozoic successions in Namibia: stratigraphic variation and the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Hayes, J M; Knoll, A H; Germs, G J

    1991-01-01

    Proterozoic seawater. Within the Damara basin, carbon-isotopic compositions of carbonates provide a potentially useful tool for the correlation of units between the Kalahari and Congo cratons. Carbonates depleted in 13C were deposited during and immediately following three separate glacial episodes in Namibia. The correspondence between ice ages and negative delta 13C excursions may reflect the effects of lowered sea levels; enhanced circulation of deep, cold, O2-rich seawater; and/or the upwelling of 13C-depleted deep water. Iron-formation is additionally associated with one of the glacial horizons, the Chuos tillite. Carbon-13 enriched isotopic abundances in immediately pre-glacial carbonates suggest that oceanographic conditions favored high rates of organic burial. It is likely that marine waters were stratified, with deep waters anoxic. A prolonged period of ocean stratification would permit the build-up of ferrous iron, probably from hydrothermal sources. At the onset of glaciation, upwelling would have brought 13C-depleted and iron-rich deep water onto shallow shelves where contact with cold, oxygenated surface waters led to the precipitation of ferric iron.

  5. Reductive transformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene: roles of iron and natural organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of redox-active and iron-coordinating functional groups within natural organic matter (NOM) on the electron transfer interactions between Fe(II) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), an energetic residue often encountered in aqueous environments as a propellant compon...

  6. DNA-Based Synthesis and Assembly of Organized Iron Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomutov, Gennady B.

    Organized bio-inorganic and hybrid bio-organic-inorganic nanostructures consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles and DNA complexes have been formed using methods based on biomineralization, interfacial and bulk phase assembly, ligand exchange and substitution, Langmuir-Blodgett technique, DNA templating and scaffolding. Interfacially formed planar DNA complexes with water-insoluble amphiphilic polycation or intercalator Langmuir monolayers were prepared and deposited on solid substrates to form immobilized DNA complexes. Those complexes were then used for the synthesis of organized DNA-based iron oxide nanostructures. Planar net-like and circular nanostructures of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were obtained via interaction of cationic colloid magnetite nanoparticles with preformed immobilized DNA/amphiphilic polycation complexes of net-like and toroidal morphologies. The processes of the generation of iron oxide nanoparticles in immobilized DNA complexes via redox synthesis with various iron sources of biological (ferritin) and artificial (FeCl3) nature have been studied. Bulk-phase complexes of magnetite nanoparticles with biomolecular ligands (DNA, spermine) were formed and studied. Novel nano-scale organized bio-inorganic nanostructures - free-floating sheet-like spermine/magnetite nanoparticle complexes and DNA/spermine/magnetite nanoparticle complexes were synthesized in bulk aqueous phase and the effect of DNA molecules on the structure of complexes was discovered.

  7. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  8. Graphitization of Organic Material in a Progressively Metamorphosed Precambrian Iron Formation.

    PubMed

    French, B M

    1964-11-13

    Organic matter in the sedimentary Biwabik iron formation in northern Minnesota shows a progressive increase in crystallinity where the formation is metamorphosed by the intrusive Duluth gabbro complex. X-ray diffraction of acid-insoluble residues shows that there is a complete range in crystallinity, from amorphous material in the unmetamorphosed sediments to completely crystalline graphite adjacent to the gabbro.

  9. Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO.

  10. Impact of Fluorescent Lighting on Oxidation of Model Wine Solutions Containing Organic Acids and Iron.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-22

    Previous studies have provided evidence that light exposure can increase oxygen consumption in wine and that the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate could contribute to this process. In the present study, model wine solutions containing iron(III) and various organic acids, either alone or combined, were stored in sealed clear glass wine bottles and exposed to light from fluorescent lamps. Dissolved oxygen was monitored, and afterward the organic acid degradation products were determined and the capacity of the solutions to bind sulfur dioxide, the main wine preservative, was assessed. In the dark controls, little or no dissolved oxygen was consumed and the organic acids were stable. In the irradiated solutions, dissolved oxygen was consumed at a rate that was dependent on the specific organic acid present, and the latter were oxidized to various carbonyl compounds. For the solutions containing tartaric acid, malic acid, and/or citric acid, irradiation increased their sulfur dioxide-binding capacity.

  11. Acid and organic aerosol coatings on magnetic nanoparticles increase iron concentrations in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Dailey, Lisa A; Richards, Judy H; Jang, Myoseon

    2009-07-01

    Numerous industrial applications for man-made nanoparticles have been proposed. Interactions of nanoparticles with agents in the atmosphere may impact human health. We tested the postulate that in vitro exposures of respiratory epithelial cells to airborne magnetic nanoparticles (MNP; Fe(3)O(4)) with and without a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and an inorganic acid could affect iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and interleukin (IL)-8 release. Cell iron concentrations were increased after exposures to MNP and values were further elevated with co-exposures to either SOA or inorganic acid. Increased expression of ferritin and elevated levels of RNA for DMT1, proteins for iron storage and transport respectively, followed MNP exposures, but values were significant for only those with co-exposures to inorganic acid and organic aerosols. Cell iron concentration corresponded to a measure of oxidative stress in the airway epithelial cells; MNP with co-exposures to SOA and inorganic acid increased both available metal and indices of oxidant generation. Finally, the release of a proinflammatory cytokine (i.e. IL-8) by the exposed cells similarly increased with cell iron concentration. We conclude that MNP can interact with a SOA and an inorganic acid to present metal in a catalytically reactive state to cultured respiratory cells. This produces an oxidative stress to affect a release of IL-8.

  12. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  13. Investigation of organic carbon transformation in soils of dominant dissolved organic carbon source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissarello, Anna; Miltner, Anja; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Fleckenstein, Jan; Kästner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years both a decrease in soil organic matter (SOM) and an increase in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water bodies, including drinking water reservoirs, have been recorded in the northern hemisphere. This development has severe consequences for soil fertility and for drinking water purification. As both processes occur simultaneously, we assume that microbial SOM degradation, which transforms SOM into CO2 and DOC, is a possible source of the additional DOC in the surface water. In addition we speculate that both processes are initially triggered by physical mechanisms, resulting in a modification of the organic matter solubility equilibria and thus in higher SOM availability and DOC mobilization. The general hypothesis of the study is therefore that SOM loss and DOC increase are combined consequences of enhanced microbial degradation of SOM and that this is a result of climate variations and global change, e.g. the increase of the temperature, the alteration of the water regime (i.e. increase of the frequency of drying and rewetting cycles and a higher number of heavy rain events), but also the decrease of the atmospheric acid deposition resulting in an increase of soil pH values. The general goal of the study is the identification of the dominant processes and controlling factors involved in soil microbial carbon turnover and mobilization of DOC in soils from catchment areas that contribute DOC to the receiving waters and the downstream Rappbode reservoir, which showed a pronounced increase in DOC concentration in recent years. This reservoir is the source of drinking water for about one million people in northern Germany. Preliminary screening experiments, consisting of 65-day soil batch incubation experiments, have been conducted in order to select the parameters (and the parameter ranges) of relevance for further in-depth experiments. During the experiments, different soil systems were exposed to different

  14. Chromium removal by combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide with adsorption properties of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Agarwal, Shilpi; Saleh, Tawfik A

    2011-03-01

    The adsorption features of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with the magnetic properties of iron oxides have been combined in a composite to produce a magnetic adsorbent. Composites of MWCNT/nano-iron oxide were prepared, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD suggests that the magnetic phase formed is maghemite and/or magnetite. FESEM image shows nano-iron oxides attached to a network of MWCNTs. The adsorption capability of the composites was tested in batch and fixed bed modes. The composites have demonstrated a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon. The results also show that the adsorptions of Cr(III) on the composites is strongly dependent on contact time, agitation speed and pH, in the batch mode; and on flow rate and the bed thickness in the fixed bed mode. Along with the high surface area of the MWCNTs, the advantage of the magnetic composite is that it can be used as adsorbent for contaminants in water and can be subsequently controlled and removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process.

  15. Influences of iron and calcium carbonate on wastewater treatment performances of algae based reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhimiao; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Yanping; Gong, Zhijie; Wang, Yuhui; Zhao, Yufeng; Chen, Yu; Mei, Mengyuan

    2016-09-01

    The influences of iron and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) addition in wastewater treatments reactors performance were investigated. Adding different concentrations of Fe(3+) (5, 10, 30 and 50mmol/m(3)), iron and CaCO3 powder led to changes in algal characteristics and physico-chemical and microbiological properties. According to the investigation results, nutrient removal efficiency in algae based reactors was obviously increased by the addition of 10mmol/m(3) Fe(3+), iron (5mmol/m(3)) and CaCO3 powder (0.2gm(-3)) and the removal efficiencies of BOD5, TN, and TP in Stage 2 were respectively increased by 28%, 8.9%, and 22%. The improvements in physico-chemical performances were verified by microbial community tests (bacteria quantity, activity and community measured in most probable number, extracellular enzymes activity, and Biolog Eco Plates). Microbial variations indicated the coexistence of Fe ions and carbonate-bicarbonate, which triggered the synergistic effect of physico-chemical action and microbial factors in algae based reactors.

  16. Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines.

    PubMed

    Modin, Hanna; Persson, Kenneth M; Andersson, Anna; van Praagh, Martijn

    2011-05-30

    Sorption filters based on granular activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines were tested for their efficiency of removing metals from landfill leachate. Removal of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were studied in a laboratory scale setup. Activated carbon removed more than 90% of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni. Ca, Pb, Sr and Zn were removed but less efficiently. Bone meal removed over 80% of Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn and Sr and 20-80% of Al, Ca, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn. Iron fines removed most metals (As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn) to some extent but less efficiently. All materials released unwanted substances (metals, TOC or nutrients), highlighting the need to study the uptake and release of a large number of compounds, not only the target metals. To remove a wide range of metals using these materials two or more filter materials may need to be combined. Sorption mechanisms for all materials include ion exchange, sorption and precipitation. For iron fines oxidation of Fe(0) seems to be important for metal immobilisation.

  17. Computer Simulation of Cascade Damage in α-Iron with Carbon in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Calder F; Bacon, David J; Barashev, Aleksandr; Osetskiy, Yury N

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation method is used to investigate defect production by displacement cascades in iron with carbon (C) in solution. This is the first study of cascade damage in a metal containing interstitial solute. Iron is of particular interest because of the use of ferritic steels in plant for nuclear power generation. Cascades are simulated with energy in the range 5 to 20keV in iron at either 100 or 600K containing carbon with concentration in the range 0 to 1at%. C in solution has no discernible effect on the number of defects produced in cascades under any of the conditions simulated, nor on the clustered fraction of either self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) or vacancies. However, significant fractions of single SIAs and vacancies are trapped by C in the cascade process, irrespective of cascade energy. The fraction is independent of temperature for vacancies, but increases strongly with temperature for SIAs: this is a consequence of the higher mobility of the SIA.

  18. Coupled iron, sulfur and carbon isotope evidences for arsenic enrichment in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Ellis, Andre; Wang, Xiangli; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that microbial processes play a key role in the mobilization and enrichment of arsenic (As) in groundwater. However, the detailed mechanism of the metabolic processes remain poorly understand. We apply isotopic measurements of iron (δ56Fe vs. IRMM-14), sulfur (δ34SSO4 vs. V-CDT) and carbon (δ13CDIC vs. V-PDB) to an experimental field plot in the Datong Basin, northern China. An array of monitoring wells was installed in a ≈1700-m2 plot in which high concentrations of As, ranging from 4.76 to 469.5 μg/L, were detected in the groundwater. The measured range of δ34SSO4 values from 10.0‰ to 24.7‰ indicates the prevalence of microbial sulfate reduction within aquifers. The range of δ56Fe values measured in the groundwater suggests microbial Fe(III) reduction and the occurrence of isotopic exchange between Fe(II)aq and FeS precipitation. The low δ13CDIC values (up to -33.6‰) measured in groundwater are evidences for the microbial oxidation of organic matter, which is interpreted as the light carbon pool within the aquifer sediments. The high As (As > 50 μg/L) groundwater, which has higher δ34SSO4 and δ56Fe values and lower δ13C values, indicates the following: (1) microbial reduction of sulfate causes the mobilization of As through HS- abiotic reduction of Fe(III) minerals and/or formation of As-sulfur components; and (2) direct microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides cannot increase As concentrations to greater than 50 μg/L. Re-oxidation of Fe-sufide explains how sample C1-2 can have a high As concentration and low δ34SSO4 and high δ56Fe values. The results provide new insight into the mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater.

  19. Combined hydrogenation of carbon oxides on catalysts bearing iron and nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshko, T. F.; Serov, Yu. M.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of the hydrogenation of a mixture of carbon oxides on ultradisperse powder (UDP) catalysts containing Fe and Ni nanoparticles and their bimetallic mechanical mixtures was investigated. It was established that the main reaction product on UDP Ni is methane, while the main products on the bimetallic systems are methane and ethylene. A synergetic effect was observed on the bimetallic catalyst under investigation. It was revealed that the hydrogenation of a mixture of carbon oxides proceeds through the stage of dissociative adsorption of both components, CO and CO2. The olefin selectivity of the process was explained by the participation of different forms of adsorbed hydrogen (HI: HII) at the catalyst surface. It is assumed that the hydrogenation of carbon oxides on iron-nickel catalysts proceeds either through the jumpover effect or via hydrogen spillover.

  20. Carbon isotopic studies of organic matter in Precambrian rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Schopf, J. W.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    A survey has been undertaken of the carbon composition of the total organic fraction of a suite of Precambrian sediments to detect isotopic trends possibly correlative with early evolutionary events. Early Precambrian cherts of the Fig Tree and upper and middle Onverwacht groups of South Africa were examined for this purpose. Reduced carbon in these cherts was found to be isotopically similar to photosynthetically produced organic matter of younger geological age. Reduced carbon in lower Onverwacht cherts was found to be anomalously heavy; it is suggested that this discontinuity may reflect a major event in biological evolution.

  1. Interaction of 2-chloronaphthalene with high carbon iron filings (HCIF): adsorption, dehalogenation and mass transfer limitations.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Alok; Bose, Purnendu

    2007-10-15

    Interaction of 2-chloronaphthalene (2-CN) with high-carbon iron filings (HCIF) was studied in anaerobic batch systems, both under well-mixed and poorly-mixed conditions. In well-mixed conditions, partitioning of 2-CN between solid and aqueous phases was fast, resulting in rapid attainment of equilibrium. Equilibrium partitioning could be described by a Freundlich isotherm, C(s)=K x [C(a)](m), where C(s) (micromoles g(-1) iron) and C(a) (micromoles L(-1)) were the solid and aqueous phase 2-CN concentrations, respectively. Isotherm parameters, m and K were determined to be 0.76 and 5.6 x 10(-2) (micromole g(-1) iron)/(micromole L(-1)), respectively. Sorption (k(2)) and desorption (k(3)) rate constants were determined to be 5.60 x 10(-1) h(-1) g(-1) iron L and 10 h(-1), respectively. Reductive dehalogenation of aqueous phase 2-CN occurred concurrently but at a slower rate, and could be described by the expression (dC(T)//dt)= -k(1) x M x (C(a))(N), where C(T) (micromoles L(-1)) was the total 2-CN concentration and M (g iron L(-1)) the concentration of HCIF. The values of k(1) and N were determined to be 1.09 x 10(-2) h(-1) g(-1) iron L and 1.647, respectively. In poorly mixed conditions, adsorption (k(2)) and desorption (k(3)) rate constants were 3.92 x 10(-5) h(-1) g(-1) iron L and 7 x 10(-4) h(-1), respectively, i.e., several orders of magnitude less than in well-mixed systems. The dehalogenation rate parameters, k(1) and N were determined to be 2.22 x 10(-4) h(-1) g(-1) iron L and 0.986, respectively, suggesting slower dehalogenation. These results highlight how mass-transfer limitations during the interaction between HCIF and 2-CN in poorly mixed systems, such as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), can potentially impact the dehalogenation process.

  2. Carbon aging mechanisms and effects on retention of organic iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The activated carbon used to treat the off-gas from the Savannah River Plant prodution reactor building was studied to determine the chemical changes occurring in this carbon during its service life. The carbon is a coconut-shell charcoal impregnated with 1% triethylenediamine (TEDA) and 2% KI. It was known that during its 30-month service life the carbon becomes more acidic and less effective for retaining iodine in organic form. The study showed that the most important change occurring in the carbon is the reaction of KI to give other chemical forms of iodine. The reacted iodine is unavailable for exchange with alkyl iodides. The results suggest that the carbon reacts with KI to form organic compounds, but small amounts of oxidized iodine may also be presnt. There is also evidence that some iodide is lost from the carbon altogether. The TEDA impregnant is lost from the carbon very quickly, and has no importance after a few months. The specific reactions by which the impregnant is lost have not been identified. However, mathematical analysis shows that the carbon performance data are consistent with the reaction of iodide impregnant with impurities in the air flowing through the carbon bed. Additional mathematical analysis, based on electron microscopic observation of the carbon particles, indicates that the external surfaces of the carbon are mainly responsible for their effectiveness in retaining iodine. Consequently, the condition of the impregnants on a relatively small fraction of the carbon surface can have a large effect on its performance. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Carbon exchange of organic soils ecosystems of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Armentano, T.V.; Menges, E.S.; Molofsky, J.; Lawler, D.J.

    1984-03-01

    Because the annual uptake and release of CO/sub 2/ by the earth's biota (50-100 x 10/sup 9/ t/yr (10/sup 9/ t = 1 Gt)) is 10-20 times larger than the recent annual combustion of fossil fuel (5 Gt/yr), understanding the global carbon cycle requires detailed consideration of relatively small alterations in regional photosynthesis or in the oxidation of carbon stored in the major biological pools. This report presents an original synthesis of data on wetland carbon sinks and releases. Computer simulations of wetland conversions and altered carbon balance were used to estimate carbon uptake and release rates in the tropical and temperate zones. A major goal of this study was to determine whether the world's wetlands, considered as a single global carbon pool, have been appreciably altered by human intervention since 1800. For soil carbon exchangers, only wetlands with organic soils are important because, when functioning naturally, they remove carbon from the atmosphere and retain it over long periods of time. Both tropical and temperature zone wetlands have been sequestering carbon from the atmosphere for the past 5000-10,000 years, thus forming a long-term natural carbon sink of potential significance. Prior to human intervention, the annual sequestering in this sink is estimated here to have been 0.14 Ft of carbon, three-quarters of which occurred in the temperate zone.

  4. Photochemistry of organic iron(III) complexing ligands in oceanic systems.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Iron is a limiting nutrient for primary production in marine systems, and photochemical processes play a significant role in the upper ocean biogeochemical cycling of this key element. In recent years, progress has been made toward understanding the role of biologically produced organic ligands in controlling the speciation and photochemical redox cycling of iron in ocean surface waters. Most (>99%) of the dissolved iron in seawater is now known to be associated with strong organic ligands. New data concerning the structure and photochemical reactivity of strong Fe(III) binding ligands (siderophores) produced by pelagic marine bacteria suggest that direct photolysis via ligand-to-metal charge transfer reactions may be an important mechanism for the production of reduced, biologically available iron (Fe[II]) in surface waters. Questions remain, however, about the importance of these processes relative to secondary photochemical reactions with photochemically produced radical species, such as superoxide (O2-). The mechanism of superoxide-mediated reduction of Fe(III) in the presence of strong Fe(III) organic ligands is also open to debate. This review highlights recent findings, including both model ligand studies and experimentallobservational studies of the natural seawater ligand pool.

  5. The influence of carbon on the seismic properties of solid iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of C-doped hexagonal close-packed (hcp) iron are studied at high pressure from first-principles calculations. The energy required for doping with C as an interstitial impurity is 246 meV/1 wt % C at 120 GPa for one unit cell of hcp Fe and increases almost linearly with pressure. The density deficit of the inner core can be matched for 1 to 2.5 wt % in hcp Fe, depending on the thermal profile. Carbon doping in hcp iron increases the compressional seismic wave velocity, decreases the shear wave velocity, while increasing the shear wave splitting and seismic anisotropy. In general, the presence of C in the inner core helps in explaining the observed seismic properties, though it cannot be considered the only light element.

  6. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  7. Tracking iron oxide nanoparticles in plant organs using magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govea-Alcaide, E.; Masunaga, S. H.; De Souza, A.; Fajardo-Rosabal, L.; Effenberger, F. B.; Rossi, L. M.; Jardim, R. F.

    2016-10-01

    Common bean plants were grown in soil and irrigated with water solutions containing different concentrations of Fe_3{O}_4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a mean diameter close to 10 nm. No toxicity on plant growth has been detected as a consequence of Fe deficiency or excess in leaves. In order to track the Fe_3{O}_4 NPs, magnetization measurements were performed in soils and in three different dried organs of the plants: roots, stems, and leaves. Some magnetic features of both temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetization M( T, H) arising from Fe_3{O}_4 NPs were identified in all the three organs of the plants. Based on the results of saturation magnetization M_s at 300 K, the estimated number of Fe_3{O}_4 NPs was found to increase from 2 to 3 times in leaves of common bean plants irrigated with solutions containing magnetic material. The combined results indicated that M( T, H) measurements, conducted in a wide range of temperature and applied magnetic fields up to 70 kOe, constitute a useful tool through which the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles by plant organs may be monitored and tracked.

  8. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  9. Nonionic Organic Solute Sorption to two Organobentonites as a Function of Organic-Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt-Hunt, S. L.; Burns, S. E.; Smith, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    Sorption of three nonionic organic solutes (benzene, trichloroethene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene) to hexadecyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (HDTMA-bentonite) and benzyltrimethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-bentonite) was measured as a function of organic-carbon content at quaternary ammonium cation loadings ranging from 30 to 130% of the clay's cation-exchange capacity. Sorption of all three solutes to HDTMA-bentonite was linear and sorptive capacity of the HDTMA-bentonite increased as the organic-carbon content of the clay increased. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene sorbed most strongly to HDTMA-bentonite, followed by benzene and TCE. The stronger sorption of benzene to HDTMA-bentonite compared to TCE was unexpected based on a partition mechanism of sorption and consideration of solute solubility. This result may be caused by interactions between the pi electrons of benzene and the negatively charged surface of the clay. Log Koc values for all three solutes increased with organic-carbon content. This suggests that the increased organic-carbon content alone may not explain the observed increase in sorption capacity. Sorption of the three solutes to BTEA-bentonite was nonlinear and solute sorption decreased with increasing organic-carbon content. Surface area measurements indicate that the surface area of both organobentonites generally decreased with increasing organic-carbon content. Since nonionic organic solute sorption to BTEA-bentonite occurs by adsorption, the reduced sorption is likely caused by the reduction in surface area corresponding to increased organic cation loading.

  10. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9-10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (SBET 50 m2/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe2O3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (SBET 4 and 111 m2/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (kapp) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015-0.025 mM; sample content - 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration - 0.43 mM; pH 3-4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  11. COSOLVENT EFFECTS ON ORGANIC CHEMICAL PARTITIONING TO SEDIMENT ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption-desorption hysteresis, slow desorption kinetics and resultant bioavailability, and other nonideal phenomena have been attributed to the differing sorptive characteristics of the natural organic polymers associated with soils and sediments. The objectives of this study we...

  12. [The organic carbon--issues of hygienic regulation and harmonization].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, E A; Kuznetsov, E O; Smagina, N V; Slyshkina, T V; Akramov, R L; Brusnitsina, L A; Nitsak, G B; Nikonova, S V

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of possibility to use the total organic carbon as regulated index in drinking water as well as to the issues of hygienic regulation and harmonizing this index with the standards of other countries. Basing on the results of 3 years lasting investigation carried out by Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Vodokanal" of Yekaterinburg city permits to propose as the most informative and reliable index of the presence of organic substances in drinking water the content of total organic carbon in comparison with currently regulated permanganate oxidability, chemical and biochemical oxygen consumption.

  13. Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algesten, Grete; Brydsten, Lars; Jonsson, Per; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Löfgren, Stefan; Rahm, Lars; Räike, Antti; Sobek, Sebastian; Tranvik, Lars; Wikner, Johan; Jansson, Mats

    2006-12-01

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon; permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO 2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year - 1 ), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year - 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year - 1 ) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year - 1 ). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO 2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO 2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper.

  14. Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Andreas, L; Lagerkvist, A

    2016-05-01

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient. As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment. In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment. Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo

  15. Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom.

    PubMed

    Smetacek, Victor; Klaas, Christine; Strass, Volker H; Assmy, Philipp; Montresor, Marina; Cisewski, Boris; Savoye, Nicolas; Webb, Adrian; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Arrieta, Jesús M; Bathmann, Ulrich; Bellerby, Richard; Berg, Gry Mine; Croot, Peter; Gonzalez, Santiago; Henjes, Joachim; Herndl, Gerhard J; Hoffmann, Linn J; Leach, Harry; Losch, Martin; Mills, Matthew M; Neill, Craig; Peeken, Ilka; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Sachs, Oliver; Sauter, Eberhard; Schmidt, Maike M; Schwarz, Jill; Terbrüggen, Anja; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2012-07-18

    Fertilization of the ocean by adding iron compounds has induced diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms accompanied by considerable carbon dioxide drawdown in the ocean surface layer. However, because the fate of bloom biomass could not be adequately resolved in these experiments, the timescales of carbon sequestration from the atmosphere are uncertain. Here we report the results of a five-week experiment carried out in the closed core of a vertically coherent, mesoscale eddy of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, during which we tracked sinking particles from the surface to the deep-sea floor. A large diatom bloom peaked in the fourth week after fertilization. This was followed by mass mortality of several diatom species that formed rapidly sinking, mucilaginous aggregates of entangled cells and chains. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence-although each with important uncertainties-lead us to conclude that at least half the bloom biomass sank far below a depth of 1,000 metres and that a substantial portion is likely to have reached the sea floor. Thus, iron-fertilized diatom blooms may sequester carbon for timescales of centuries in ocean bottom water and for longer in the sediments.

  16. Low temperature charge transport and microwave absorption of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polymer composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, V.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon coated Fe nanoparticle–PVC composite films were prepared by solution casting method. ► A low electrical percolation threshold of 2.2 was achieved. ► The low temperature electrical conductivity follows variable range hopping type conduction. ► An EMI shielding of 18 dB was achieved in 200 micron thick film. -- Abstract: In this paper, the low temperature electrical conductivity and microwave absorption properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticles–polyvinyl chloride composite films are investigated for different filler fractions. The filler particles are prepared by the pyrolysis of ferrocene at 980 °C and embedded in polyvinyl chloride matrix. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs of the filler material have shown a 5 nm thin layer graphitic carbon covering over iron particles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the composite film changes by 10 orders of magnitude with the increase of filler concentration. A percolation threshold of 2.2 and an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of ∼18.6 dB in 26.5–40 GHz range are observed for 50 wt% loading. The charge transport follows three dimensional variable range hopping conduction.

  17. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotube formation on iron oxide catalysts in diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, Chad J.; Axelbaum, Richard L.; Fraundorf, Phil

    2010-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are shown to grow rapidly on iron oxide catalysts on the fuel side of an inverse ethylene diffusion flame. The pathway of carbon in the flame is controlled by the flame structure, leading to formation of SWCNTs free of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or soot. By using a combination of oxygen-enrichment and fuel dilution, fuel oxidation is favored over pyrolysis, PAH growth, and subsequent soot formation. The inverse configuration of the flame prevents burnout of the SWCNTs while providing a long carbon-rich region for nanotube formation. Furthermore, flame structure is used to control oxidation of the catalyst particles. Iron sub-oxide catalysts are highly active toward SWCNT formation while Fe and Fe2O3 catalysts are less active. This can be understood by considering the effects of particle oxidation on the dissociative adsorption of gas-phase hydrocarbons. The optimum catalyst particle composition and flame conditions were determined in near real-time using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure the catalyst and SWCNT size distributions. In addition, SMPS results were combined with flame velocity measurement to measure SWCNT growth rates. SWCNTs were found to grow at rates of over 100 μm/s.

  19. Carbon Solubility in Silicon-Iron-Bearing Metals during Core Formation on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Danielson, Lisa R.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Righter, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%) and low Iron(II) Oxide abundances (less than 2 wt%). Based on these extreme values, the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials was estimated to be approximately 3 to 7 log(sub 10) units below the IW buffer (Delta IW-3 to Delta IW-7). This highly reducing nature of the planet has resulted in a large core and relatively thin mantle, extending to only approximately 420 km depth (corresponding to a core-mantle boundary pressure of approximately 4-7 GPa) within the planet. Furthermore, MESSENGER results have suggested the presence of carbon on the surface of the planet. Previous experimental results from have also suggested the possibility of a primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, produced after a global magma ocean event. With these exotic conditions of this compositional end-member planet, it begs the question, what is the core composition of Mercury? Although no definitive conclusion has been reached, previous studies have made advances towards answering this question. Riner et al. and Chen et al. looked at iron sulfide systems and implemented various crystallization and layered core scenarios to try and determine the composition and structure of Mercury's core. Malavergne et al. examined core crystallization scenarios in the presence of sulfur and silicon. Hauck et al. used the most recent geophysical constraints from the MESSENGER spacecraft to model the internal structure of Mercury, including the core, in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. More recently, Chabot et al. conducted a series of metal-silicate partitioning experiments in a iron-sulfur-silicon system. These results showed the core of Mercury has the potential to contain more than 15 wt% silicon. However, with the newest results from MESSENGER's low altitude campaign, carbon is another

  20. Characterization and (10)Be content of iron carbonate concretions for genetic aspects - Weathering, desert varnish or burning: Rim effects in iron carbonate concretions.

    PubMed

    Polgári, Márta; Bérczi, Szaniszló; Horiuchi, Kazuho; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kovács, Tibor; Józsa, Sándor; Bendő, Zsolt; Fintor, Krisztián; Fekete, József; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ernő; Gucsik, Arnold; Gyollai, Ildikó; Kovács, János; Dódony, István

    2016-12-20

    The research investigated three iron carbonate (siderite) sedimentary concretions from Nagykovácsi, Úri and Délegyháza, Hungary. To identify possible source rocks and effects of the glaze-like exposed surface of the concretions, we carried on comparative petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic studies. The samples were microbially mediated siderite concretions with embedded metamorphous and igneous mineral clasts, and had specific rim belts characterized by semi-concentric outer Fe-oxide layers, fluffy pyrite-rich outer belts and siderite inner parts. We investigated the cross section of the Fe-carbonate concretions by independent methodologies in order to identify their rim effects. Their surficial oxide layers showed evidence of degassing of the exposed surface caused most probably by elevated temperatures. The inner rim pyrite belt in the concretions excluded the possibility of a prolonged wet surface environment. Microtextural and mineralogical features did not support desert varnish formation. (10)Be nuclide values of the Nagykovácsi and Uri concretions were far above the level of terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic nuclides, but they were consistent with the lowest levels for meteorites. Though the data were not conclusive to confirm any kind of known origin, they are contradictary, and open possibilities for a scenario of terrestrial meteorite origin.

  1. Functional interactions between the carbon and iron utilization regulators, Crp and Fur, in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongge; Gosset, Guillermo; Barabote, Ravi; Gonzalez, Claudio S; Cuevas, William A; Saier, Milton H

    2005-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) controls expression of the iron regulon in response to iron availability while the cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) regulates expression of the carbon regulon in response to carbon availability. We here identify genes subject to significant changes in expression level in response to the loss of both Fur and Crp. Many iron transport genes and several carbon metabolic genes are subject to dual control, being repressed by the loss of Crp and activated by the loss of Fur. However, the sodB gene, encoding superoxide dismutase, and the aceBAK operon, encoding the glyoxalate shunt enzymes, show the opposite responses, being activated by the loss of Crp and repressed by the loss of Fur. Several other genes including the sdhA-D, sucA-D, and fumA genes, encoding key constituents of the Krebs cycle, proved to be repressed by the loss of both transcription factors. Finally, the loss of both Crp and Fur activated a heterogeneous group of genes under sigmaS control encoding, for example, the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase, Cfa, the glycogen synthesis protein, GlgS, the 30S ribosomal protein, S22, and the mechanosensitive channel protein, YggB. Many genes appeared to be regulated by the two transcription factors in an apparently additive fashion, but apparent positive or negative cooperativity characterized several putative Crp/Fur interactions. Relevant published data were evaluated, putative Crp and Fur binding sites were identified, and representative results were confirmed by real-time PCR. Molecular explanations for some, but not all, of these effects are provided.

  2. Carbon isotopic composition of graphite grains in the EL Taco IAB iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipfel, J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Marti, K.

    1997-03-01

    Carbon isotopes have been analyzed in individual graphite grains of the El Taco iron meteorite. Graphite is present in four distinct petrographic associations and a total of 28 grains has been analyzed from all areas. The C isotopic composition varies from delta-C-13 = +4 to -29 percent and exhibits well-defined correlations with graphite morphology. The El Taco graphites contain much less N, with CN/C ratios of 0.0027 to 0.005, than graphites from Acapulco or unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Graphite appears to retain an isotopic record of precursor materials despite high peak temperatures and may be an important tracer of early solar system proceses.

  3. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  4. Hematite Core Nanoparticles with Carbon Shell: Potential for Environmentally Friendly Production from Iron Mining Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stević, Dragana; Mihajlović, Dijana; Kukobat, Radovan; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Sagisaka, Kento; Kaneko, Katsumi; Atlagić, Suzana Gotovac

    2016-08-01

    Hematite nanoparticles with amorphous, yet relatively uniform carbon shell, were produced based exclusively on the waste sludge from the iron mine as the raw material. The procedure for acid digestion-based purification of the sludge with the full recovery of acid vapors and the remaining non-toxic rubble is described. Synthesis of the hematite nanoparticles was performed by the arrested precipitation method with cationic surfactant. The particles were thoroughly characterized and the potential of their economical production for the battery industry is indicated.

  5. Influence of iron on degradation of organic dyes in corona.

    PubMed

    Koprivanac, Natalija; Kusić, Hrvoje; Vujević, Dinko; Peternel, Igor; Locke, Bruce R

    2005-01-31

    In this work application of AOPs such as Fenton process, aqueous phase high voltage electrical discharge (corona) and their combination have been studied for colored wastewater treatment. Experiments were conducted on water solutions of four different organic dyes, two azo dyes C.I. Mordant Yellow 10 (MY10) and C.I. Direct Orange 39 (DO39), and two reactive of azo type C.I. Reactive Red 45 (RR45) and C.I. Reactive Blue 137 (RB137). The efficiency of studied AOPs has been estimated on the bases of UV-vis spectrophotometric and TOC measurements. The rate constants in the kinetic model have been determined. Experimental data have been compared with the developed mathematical model.

  6. Potential Influence of Perchlorate on Organic Carbon in Martian Regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oze, C.; Vithanage, M. S.; Kumarathilaka, P. R.; Indraratne, S.; Horton, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Perchlorate is a strong oxidizer present at elevated concentrations in surface martian regolith. Chemical and isotopic modification of potential organic carbon with perchlorate in martian regolith during H2O(l) interactions is unknown. Here we assess the relationship between martian levels of perchlorate and organic carbon present in life harbouring geologic material from Earth. These materials represent chemical (i.e., processed serpentine soils from Sri Lanka) and temperature (i.e., hydrothermal jarosite/goethite deposit from White Island, New Zealand) extremes to where life exists on Earth. Preliminary evidence demonstrates that organic carbon decreases and δ13C values are modified for ultramafic sediment in both perchlorate kinetic and incubation experiments. In hydrothermal jarosite/goethite with microbial communities present, total and organic carbon is maintained and little modification in δ13C values is apparent. These preliminary results suggest that surface hydrothermal deposits with mineralogically 'protected' organic carbon are preferable sites to assess the potential of life on Mars.

  7. Organics on Titan : Carbon Rings and Carbon Cycles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The photochemical conversion of methane into heavier organics which would cover Titan’s surface has been a principal motif of Titan science for the last 4 decades. Broadly, this picture has held up against Cassini observations, but organics on Titan turn out to have some surprising characteristics. First, the surface deposits of organics are segregated into at least two distinct major reservoirs - equatorial dune sands and polar seas. Second, the rich array of compounds detected as ions and molecules even 1000km above Titan’s surface has proven much more complex than expected, including two-ring anthracene and compounds with m/z>1000. Radar and near-IR mapping shows that Titan’s vast dunefields, covering >10% of Titan’s surface, contain ~0.3 million km^3 of material. This material is optically dark and has a low dielectric constant, consistent with organic particulates. Furthermore, the dunes are associated with a near-IR spectral signature attributed to aromatic compounds such as benzene, which has been sampled in surprising abundance in Titan’s upper atmosphere. The polar seas and lakes of ethane (and presumably at least some methane) may have a rather lower total volume than the dune sands, and indeed may contain little more, if any, methane than the atmosphere itself. The striking preponderance of liquid deposits in the north, notably the 500- and 1000-km Ligeia and Kraken, contrasts with the apparently shallow and shrinking Ontario Lacus in the south, and perhaps attests to volatile migration on astronomical (Croll-Milankovich) timescales as well as seasonal methane transport. Against this appealing picture, many questions remain. What is the detailed composition of the seas, and can chemistry in a nonpolar solvent yield compounds of astrobiological interest ? Are there ‘groundwater’ reservoirs of methane seething beneath the surface, perhaps venting to form otherwise improbable equatorial clouds? And what role, if any, do clathrates play today

  8. Copper, iron and the organic ligands that bind them - updates from San Francisco Bay and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, K. N.; Bundy, R.; Biller, D.; Bruland, K. W.; Barbeau, K.

    2015-12-01

    Building on more than 30 years of measurements in San Francisco Bay by Russ Flegal and others, the concentrations of dissolved manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were determined from a suite of water quality monitoring program stations in North, Central and South Bay using inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry following preconcentration on a Nobias-chelate PA1 resin. Given the importance of organic ligands in governing iron solubility and copper bioavailability in natural waters, the organic complexation of dissolved iron and copper in these samples was determined from multiple analytical windows applied to competitive ligand exchange- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. This study constitutes the first dataset of iron speciation in San Francisco Bay and expands upon prior work evaluating the potential for copper toxicity in this urbanized estuary. Recent advances in voltammetric techniques emerging from a Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) working group on metal-binding ligands in the marine environment, and insights gained from high-resolution ligand measurements from the U.S. GEOTRACES program, highlight how metal-binding ligands in San Francisco Bay compare with those of the coastal and open ocean.

  9. Expeditious organic-free assembly: morphologically controlled synthesis of iron oxides using microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Jiahui; Varma, Rajender S.

    2013-08-01

    A microwave hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of iron oxides, α-Fe2O3, β-FeOOH, and the junction of α-Fe2O3-β-FeOOH. This method is absolutely organic-free, and various structures could be obtained simply by changing the use of the iron source and NaOH. The as-prepared sea urchin-like β-FeOOH exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2.A microwave hydrothermal method is developed for the synthesis of iron oxides, α-Fe2O3, β-FeOOH, and the junction of α-Fe2O3-β-FeOOH. This method is absolutely organic-free, and various structures could be obtained simply by changing the use of the iron source and NaOH. The as-prepared sea urchin-like β-FeOOH exhibits excellent catalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H2O2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and the reaction profile of the microwave system. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02663a

  10. Influence of carbonization methods on the aromaticity of pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) components of soil amendments such as biochar will influence the fundamental soil chemistry including the metal speciation, nutrient availability, and microbial activity. Quantitative correlation is necessary between (i) pyrogenic DOC components of varying aromaticity...

  11. Growth of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Injection CVD Using Cyclopentadienyliron Dicarbonyl Dimer and Cyclooctatetraene Iron Tricarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Thomas; Landi, Brian J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2004-01-01

    Preferential oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared by the injection chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using either cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer or cycloctatetraene iron tricarbonyl as the iron catalyst source. The catalyst precursors were dissolved in toluene as the carrier solvent for the injections. The concentration of the catalyst was found to influence both the growth of the nanotubes as well as the amount of iron in the deposited material. As deposited the multiwalled carbon nanotubes contained as little as 2.8% iron by weight. The material was deposited onto tantalum foil and fused silica substrates. The nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. This synthetic route provides a simple and scalable method to deposit MWNTs with a low defect density, low metal content and preferred orientation.

  12. Effects of iron-reducing bacteria on carbon steel corrosion induced by thermophilic sulfate-reducing consortia.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2014-02-28

    Four thermophilic bacterial species, including the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacillus sp. G2 and the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum sp. SRB-M, were employed to integrate a bacterial consortium. A second consortium was integrated with the same bacteria, except for Geobacillus sp. G2. Carbon steel coupons were subjected to batch cultures of both consortia. The corrosion induced by the complete consortium was 10 times higher than that induced by the second consortium, and the ferrous ion concentration was consistently higher in iron-reducing consortia. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis of the carbon steel surface showed mineral films colonized by bacteria. The complete consortium caused profuse fracturing of the mineral film, whereas the non-iron-reducing consortium did not generate fractures. These data show that the iron-reducing activity of Geobacillus sp. G2 promotes fracturing of mineral films, thereby increasing steel corrosion.

  13. Competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of organic matter on iron oxide: II. Displacement and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B; Mehlhorn, T.L.; Liang, Liyuan

    1996-08-01

    The competitive interactions between organic matter compounds and mineral surfaces are poorly understood, yet these interactions may play a significant role in the stability and co-transport of mineral colloids and/or environmental contaminants. In this study, the processes of competitive adsorption, displacement, and transport of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM) are investigated with several model organic compounds in packed beds of iron oxide-coated quartz columns. Results demonstrated that strongly-binding organic compounds are competitively adsorbed and displace those weakly-bound organic compounds along the flow path. Among the four organic compounds studied, polyacrylic acid (PAA) appeared to be the most competitive, whereas SR-NOM was more competitive than phthalic and salicylic acids. A diffuse adsorption and sharp desorption front (giving an appearance of irreversible adsorption) of the SR-NOM breakthrough curves are explained as being a result of the competitive time-dependent adsorption and displacement processes between different organic components within the SR-NOM. The stability and transport of iron oxide colloids varied as one organic component competitively displaces another. Relatively large quantities of iron oxide colloids are transported when the more strongly-binding PAA competitively displaces the weakly-binding SR-NOM or when SR-NOM competitively displaces phthalic and salicylic acids. Results of this study suggest that the chemical composition and hence the functional behavior of NOM (e.g., in stabilizing mineral colloids and in complexing contaminants) can change along its flow path as a result of the dynamic competitive interactions between heterogeneous NOM subcomponents. Further studies are needed to better define and quantify these NOM components as well as their roles in contaminant partitioning and transport. 37 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  15. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M. III

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation over rhenium-iron oxide catalysts and their characterization by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Komlyama, M.; Tsunoda, T.; Ogino, Y.

    1986-03-01

    Rhenium-iron oxide catalysts, prepared by the conventional impregnation technique and activated by reduction under various conditions, gave higher selectivities to oxygenates (mainly alcohols) in carbon monoxide hydrogenation than the control iron oxide (magnetite) catalysts. Bulk-sensitive soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS) along with X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy found that in rhenium-iron oxide catalysts iron oxide is in the form of an intermediate phase represented as (1 - x)Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/.xFe/sub 8/3/O/sub 4/; between Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2//O/sub 3/. The extent of the formation of this intermediate phase was correlated with the oxygenate selectivities of the rhenium-iron oxide catalysts. The usefulness of SXS in characterizing bulk of solid catalysts was demonstrated.

  17. Energy of the Isolated Metastable Iron-Nickel FCC Nanocluster with a Carbon Atom in the Tetragonal Interstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Natalya V.; Nedolya, Anatoliy V.

    2017-02-01

    The energy of the isolated iron-nickel nanocluster was calculated by molecular mechanics method using Lennard-Jones potential. The cluster included a carbon atom that drifted from an inside octahedral interstice to a tetrahedral interstice in direction and after that in <222> direction to the surface. In addition, one of 14 iron atoms was replaced by a nickel atom, the position of which was changing during simulation.

  18. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed.

  19. Heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of 4-chlorophenol using iron/ordered mesoporous carbon catalyst.

    PubMed

    Duan, Feng; Yang, Yuezhu; Li, Yuping; Cao, Hongbin; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon supported iron catalysts (Fe/OMC) were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and investigated in Fenton-like degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4CP) in this work. XRD and TEM characterization showed that the iron oxides were well dispersed on the OMC support and grew bigger with the increasing calcination temperature. The catalyst prepared with a lower calcination temperature showed higher decomposition efficiency towards 4CP and H2O2, but more metals were leached. The effect of different operational parameters such as initial pH, H2O2 dosage, and reaction temperature on the catalytic activity was evaluated. The results showed that 96.1% of 4CP and 47.4% of TOC was removed after 270 min at 30°C, initial pH of 3 and 6.6 mmol/L H2O2. 88% of 4CP removal efficiency was retained after three successive runs, indicating Fe/OMC a stable catalyst for Fenton reaction. 4CP was degraded predominately by the attack of hydroxyl radical formed on the catalyst surface and in the bulk solution due to iron leaching. Based on the degradation intermediates detected by high performance liquid chromatography, possible oxidation pathways were proposed during the 4CP degradation.

  20. One-step synthesis of nitrogen-iron coordinated carbon nanotube catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woongchul; Yang, Gang; Kim, Suk Lae; Liu, Peng; Sue, Hung-Jue; Yu, Choongho

    2016-05-01

    Prohibitively expensive precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been one of the major hurdles in a wide use of electrochemical cells. Recent significant efforts to develop precious metal free catalysts have resulted in excellent catalytic activities. However, complicated and time-consuming synthesis processes have negated the cost benefit. Moreover, detailed analysis about catalytically active sites and the role of each element in these high-performance catalysts containing nanomaterials for large surface areas are often lacking. Here we report a facile one-step synthesis method of nitrogen-iron coordinated carbon nanotube (CNT) catalysts without precious metals. Our catalysts show excellent long-term stability and onset ORR potential comparable to those of other precious metal free catalysts, and the maximum limiting current density from our catalysts is larger than that of the Pt-based catalysts. We carry out a series of synthesis and characterization experiments with/without iron and nitrogen in CNT, and identify that the coordination of nitrogen and iron in CNT plays a key role in achieving the excellent catalytic performances. We anticipate our one-step process could be used for mass production of precious metal free electrocatalysts for a wide range of electrochemical cells including fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

  1. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M.; Scala, F.R.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  2. Erosion of organic carbon in the Arctic as a geological carbon dioxide sink.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Robert G; Galy, Valier; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Dellinger, Mathieu; Bryant, Charlotte; O'Regan, Matt; Gröcke, Darren R; Coxall, Helen; Bouchez, Julien; Calmels, Damien

    2015-08-06

    Soils of the northern high latitudes store carbon over millennial timescales (thousands of years) and contain approximately double the carbon stock of the atmosphere. Warming and associated permafrost thaw can expose soil organic carbon and result in mineralization and carbon dioxide (CO2) release. However, some of this soil organic carbon may be eroded and transferred to rivers. If it escapes degradation during river transport and is buried in marine sediments, then it can contribute to a longer-term (more than ten thousand years), geological CO2 sink. Despite this recognition, the erosional flux and fate of particulate organic carbon (POC) in large rivers at high latitudes remains poorly constrained. Here, we quantify the source of POC in the Mackenzie River, the main sediment supplier to the Arctic Ocean, and assess its flux and fate. We combine measurements of radiocarbon, stable carbon isotopes and element ratios to correct for rock-derived POC. Our samples reveal that the eroded biospheric POC has resided in the basin for millennia, with a mean radiocarbon age of 5,800 ± 800 years, much older than the POC in large tropical rivers. From the measured biospheric POC content and variability in annual sediment yield, we calculate a biospheric POC flux of 2.2(+1.3)(-0.9) teragrams of carbon per year from the Mackenzie River, which is three times the CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering in this basin. Offshore, we find evidence for efficient terrestrial organic carbon burial over the Holocene period, suggesting that erosion of organic carbon-rich, high-latitude soils may result in an important geological CO2 sink.

  3. Iron(3) oxide-based nanoparticles as catalysts in advanced organic aqueous oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zelmanov, Grigory; Semiat, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Water contaminated with dissolved organic matter is an important issue to resolve for all-purpose uses. The catalytic behavior of iron-based nanocatalysts was investigated for the treatment of contaminated water in the advanced chemical oxidation process. In this study, typical organic contaminants, such as ethylene glycol and phenol, were chosen to simulate common contaminants. It was shown that the two substances are efficiently destroyed by the Fenton-like reaction using iron(3) oxide-based nanocatalysts in the presence of hydrogen peroxide without the need for UV or visible radiation sources at room temperature. A strong effect of nanocatalyst concentration on reaction rate was shown. The kinetic reaction was found and the reaction rate coefficient k was calculated.

  4. First discovery of the organic materials in deep-sea iron cosmic spherule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanchang, Peng; Peicang, XU

    1993-01-01

    The dust impact mass analyzer (PUMA) carried by the spacecraft Vega 1, Vega 2 and Giotto has provided the first direct measurements of the physical and chemical properties of cometary dust. The results indicate that most of the cometary dust particles are rich in light elements such as H, C, N, and O, suggesting the validity of models that describe the cometary dust as including organic material. Up to now, there were none found with the organic material from the deep-sea cosmic spherules. We have determined this from the deep-sea iron cosmic spherules collected from the North Pacific. An iron cosmic spherule (382 microns in diameter) was determined by the Laser Raman Microprobe.

  5. Final Report: The Impact of Carbonate on Surface Protonation, Electron Transfer and Crystallization Reactions in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David Adams

    2013-07-02

    This project addresses key issues of importance in the geochemical behavior of iron oxides and in the geochemical cycling of carbon and iron. For Fe, we are specifically studying the influence of carbonate on electron transfer reactions, solid phase transformations, and the binding of carbonate to reactive sites on the edges of particles. The emphasis on carbonate arises because it is widely present in the natural environment, is known to bind strongly to oxide surfaces, is reactive on the time scales of interest, and has a speciation driven by acid-base reactions. The geochemical behavior of carbonate strongly influences global climate change and CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies. Our goal is to answer key questions with regards to specific site binding, electron transfer reactions, and crystallization reactions of iron oxides that impact both the geochemical cycling of iron and CO{sub 2} species. Our work is focused on the molecular level description of carbonate chemistry in solution including the prediction of isotope fractionation factors. We have also done work on critical atmospheric species.

  6. Effect of organic substituents on the adsorption of carbon dioxide on a metal-organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Lefedova, O. V.; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide on the MOF-5 metal-organic framework and modifications of it obtained by replacing the hydrogen atoms in the organic ligands with electron donor (-CH3,-OCH3) or electron acceptor groups (-CN,-NO2) is investigated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) method and density functional theory (DFT). It is shown that the adsorption of carbon dioxide molecules on the structures of metal-organic frameworks is most likely on Zn4O clusters, and that the adsorption of carbon dioxide is of a physical nature. The presence of substituents-CH3,-OCH3,-CN in metal-organic frameworks increases their capacity to adsorb carbon dioxide, while that of nitro groups (-NO2) has the opposite effect.

  7. Raman spectroscopy: Caution when interpreting organic carbon from oxidising environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brolly, Connor; Parnell, John; Bowden, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Oxidation on Mars is primarily caused by the high influx of cosmic and solar radiation which interacts with the Martian surface. The evidence of this can be seen in the ubiquitous red colouration of the Martian sediment. This radiation will destroy most signals of life in the top few metres of the Martian surface. If organic carbon (one of the building blocks of life) is present within the accessible Martian sediments, it is very likely that it will have experienced some oxidation. ESA's ExoMars mission set to fly in 2018, has on board a miniaturised Raman spectrometer. As Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to carbonaceous material and will be primarily used to characterise organics, it is essential that the effect oxidation has on the Raman carbon signal is assessed. Oxidised carbonaceous shales were analysed using Raman spectroscopy to assess this issue. Results show that haematite has a band which occurs in the same frequency as the carbon D band, which cannot be distinguished from each other. This can lead to a misidentification of the carbon D band and a misinterpretation of the carbon order. Consequently, caution must be taken when applying Raman spectroscopy for organic carbon analysis in oxidised terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, including on Mars.

  8. Kinetics of carbon precipitation and re-solution in low Si-content silicon iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, F.; Wakisaka, T.; Kronmüller, H.

    2005-11-01

    In low Si-charged silicon iron (Fe + 0.1%Si) the kinetics of carbon diffusion, precipitation and redissolution have been carefully studied by means of the magnetic after-effect (MAE) within the temperature range 200 K < Ta < 1100 K. The activation parameters of respective processes have been determined by means of least squares fitting the experimental data. In the presence of substitutionally alloyed Si, the C-Richter MAE gives rise to two Debye-type relaxation peaks - resulting from elementary steps of carbon diffusion combined with reorientation in the (i) unperturbed and (ii) Si-modified Fe matrix - situated near 265 K and 320 K, with activation enthalpies, Qi, of 0.84 eV and 1.08 eV. Two-stage carbon precipitation, obeying first order kinetics, occurs, intensively, near 390 K with the elementary C diffusion enthalpy of 0.84 eV and, rather weakly, near 540 K with an enthalpy of 1.18 eV. The resulting precipitates are discussed in terms of partly intra-grain deposited iron carbide phases (Fe3C) and, mainly, grain-boundary determined C trapping. Decomposition of these precipitates occurring, again, in two stages - situated near 740 K and 950 K, with activation enthalpies of 1.72 and 2.02 eV - leads to a restitution of the state of maximum interstitially dissolved C in the matrix. Of practical importance for silicon steel fabrication is the observation that, after complete C precipitation (Ta . 580 K), the material can be kept in a state of minimum dissolved carbon content - and hence of minimum ac-losses - by not allowing it to warm up above Ta 650 K.

  9. Effect of temperature on the kinetics of acetylene decomposition over reduced iron oxide catalyst for the production of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, M. H.; Abdel Halim, K. S.; Soliman, N. K.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene over nanosized metallic iron. A high metal loading was chosen in order to obtain a longer catalytic activity. Different nanosized iron oxides were prepared using chemical methods. A catalyst of the composition 40% Fe 2O 3:60% Al 2O 3 is prepared by wet impregnation method. The prepared samples of iron oxides supported in alumina were completely reduced by hydrogen gas at 500 °C and then constant rate of acetylene gas was passed over the freshly reduced samples at different reaction conditions. The kinetics of CNTs synthesis on reduced nanosized Fe 2O 3 supported on alumina was investigated as a function of crystal size of iron oxide catalyst (35-150 nm) and decomposition temperature (400-700 °C). The microstructure and morphology of the synthesized catalyst and CNTs were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and XRD analysis. The results revealed that both the crystal size of iron oxide and decomposition temperature have a significant effect on the percentage yield of carbon deposited. It increased by decreasing crystal size of the catalyst and increasing decomposition temperature to certain limit. The maximum yield of carbon deposited (426%) was obtained at decomposition temperature 600 °C and over nanosized iron oxide catalyst with crystal size of average 35 nm.

  10. Black Carbon - Soil Organic Matter abiotic and biotic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, Francesca; Boot, Claudia; Denef, Karolien; Foster, Erika; Haddix, Michelle; Jiang, Xinyu; Soong, Jennifer; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires, prescribed burns and the use of char as a soil amendment all add large quantities of black carbon to soils, with profound, yet poorly understood, effects on soil biology and chemical-physical structure. We will present results emerging from our black carbon program, which addresses questions concerning: 1) black carbon-soil organic matter interactions, 2) char decomposition and 3) impacts on microbial community structure and activities. Our understanding derives from a complementary set of post-fire black carbon field surveys and laboratory and field experiments with grass and wood char amendments, in which we used molecular (i.e., BPCA, PLFA) and isotopic (i.e., 13C and 15N labelled char) tracers. Overall, emerging results demonstrate that char additions to soil are prone to fast erosion, but a fraction remains that increases water retention and creates a better environment for the microbial community, particularly favoring gram negative bacteria. However, microbial decomposition of black carbon only slowly consumes a small fraction of it, thus char still significantly contributes to soil carbon sequestration. This is especially true in soils with little organic matter, where black carbon additions may even induce negative priming.

  11. Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The organic matter that escapes decomposition is buried and preserved in marine sediments, with much debate as to whether the amount depends on bottom-water O2 concentration. One group argues that decomposition is more efficient with O2, and hence, organic carbon will be preferentially oxidized in its presence, and preserved in its absence. Another group argues that the kinetics of organic matter decomposition are similar in the presence and absence of O2, and there should be no influence of O2 on preservation. A compilation of carbon preservation shows that both groups are right, depending on the circumstances of deposition. At high rates of deposition, such as near continental margins, little difference in preservation is found with varying bottom-water O2. It is important that most carbon in these sediments decomposes by anaerobic pathways regardless of bottom-water O2. Hence, little influence of bottom-water O2 on preservation would, in fact, be expected. As sedimentation rate drops, sediments deposited under oxygenated bottom water become progressively more aerobic, while euxinic sediments remain anaerobic. Under these circumstances, the relative efficiencies of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition could affect preservation. Indeed, enhanced preservation is observed in low-O2 and euxinic environments. To explore in detail the factors contributing to this enhanced carbon preservation, aspects of the biochemistries of the aerobic and anaerobic process are reviewed. Other potential influences on preservation are also explored. Finally, a new model for organic carbon decomposition, the "pseudo-G" model, is developed. This model couples the degradation of refractory organic matter to the overall metabolic activity of the sediment, and has consequences for carbon preservation due to the mixing together of labile and refractory organic matter by bioturbation.

  12. Pathways of organic carbon oxidation in three continental margin sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Fossing, H.; Glud, R.; Gundersen, J.; Ramsing, N. B.; Thamdrup, B.; Hansen, J. W.; Nielsen, L. P.; Hall, P. O.

    1993-01-01

    We have combined several different methodologies to quantify rates of organic carbon mineralization by the various electron acceptors in sediments from the coast of Denmark and Norway. Rates of NH4+ and Sigma CO2 liberation sediment incubations were used with O2 penetration depths to conclude that O2 respiration accounted for only between 3.6-17.4% of the total organic carbon oxidation. Dentrification was limited to a narrow zone just below the depth of O2 penetration, and was not a major carbon oxidation pathway. The processes of Fe reduction, Mn reduction and sulfate reduction dominated organic carbon mineralization, but their relative significance varied depending on the sediment. Where high concentrations of Mn-oxide were found (3-4 wt% Mn), only Mn reduction occurred. With lower Mn oxide concentrations more typical of coastal sediments, Fe reduction and sulfate reduction were most important and of a similar magnitude. Overall, most of the measured O2 flux into the sediment was used to oxidized reduced inorganic species and not organic carbon. We suspect that the importance of O2 respiration in many coastal sediments has been overestimated, whereas metal oxide reduction (both Fe and Mn reduction) has probably been well underestimated.

  13. Correlating organic carbon concentration and composition with mineralogy in deep-sea pelagic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Estes, E. R.; Hansel, C. M.; Anderson, C. H.; Murray, R. W.; Dyar, M. D.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Spivack, A. J.; Sauvage, J.; McKinley, C. C.; Homola, K.; Present, T. M.; D'Hondt, S.

    2015-12-01

    remineralization. The persistence of iron(III) phases and presence of clays such as illite could provide protection of organic carbon at depth. Differences among the sites and with depth point to mineralogical controls on the amount and type of carbon preserved, which may point to mineral-hosted carbon as a dominant control on the subsurface biosphere.

  14. Removal of Trace Arsenic to Meet Drinking Water Standards Using Iron Oxide Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ntim, Susana Addo; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-05-12

    This study presents the removal of trace level arsenic to meet drinking water standards using an iron oxide-multi-walled carbon nanotube (Fe-MWCNT) hybrid as a sorbent. The synthesis was facilitated by the high degree of nanotube functionalization using a microwave assisted process, and a controlled assembly of iron oxide was possible where the MWCNT served as an effective support for the oxide. In the final product, 11 % of the carbon atoms were attached to Fe. The Fe-MWCNT was effective in arsenic removal to below the drinking water standard levels of 10 µg L(-1). The absorption capacity of the composite was 1723 µg g(-1) and 189 µg g(-1) for As(III) and As(V) respectively. The adsorption of As(V) on Fe-MWCNT was faster than that of As(III). The pseudo-second order rate equation was found to effectively describe the kinetics of arsenic adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for As(III) and As(V) fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  15. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  16. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-07

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy.

  17. The influence of iron concentration on biohydrogen production from organic waste via anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Boni, M R; Sbaffoni, S; Tuccinardi, L

    2014-01-01

    Different micronutrients are essential for bacterial fermentative metabolism. In particular, some metallic ions, like iron, are able to affect the biological H₂production. In this study, batch tests were carried out in stirred reactors to investigate the effects of Fe²⁺ concentration on fermentative H₂production from two different organic fractions of waste: source-separated organic waste (OW) from a composting plant including organic fraction of municipal solid waste and food waste (FW) from a refectory. Iron supplementation at 1000 mg/L caused twofold increment in the cumulative H₂production from OW (922 mL) compared with the control (without iron doping). The highest H₂production (1736 mL) from FW occurred when Fe²⁺ concentration was equal to 50 mg/L. In addition, the process production from OW was modelled through the modified Gompertz equation. For FW, a translated Gompertz equation was used by the authors, because the initial lag-time for H₂production from FW was almost negligible.

  18. Enhanced Fenton-like removal of nitrobenzene via internal microelectrolysis in nano zerovalent iron/activated carbon composite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sihai; Wu, Yaoguo; Yao, Hairui; Lu, Cong; Zhang, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Fenton-like catalysis using nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) is limited by nZVI aggregation and activity loss due to inactive ferric oxide forming on the nZVI surface, which hinders electron transfer. A novel iron-carbon composite catalyst consisting of nZVI and granular activated carbon (GAC), which can undergo internal iron-carbon microelectrolysis spontaneously, was successfully fabricated by the adsorption-reduction method. The catalyst efficiency was evaluated in nitrobenzene (NB) removal via the Fenton-like process (H2O2-nZVI/GAC). The results showed that nZVI/GAC composite was good for dispersing nZVI on the surface of GAC, which permitted much better removal efficiency (93.0%) than nZVI (31.0%) or GAC (20.0%) alone. Moreover, iron leaching decreased from 1.28 to 0.58 mg/L after reaction of 240 min and the oxidation kinetic of the Fenton-like reaction can be described well by the second-order reaction kinetic model (R2=0.988). The composite catalyst showed sustainable catalytic ability and GAC performed as a medium for electron transfer in internal iron-carbon microelectrolysis to promote Fe2+ regeneration and Fe3+/Fe2+ cycles. Therefore, this study represents an important method to design a low cost and high efficiency Fenton-like catalyst in practical application.

  19. Iron-rich nanoparticle encapsulated, nitrogen doped porous carbon materials as efficient cathode electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Lu, Lu; Xu, Kongliang; Wang, Heming; Jin, Yinghua; Jason Ren, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Developing efficient, readily available, and sustainable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral medium is of great importance to practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Herein, a porous nitrogen-doped carbon material with encapsulated Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-Nx/C) has been developed and utilized as an efficient ORR catalyst in MFCs. The material was obtained through pyrolysis of a highly porous organic polymer containing iron(II) porphyrins. The characterizations of morphology, crystalline structure and elemental composition reveal that Fe-Nx/C consists of well-dispersed Fe-based nanoparticles coated by N-doped graphitic carbon layer. ORR catalytic performance of Fe-Nx/C has been evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode measurements, and its application as a cathode electrocatalyst in an air-cathode single-chamber MFC has been investigated. Fe-Nx/C exhibits comparable or better performance in MFCs than 20% Pt/C, displaying higher cell voltage (601 mV vs. 591 mV), maximum power density (1227 mW m-2 vs. 1031 mW m-2) and Coulombic efficiency (50% vs. 31%). These findings indicate that Fe-Nx/C is more tolerant and durable than Pt/C in a system with bacteria metabolism and thus holds great potential for practical MFC applications.

  20. Size and Promoter Effects on Stability of Carbon-Nanofiber-Supported Iron-Based Fischer–Tropsch Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2–C4 olefins, which are important building blocks for the chemical industry. Bulk iron catalysts (with promoters) were conventionally used, but these deactivate due to either phase transformation or carbon deposition resulting in disintegration of the catalyst particles. For supported iron catalysts, iron particle growth may result in loss of catalytic activity over time. In this work, the effects of promoters and particle size on the stability of supported iron nanoparticles (initial sizes of 3–9 nm) were investigated at industrially relevant conditions (340 °C, 20 bar, H2/CO = 1). Upon addition of sodium and sulfur promoters to iron nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers, initial catalytic activities were high, but substantial deactivation was observed over a period of 100 h. In situ Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that after 20 h time-on-stream, promoted catalysts attained 100% carbidization, whereas for unpromoted catalysts, this was around 25%. In situ carbon deposition studies were carried out using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). No carbon laydown was detected for the unpromoted catalysts, whereas for promoted catalysts, carbon deposition occurred mainly over the first 4 h and thus did not play a pivotal role in deactivation over 100 h. Instead, the loss of catalytic activity coincided with the increase in Fe particle size to 20–50 nm, thereby supporting the proposal that the loss of active Fe surface area was the main cause of deactivation. PMID:27330847

  1. Size and Promoter Effects on Stability of Carbon-Nanofiber-Supported Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingxiu; Torres Galvis, Hirsa M; Koeken, Ard C J; Kirilin, Alexey; Dugulan, A Iulian; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; de Jong, Krijn P

    2016-06-03

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2-C4 olefins, which are important building blocks for the chemical industry. Bulk iron catalysts (with promoters) were conventionally used, but these deactivate due to either phase transformation or carbon deposition resulting in disintegration of the catalyst particles. For supported iron catalysts, iron particle growth may result in loss of catalytic activity over time. In this work, the effects of promoters and particle size on the stability of supported iron nanoparticles (initial sizes of 3-9 nm) were investigated at industrially relevant conditions (340 °C, 20 bar, H2/CO = 1). Upon addition of sodium and sulfur promoters to iron nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers, initial catalytic activities were high, but substantial deactivation was observed over a period of 100 h. In situ Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that after 20 h time-on-stream, promoted catalysts attained 100% carbidization, whereas for unpromoted catalysts, this was around 25%. In situ carbon deposition studies were carried out using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). No carbon laydown was detected for the unpromoted catalysts, whereas for promoted catalysts, carbon deposition occurred mainly over the first 4 h and thus did not play a pivotal role in deactivation over 100 h. Instead, the loss of catalytic activity coincided with the increase in Fe particle size to 20-50 nm, thereby supporting the proposal that the loss of active Fe surface area was the main cause of deactivation.

  2. Catalytic Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Terpene Scaffolds: Access to Challenging Bio-Based Organic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Giulia; Stuck, Moritz; Martín, Carmen; Belmonte, Marta Martínez; Martin, Eddy; Escudero-Adán, Eduardo C; Kleij, Arjan W

    2016-06-08

    The challenging coupling of highly substituted terpene oxides and carbon dioxide into bio-based cyclic organic carbonates catalyzed by Al(aminotriphenolate) complexes is reported. Both acyclic as well as cyclic terpene oxides were used as coupling partners, showing distinct reactivity/selectivity behavior. Whereas cyclic terpene oxides showed excellent chemoselectivity towards the organic carbonate product, acyclic substrates exhibited poorer selectivities owing to concomitant epoxide rearrangement reactions and the formation of undesired oligo/polyether side products. Considering the challenging nature of these coupling reactions, the isolated yields of the targeted bio-carbonates are reasonable and in most cases in the range 50-60 %. The first crystal structures of tri-substituted terpene based cyclic carbonates are reported and their stereoconnectivity suggests that their formation proceeds through a double inversion pathway.

  3. Organic matter production response to CO2 increase in open subarctic plankton communities: Comparison of six microcosm experiments under iron-limited and -enriched bloom conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Sugie, Koji; Endo, Hisashi; Suzuki, Koji; Nishioka, Jun; Ono, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    Increase in seawater pCO2 and the corresponding decrease in pH caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (i.e., ocean acidification) may affect organic matter production by phytoplankton communities. Organic matter production forms the basis of marine food webs and plays a crucial role in oceanic CO2 uptake through the biological carbon pump, and hence will potentially affect future marine ecosystem dynamics. However, responses of organic matter production in open ocean plankton ecosystems to CO2 increase have not been fully examined. We conducted on-deck microcosm experiments using high nutrient, low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters in the western subarctic Pacific and oceanic Bering Sea basin in summer 2008 and 2009, respectively, to examine the impacts of elevated CO2 on particulate and dissolved organic matter (i.e., POM and DOM, respectively) production. Iron deficient natural plankton communities were incubated for 7-14 days under multiple CO2 levels with and without iron enrichments (hereafter +Fe and -Fe treatments, respectively). By combining with our previous experiments at two sites, we created a comprehensive dataset on responses of organic matter production to CO2 increase during macronutrient replete conditions in HNLC waters. Significant differences in net particulate organic carbon production among CO2 treatments were observed only in the -Fe treatments, whereas that in net dissolved organic carbon production were mainly observed in the +Fe treatments, suggesting that CO2 may affect different processes depending on the Fe nutritional status. However, impacts of CO2 were not consistent among experiments and were much smaller than the consistent positive effects of Fe enrichment. In contrast, no significant differences among the CO2 treatments were observed for organic carbon partitioning into POM and DOM, and carbon to nitrogen ratio of net produced POM. We conclude that CO2 does not play a primary role, but could have secondary effects on

  4. Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Bond, T. C.

    2009-09-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols affect the radiative balance of the Earth by absorbing and scattering light. While BC is highly absorbing, some organic compounds also have significant absorption, which is greater at near-ultraviolet and blue wavelengths. To the extent that OC absorbs visible light, it may be a non-negligible contributor to direct aerosol radiative forcing. In this work, we examine absorption by primary OC emitted from solid fuel pyrolysis. We provide absorption spectra of this material, which can be related to the imaginary refractive index. This material has polar character but is not fully water-soluble: more than 92% was extractable by methanol or acetone, compared with 73% for water and 52% for hexane. Water-soluble organic carbon contributed to light absorption at both ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. However, a larger portion came from organic carbon that is extractable only by methanol. The spectra of water-soluble organic carbon are similar to others in the literature. We compared spectra for material generated with different wood type, wood size and pyrolysis temperature. Higher wood temperature is the main factor creating organic aerosol with higher absorption, causing about a factor of four increase in mass-normalized absorption at visible wavelengths. A simple model suggests that, despite the absorption, both high-temperature and low-temperature carbon have negative climate forcing over a surface with average albedo.

  5. Effect of some organic solvent-water mixtures composition on precipitated calcium carbonate in carbonation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacka-Łyskawa, Donata; Kościelska, Barbara; Karczewski, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate particles were obtained during carbonation of calcium hydroxide slurry with carbon dioxide. Aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol, n-butanol and glycerol were used as solvents. Concentration of organic additives in the reactive mixture was from 0% to 20% (vol). Precipitation process were performed in a stirred tank reactor equipped with gas distributor. Multimodal courses of particles size distribution were determined for produced CaCO3 particles. Calcium carbonate as calcite was precipitated in all experiments. The mean Sauter diameter of CaCO3 particles decreased when the concentration of all used organic additives increased. The amount of small particle fraction in the product increased with the increasing concentration of organic solvents. Similar physical properties of used liquid phase resulted in the similar characteristics of obtained particles.

  6. Interpreting carbonate and organic carbon isotope covariance in the sedimentary record.

    PubMed

    Oehlert, Amanda M; Swart, Peter K

    2014-08-19

    Many negative δ(13)C excursions in marine carbonates from the geological record are interpreted to record significant biogeochemical events in early Earth history. The assumption that no post-depositional processes can simultaneously alter carbonate and organic δ(13)C values towards more negative values is the cornerstone of this approach. However, the effects of post-depositional alteration on the relationship between carbonate and organic δ(13)C values have not been directly evaluated. Here we present paired carbonate and organic δ(13)C records that exhibit a coupled negative excursion resulting from multiple periods of meteoric alteration of the carbonate δ(13)C record, and consequent contributions of isotopically negative terrestrial organic matter to the sedimentary record. The possibility that carbonate and organic δ(13)C records can be simultaneously shifted towards lower δ(13)C values during periods of subaerial exposure may necessitate the reappraisal of some of the δ(13)C anomalies associated with noteworthy biogeochemical events throughout Earth history.

  7. Enhanced cathode performance of nano-sized lithium iron phosphate composite using polytetrafluoroethylene as carbon precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Herein we report a facile and efficient solid state synthesis of carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4/C) cathode material achieved through the pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The current investigation is comparatively analyzed with the results of the composites of LiFePO4/C (LFP/C) synthesized using polystyrene-block-polybutadiene (PS-b-PBD), polyethyhylene (PE) and sucrose as carbon precursors. The optimized LFP/CPTFE composite is synthesized at 700 °C using 10 wt.% PTFE. The composite exhibits remarkable improvement in capacity, cyclability and rate capability compared to those of LFP/C synthesized using (PS-b-PBD), PE and sucrose. The specific discharge capacities as high as 166 mA h g-1 (theoretical capacity: 170 mA h g-1) at 0.2 C and 114 mA h g-1 at 10 C rates were achieved with LFP/CPTFE. In addition, the composite exhibits a long-term cycling stability with the capacity loss of only 11.4% after 1000 cycles. PTFE shifts the size distribution of the composite to nanometer scale (approximately 120 nm), however the addition of sucrose and other polymers do not have such an effect. According to TEM and XPS analysis, LFP/CPTFE particles are mostly coated with a few nanometers thick carbon layer forming a core-shell structure. Residual carbon does not contain fluorine.

  8. Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles-decorated carbon nanotube using laser ablation in liquid and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Khashan, Khawla S; Sulaiman, Ghassan M; Mahdi, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity was investigated for iron oxide IO nanoparticles (NPs)-decorated carbon nanotubes CNT prepared successfully by Nd:YAG-pulsed laser ablation in the liquid process. TEM reveals the composite NP and exhibits semispherical of iron oxide NPs, which aggregate around rolled and unrolled graphene sheet. XRD pattern proved the presence of carbon and different phases of IO NPs. Then, the antibacterial activity of the NPs was examined against different bacteria using nutrient broth and nutrient agar methods, which was enhanced using IO. In addition, the wound-healing activity for the best antibacterial concentration is tested by using animal models successfully.

  9. Carbon Isotopic Heterogeneity of Graphite in the San Juan Mass of the Campo Del Cielo IAB Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruoka, T.; Kurat, G.; Zinner, E.; Varela, M. E.; Ametrano, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of IAB iron meteorites is still a matter of debate. It is generally believed that iron meteorites originated from molten cores in small planetesimals because the fractionation trend of trace elements (e.g., Ir, Ge, Ga, etc. vs. Ni) for most iron meteorites can be more or less explained by fractional crystallization from metal melts. However, this process cannot produce trace element characteristics of the IAB (and other) iron meteorites. To explain these trace element abundance patterns, several models have been proposed. Although most of these models require a high temperature, clear evidence has recently been obtained for a sub-solidus formation of IAB iron meteorites from noble gas analyses. Moreover, heterogeneous distributions of some trace elements in metal and other phases also suggest a low temperature origin of at least some IAB iron meteorites. Here we use the carbon isotopic compositions of graphite to constrain the origin of IAB iron meteorites. Our data confirm a possible low temperature origin of IAB iron meteorites.

  10. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-11-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS) are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the European

  11. Iron limitation in the Western Interior Seaway during the Late Cretaceous OAE 3 and its role in phosphorus recycling and enhanced organic matter preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessin, Allyson; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Hendy, Ingrid; Chappaz, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    The sedimentary record of the Coniacian-Santonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 3 (OAE 3) in the North American Western Interior Seaway is characterized by a prolonged period of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial. This study investigates the role of Fe in enhancing organic matter preservation and maintaining elevated primary productivity to sustain black shale deposition within the Coniacian-Santonian-aged Niobrara Formation in the USGS #1 Portland core. Iron speciation results indicate the development of a reactive Fe limitation coeval with reduced bioturbation and increased organic matter preservation, suggesting that decreased sulfide buffering by reactive Fe may have promoted enhanced organic matter preservation at the onset of OAE 3. An Fe limitation would also provide a feedback mechanism to sustain elevated primary productivity through enhanced phosphorus recycling. Additionally our results demonstrate inconsistencies between Fe-based and trace metal redox reconstructions. Iron indices from the Portland core indicate a single stepwise change, whereas the trace metal redox proxies indicate fluctuating redox conditions during and after OAE 3. Using Fe speciation to reconstruct past redox conditions may be complicated by a number of factors, including Fe sequestration in diagenetic carbonate phases and efficient sedimentary pyrite formation in a system with limited Fe supply and high levels of export production.

  12. Standardizing Organic Carbon Measurements for Modern and Geologic Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; Yager, J. A.; Rollins, N.; Berelson, W.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate reconstruction of carbon isotope records (as well as accurate characterization of the modern carbon cycle, e.g., in soils) relies on reliably separating organic carbon (Corg) from carbonate-derived carbon (Ccarb). These fractions are characterized by very different isotope composition, so small carbonate contamination can strongly bias Corg results, and vice versa. Several criteria must be met for accurate %C and d13C analysis. In the case of analyzing Corg, these include: (1) Ccarb must be removed through a process called "decarbonation." (2) Ccarb can be removed by acid dissolution, but if the acid is too strong then the Corg itself may solubilize, causing inaccurate results. (3) The preparation process for decarbonation can also unintentionally add carbon to samples and create a methodological blank that also will bias results. This study tested decarbonation methods with the above criteria in mind. The focus was on (i) heated treatment with weak liquid acid, e.g., 1M HCl ("liquid phase decarbonation") and (ii) heated treatment with vapor from concentrated acid ("vapor phase decarbonation"). Our results confirm that heated treatment is critical to producing reliable records; recalcitrant carbonate phases are not removed during room temperature decarbonation and can bias carbon isotope values. Vapor phase decarbonation may prevent loss in solution that is known to occur using liquid phase methods. However, our results show that blanks must be very carefully monitored and can be a concern during vapor phase treatment. Moreover, we still observe some loss of organics during vapor phase treatment, as evidenced by changes in Corg and d13C with length of reaction time. The length of vapor phase treatment must be carefully considered depending on the type of sample being tested. Overall, our work emphasizes the importance of carefully considering sample-specific decarbonation methodology in order to produce reliable values for %Corg and d13C.

  13. An isotopic study of biogeochemical relationships between carbonates and organic carbon in the Greenhorn Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. M.; Popp, Brian N.; Takigiku, Ray; Johnson, Marcus W.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon-isotopic compositions of total carbonate, inoceramid carbonate, micritic carbonate, secondary cements, total organic carbon, and geoporphyrins have been measured in 76 different beds within a 17-m interval of a core through the Greenhorn Formation, an interbedded limestone and calcareous shale unit of Cretaceous age from the Western Interior Seaway of North America. Results are considered in terms of variations in the processes of primary production and in secondary processes. It is shown that the porphyrin isotopic record reflects primary isotopic variations more closely than the TOC isotopic record and that, in these sediments, TOC is enriched in C-13 relative to its primary precursor by 0.6 to 2.8 percent. This enrichment is attributed to isotope effects within the consumer foodweb and is associated with respiratory heterotrophy. Variation in this secondary enrichment are correlated with variations in the isotopic composition of marine carbonate.

  14. Azopolymer film as an actuator for organizing multiwall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capeluto, Maria Gabriela; Fernández Salvador, Raquel; Eceiza, Aranxa; Goyanes, Silvia; Ledesma, Silvia Adriana

    2017-04-01

    In this work we show the feasibility of using an azopolymer as an actuator to induce nano- and microscale movements controlled with light from the far field. We study azopolymers and their interaction with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by inducing surface relief gratings (SRG) through optical illumination. Upon different optical treatments, the MWCNTs are organized in the troughs or the crests of a surface relief grating. Large scale organization of MWCNTs has potential in applications such as transparent electronics.

  15. Understanding drivers of the export of dissolved organic carbon from headwater catchments in Germany using Generalised Additive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Tittel, Jörg; Musolff, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    In the literature, several causes of recently increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in headwaters across eastern North America and northern and central Europe have been debated. One likely driver of the widespread increase of DOC concentrations since the early to mid 1990s are decreasing depositions of acid rain resulting in an increased solubility of organic carbon compounds including humic acids. Here, we tested the hypothesis if the reduced availability of both nitrate and sulfate stimulated the reduction of ferric iron soil minerals and the mobilisation of DOC. Decreasing depositions often resulted in a reduced availability of both nitrate and sulphate, which are preferred electron acceptors in microbial decomposition processes. As iron minerals act as efficient sorbents of organic compounds in soils its reduction may have caused a release of humic substances and hence an increasing export of DOC from headwater catchments. To test this hypothesis, time series of DOC, dissolved iron, sulfate and nitrate from several German headwater catchments were examined using Generalised Additive Models. Using this modelling technique, discharge corrected time series of concentrations were represented as a sum of a seasonal and a non-linear trend component. Both, the computed trends and seasonalities supported the redox hypothesis.

  16. Importance of Boreal Rivers in Providing Iron to Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kritzberg, Emma S.; Bedmar Villanueva, Ana; Jung, Marco; Reader, Heather E.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters – the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system. PMID:25233197

  17. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  18. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  19. Carbonaceous aerosols influencing atmospheric radiation: Black and organic carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere may both scatter and absorb solar radiation. The fraction associated with the absorbing component is generally referred to as black carbon (BC) and is mainly produced from incomplete combustion processes. The fraction associated with condensed organic compounds is generally referred to as organic carbon (OC) or organic matter and is mainly scattering. Absorption of solar radiation by carbonaceous aerosols may heat the atmosphere, thereby altering the vertical temperature profile, while scattering of solar radiation may lead to a net cooling of the atmosphere/ocean system. Carbonaceous aerosols may also enhance the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the fine particle (D < 2.5 {mu}m) source rates of both OC and BC. The source rates for anthropogenic organic aerosols may be as large as the source rates for anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, suggesting a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The role of BC in decreasing the amount of reflected solar radiation by OC and sulfates is discussed. The total estimated forcing depends on the source estimates for organic and black carbon aerosols which are highly uncertain. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is also described.

  20. Primary and Secondary Organic Carbon Downwind of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cary, R.; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2009-09-18

    In order to study particulate matter transport and transformation in the Megacity environment, fine particulate carbons were measured simultaneously at two supersites, suburban T1 and rural T2, downwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006. Organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and total carbon (TC=OC+EC) were determined near real-time by the Sunset semi-continuous field analyzer at both sites. The semi-empirical EC tracer method was used to derive primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC). Diurnal variations of primary and secondary carbons were observed at T1 and T2, which resulted from boundary layer inversion and impacted by local traffic patterns. The majority of organic carbons at T1 and T2 were secondary. The SOC% (SOC%=SOC/TC*100%) at T1 ranged from 1.2 - 100% with an average of 80.7 ± 14.4%. The SOC% at T2 ranged from 12.8 - 100% with an average of 80.1 ± 14.0%. The average EC to PM2.5 percentage (ECPM%=EC/PM2.5*100%)) and OCPM% were 6.0 % and 20.0% over the whole sampling time. The POC to PM percentage (POCPM%) and SOCPM% were 3.7% and 16.3%, respectively. The maximum ECPM% was 21.2%, and the maximum OCPM% was 57.2%. The maximum POCPM% was 12.9%, and the maximum SOC% was 49.7%. The SOC and POC during T1 to T2 transfer favourable meteorological conditions showed similar characteristics, which indicated that transport between the two supersites took place. Strong correlations between EC and carbon monoxide (CO) and odd nitrogens (NO and NOx) were observed at T1. This indicated that EC had proximate sources such as local traffic emissions. The EC/CO ratio derived by linear regression analysis when parameters are in μgC/m3 and μg/m3, respectively, was 0.0045. A strong correlation was also seen between OC and SOC vs. the sum of oxidants such as O3 and NO2 or O3, NO2 and SO2, suggesting the secondary nature of carbons observed at T1.

  1. Inorganic carbon and fossil organic carbon are source of bias for quantification of sequestered carbon in mine spoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon sequestration in mine soils has been studied as a possibility to mitigate the rising atmospheric CO2 levels and to improve mine soil quality (Vindu\\vsková and Frouz, 2013). Moreover, these soils offer an unique opportunity to study soil carbon dynamics using the chronosequence approach (using a set of sites of different age on similar parent material). However, quantification of sequestered carbon in mine soils is often complicated by fossil organic carbon (e.g., from coal or kerogen) or inorganic carbon present in the spoil. We present a methodology for quantification of both of these common constituents of mine soils. Our recommendations are based on experiments done on post-mining soils in Sokolov basin, Czech Republic. Here, fossil organic carbon is present mainly as kerogen Type I and II and represents 2-6 wt.% C in these soils. Inorganic carbon in these soils is present mainly as siderite (FeCO3), calcite (CaCO3), and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). All of these carbonates are often found in the overburden of coal seams thus being a common constituent of post-mining soils in the world. Vindu\\vsková O, Frouz J, 2013. Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review. ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 69: 1685-1698. Vindu\\vsková O, Dvořáček V, Prohasková A, Frouz J. 2014. Distinguishing recent and fossil organic matter - A critical step in evaluation of post-mining soil development - using near infrared spectroscopy. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING. 73: 643-648. Vindu\\vsková O, Sebag D, Cailleau G, Brus J, Frouz J. 2015. Methodological comparison for quantitative analysis of fossil and recently derived carbon in mine soils with high content of aliphatic kerogen. ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, 89-90:14-22.

  2. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ13C ≈ −5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼−40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ13C distributions to the observed low δ13C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe−C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe−Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in 13C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe−C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ13C values. The sharp contrast in the δ13C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5–3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ13C values and that an average δ13C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼−5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ13C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion−differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth. PMID:25512520

  3. Carbon-bearing iron phases and the carbon isotope composition of the deep Earth.

    PubMed

    Horita, Juske; Polyakov, Veniamin B

    2015-01-06

    The carbon budget and dynamics of the Earth's interior, including the core, are currently very poorly understood. Diamond-bearing, mantle-derived rocks show a very well defined peak at δ(13)C ≈ -5 ± 3‰ with a very broad distribution to lower values (∼-40‰). The processes that have produced the wide δ(13)C distributions to the observed low δ(13)C values in the deep Earth have been extensively debated, but few viable models have been proposed. Here, we present a model for understanding carbon isotope distributions within the deep Earth, involving Fe-C phases (Fe carbides and C dissolved in Fe-Ni metal). Our theoretical calculations show that Fe and Si carbides can be significantly depleted in (13)C relative to other C-bearing materials even at mantle temperatures. Thus, the redox freezing and melting cycles of lithosphere via subduction upwelling in the deep Earth that involve the Fe-C phases can readily produce diamond with the observed low δ(13)C values. The sharp contrast in the δ(13)C distributions of peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds may reflect differences in their carbon cycles, controlled by the evolution of geodynamical processes around 2.5-3 Ga. Our model also predicts that the core contains C with low δ(13)C values and that an average δ(13)C value of the bulk Earth could be much lower than ∼-5‰, consistent with those of chondrites and other planetary body. The heterogeneous and depleted δ(13)C values of the deep Earth have implications, not only for its accretion-differentiation history but also for carbon isotope biosignatures for early life on the Earth.

  4. A Versatile Iron-Tannin-Framework Ink Coating Strategy to Fabricate Biomass-Derived Iron Carbide/Fe-N-Carbon Catalysts for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yaoxin; Kong, Biao; Simon, George P; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, San Ping; Wang, Huanting

    2016-01-22

    The conversion of biomass into valuable carbon composites as efficient non-precious metal oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts is attractive for the development of commercially viable polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell technology. Herein, a versatile iron-tannin-framework ink coating strategy is developed to fabricate cellulose-derived Fe3 C/Fe-N-C catalysts using commercial filter paper, tissue, or cotton as a carbon source, an iron-tannin framework as an iron source, and dicyandiamide as a nitrogen source. The oxygen reduction performance of the resultant Fe3C/Fe-N-C catalysts shows a high onset potential (i.e. 0.98 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)), and large kinetic current density normalized to both geometric electrode area and mass of catalysts (6.4 mA cm(-2) and 32 mA mg(-1) at 0.80 V vs RHE) in alkaline condition. This method can even be used to prepare efficient catalysts using waste carbon sources, such as used polyurethane foam.

  5. Organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and annual organic carbon load of six selected rivers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Durum, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The organic carbon load during 1969-70 of each of the six rivers in this study is substantial. The 3.4-billion-kilogram (3.7-million-ton) and 47-million-kilogram (52-thousandton) annual organic carbon loads of the Mississippi River and the Brazos River (Tex.), respectively, were approximately equally distributed between dissolved and suspended phases, whereas the 725-million-kilogram (79.8-million-ton) organic load of the Missouri River was primarily in the suspended phase. The major portion of the 6.4-million-kilogram (7.3 thousand-ton) and the 19-million-kilogram (21-thousand-ton) organic carbon loads of the Sopchoppy River (Fla.) and the Neuse River (N.C.), respectively, was in the dissolved phase. DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations in most rivers were usually less than 8 milligrams per litre. SOC (suspended organic carbon) concentrations fluctuated markedly with discharge, ranging between 1 and 14 percent, by weight, in sediment of most rivers. DOC concentrations were found to be independent of discharge, whereas SOC and SIC (suspended inorganic carbon) concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. Seasonal fluctuations in DOC and SOC were exhibited by the Missouri, Neuse, Ohio, and Brazos Rivers, but both SOC and DOC concentrations were relatively constant throughout the year in the Mississippi and Sopchoppy Rivers. The carbon-nitrogen ratio in the sediment phase of all river waters averaged less than 8 1 as compared with 12:1 or greater for most soils. This high nitrogen content shows a nitrogen enrichment of the stream sediment over that in adjacent soils, which suggests that different decomposition and humification processes are operating in streams than in the soils. The abundance of organic material in the dissolved and suspended phase of all river waters in this study indicate a large capacity factor for various types of organic reactivity within all streams and the quantitative importance of organic constituents in relation to the

  6. Estimating soil organic carbon using aerial imagery and soil surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread implementation of precision agriculture practices requires low-cost, high-quality, georeferenced soil organic carbon (SOC) maps, but currently these maps require expensive sample collection and analysis. Widely available aerial imagery is a low-cost source of georeferenced data. After til...

  7. Isotope tracers of organic carbon during artificial recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.

    1998-02-09

    This project developed an analytical technique for measuring the isotope abundance for 14C and 13C in total organic carbon (TOC) in order to test whether these measurements can trace TOC interaction with sedimentary material at the bottom of rivers and lakes, soils, and subsurface aquifer rocks.

  8. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE ORGANIC MASS TO ORGANIC CARBON RATIO IN IMPROVE SAMPLES. (R831086)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ratio of organic mass (OM) to organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 aerosols at US national parks in the IMPROVE network was estimated experimentally from solvent extraction of sample filters and from the difference between PM2.5 mass and chemical constituents...

  10. Hyperspectral analysis of soil nitrogen, carbon, carbonate, and organic matter using regression trees.

    PubMed

    Gmur, Stephan; Vogt, Daniel; Zabowski, Darlene; Moskal, L Monika

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed with the FieldSpec Spectroradiometer to measure their spectral signatures across the electromagnetic range of 400 to 1,000 nm. Similarity rankings of individual soil samples reveal differences between replicate series as well as samples within the same replicate series. Using classification and regression tree statistical methods, regression trees were fitted to each spectral response using concentrations of nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter as the response variables. Statistics resulting from fitted trees were: nitrogen R(2) 0.91 (p < 0.01) at 403, 470, 687, and 846 nm spectral band widths, carbonate R(2) 0.95 (p < 0.01) at 531 and 898 nm band widths, total carbon R(2) 0.93 (p < 0.01) at 400, 409, 441 and 907 nm band widths, and organic matter R(2) 0.98 (p < 0.01) at 300, 400, 441, 832 and 907 nm band widths. Use of the 400 to 1,000 nm electromagnetic range utilizing regression trees provided a powerful, rapid and inexpensive method for assessing nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter for upper soil horizons in a nondestructive method.

  11. Advection of surface-derived organic carbon fuels microbial reduction in Bangladesh groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, Brian J.; Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Cheung, Jennifer; Watson, Marlena; Stute, Martin; Freyer, Greg A.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Matin Ahmed, Kazi; Jahangir Alam, Md.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Thomas, James; Layton, Alice C.; Zheng, Yan; Bostick, Benjamin C.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) by drinking shallow groundwater causes widespread disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries. The release of As naturally present in sediment to groundwater has been linked to the reductive dissolution of iron oxides coupled to the microbial respiration of organic carbon (OC). The source of OC driving this microbial reduction-carbon deposited with the sediments or exogenous carbon transported by groundwater-is still debated despite its importance in regulating aquifer redox status and groundwater As levels. Here, we used the radiocarbon (14C) signature of microbial DNA isolated from groundwater samples to determine the relative importance of surface and sediment-derived OC. Three DNA samples collected from the shallow, high-As aquifer and one sample from the underlying, low-As aquifer were consistently younger than the total sediment carbon, by as much as several thousand years. This difference and the dominance of heterotrophic microorganisms implies that younger, surface-derived OC is advected within the aquifer, albeit more slowly than groundwater, and represents a critical pool of OC for aquifer microbial communities. The vertical profile shows that downward transport of dissolved OC is occurring on anthropogenic timescales, but bomb 14C-labeled dissolved OC has not yet accumulated in DNA and is not fueling reduction. These results indicate that advected OC controls aquifer redox status and confirm that As release is a natural process that predates human perturbations to groundwater flow. Anthropogenic perturbations, however, could affect groundwater redox conditions and As levels in the future.

  12. Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Lindh, Markus V; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-09-01

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 'fingerprints' and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities.

  13. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  14. [Effects of gaps on distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in Pinus massoniana plantation].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Ju; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jian-Ping; Deng, Chang-Chun; Deng, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The effects of forest gap size on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon were investigated in a 39-year-old Pinus massoniana plantation in Yibin, Sichuan Province. The results showed that the composition of soil aggregates was dominated by particles > 2 mm, which accounted for 51.7%-78.7% of the whole soil samples under different sized forest gaps and beneath P. massoniana plantation. Soil organic carbon content and labile organic carbon content in > 5 mm aggregates were significantly positively correlated with the soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon contents. Furthermore, the amounts of organic carbon and labile organic carbon storage > 5 mm particles were higher than those in other size particles. Therefore, particles > 5 mm of aggregates dominated the soil carbon pool. Compared with those P. massoniana plantations, the contents of organic carbon in aggregates and total topsoil decreased during the formation of forest gaps, whereas the soil organic carbon storage under 1225 m2 gap was higher. In addition, the soil labile organic carbon content under 225 and 400 m2 gaps and the labile organic carbon storage under 225, 400, 900 and 1225 m2 gaps were higher than those the plantations, but were lower than under the other gaps. It was suggested that an appropriate size of forest gap would increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon content. The size of forest gap had significant effects on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon. The soil sample under 1225 m2 gap had the highest organic carbon content and storage and a better aggregate proportion, and the higher labile organic carbon storage. Therefore, it was suggested that 1225 m2 gap might be an optimal logging gap size.

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Loss: An Overlooked Factor in the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Enhanced Mineral Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzen, Christiana; Harrison, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals regulates the global carbon cycle on geologic timescales. Several authors have proposed that applying finely ground silicate minerals to soils, where organic acids would enhance the rate of weathering, could increase carbon uptake and mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Silicate minerals such as olivine could replace lime, which is commonly used to remediate soil acidification, thereby sequestering CO2 while achieving the same increase in soil pH. However, the effect of adding this material on soil organic matter, the largest terrestrial pool of carbon, has yet to be considered. Microbial biomass and respiration have been observed to increase with decreasing acidity, but it is unclear how long the effect lasts. If the addition of silicate minerals promotes the loss of soil organic carbon through decomposition, it could significantly reduce the efficiency of this process or even create a net carbon source. However, it is possible that this initial flush of microbial activity may be compensated for by additional organic matter inputs to soil pools due to increases in plant productivity under less acidic conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of olivine amendments on soil CO2 flux. A liming treatment representative of typical agricultural practices was also included for comparison. Samples from two highly acidic soils were split into groups amended with olivine or lime and a control group. These samples were incubated at 22°C and constant soil moisture in jars with airtight septa lids. Gas samples were extracted periodically over the course of 2 months and change in headspace CO2 concentration was determined. The effects of enhanced mineral weathering on soil organic matter have yet to be addressed by those promoting this method of carbon sequestration. This project provides the first data on the potential effects of enhanced mineral weathering in the soil environment on soil organic carbon pools.

  16. Prussian blue analogue derived magnetic carbon/cobalt/iron nanocomposite as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for activation of peroxymonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chen, Bo-Jau

    2017-01-01

    A Prussian blue analogue, cobalt hexacyanoferrate Co3[Fe(CN)6]2, was used for the first time to prepare a magnetic carbon/cobalt/iron (MCCI) nanocomposite via one-step carbonization of Co3[Fe(CN)6]2. The resulting MCCI consisted of evenly-distributed cobalt and cobalt ferrite in a porous carbonaceous matrix, making it an attractive magnetic heterogeneous catalyst for activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). As Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation was adopted as a model test for evaluating activation capability of MCCI, factors influencing RhB degradation were thoroughly examined, including MCCI and PMS dosages, temperature, pH, salt and radical scavengers. A higher MCCI dosage noticeably facilitated the degradation kinetics, whereas insufficient PMS dosage led to ineffective degradation. RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS was much more favorable at high temperatures and under neutral conditions. The presence of high concentration of salt slightly interfered with RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS. Through examining effects of radical scavengers, RhB degradation by MCCI-activated PMS can be primarily attributed to sulfate radicals instead of a combination of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. Compared to Co3O4, a typical catalyst for PMS activation, MCCI also exhibited a higher catalytic activity for activating PMS. In addition, MCCI was proven as a durable and recyclable catalyst for activating PMS over multiple cycles without efficiency loss and significant changes of chemical characteristics. These features demonstrate that MCCI, simply prepared from a one-step carbonization of Co3[Fe(CN)6]2 is a promising heterogeneous catalyst for activating PMS to degrade organic pollutants.

  17. Early season mesopelagic carbon remineralization and transfer efficiency in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, S. H. M.; Dehairs, F.; Cavagna, A. J.; Planchon, F.; Monin, L.; André, L.; Closset, I.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the zonal variability of mesopelagic particulate organic carbon) remineralization and deep carbon transfer potential during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study 2 expedition (KEOPS 2; October-November 2011) in an area of the Polar Front supporting recurrent massive blooms from natural Fe fertilization. Mesopelagic carbon remineralization was assessed using the excess, non-lithogenic particulate barium (Baxs) inventories in mesopelagic waters and compared with surface primary and export productions. Results for this early season study are compared with results obtained earlier (2005; KEOPS 1) for the same area during summer. For the Kerguelen plateau (A3 site) we observe a similar functioning of the mesopelagic ecosystem during both seasons (spring and summer), with less that 30% of carbon exported from the upper 150 m being remineralized in the mesopelagic column (150-400 m). For deeper stations (> 2000 m) located on the margin, inside a Polar Front meander, as well as in the vicinity of the Polar Front, east of Kerguelen, remineralization in the upper 400 m in general represents > 30% of carbon export, but when considering the upper 800 m, in some cases, the entire flux of exported carbon is remineralized. It appears that above the plateau (A3 site) mesopelagic remineralization is not a major barrier to the transfer of organic matter to the sea-floor (close to 500 m). There the efficiency of carbon sequestration into the bottom waters (> 400 m) reached up to 87% of the carbon exported from the upper 150 m. In contrast, at the deeper locations mesopelagic remineralization clearly limits the sequestration of carbon to depths > 400 m. For sites at the margin of the plateau (station E-4W) and the Polar front (station F-L), mesopelagic remineralization even exceeds upper 150 m export, resulting in a null sequestration efficiency to depths > 800 m. In the Polar Front meander, where successive stations form a time series, the capacity of the

  18. Organic carbon production, mineralisation and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Liebetrau, V.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11 and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations, from 74 m water depth on the middle shelf down to 1024 m, using a combination of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modelling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates decreased sharply seaward of the middle shelf and subsequently increased at the deep stations. The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unusually low on the middle shelf (<20%) when compared to an existing global database, for reasons which may be linked to episodic ventilation of the bottom waters by oceanographic anomalies. Deposition of reworked, degraded material originating from sites higher up on the slope is proposed to explain unusually high sedimentation rates and CBE (>60%) at the deep oxygenated sites. In line with other studies, CBE was elevated under oxygen-deficient waters in the mid-water oxygen minimum zone. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to efficient mineralisation of organic matter in the water column compared to other oxygen-deficient environments. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not greatly affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in sediments.

  19. Carbon export in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen area of the Southern Ocean based on the 234Th approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, F.; Ballas, D.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Bowie, A. R.; Davies, D.; Trull, T.; Laurenceau-Cornec, E. C.; Van Der Merwe, P.; Dehairs, F.

    2015-06-01

    This study examined upper-ocean particulate organic carbon (POC) export using the 234Th approach as part of the second KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study expedition (KEOPS2). Our aim was to characterize the spatial and the temporal variability of POC export during austral spring (October-November 2011) in the Fe-fertilized area of the Kerguelen Plateau region. POC export fluxes were estimated at high productivity sites over and downstream of the plateau and compared to a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area upstream of the plateau in order to assess the impact of iron-induced productivity on the vertical export of carbon. Deficits in 234Th activities were observed at all stations in surface waters, indicating early scavenging by particles in austral spring. 234Th export was lowest at the reference station R-2 and highest in the recirculation region (E stations) where a pseudo-Lagrangian survey was conducted. In comparison 234Th export over the central plateau and north of the polar front (PF) was relatively limited throughout the survey. However, the 234Th results support that Fe fertilization increased particle export in all iron-fertilized waters. The impact was greatest in the recirculation feature (3-4 fold at 200 m depth, relative to the reference station), but more moderate over the central Kerguelen Plateau and in the northern plume of the Kerguelen bloom (~2-fold at 200 m depth). The C : Th ratio of large (>53 μm) potentially sinking particles collected via sequential filtration using in situ pumping (ISP) systems was used to convert the 234Th flux into a POC export flux. The C : Th ratios of sinking particles were highly variable (3.1 ± 0.1 to 10.5 ± 0.2 μmol dpm-1) with no clear site-related trend, despite the variety of ecosystem responses in the fertilized regions. C : Th ratios showed a decreasing trend between 100 and 200 m depth suggesting preferential carbon loss relative to 234Th possibly due to heterotrophic degradation and

  20. Simple-Cubic Carbon Frameworks with Atomically Dispersed Iron Dopants toward High-Efficiency Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biwei; Wang, Xinxia; Zou, Jinxiang; Yan, Yancui; Xie, Songhai; Hu, Guangzhi; Li, Yanguang; Dong, Angang

    2017-03-08

    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N-C) have attracted increasingly greater attention as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Although challenging, the synthesis of Fe-N-C catalysts with highly dispersed and fully exposed active sites is of critical importance for improving the ORR activity. Here, we report a new type of graphitic Fe-N-C catalysts featuring numerous Fe single atoms anchored on a three-dimensional simple-cubic carbon framework. The Fe-N-C catalyst, derived from self-assembled Fe3O4 nanocube superlattices, was prepared by in situ ligand carbonization followed by acid etching and ammonia activation. Benefiting from its homogeneously dispersed and fully accessible active sites, highly graphitic nature, and enhanced mass transport, our Fe-N-C catalyst outperformed Pt/C and many previously reported Fe-N-C catalysts for ORR. Furthermore, when used for constructing the cathode for zinc-air batteries, our Fe-N-C catalyst exhibited current and power densities comparable to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst.

  1. Prediction of soil organic carbon concentration and soil bulk density of mineral soils for soil organic carbon stock estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putku, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Ritz, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Soil monitoring networks provide a powerful base for estimating and predicting nation's soil status in many aspects. The datasets of soil monitoring are often hierarchically structured demanding sophisticated data analyzing methods. The National Soil Monitoring of Estonia was based on a hierarchical data sampling scheme as each of the monitoring site was divided into four transects with 10 sampling points on each transect. We hypothesized that the hierarchical structure in Estonian Soil Monitoring network data requires a multi-level mixed model approach to achieve good prediction accuracy of soil properties. We used this database to predict soil bulk density and soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable land using different statistical methods: median approach, linear regression and mixed model; additionally, random forests for SOC concentration. We compared the prediction results and selected the model with the best prediction accuracy to estimate soil organic carbon stock. The mixed model approach achieved the best prediction accuracy in both soil organic carbon (RMSE 0.22%) and bulk density (RMSE 0.09 g cm-3) prediction. Other considered methods under- or overestimated higher and lower values of soil parameters. Thus, using these predictions we calculated the soil organic carbon stock of mineral arable soils and applied the model to a specific case of Tartu County in Estonia. Average estimated SOC stock of Tartu County is 54.8 t C ha-1 and total topsoil SOC stock 1.8 Tg in humus horizon.

  2. Dynamics of maize carbon contribution to soil organic carbon in association with soil type and fertility level.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiubo; Li, Hui; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Farmer, John; Fu, Shifeng; Wang, Jingkuan

    2015-01-01

    Soil type and fertility level influence straw carbon dynamics in the agroecosystems. However, there is a limited understanding of the dynamic processes of straw-derived and soil-derived carbon and the influence of the addition of straw carbon on soil-derived organic carbon in different soils associated with different fertility levels. In this study, we applied the in-situ carborundum tube method and 13C-labeled maize straw (with and without maize straw) at two cropland (Phaeozem and Luvisol soils) experimental sites in northeast China to quantify the dynamics of maize-derived and soil-derived carbon in soils associated with high and low fertility, and to examine how the addition of maize carbon influences soil-derived organic carbon and the interactions of soil type and fertility level with maize-derived and soil-derived carbon. We found that, on average, the contributions of maize-derived carbon to total organic carbon in maize-soil systems during the experimental period were differentiated among low fertility Luvisol (from 62.82% to 42.90), high fertility Luvisol (from 53.15% to 30.00%), low fertility Phaeozem (from 58.69% to 36.29%) and high fertility Phaeozem (from 41.06% to 16.60%). Furthermore, the addition of maize carbon significantly decreased the remaining soil-derived organic carbon in low and high fertility Luvisols and low fertility Phaeozem before two months. However, the increasing differences in soil-derived organic carbon between both soils with and without maize straw after two months suggested that maize-derived carbon was incorporated into soil-derived organic carbon, thereby potentially offsetting the loss of soil-derived organic carbon. These results suggested that Phaeozem and high fertility level soils would fix more maize carbon over time and thus were more beneficial for protecting soil-derived organic carbon from maize carbon decomposition.

  3. [Photosynthesis and flows of organic carbon, carbon dioxide, and oxygen in the ocean].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A P; Vinogradov, M E

    2001-01-01

    The modern concept of photosynthesis as a mechanism for utilizing the energy of solar radiation is used as the basis for assessing the scale of photosynthetic production of initial organic matter in the ocean (primary biological production), its destruction, the carbon and carbon dioxide cycles (flows) involved in this process, and the size of oil- and gas-bearing hydrocarbonaceous formations originating in sedimentary deposits.

  4. Synthesis of binary iron-carbon nanoparticles by UV laser photolysis of Fe(CO)5 with various hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.; Musikhin, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this study the laser photolysis of the mixtures containing vapors of various hydrocarbons and iron pentacarbonyl was implemented to nanoparticle formation. The radiation source used for photo-dissociation of precursors was a pulsed Nd:Yag laser operated at a wavelength of 266 nm. Under UV radiation the molecules of Fe(CO)5 decomposed, forming atomic iron vapor and unsaturated carbonyls at well-known and readily controllable parameters. The subsequent condensation of supersaturated metal vapor resulted in small iron clusters and nanoparticles formation. The growth process of the nanoparticles was observed by a method of laser light extinction. Laser induced incandescence technique was applied for particle sizing during the process of their formation. Additionally nanoparticle samples were investigated by a transmission electron microscope. The particle size distribution was measured by statistical treatment of microphotographs. The elemental analysis by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction pattern gave the composition and structure of nanoparticles. The core-shell iron-carbon nanoparticles were synthesized by joint laser photolysis of iron pentacarbonyl with benzene and acetylene. The photolysis of the mixtures of toluene, butanol and methane with iron pentacarbonyl revealed in a pure iron particles formation which fast oxidized in air when were extracted out of the reactor.

  5. The interaction of natural organic matter with iron in a wetland (Tennessee Park, Colorado) receiving acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peiffer, Stefan; Walton-Day, Katherine; Macalady, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    Pore water from a wetland receiving acid mine drainage was studied for its iron and natural organic matter (NOM) geochemistry on three different sampling dates during summer 1994. Samples were obtained using a new sampling technique that is based on screened pipes of varying length (several centimeters), into which dialysis vessels can be placed and that can be screwed together to allow for vertical pore-water sampling. The iron concentration increased with time (through the summer) and had distinct peaks in the subsurface. Iron was mainly in the ferrous form; however, close to the surface, significant amounts of ferric iron (up to 40% of 2 mmol L-1 total iron concentration) were observed. In all samples studied, iron was strongly associated with NOM. Results from laboratory experiments indicate that the NOM stabilizes the ferric iron as small iron oxide colloids (able to pass a 0.45μm dialysis membrane). We hypothesize that, in the pore water of the wetland, the high NOM concentrations (>100 mg C L-1) allow formation of such colloids at the redoxcline close to the surface and at the contact zone to the adjacent oxic aquifer. Therefore, particle transport along flow paths and resultant export of ferric iron from the wetland into ground water might be possible.

  6. The Carboniferous carbon isotope record from sedimentary organic matter: can we disentangle the carbon cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, S. J.; Bennett, C. E.; Leng, M. J.; Kearsey, T.; Marshall, J. E.; Millward, D.; Reeves, E. J.; Snelling, A.; Sherwin, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the δ13C composition of sedimentary organic matter from Euramerican Carboniferous successions indicates there are significant shifts in δ13C through this key time interval. Our studies have revealed that, at an individual location, the source and delivery mechanism of the sediment contribute to the type of organic matter preserved and, in turn this influences the measured δ13C values from bulk sedimentary organic matter of organic matter. In general, where marine-derived organic matter is dominant in these Carboniferous successions then δ13C values are characteristically lower compared to the higher values encountered where terrestrial plant-derived material is most abundant. The implication of these observations is that an apparent carbon isotope excursion identified from the bulk organic matter may reflect a change in transport processes, or depositional environment, rather than a perturbation in the global carbon cycle. In our most recent studies, however, we compare δ13C values from specific wood fragments and bulk sedimentary organic matter from non-marine, marine basinal, and marine shelfal successions from the earliest Mississippian through to the early Pennsylvanian. These data indicate that early Mississippian δ13C of organic matter is far less negative (around -22%0) than material of Late Mississippian age (around -26%0), however by the early Pennsylvanian, δ13C values return to -22%0. There are some δ13C data from brachiopod carbonate from this time interval and similar shifts are indicated. Our data are beginning to address whether we can identify a primary carbon cycle signal from the Carboniferous record using δ13C from a range of sedimentary environments. If we can, there are still questions around what the record is telling us about the global carbon cycle during a period when plant groups, including lycopods and seed ferns, rapidly diversified.

  7. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanxing; Cui, Chenchen; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang; Pan, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10 mg L(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2 mg L(-1)) removal in 60 min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100 mg L(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

  8. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  9. Nanoscale detection of organic signatures in carbonate microbialites.

    PubMed

    Benzerara, Karim; Menguy, Nicolas; López-García, Purificación; Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Kazmierczak, Józef; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2006-06-20

    Microbialites are sedimentary deposits associated with microbial mat communities and are thought to be evidence of some of the oldest life on Earth. Despite extensive studies of such deposits, little is known about the role of microorganisms in their formation. In addition, unambiguous criteria proving their biogenicity have yet to be established. In this study, we characterize modern calcareous microbialites from the alkaline Lake Van, Turkey, at the nanometer scale by combining x-ray and electron microscopies. We describe a simple way to locate microorganisms entombed in calcium carbonate precipitates by probing aromatic carbon functional groups and peptide bonds. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra at the C and N K-edges provide unique signatures for microbes. Aragonite crystals, which range in size from 30 to 100 nm, comprise the largest part of the microbialites. These crystals are surrounded by a 10-nm-thick amorphous calcium carbonate layer containing organic molecules and are embedded in an organic matrix, likely consisting of polysaccharides, which helps explain the unusual sizes and shapes of these crystals. These results provide biosignatures for these deposits and suggest that microbial organisms significantly impacted the mineralogy of Lake Van carbonates.

  10. Adsorption of aromatic organic contaminants by graphene nanosheets: comparison with carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Apul, Onur Guven; Wang, Qiliang; Zhou, Yang; Karanfil, Tanju

    2013-03-15

    Adsorption of two synthetic organic compounds (SOCs; phenanthrene and biphenyl) by two pristine graphene nanosheets (GNS) and one graphene oxide (GO) was examined and compared with those of a coal base activated carbon (HD4000), a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in distilled and deionized water and in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Graphenes exhibited comparable or better adsorption capacities than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and granular activated carbon (GAC) in the presence of NOM. The presence of NOM reduced the SOC uptake of all adsorbents. However, the impact of NOM on the SOC adsorption was smaller on graphenes than CNTs and activated carbons. Furthermore, the SOC with its flexible molecular structure was less impacted from NOM preloading than the SOC with planar and rigid molecular structure. The results indicated that graphenes can serve as alternative adsorbents for removing SOCs from water. However, they will also, if released to environment, adsorb organic contaminants influencing their fate and impact in the environment.