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Sample records for organic carbon sequestration

  1. Microbial Contribution to Organic Carbon Sequestration in Mineral Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil productivity and sustainability are dependent on soil organic matter (SOM). Our understanding on how organic inputs to soil from microbial processes become converted to SOM is still limited. This study aims to understand how microbes affect carbon (C) sequestration and the formation of recalcit...

  2. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  3. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  4. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  5. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha‑1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  6. Carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks. PMID:17761468

  7. Effects of organic carbon sequestration strategies on soil enzymatic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, E.; Suciu, N.; Botteri, L.; Ferrari, T.; Coppolecchia, D.; Trevisan, M.; Piccolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions can be counterbalanced with proper agronomical strategies aimed at sequestering carbon in soils. These strategies must be tested not only for their ability in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, but also for their impact on soil quality: enzymatic activities are related to main soil ecological quality, and can be used as early and sensitive indicators of alteration events. Three different strategies for soil carbon sequestration were studied: minimum tillage, protection of biodegradable organic fraction by compost amendment and oxidative polimerization of soil organic matter catalyzed by biometic porfirins. All strategies were compared with a traditional agricultural management based on tillage and mineral fertilization. Experiments were carried out in three Italian soils from different pedo-climatic regions located respectively in Piacenza, Turin and Naples and cultivated with maize or wheat. Soil samples were taken for three consecutive years after harvest and analyzed for their content in phosphates, ß-glucosidase, urease and invertase. An alteration index based on these enzymatic activities levels was applied as well. The biomimetic porfirin application didn't cause changes in enzymatic activities compared to the control at any treatment or location. Enzymatic activities were generally higher in the minimum tillage and compost treatment, while differences between location and date of samplings were limited. Application of the soil alteration index based on enzymatic activities showed that soils treated with compost or subjected to minimum tillage generally have a higher biological quality. The work confirms the environmental sustainability of the carbon sequestering agronomical practices studied.

  8. Mineland reclamation and soil organic carbon sequestration in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Akala, V.A.; Lal, R.

    1999-07-01

    The mining industry has been continuously involved in initiatives to reduce the emission of green house gases in to atmosphere. Control measures have been introduced in all steps starting from the mining of coal to energy production. Reclamation of mined land was and is one of the eco-friendly measures adopted by the industry. Apart from the inherent benefits of reclamation to improve on and offsite environmental quality, its potential to produce biomass and enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been addressed. Reclamative effects of establishing forest and pasture with (graded) and without topsoil (ungraded) application on soil quality and soil carbon sequestration was studied on mine land in Ohio. The SOC pool for 0--30 cm depth for the undisturbed control sites was 56.6 MgC/ha for forest and 66.3 MgC/ha for pasture. In comparison, the SOC pool in the forest and pasture of graded mineland for 0--30 cm depth after 25 years of reclamation was 58.9 MgC/ha and 62.7 MgC/ha respectively. In ungraded mineland, the SOC pool in the 0--30 cm depth after 30 years of reclamation was 51.5 MgC/ha in forest and 58.9 MgC/ha in the pasture.

  9. Carbon sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany derived from stable soil organic carbon saturation.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Hübner, Rico; Spörlein, Peter; Geuß, Uwe; Hangen, Edzard; Reischl, Arthur; Schilling, Bernd; von Lützow, Margit; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    Sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) in soils through improved management of forest and agricultural land is considered to have high potential for global CO2 mitigation. However, the potential of soils to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) in a stable form, which is limited by the stabilization of SOC against microbial mineralization, is largely unknown. In this study, we estimated the C sequestration potential of soils in southeast Germany by calculating the potential SOC saturation of silt and clay particles according to Hassink [Plant and Soil 191 (1997) 77] on the basis of 516 soil profiles. The determination of the current SOC content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long-term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional SOC. A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. A high proportion of sites with a high degree of apparent oversaturation revealed that in acidic, coarse-textured soils the relation to silt and clay is not suitable to estimate the stable C saturation. A strong correlation of the C saturation deficit with temperature and precipitation allowed a spatial estimation of the C sequestration potential for Bavaria. In total, about 395 Mt CO2 -equivalents could theoretically be stored in A horizons of cultivated soils - four times the annual emission of greenhouse gases in Bavaria. Although achieving the entire estimated C storage capacity is unrealistic, improved management of cultivated land could contribute significantly to CO2 mitigation. Moreover, increasing SOC stocks have additional benefits with respect to enhanced soil fertility and agricultural productivity.

  10. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (p<0.05). A Random Forest model is developed and it captures the relationships between the SOC density and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year.

  11. Dynamics and climate change mitigation potential of soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Rolf; Bossio, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    When assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and its climate change (CC) mitigation potential at global scale, the dynamic nature of soil carbon storage and interventions to foster it should be taken into account. Firstly, adoption of SOC-sequestration measures will take time, and reasonably such schemes could only be implemented gradually at large-scale. Secondly, if soils are managed as carbon sinks, then SOC will increase only over a limited time, up to the point when a new SOC equilibrium is reached. This paper combines these two processes and predicts potential SOC sequestration dynamics in agricultural land at global scale and the corresponding CC mitigation potential. Assuming that global governments would agree on a worldwide effort to gradually change land use practices towards turning agricultural soils into carbon sinks starting 2014, the projected 87-year (2014-2100) global SOC sequestration potential of agricultural land ranged between 31 and 64 Gt. This is equal to 1.9-3.9% of the SRES-A2 projected 87-year anthropogenic emissions. SOC sequestration would peak 2032-33, at that time reaching 4.3-8.9% of the projected annual SRES-A2 emission. About 30 years later the sequestration rate would have reduced by half. Thus, SOC sequestration is not a C wedge that could contribute increasingly to mitigating CC. Rather, the mitigation potential is limited, contributing very little to solving the climate problem of the coming decades. However, we deliberately did not elaborate on the importance of maintaining or increasing SOC for sustaining soil health, agro-ecosystem functioning and productivity; an issue of global significance that deserves proper consideration irrespectively of any potential additional sequestration of SOC.

  12. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (p<0.05). A Random Forest model is developed and it captures the relationships between the SOC density and the environmental/anthropogenic factors (R(2)=0.59). The soil pH, land use, and elevation are the most important factors for determining SOC dynamics. In contrast, the effect of the reclamation age on the SOC density is negligible, where SOC content in the land reclaimed during years 1047-1724 is as low as that reclaimed during years 1945-2004. The scenario analysis results indicate that the carbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. PMID:27196991

  13. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  14. Temperature controls organic carbon sequestration in a subarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70°N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between ~1700–1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints.

  15. Temperature controls organic carbon sequestration in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70°N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between ~1700–1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints. PMID:27708382

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Loss: An Overlooked Factor in the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Enhanced Mineral Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzen, Christiana; Harrison, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals regulates the global carbon cycle on geologic timescales. Several authors have proposed that applying finely ground silicate minerals to soils, where organic acids would enhance the rate of weathering, could increase carbon uptake and mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Silicate minerals such as olivine could replace lime, which is commonly used to remediate soil acidification, thereby sequestering CO2 while achieving the same increase in soil pH. However, the effect of adding this material on soil organic matter, the largest terrestrial pool of carbon, has yet to be considered. Microbial biomass and respiration have been observed to increase with decreasing acidity, but it is unclear how long the effect lasts. If the addition of silicate minerals promotes the loss of soil organic carbon through decomposition, it could significantly reduce the efficiency of this process or even create a net carbon source. However, it is possible that this initial flush of microbial activity may be compensated for by additional organic matter inputs to soil pools due to increases in plant productivity under less acidic conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of olivine amendments on soil CO2 flux. A liming treatment representative of typical agricultural practices was also included for comparison. Samples from two highly acidic soils were split into groups amended with olivine or lime and a control group. These samples were incubated at 22°C and constant soil moisture in jars with airtight septa lids. Gas samples were extracted periodically over the course of 2 months and change in headspace CO2 concentration was determined. The effects of enhanced mineral weathering on soil organic matter have yet to be addressed by those promoting this method of carbon sequestration. This project provides the first data on the potential effects of enhanced mineral weathering in the soil environment on soil organic carbon pools.

  17. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  18. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  19. Potential for Carbon Sequestration using Organic Amendments on Rangeland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2009-12-01

    Managed rangelands represent a geographically large land-use footprint and thus have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil through changes in management practices. Organic amendments are frequently added to agricultural and rangeland soils in an effort to improve fertility and yield, yet little is known about their impact on greenhouse gas dynamics and soil biogeochemical dynamics, especially in rangeland soils. This research aims to explore the effects of organic amendments on soil chemical and physical properties, plant inputs, and soil C and N dynamics in managed rangeland ecosystems. Our research uses field manipulations at two Mediterranean grassland ecosystems replicated within and across bioclimatic zones: the Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) in Browns Valley, CA and the Nicasio Native Grass Ranch in Nicasio, CA. Both sites are dominated by annual grasses and are moderately grazed by cattle. Three replicate blocks at each site contain 60m x 25m treatment plots (organic amendments and control) with 5m buffer strips. Organic amendments were applied at a level of 14 MgC/ha (equivalent to a 1.27cm surface dressing) at the beginning of the wet season (December 2008). During the wet season (October through June), carbon dioxide (CO2) flux was measured weekly using a LI-8100, while fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured biweekly using static flux chambers. During the dry season (June through September), fluxes were measured biweekly and monthly, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) were measured prior to treatment and seven months following treatment at 0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm depths. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously. Changes in oxidative and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities are also being explored. After the first year of management, both sites responded similarly to treatments in both trend and magnitude. For example, at SFREC, total soil

  20. Quantification of soil organic carbon sequestration potential in cropland: a model approach.

    PubMed

    Qin, ZhangCai; Huang, Yao

    2010-07-01

    Agroecosystems have a critical role in the terrestrial carbon cycling process. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in cropland is of great importance for mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide increases and for global food security. With an understanding of soil carbon saturation, we analyzed the datasets from 95 global long-term agricultural experiments distributed across a vast area spanning wide ranges of temperate, subtropical and tropical climates. We then developed a statistical model for estimating SOC sequestration potential in cropland. The model is driven by air temperature, precipitation, soil clay content and pH, and explains 58% of the variation in the observed soil carbon saturation (n=76). Model validation using independent data observed in China yielded a correlation coefficient R (2) of 0.74 (n=19, P<0.001). Model sensitivity analysis suggested that soils with high clay content and low pH in the cold, humid regions possess a larger carbon sequestration potential than other soils. As a case study, we estimated the SOC sequestration potential by applying the model in Henan Province. Model estimations suggested that carbon (C) density at the saturation state would reach an average of 32 t C ha(-1) in the top 0-20 cm soil depth. Using SOC density in the 1990s as a reference, cropland soils in Henan Province are expected to sequester an additional 100 Tg C in the future.

  1. Implications of Land-Use Change on Soil Organic Carbon and Sequestration Opportunities in Western Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulemans, J.; Dolliver, H.

    2013-12-01

    The largest pool of actively cycling carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is soil. Organic carbon enters the soil in the form of soil organic matter through the process of photosynthesis and humification. Anthropogenic land use changes have caused an imbalance in the natural cycle and storage of soil organic carbon, and have resulted in a substantial increase in the transfer of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide--a contributing factor to global climate change. The extent of alteration to soil organic carbon storage has not been quantified in the Upper Midwest region. This research project will analyze the effects of land use change to soil organic carbon storage in Western Wisconsin. Data will be statistically analyzed to quantify the effect of land use change on levels of soil organic carbon. Further, the potential for carbon sequestration through more prudent land management techniques will be examined for economic opportunity in a hypothetical carbon market scenario. This research will generate understanding of the region's loss of soil organic carbon and the opportunity that exists for atmospheric carbon resequestration.

  2. [Effects of different fertilization modes on paddy field topsoil organic carbon content and carbon sequestration duration in South China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Qun; Yang, Min-Fang; Xu, Min-Lun; Zhang, Wu-Yi; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-01-01

    Based on the organic carbon data of 222 topsoil samples taken from 38 paddy field experiment sites in South China, calculations were made on the relative annual change of topsoil organic carbon content (RAC) and carbon sequestration duration in the paddy fields in South China under five fertilization modes (inorganic nitrogen fertilization, N; inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, NP; inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization, NPK; organic fertilization, O; and inorganic plus organic fertilization, OF). The RAC under the fertilizations was 0-0.4 g x kg(-1) x a(-1), with an increment of 0.20 and 0.26 g x kg(-1) x a(-1) in double and triple cropping systems, respectively. The RAC was higher in treatments O and OF than in treatments N, NP, and NPK, being the highest (0.32 g x kg(-1) x a(-1)) in treatment OF. The topsoil organic carbon accumulation rate decreased with increasing time, and the carbon sequestration duration in treatments N, NP, NPK, O, and OF was about 22, 28, 38, 57, and 54 years, respectively. Inorganic plus organic fertilization was the most effective practice for soil carbon sequestration in the paddy fields in South China.

  3. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Simulated by EPIC in Cotton Rotations from Three Major Land Resource Areas in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the southeastern USA is perceived as occurring at a relatively low rate, because of the inherent low SOC content of most agricultural soils. However, recent field estimates of SOC sequestration in conservation management systems suggest that the sequest...

  4. Organic farming and soil carbon sequestration: what do we really know about the benefits?

    PubMed

    Leifeld, Jens; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    Organic farming is believed to improve soil fertility by enhancing soil organic matter (SOM) contents. An important co-benefit would be the sequestration of carbon from atmospheric CO2. Such a positive effect has been suggested based on data from field experiments though many studies were not designed to address the issue of carbon sequestration. The aim of our study was to examine published data in order to identify possible flaws such as missing a proper baseline, carbon mass measurements, or lack of a clear distinction between conventional and organic farming practices, thereby attributing effects of specific practices to organic farming, which are not uniquely organic. A total of 68 data sets were analyzed from 32 peer-reviewed publications aiming to compare conventional with organic farming. The analysis revealed that after conversion, soil C content (SOC) in organic systems increased annually by 2.2% on average, whereas in conventional systems SOC did not change significantly. The majority of publications reported SOC concentrations rather than amounts thus neglecting possible changes in soil bulk density. 34 out of 68 data sets missed a true control with well-defined starting conditions. In 37 out of 50 cases, the amount of organic fertilizer in the organic system exceeded that applied in the compared conventional system, and in half of the cases crop rotations differed between systems. In the few studies where crop rotation and organic fertilization were comparable in both systems no consistent difference in SOC was found. From this data analysis, we conclude that the claim for beneficial effects of organic farming on SOC is premature and that reported advantages of organic farming for SOC are largely determined by higher and often disproportionate application of organic fertilizer compared to conventional farming.

  5. Historical advances in the study of global terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Feller, C; Bernoux, M

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes: it provides a summarized scientific history of carbon sequestration in relation to the soil-plant system and gives a commentary on organic wastes and SOC sequestration. The concept of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration has its roots in: (i) the experimental work of Lundegårdh, particularly his in situ measurements of CO2 fluxes at the soil-plant interface (1924, 1927, 1930); (ii) the first estimates of SOC stocks at the global level made by Waksman [Waksman, S.A., 1938. Humus. Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature, second ed. revised. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 526] and Rubey [Rubey, W.W., 1951. Geologic history of sea water. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 62, 1111-1148]; (iii) the need for models dealing with soil organic matter (SOM) or SOC dynamics beginning with a conceptual SOM model by De Saussure (1780-1796) followed by the mathematical models of Jenny [Jenny, H., 1941. Factors of Soil Formation: a System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Publications, New York, p. 288], Hénin and Dupuis [Hénin, S., Dupuis, M., 1945. Essai de bilan de la matière organique. Annales d'Agronomie 15, 17-29] and more recently the RothC [Jenkinson, D.S., Rayner, J.H., 1977. The turnover of soil organic matter in some of the Rothamsted classical experiments. Soil Science 123 (5), 298-305] and Century [Parton, W.J., Schimel, D.S., Cole, C.V., Ojima, D.S., 1987. Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51 (5), 1173-1179] models. The establishment of a soil C sequestration balance is not straightforward and depends greatly on the origin and the composition of organic matter that is to be returned to the system. Wastes, which are important sources of organic carbon for soils, are taken as an example. For these organic materials the following factors have to be considered: the presence or absence of fossil C, the potential

  6. Carbon sequestration in soil by in situ catalyzed photo-oxidative polymerization of soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Alessandro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Nebbioso, Antonio; Mazzei, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    Here we describe an innovative mechanism for carbon sequestration in soil by in situ photopolymerization of soil organic matter under biomimetic catalysis. Three different Mediterranean soils were added with a synthetic water-soluble iron-porphyrin, irradiated by solar light, and subjected first to 5 days incubation and, then, 15, and 30 wetting and drying (w/d) cycles. The in situ catalyst-assisted photopolymerization of soil organic carbon (SOC) increased water stability of soil aggregates both after 5 days incubation and 15 w/d cycles, but not after 30 w/d cycles. Particle-size distribution of all treated soils confirmed the induced soil physical improvement, by showing a concomitant lower yield of the clay-sized fraction and larger yields of either coarse sand- or fine sand-size fractions, depending on soil texture, though only after 5 days incubation. The gain in soil physical quality was reflected by the shift of OC content from small to large soil aggregates, thereby suggesting that photopolymerization stabilized OC by both chemical and physical processes. A further evidence of the carbon sequestration capacity of the photocatalytic treatment was provided by the significant reduction of CO(2) respired by all soils after both incubation and w/d cycles. Our findings suggest that "green" catalytic technologies may potentially be the bases for future practices to increase soil carbon stabilization and mitigate CO(2) emissions from arable soils.

  7. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential and gap of the sub-tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiti, T.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    A database of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks was created for the sub-tropical belt using existing global SOC databases (WISE3; various SOTER) and new data from an ongoing project (ERC Africa-GHG) specific for the tropical forests of the African continent. The intent of this database is to evaluate the sequestration potential of a critical area of the world where most of the primary rainforests are located, and actually show undoubtedly high SOC losses associated with deforestation. About 4100 profiles, quite well distributed over the entire sub-tropical belt, were used to calculate the actual SOC stock for the 0-30 cm and 30-100 cm depths of mineral soil. First, this actual SOC stock has been related to the current Land Use Systems; successively, it has been interpolated taking into account Homogeneous Land Units (HLUs) in terms of soil type, climate zone and land use. Then, relying on consistent projections, of both climate and land use changes, for the years 2050 and 2100 under extremes IPCC-SRES emission scenarios such as the B1 and the A2, potential SOC stocks for these time frames has been calculated. Soil carbon sequestration gap is calculated by the difference of the actual SOC stock and the future projections. When subtracting potential from the actual SOC stocks, negative values represent a gap in terms of possible SOC losses and so reduced carbon sequestration. The soil carbon gap indicates locations where there will be low soil-carbon levels associated with medium-to-high actual SOC stocks, and medium soil-carbon levels associated with high actual SOC stocks, depending on soil type, climate and land use conditions. On the long term, 2076-2100, a SOC gap is observed under all scenarios in South America, just below the Amazonia basin, where are located open and fragmented forests. However, in the Amazonia basin deforestation decrease since no sensible SOC losses were observed. An important gap is observed also in the Congo basin and West Africa, but the

  8. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiong; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, D Brenton; Ross, C Wade; Harris, Willie G; Comerford, Nicolas B

    2014-09-15

    Historically, Florida soils stored the largest amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) among the conterminous U.S. states (2.26 Pg). This region experienced rapid land use/land cover (LULC) shifts and climate change in the past decades. The effects of these changes on SOC sequestration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the change in SOC stocks in Florida to determine if soils have acted as a net sink or net source for carbon (C) over the past four decades and 2) identify the concomitant effects of LULC, LULC change, and climate on the SOC change. A total of 1080 sites were sampled in the topsoil (0-20 cm) between 2008 and 2009 representing the current SOC stocks, 194 of which were selected to collocate with historical sites (n = 1251) from the Florida Soil Characterization Database (1965-1996) for direct comparison. Results show that SOC stocks significantly differed among LULC classes--sugarcane and wetland contained the highest SOC, followed by improved pasture, urban, mesic upland forest, rangeland, and pineland while crop, citrus and xeric upland forest remained the lowest. The surface 20 cm soils acted as a net sink for C with the median SOC significantly increasing from 2.69 to 3.40 kg m(-2) over the past decades. The SOC sequestration rate was LULC dependent and controlled by climate factors interacting with LULC. Higher temperature tended to accelerate SOC accumulation, while higher precipitation reduced the SOC sequestration rate. Land use/land cover change observed over the past four decades also favored the C sequestration in soils due to the increase in the C-rich wetland area by ~140% and decrease in the C-poor agricultural area by ~20%. Soils are likely to provide a substantial soil C sink considering the climate and LULC projections for this region.

  9. Meta-modeling soil organic carbon sequestration potential and its application at regional scale.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Xubin; Bende-Michl, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Upscaling the results from process-based soil-plant models to assess regional soil organic carbon (SOC) change and sequestration potential is a great challenge due to the lack of detailed spatial information, particularly soil properties. Meta-modeling can be used to simplify and summarize process-based models and significantly reduce the demand for input data and thus could be easily applied on regional scales. We used the pre-validated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate the impact of climate, soil, and management on SOC at 613 reference sites across Australia's cereal-growing regions under a continuous wheat system. We then developed a simple meta-model to link the APSIM-modeled SOC change to primary drivers, i.e., the amount of recalcitrant SOC, plant available water capacity of soil, soil pH, and solar radiation, temperature, and rainfall in the growing season. Based on high-resolution soil texture data and 8165 climate data points across the study area, we used the meta-model to assess SOC sequestration potential and the uncertainty associated with the variability of soil characteristics. The meta-model explained 74% of the variation of final SOC content as simulated by APSIM. Applying the meta-model to Australia's cereal-growing regions reveals regional patterns in SOC, with higher SOC stock in cool, wet regions. Overall, the potential SOC stock ranged from 21.14 to 152.71 Mg/ha with a mean of 52.18 Mg/ha. Variation of soil properties induced uncertainty ranging from 12% to 117% with higher uncertainty in warm, wet regions. In general, soils in Australia's cereal-growing regions under continuous wheat production were simulated as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide with a mean sequestration potential of 8.17 Mg/ha.

  10. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay.

    PubMed

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lundberg, Daniel; Reitzel, Kasper

    2016-06-15

    A laboratory scale experiment was set up to test the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as well as ageing of the La-P complex formed during phosphorus (P) sequestration by a La modified clay (Phoslock(®)). Short term (7 days) P adsorption studies revealed a significant negative effect of added DOC on the P sequestration of Phoslock(®), whereas a long-term P adsorption experiment revealed that the negative effect of added DOC was reduced with time. The reduced P binding efficiency is kinetic, as evident from solid-state (31)P magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, who showed that the P binding did not change in the presence of DOC. (31)P MAS NMR also reveals that up to 26% of the sequestered phosphate is as loosely bound redox-sensitive P species on the surface of rhabdophane (LaPO4 · nH2O, n ≤ 3). The ratio between the loosely bound P and lanthanum phosphate did not change with time, however both NMR and La LIII-extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy shows a transformation of lanthanum phosphate from the initially formed rhabdophane towards the more stable monazite (LaPO4). Furthermore, the effect of natural DOC on the P binding capacity was tested using water and pore water from 16 Danish lakes. Whilst DOC has an immediate negative impact on P binding in the lake water, with time this effect is reduced.

  11. Carbon sequestration in reclaimed minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Ussiri, D.A.N.; Lal, R.

    2005-07-01

    Minesoils are drastically influenced by anthropogenic activities. They are characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) content, low fertility, and poor physicochemical and biological properties, limiting their quality, capability, and functions. Reclamation of these soils has potential for resequestering some of the C lost and mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates in minesoils are high in the first 20 to 30 years after reclamation in the top 15 cm soil depth. In general, higher rates of SOC sequestration are observed for minesoils under pasture and grassland management than under forest land use. Observed rates of SOC sequestration are 0.3 to 1.85 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for pastures and rangelands, and 0.2 to 1.64 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for forest land use. Proper reclamation and postreclamation management may enhance SOC sequestration and add to the economic value of the mined sites. Management practices that may enhance SOC sequestration include increasing vegetative cover by deep-rooted perennial vegetation and afforestation, improving soil fertility, and alleviation of physical, chemical and biological limitations by fertilizers and soil amendments such as biosolids, manure, coal combustion by-products, and mulches. Soil and water conservation are important to SOC sequestration. The potential of SOC sequestration in minesoils of the US is estimated to be 1.28 Tg C yr{sup -1}, compared to the emissions from coal combustion of 506 Tg C yr{sup -1}.

  12. Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in rice-based cropping systems: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of management practices, such as tilla...

  13. An Analysis of the Climate Change Mitigation Potential through Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in a Corn Belt Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, M. D.; Secchi, S.; Schoof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The sequestration of carbon constitutes one of major options in agricultural climate change land-based mitigation. We examined the carbon sequestration potential of alternative agricultural land uses in an intensively farmed Corn Belt watershed. We Used downscaled data from eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for a simulation period between 2015 and 2099 with three emission pathways reflecting low, medium and high greenhouse gas scenarios. The use of downscaled data, coupled with high resolution land use and soil data, can help policy makers and land managers better understand spatial and temporal impacts of climate change. We consider traditional practices such as no-till corn-soybean rotations and continuous corn and include also switchgrass, a bioenergy crop. Our results show that switching from conventional tillage continuous corn to no-till corn-soybean can sequester the equivalent of 156,000 MtCO2 of soil organic carbon with a sequestration rate of 2.38 MtCO2 ha-1 yr-1 for the simulated period. Our results also indicate that switchgrass can sequester the equivalent of 282,000 MtCO2 of soil organic carbon with a sequestration rate of 4.4 MtCO2 ha-1 yr-1 for the period. Our finding also suggests that while climate change impacts corn and soybean yields, it does not have a significant effect on switchgrass yields possibly due to carbon fertilization effect on switchgrass yields.

  14. The impact of afforestation on soil organic carbon sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 4.6 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 6.7 g N m(-2) yr(-1), respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0-40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0-20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China.

  15. The Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration on the Qinghai Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Sheng-wei; Han, Peng-fei; Zhang, Ping; Ding, Fan; Ma, Cheng-lin

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation, the conversion of non-forested land into forest, is widespread in China. However, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) after afforestation are not well understood, especially in plateau climate zones. For a total of 48 shrub- and/or tree-dominated afforestation sites on the Qinghai Plateau, Northwestern China, post-afforestation changes in SOC, total nitrogen (TN), the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) and soil bulk density (BD) were investigated to a soil depth of 60 cm using the paired-plots method. SOC and TN accumulated at rates of 138.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and 4.6 g N m-2 yr-1, respectively, in shrub-dominated afforestation sites and at rates of 113.3 g C m-2 yr--1 and 6.7 g N m-2yr-1, respectively, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. Soil BD was slightly reduced in all layers in the shrub-dominated afforestation plots, and significantly reduced in soil layers from 0–40cm in the tree-dominated afforestation plots. The C/N ratio was higher in afforested sites relative to the reference sites. SOC accumulation was closely related to TN accumulation following afforestation, and the inclusion of N-fixing species in tree-dominated afforestation sites additionally increased the soil accumulation capacity for SOC (p < 0.05). Multiple regression models including the age of an afforestation plot and total number of plant species explained 75% of the variation in relative SOC content change at depth of 0–20 cm, in tree-dominated afforestation sites. We conclude that afforestation on the Qinghai Plateau is associated with great capability of SOC and TN sequestration. This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying SOC and TN accumulation in a plateau climate, and provides evidence on the C sequestration potentials associated with forestry projects in China. PMID:25706724

  16. Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liming; Li, Yufei; Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.

  17. Effects of Added Organic Matter and Water on Soil Carbon Sequestration in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%–29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region. PMID:23875022

  18. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Natural Terrestrial Sequestration Potential in Volcanic Terrain, San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, D. B.; Burchell, A.; Johnson, R. H.; Kugel, M.; Aiken, G.; Dick, R.

    2009-12-01

    The need to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels has stimulated studies to understand and quantify carbon sinks and sources. Soils represent a potentially significant natural terrestrial carbon sequestration (NTS) reservoir. This project is part of a collaborative effort to characterize carbon (C) stability in temperate soils. To examine the potential for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values as a qualitative indicator of C-stability, peak-flow (1500 ft3/s) and low-flow (200 ft3/s) samples from surface and ground waters were measured for DOC. DOC concentrations are generally low. Median peak-flow values from all sample sites (mg/L) were: streams (0.9); seeps (1.2); wells (0.45). Median low-flow values were: streams (0.7); seeps (0.75); wells (0.5). Median DOC values decrease between June and September 0.45 mg/L for seeps, and 0.2 mg/L for streams. Elevated DOC in some ground waters as compared to surface waters indicates increased contact time with soil organic matter. Elevated peak-flow DOC in areas with propylitically-altered bedrocks, composed of a secondary acid neutralizing assemblage of calcite-chlorite-epidote, reflects increased microbial and vegetation activity as compared to reduced organic matter accumulation in highly-altered terrain composed of an acid generating assemblage with abundant pyrite. Waters sampled in propylitically-altered bedrock terrain exhibit the lowest values during low-flow and suggest bedrock alteration type may influence DOC. Previous studies revealed undisturbed soils sampled have 2 to 6 times greater total organic soil carbon (TOSC) than global averages. Forest soils underlain by intermediate to mafic volcanic bedrock have the highest C (34.15 wt%), C: N (43) and arylsulfatase enzyme activity (ave. 278, high 461 µg p-nitrophenol/g/h). Unreclaimed mine sites have the lowest C (0 to 0.78 wt%), and arylsulfatase enzyme activity (0 to 41). Radiocarbon dates on charcoal collected from paleo-burn horizons illustrate Rocky Mountain soils may

  19. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  20. Simplified method to assess soil organic matter in landscape and carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallasser, Robert; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex; de Bruyn, Hank

    2010-05-01

    , relative DTGA responses were quantified in a similar way to the approaches discussed by Plante et. al., (2009) and references therein. TGA-MS analyses were conducted using a TA SDT Q 600 - Thermostar quadrupole, so as to provide a distinctive set of major ions or markers for the two organic matter types which can be indicative of the parent material. Furthermore, since a mass change event from an inorganic component (e.g. dehydroxylation) can contribute to an SOM related response, correlation with MS data needed to be carried out. This method of analysis can be used to reliably fingerprint SOM and should be an enormously useful addition when assessing depositional or agricultural soil environments. Quantifying the relative amounts of SOM can be achieved by coupling with elemental analysis with the added scope of being able to separate (Kasozi et. al., 2009) the contribution from inorganic carbon (carbonates), a common soil constituent. Important applications for the DTGA technique include environmental pedological studies such as evaluating SOM after severe bushfire events or agricultural monitoring particularly during carbon sequestration and changed land management practices. References Kasozi G.N., Nkedi-Kizza P., Harris W.G., 2009. Varied carbon content of organic matter in histosols, spodosols and carbonatic soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1313-1318. Laird D.A., Chappell M.A., Martens D.A., Wershaw R.L., Thompson M., 2008 Distinguishing black carbon from biogenic humic substances in soil clay fractions. Geoderma 143, 115-122. Lopez-Capel E., Abbott G.D., Thomas K.M., Manning D.A.C., 2006. Coupling of thermal analysis with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of evolved gases and their carbon isotopic composition. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 75, 82-89. Plante A.F., Fernandez J.M., Leifeld J., 2009. Application of thermal analysis techniques in soil science. Geoderma 153

  1. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  2. Sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter in Senegal: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tieszen, Larry L.; Tappan, G. Gray; Toure, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project focuses on four objectives in specific locations across the agroecological zones of Senegal. These objectives are: use of soil sampling and biogeochemical modeling to quantify the biophysical potential for carbon sequestration and to determine the sensitivity of the carbon stocks to various management and climate scenarios, to evaluate the socio-economic and cultural requirements necessary for successful project implementation directed toward an aggregation of smallholders to sequester around 100,000 t carbon (C), to support capacity building to develop a Carbon Specialist Team, and to initiate extrapolation from site-specific project areas to the Sahel region and the national level.

  3. [Effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon pool and carbon sequestration under double rice cropping].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Tao; Liao, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Sheng-Xian; Nie, Jun; Lu, Yan-Hong; Xie, Jian

    2013-03-01

    This paper studied the effects of 30 years (1981-2010) fertilization with chemical N, P, and K, pig manure (PM), and rice straw (RS) on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and its components contents under intensive double rice cropping. The experiment was established on a typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols in Hunan in 1981, and the soil samples were collected in November 2010. In treatment NPK, the contents of SOC, particulate organic C (POC), and KMnO4-oxidizable C (KMnO4-C) were higher than those in treatments NP and NK. The combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers (treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS) made the contents of SOC, POC, and KMnO4-C have a significant increase, as compared with chemical fertilizations. Treatment NK+PM had the highest contents of SOC (84.71 t C.hm-2), POC (8.94 t C.hm-2), and KMnO4-C (21.09 t C.hm-2) in top soil (0-45 cm), followed by treatment NPK+RS. Treatment NK+PM had the highest C sequestration (485 kg C.hm-2.a-1) , followed by treatment NPK+RS (375 kg C.hm-2.a-1). The C sequestration efficiency (CSE) of SOC in the treatments of chemical fertilizers plus pig manure or rice straw was obviously higher than that in the treatments of chemical fertilizations, and the CSE of the POC in fertilization treatments (ranging from 0.4% and 1.2%) was lower than that of the KMnO4-C (ranging from 3.0% to 8.3%). By using the values of humification constant (h) and the decay constant (k) in Jenkinson' s equation, it was possible to predict the SOC storages in different treatments in the year 2010; and by using Jenkinson' s equation, it was possible to calculate the C input required to maintain the SOC storages in the year 1981 (AE). The increase of the SOC in treatments NK+PM, NP+RS, and NPK+RS was due to the annual C input being higher than the AE. It was considered that in the double rice cropping areas in subtropical region of China, long-term application of chemical fertilizers combined with pig manure or rice straw could promote the

  4. Lake eutrophication and its implications for organic carbon sequestration in Europe.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N J; Bennion, H; Lotter, A F

    2014-09-01

    The eutrophication of lowland lakes in Europe by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is severe because of the long history of land-cover change and agricultural intensification. The ecological and socio-economic effects of eutrophication are well understood but its effect on organic carbon (OC) sequestration by lakes and its change overtime has not been determined. Here, we compile data from ~90 culturally impacted European lakes [~60% are eutrophic, Total P (TP) >30 μg P l(-1) ] and determine the extent to which OC burial rates have increased over the past 100-150 years. The average focussing corrected, OC accumulation rate (C ARFC ) for the period 1950-1990 was ~60 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , and for lakes with >100 μg TP l(-1) the average was ~100 g C m(-2) yr(-1) . The ratio of post-1950 to 1900-1950 C AR is low (~1.5) indicating that C accumulation rates have been high throughout the 20th century. Compared to background estimates of OC burial (~5-10 g C m(-2) yr(-1) ), contemporary rates have increased by at least four to fivefold. The statistical relationship between C ARFC and TP derived from this study (r(2) = 0.5) can be used to estimate OC burial at sites lacking estimates of sediment C-burial. The implications of eutrophication, diagenesis, lake morphometry and sediment focussing as controls of OC burial rates are considered. A conservative interpretation of the results of the this study suggests that lowland European meso- to eutrophic lakes with >30 μg TP l(-1) had OC burial rates in excess of 50 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over the past century, indicating that previous estimates of regional lake OC burial have seriously underestimated their contribution to European carbon sequestration. Enhanced OC burial by lakes is one positive side-effect of the otherwise negative impact of the anthropogenic disruption of nutrient cycles.

  5. Enhancing carbon and nitrogen sequestration in reclaimed soils through organic amendments and chiseling

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, R.K.; Lal, R.; Jacinthe, P.A.

    2009-05-15

    The choice of reclamation techniques could affect restoration success, ecosystem productivity, and the capacity of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). A field experiment was conducted at three reclaimed coal mine sites across eastern Ohio to assess the impact of several reclamation techniques on biomass production, soil properties, and temporal changes in SOC and N pools. Amendments and reclamation practices tested were: normal reclamation practice (NRP, control), cow (Bos taurus) manure (10 Mg ha{sup -1}), mulching with oat straw (15 Mg hat), and chiseling (30-cm depth). At each site, all treatments were applied in triplicate to experimental plots in accord with a randomized complete block design. After 5 yr of restoration, results showed no effect of mulching on any of the soil properties investigated but significant effects of manuring and chiseling. During that period, SOC sequestration rates ranged between 0.6 and 2.8 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, with the highest rates recorded in the manure-treated plots. Aboveground biomass production, biomass N content, and soil N and SOC pools were also significantly higher in the manure and chiseling treatments, probably due to greater exploration of the soil volume by plant roots and more efficient uptake of water and available nutrients. Ecosystem C (SOC + biomass C) in these two treatments also exceeded that in the NRP by 25 to 27 Mg C ha{sup -}. Thus, manure application and chiseling are effective reclamation practices for restoring RMS.

  6. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  7. EPIC modeling of soil organic carbon sequestration in croplands of Iowa.

    PubMed

    Causarano, Hector J; Doraiswamy, Paul C; McCarty, Gregory W; Hatfield, Jerry L; Milak, Sushil; Stern, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is a potential source or sink for atmospheric CO(2). We used the EPIC model to study impacts of soil and crop management on SOC in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) croplands of Iowa. The National Agricultural Statistics Service crops classification maps were used to identify corn-soybean areas. Soil properties were obtained from a combination of SSURGO and STATSGO databases. Daily weather variables were obtained from first order meteorological stations in Iowa and neighboring states. Data on crop management, fertilizer application and tillage were obtained from publicly available databases maintained by the NRCS, USDA-Economic Research Service (ERS), and Conservation Technology Information Center. The EPIC model accurately simulated state averages of crop yields during 1970-2005 (R(2) = 0.87). Simulated SOC explained 75% of the variation in measured SOC. With current trends in conservation tillage adoption, total stock of SOC (0-20 cm) is predicted to reach 506 Tg by 2019, representing an increase of 28 Tg with respect to 1980. In contrast, when the whole soil profile was considered, EPIC estimated a decrease of SOC stocks with time, from 1835 Tg in 1980 to 1771 Tg in 2019. Hence, soil depth considered for calculations is an important factor that needs further investigation. Soil organic C sequestration rates (0-20 cm) were estimated at 0.50 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) depending on climate and soil conditions. Overall, combining land use maps with EPIC proved valid for predicting impacts of management practices on SOC. However, more data on spatial and temporal variation in SOC are needed to improve model calibration and validation.

  8. Simplified method to assess soil organic matter in landscape and carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallasser, Robert; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex; de Bruyn, Hank

    2010-05-01

    , relative DTGA responses were quantified in a similar way to the approaches discussed by Plante et. al., (2009) and references therein. TGA-MS analyses were conducted using a TA SDT Q 600 - Thermostar quadrupole, so as to provide a distinctive set of major ions or markers for the two organic matter types which can be indicative of the parent material. Furthermore, since a mass change event from an inorganic component (e.g. dehydroxylation) can contribute to an SOM related response, correlation with MS data needed to be carried out. This method of analysis can be used to reliably fingerprint SOM and should be an enormously useful addition when assessing depositional or agricultural soil environments. Quantifying the relative amounts of SOM can be achieved by coupling with elemental analysis with the added scope of being able to separate (Kasozi et. al., 2009) the contribution from inorganic carbon (carbonates), a common soil constituent. Important applications for the DTGA technique include environmental pedological studies such as evaluating SOM after severe bushfire events or agricultural monitoring particularly during carbon sequestration and changed land management practices. References Kasozi G.N., Nkedi-Kizza P., Harris W.G., 2009. Varied carbon content of organic matter in histosols, spodosols and carbonatic soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 1313-1318. Laird D.A., Chappell M.A., Martens D.A., Wershaw R.L., Thompson M., 2008 Distinguishing black carbon from biogenic humic substances in soil clay fractions. Geoderma 143, 115-122. Lopez-Capel E., Abbott G.D., Thomas K.M., Manning D.A.C., 2006. Coupling of thermal analysis with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of evolved gases and their carbon isotopic composition. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 75, 82-89. Plante A.F., Fernandez J.M., Leifeld J., 2009. Application of thermal analysis techniques in soil science. Geoderma 153

  9. [Soil organic carbon sequestration rate and its influencing factors in farmland of Guanzhong Plain: a case study in Wugong County, Shannxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ming-Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Take Wugong County as an example, soil carbon storage and soil carbon sequestration rate were calculated, the change law of farmland soil organic carbon was explored, and the relationship of farmland soil organic carbon and natural factors, human factors was further revealed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The soil organic carbon contents in 80% of the sampling sites were in the range of 8.0-12.0 g x kg(-1), and the organic carbon contents in 0-20 cm soils showed a normal distribution. (2) In 2011, the organic carbon density of the 0-20 cm farmland soil was 26.3 t x hm(-2), below the national average soil organic carbon density (33.45 t x hm(-2)) of the arable layer. In the last 30 years, the soil carbon sequestration rate in the 0-20 cm layer was 71.3 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), and in the past five years, the carbon sequestration rate was 480 kg x (hm x a)(-1). The recent carbon sequestration rate was higher than the national average soil carbon sequestration rate of the arable layer [380.78 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)]. (3) In the semi-humid plain region, soil organic carbon was mainly affected by soil types, landform types, organic fertilizer. Soil types accounted for 30.2% of the organic carbon variability; the landform types and the organic fertilizer could explain 37.7% and 32.1%, respectively. The results of the comprehensive analysis showed that the farmland soil organic carbon density of Wugong County in the past 30 years is increasing, and this probably relies on the utilization of chemical fertilizer and the returning straw. Further study should be conducted on the impact of the chemical fertilizer and returning straw.

  10. [Soil organic carbon sequestration rate and its influencing factors in farmland of Guanzhong Plain: a case study in Wugong County, Shannxi Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ming-Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Take Wugong County as an example, soil carbon storage and soil carbon sequestration rate were calculated, the change law of farmland soil organic carbon was explored, and the relationship of farmland soil organic carbon and natural factors, human factors was further revealed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The soil organic carbon contents in 80% of the sampling sites were in the range of 8.0-12.0 g x kg(-1), and the organic carbon contents in 0-20 cm soils showed a normal distribution. (2) In 2011, the organic carbon density of the 0-20 cm farmland soil was 26.3 t x hm(-2), below the national average soil organic carbon density (33.45 t x hm(-2)) of the arable layer. In the last 30 years, the soil carbon sequestration rate in the 0-20 cm layer was 71.3 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), and in the past five years, the carbon sequestration rate was 480 kg x (hm x a)(-1). The recent carbon sequestration rate was higher than the national average soil carbon sequestration rate of the arable layer [380.78 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)]. (3) In the semi-humid plain region, soil organic carbon was mainly affected by soil types, landform types, organic fertilizer. Soil types accounted for 30.2% of the organic carbon variability; the landform types and the organic fertilizer could explain 37.7% and 32.1%, respectively. The results of the comprehensive analysis showed that the farmland soil organic carbon density of Wugong County in the past 30 years is increasing, and this probably relies on the utilization of chemical fertilizer and the returning straw. Further study should be conducted on the impact of the chemical fertilizer and returning straw. PMID:24028015

  11. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  12. Mechanisms of Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soil is one of the several strategies of reducing the net emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Of the two components, soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC), SOC is an important control of edaphic properties and processes. In addition to off-setting part of the anthropogenic emissions, enhancing SOC concentration to above the threshold level (~1.5-2.0%) in the root zone has numerous ancillary benefits including food and nutritional security, biodiversity, water quality, among others. Because of its critical importance in human wellbeing and nature conservancy, scientific processes must be sufficiently understood with regards to: i) the potential attainable, and actual sink capacity of SOC and SIC, ii) permanence of the C sequestered its turnover and mean residence time, iii) the amount of biomass C needed (Mg/ha/yr) to maintain and enhance SOC pool, and to create a positive C budget, iv) factors governing the depth distribution of SOC, v) physical, chemical and biological mechanisms affecting the rate of decomposition by biotic and abiotic processes, vi) role of soil aggregation in sequestration and protection of SOC and SIC pool, vii) the importance of root system and its exudates in transfer of biomass-C into the SOC pools, viii) significance of biogenic processes in formation of secondary carbonates, ix) the role of dissolved organic C (DOC) in sequestration of SOC and SIC, and x) importance of weathering of alumino-silicates (e.g., powered olivine) in SIC sequestration. Lack of understanding of these and other basic processes leads to misunderstanding, inconsistencies in interpretation of empirical data, and futile debates. Identification of site-specific management practices is also facilitated by understanding of the basic processes of sequestration of SOC and SIC. Sustainable intensification of agroecosystems -- producing more from less by enhancing the use efficiency and reducing losses of inputs, necessitates thorough

  13. Wind erosion reduces soil organic carbon sequestration falsely indicating ineffective management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Baldock, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    Improved management of agricultural land has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce atmospheric CO2 via soil carbon sequestration. However, SOC stocks are reduced by soil erosion which is commonly omitted from calculations of crop production, C cycling, C sequestration and C accounting. We used fields from the wind eroded dryland cropping region of Western Australia to demonstrate the global implications for C sequestration and C accounting of omitting soil erosion. For the fields we previously estimated mean net (1950s-1990) soil erosion of 1.2 ± 1.0 t ha-1 y-1. The mean net (1990-2013) soil erosion increased by nearly four times to 4.4 ± 2.1 t ha-1 y-1. Conservation agriculture has evidently not reduced wind erosion in this region. The mean net (1990-2013) SOC erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 across all sampled fields and similar to measured sequestration rates in the region (up to 0.5 t C ha-1 y-1; 10 years) for many management practices recommended for building SOC stocks. The minimum detectable change (MDC; 10 years) of SOC without erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 whilst the MDC of SOC with erosion was up to 0.4 t C ha-1 y-1. These results illustrate the generally applicable outcome: (i) if SOC erosion is equal to (or greater than) the increase in SOC due to management practices, the change will not be detectable (or a loss will be evident); (ii) without including soil erosion in SOC sequestration calculations, the monitoring of SOC stocks will lead to, at best the inability to detect change and, at worst the false impression that management practices have failed to store SOC. Furthermore, continued omission of soil erosion in crop production, C accounting and C sequestration will most likely undermine confidence in policy designed to encourage adoption of C farming and the attendant benefits for soil stewardship and food security.

  14. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  15. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils and forests is an important strategy of reducing the net increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, biomass burning, soil cultivation and accelerated erosion. Further, the so-called "missing or fugitive CO2" is also probably being absorbed in a terrestrial sink. Three of the 15 strategies proposed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2054, with each one to sequester 1 Pg Cyr-1, include: (i) biofuel plantations for bioethanol production, (ii) reforestation, afforestation and establishment of new plantations, and (iii) conversion of plow tillage to no-till farming. Enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an important component in each of these three options, but especially so in conversion of degraded/marginal agricultural soils to short rotation woody perennials, and establishment of plantations for biofuel, fiber and timber production. Depending upon the prior SOC loss because of the historic land used and management-induced soil degradation, the rate of soil C sequestration in forest soils may be 0 to 3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Tropical forest ecosystems cover 1.8 billion hectares and have a SOC sequestration potential of 200 to 500 Tg C yr-1 over 59 years. However, increasing production of forest biomass may not always increase the SOC pool. Factors limiting the rate of SOC sequestration include C: N ratio, soil availability of N and other essential nutrients, concentration of recalcitrant macro-molecules (e.g., lignin, suberin), soil properties (e.g., clay content and mineralogy, aggregation), soil drainage, and climate (mean annual precipitation and temperature). The SOC pool can be enhanced by adopting recommended methods of forest harvesting and site preparation to minimize the "Covington effect," improving soil drainage, alleviating soil compaction, growing species with a high NPP, and improving soil fertility including the availability of micro-nutrients. Soil fertility

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  17. Sediment organic carbon distribution in 4 small northern Missouri impoundments: implications for sampling and carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research suggests that the rate of sediment carbon storage of small agricultural impoundments may be of similar magnitude on a per unit area as that of the world’s oceans. However, the role of small impoundments in the carbon budget has not received adequate attention; indeed availability of ...

  18. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-08-05

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0-20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization.

  19. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-08-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0–20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization.

  20. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0–20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization. PMID:27492771

  1. Three-decade long fertilization-induced soil organic carbon sequestration depends on edaphic characteristics in six typical croplands.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Li, Jianwei; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin; Cai, Zejiang; Gao, Hongjun; Ma, Junyong; Cui, Xian; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Fertilizations affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content but the relative influences of the edaphic and climate factors on SOC storage are rarely studied across wide spatiotemporal scales. This study synthesized long-term datasets of fertilization experiments in six typical Chinese croplands, and calculated annual C input from crops and manure amendments, changes in SOC storage (ΔSOC) and C sequestration efficiency (i.e. the percentage of soil C change per unit of C input, hereafter referred as CSE) in 0-20 cm soil over three decades. Three fertilization treatments include no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NPK) and combined chemical fertilizers and manure (NPKM). Results showed significant fertilization effects on C input and ΔSOC (NPKM>NPK>CK), and significantly higher CSE in Qiyang at Hunan than Zhengzhou at Henan and Heihe at Heilongjiang. The variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed more variance of CSE can be explained by edaphic factors (up to 39.7%) than other factors. Furthermore, soil available N content and pH were identified as the major soil properties explaining CSE variance. This study demonstrated key controls of soil fertility factors on SOC sequestration and informs the need to develop strategic soil management plan to promote soil carbon sequestration under long-term intensive fertilization. PMID:27492771

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  3. New Insights Into Carbon Sequestration of Steppe Soils - Composition and Turnover of Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, M.; Koelbl, A.; Koegel-Knabner, I.

    2008-12-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors that may reduce soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and subsequently aggregate stability in grassland topsoils. Improvements of land use management and grazing reduction are assumed to increase the carbon sequestration of steppe ecosystems which may act as one of the big global carbon sinks. The central aim of this study was to analyse the quantity and quality of SOC fractions and their contribution to aggregate formation, stability and carbon sequestration as affected by increased inputs of organic matter due to grazing exclusion. We applied a combined aggregate size, density and particle size fractionation procedure and aggregate stability measurements to sandy steppe topsoils with different organic matter inputs due to different grazing intensities (continuously grazed = Cg, winter grazing = Wg, ungrazed since 1999 = Ug99, ungrazed since 1979 = Ug79). Higher inputs of organic matter led to higher amounts of OC in coarse aggregate size classes (ASC) and especially in particulate organic matter (POM) fractions. We found no grazing-induced changes of soil organic matter (SOM) quantity in fine ASC and mineral fractions. SOM quality (13C CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy, neutral sugars analyses) was comparable between different grazing intensities, but SOM in ungrazed plots was more decomposed across all fractions. We found generally higher radiocarbon activities in Ug79 compared to Cg. Aggregate stability, analysed as resistance to sonication, was higher in Ug79 compared to Cg. Higher litter inputs in grazing exclosures increased POM quantity, led to faster SOM turnover and resulted in the formation and stabilisation of coarse aggregates. Organo-mineral associations were affected by higher turnover times as radiocarbon activities increased, but OC saturation of this pool did not change. To summarise, additional litter inputs following grazing exclusion were mainly sequestered in the intermediate POM pool while the long-term pool of

  4. Long-term effect of a single application of organic refuse on carbon sequestration and soil physical properties.

    PubMed

    Albaladejo, J; Lopez, J; Boix-Fayos, C; Barbera, G G; Martinez-Mena, M

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of degraded lands could be a way to reverse soil degradation and desertification in semiarid areas and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG). Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a single addition of organic refuse on soil physical properties and measure its carbon sequestration potential. In 1988, a set of five plots (87 m(2) each) was established in an open desert-like scrubland (2-4% cover) in Murcia, Spain, to which urban solid refuse (USR) was added in a single treatment at different rates. Soil properties were monitored over a 5-yr period. Sixteen years after the addition, three of the plots were monitored again (P0: control, P1: 13 kg m(-2), P2: 26 kg m(-2) of USR added) to assess the lasting effect of the organic addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and on the physical characteristics of the soil. The SOC content was higher in P2 (16.4 g kg(-1)) and in P1 (11.8 g kg(-1)) than in P0 (7.9 g kg(-1)). Likewise, aerial biomass increased from 0.18 kg m(-2) in P0 up to 0.27 kg m(-2) in P1 and 0.46 kg m(-2) in P2. This represents a total C sequestration of 9.5 Mg ha(-1) in P2 and 3.4 Mg ha(-1) in P1, most of the sequestered C remaining in the recalcitrant soil pool. Additionally, higher saturated hydraulic conductivity, aggregate stability, and available water content values and lower bulk density values were measured in the restored plots. Clearly, a single addition of organic refuse to the degraded soils to increase the potential for C sequestration was effective.

  5. Long-term effect of a single application of organic refuse on carbon sequestration and soil physical properties.

    PubMed

    Albaladejo, J; Lopez, J; Boix-Fayos, C; Barbera, G G; Martinez-Mena, M

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of degraded lands could be a way to reverse soil degradation and desertification in semiarid areas and mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG). Our objective was to evaluate the long-term effects of a single addition of organic refuse on soil physical properties and measure its carbon sequestration potential. In 1988, a set of five plots (87 m(2) each) was established in an open desert-like scrubland (2-4% cover) in Murcia, Spain, to which urban solid refuse (USR) was added in a single treatment at different rates. Soil properties were monitored over a 5-yr period. Sixteen years after the addition, three of the plots were monitored again (P0: control, P1: 13 kg m(-2), P2: 26 kg m(-2) of USR added) to assess the lasting effect of the organic addition on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and on the physical characteristics of the soil. The SOC content was higher in P2 (16.4 g kg(-1)) and in P1 (11.8 g kg(-1)) than in P0 (7.9 g kg(-1)). Likewise, aerial biomass increased from 0.18 kg m(-2) in P0 up to 0.27 kg m(-2) in P1 and 0.46 kg m(-2) in P2. This represents a total C sequestration of 9.5 Mg ha(-1) in P2 and 3.4 Mg ha(-1) in P1, most of the sequestered C remaining in the recalcitrant soil pool. Additionally, higher saturated hydraulic conductivity, aggregate stability, and available water content values and lower bulk density values were measured in the restored plots. Clearly, a single addition of organic refuse to the degraded soils to increase the potential for C sequestration was effective. PMID:18948462

  6. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  7. EPIC modeling of soil organic carbon sequestration in croplands of Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural lands can mitigate detrimental effects of greenhouse gases because soils can be managed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and sequester carbon in soil organic matter. Simulation models are useful tools for studying the long-term impacts of crop and soil management practices on soil org...

  8. Spatial distributions and sequestrations of organic carbon and black carbon in soils from the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changlin; Cao, Junji; Han, Yongming; Huang, Shaopeng; Tu, Xiaming; Wang, Ping; An, Zhisheng

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), char, and soot in topsoils (0-20 cm) and vertical soil profiles (0-100 cm) from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were investigated. Objectives of the study were to establish the spatial distributions and estimate the sequestrations of these substances. The SOC, BC, char and soot concentrations were higher in the eastern and southeastern parts of the plateau and lower in the north, which is consistent with the patterns of economic development and energy consumption. The highest average SOC concentration was found in the clayey loess zone, followed by the loess and sandy loess zones. Similar trends were observed for BC, char and soot, suggesting interactions with clay and silt are potentially important influences on OC and BC. The SOC contents in topsoils varied from 0.31 to 51.81 g kg(-1), with a mean value of 6.54 g kg(-1), while BC and char concentrations were 0.02 to 5.5 g kg(-1) and 0.003 to 4.19 g kg(-1), respectively, and soot ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 g kg(-1). Unlike SOC, both BC and char decreased with soil depth, whereas soot showed little variation with depth. BC and char were correlated in the topsoils, and both correlated moderately well with SOC (R(2)=0.60) and soot (R(2)=0.53). The SOC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were estimated to be 0.741 and 3.63 Pg, respectively, and the BC pools sequestered in the 0 to 20 cm and 0 to 100 cm depths were 0.073 and 0.456 Pg, respectively. Therefore the quantity of carbon stored in the sediments of the CLP evidently exceeds 10(9) tons. The char contained in the upper 20 cm layer was 0.053 Pg, which amounted to 72.5% of the BC in that layer.

  9. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  10. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide has emerged as one of the most promising options for making deep cuts in carbon dioxide emissions. Geologic sequestration involves the two-step process of first capturing carbon dioxide by separating it from stack emissions, followed by injection and long term storage in deep geologic formations. Sedimentary basins, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep unminable coal seams, and brine-filled formations, provide the most attractive storage reservoirs. Over the past few years significant advances have been made in this technology, including development of simulation models and monitoring systems, implementation of commercial scale demonstration projects, and investigation of natural and industrial analogues for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. While much has been accomplished in a short time, there are many questions that must be answered before this technology can be employed on the scale needed to make significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. Questions such as how long must the carbon dioxide remain underground, to what extent will geochemical reactions completely immobilize the carbon dioxide, what can be done in the event that a storage site begins to leak at an unacceptable rate, what is the appropriate risk assessment, regulatory and legal framework, and will the public view this option favorably? This paper will present recent advances in the scientific and technological underpinnings of geologic sequestration and identify areas where additional information is needed.

  11. Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lal, Rattan

    2004-04-01

    Drylands occupy 6.15 billion hectares (Bha) or 47.2% of the world's land area. Of this, 3.5 to 4.0 Bha (57%-65%) are either desertified or prone to desertification. Despite the low soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration, total SOC pool of soils of the drylands is 241 Pg (1 Pg = petagram = 10(15)g = 1 billion metric ton) or 15.5% of the world's total of 1550 Pg to 1-meter depth. Desertification has caused historic C loss of 20 to 30 Pg. Assuming that two-thirds of the historic loss can be resequestered, the total potential of SOC sequestration is 12 to 20 Pg C over a 50-year period. Land use and management practices to sequester SOC include afforestation with appropriate species, soil management on cropland, pasture management on grazing land, and restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems through afforestation and conversion to other restorative land uses. Tree species suitable for afforestation in dryland ecosystems include Mesquite, Acacia, Neem and others. Recommended soil management practices include application of biosolids (e.g., manure, sludge), which enhance activity of soil macrofauna (e.g., termites), use of vegetative mulches, water harvesting, and judicious irrigation systems. Recommended practices of managing grazing lands include controlled grazing at an optimal stocking rate, fire management, and growing improved species. The estimated potential of SOC sequestration is about 1 Pg C/y for the world and 50 Tg C/y for the U.S. This potential of dryland soils is relevant to both the Kyoto Protocol under UNFCCC and the U.S. Farm Bill 2002.

  12. Determining soil organic carbon accretion vs sequestration using physicochemical fractionation and CQESTR simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) are needed to determine SOC changes resulting from agricultural management practices. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine total SOC, and estimate contributions of light fraction C (LF-C) and resistant C (RC) to total SOC; and (2) simula...

  13. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period.

  14. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) . Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  15. Organic carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forest soils in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüneberg, Erik; Ziche, Daniel; Wellbrock, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) provides the Greenhouse Gas Reporting in Germany with a quantitative assessment of organic carbon (C) stocks and changes in forest soils. Carbon stocks of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil (30 cm) were estimated on the basis of ca. 1.800 plots sampled from 1987 to 1992 and resampled from 2006 to 2008 on a nationwide grid of 8 × 8 km. Organic layer C stock estimates were attributed to surveyed forest stands and CORINE land cover data. Mineral soil C stock estimates were linked with the distribution of dominant soil types according to the Soil Map of Germany (1 : 1 000 000) and subsequently related to the forest area. It appears that the C pool of the organic layer was largely depending on tree species and parent material, whereas the C pool of the mineral soil varied among soil groups. We identified the organic layer C pool as stable although C was significantly sequestered under coniferous forest at lowland sites. The mineral soils, however, sequestered 0.41 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. Carbon pool changes were supposed to depend on stand age and forest transformation as well as an enhanced biomass input. Carbon stock changes were clearly attributed to parent material and soil groups as sandy soils sequestered higher amounts of C, whereas clayey and calcareous soils showed small gains and in some cases even losses of soil C. We further showed that the largest part of the overall sample variance was not explained by fine-earth stock variances, rather by the C concentrations variance. The applied uncertainty analyses in this study link the variability of strata with measurement errors. In accordance to other studies for Central Europe, the results showed that the applied method enabled a reliable nationwide quantification of the soil C pool development for a certain period. PMID:24616061

  16. Marine sequestration of carbon in bacterial metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Hertkorn, Norbert; Shen, Yuan; Witt, Matthias; Benner, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Linking microbial metabolomics and carbon sequestration in the ocean via refractory organic molecules has been hampered by the chemical complexity of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Here, using bioassay experiments and ultra-high resolution metabolic profiling, we demonstrate that marine bacteria rapidly utilize simple organic molecules and produce exometabolites of remarkable molecular and structural diversity. Bacterial DOM is similar in chemical composition and structural complexity to naturally occurring DOM in sea water. An appreciable fraction of bacterial DOM has molecular and structural properties that are consistent with those of refractory molecules in the ocean, indicating a dominant role for bacteria in shaping the refractory nature of marine DOM. The rapid production of chemically complex and persistent molecules from simple biochemicals demonstrates a positive feedback between primary production and refractory DOM formation. It appears that carbon sequestration in diverse and structurally complex dissolved molecules that persist in the environment is largely driven by bacteria.

  17. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  18. Stabilization by hydrophobic protection as a molecular mechanism for organic carbon sequestration in maize-amended rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Song, X Y; Spaccini, R; Pan, G; Piccolo, A

    2013-08-01

    The hydrophobic components of soil organic matter (SOM) are reckoned to play an important role in the stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC). The contribution of hydrophobic substances to SOC sequestration was evaluated in four different paddy soils in the South of China, following a 6-month incubation experiment with maize straw amendments. Soil samples included: a well developed paddy soil (TP) derived from clayey lacustrine deposits in the Tai Lake plain of Jiangsu; an acid clayey paddy soil (RP) derived from red earth in the rolling red soil area of Jiangxi; a weakly developed neutral paddy soil (PP) formed on Jurassic purple shale from Chongq; and a calcic Fluvisol (MS) derived from riverine sediments from a wetland along the Yangtze valley of Anhui, China. The SOC molecular composition after 30 and 180 days of incubation, was determined by off-line thermochemolysis followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Lignin, lipids and carbohydrates were the predominant thermochemolysis products released from the treated soils. A selective preservation of hydrophobic OM, including lignin and lipids, was shown in maize amended soils with prolonged incubation. The decomposition of lignin and lipids was significantly slower in the TP and RP soils characterized by a larger content of extractable iron oxyhydrates (Fed) and lower pH. The overall increase in hydrophobic substances in maize incubated samples was correlated, positively, with total content of clay and Fed, and, negatively, with soil pH. Moreover, yields of both lignin and lipid components showed a significant relationship with SOC increase after incubation. These findings showed that the larger the lipid and lignin content of SOM, the greater was the stability of SOC, thereby suggesting that OM hydrophobic components may have an essential role in controlling the processes of OC sequestration in paddy soils of South China.

  19. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50°C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  20. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  1. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  3. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  4. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Dame, Lauren E; Burke, Roger A; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-01-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO₂ emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO₂ emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated 'carbon trap'. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO₂ emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  5. Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F.; Dame, Lauren E.; Burke, Roger A.; Wu, Jianping; Neher, Deborah A.; Li, Jianxiong; Shao, Yuanhu; Fu, Shenglei

    2013-10-01

    A recent review concluded that earthworm presence increases CO2 emissions by 33% but does not affect soil organic carbon stocks. However, the findings are controversial and raise new questions. Here we hypothesize that neither an increase in CO2 emission nor in stabilized carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms’ contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon mineralization and carbon stabilization. Earthworms accelerate carbon activation and induce unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with carbon mineralization, which generates an earthworm-mediated ‘carbon trap’. We introduce the new concept of sequestration quotient to quantify the unequal processes. The patterns of CO2 emission and net carbon sequestration are predictable by comparing sequestration quotient values between treatments with and without earthworms. This study clarifies an ecological mechanism by which earthworms may regulate the terrestrial carbon sink.

  6. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  7. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  8. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  9. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Glomalin Enhance Carbon Sequestration in Organic Farming Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have increased nearly 100 ppm in the last 250 years. Soils may be able to mitigate this by sequestering carbon, but agricultural soils are often a source rather than a sink for carbon. The Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial® (FST), initiated in 1981 ...

  10. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  11. Carbon sequestration and eruption hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2007-12-01

    In order to reduce the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposals have been made to sequestrate carbon in ocean, or in coal mines and other underground formations. High gas concentration in ocean or underground formations has to potential to power gas-driven eruptions. In this presentation, possible eruption hazards are explored. Whenever carbon dioxide is sequestrated in the form of carbon dioxide gas, or dissolved and/or absorbed carbon dioxide, it is necessary to exercise caution to avoid gas-driven eruption hazard. It is long known that explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by H2O gas in magma. Lake eruptions powered by dissolved CO2 in lake bottom water were discovered in the 1980's (Kling et al., 1987; Zhang, 1996). Gas-driven ocean eruptions with mechanism similar to lake eruptions have been hypothesized (Zhang, 2003; Zhang and Kling, 2006) although not confirmed. Mud volcanos are commonly thought to be driven by methane-rich fluids in sediment (Milkov, 2000). Recently, Zhang et al. (2007) have proposed that coal outbursts in underground coal mines are driven by dissolved high CO2 concentration in coal, causing coal fragmentation and outburst. That is, coal outbursts may be regarded as a new type of gas-driven eruptions. Therefore, high concentrations of free gas or dissolved/absorbed gas may power eruptions of magma, lake water, ocean water, sediment, and coal. Gas- driven volcanic, lake and ocean eruptions are due to volume expansion from bubble growth, whereas gas-driven coal and sediment eruptions are due to high gas-pressure, leading to fragmentation of coal and sediment. (In explosive volcanism, magma fragmentation is also a critical point.) The threshold conditions for many of these eruptions are not known yet. In planning large (industrial) scale injection of CO2 into a natural reservoir, it is important to know the eruption threshold and design the injection scheme accordingly. More safe sequestration in terms of eruption hazards would

  12. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  13. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  14. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  15. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  16. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  17. Integrated Estimates of Global Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2008-02-01

    Assessing the contribution of terrestrial carbon sequestration to international climate change mitigation requires integration across scientific and disciplinary boundaries. As part of a scenario analysis for the US Climate Change Technology Program, measurements and geographic data were used to develop terrestrial carbon sequestration estimates for agricultural soil carbon, reforestation and pasture management. These estimates were then applied in the MiniCAM integrated assessment model to evaluate mitigation strategies within policy and technology scenarios aimed at achieving atmospheric CO2 stabilization by 2100. Adoption of terrestrial sequestration practices is based on competition for land and economic markets for carbon. Terrestrial sequestration reach a peak combined rate of 0.5 to 0.7 Gt carbon yr-1 in mid-century with contributions from agricultural soil (0.21 Gt carbon yr-1), reforestation (0.31 Gt carbon yr-1) and pasture (0.15 Gt carbon yr-1). Sequestration rates vary over time period and with different technology and policy scenarios. The combined contribution of terrestrial sequestration over the next century ranges from 31 to 41 GtC. The contribution of terrestrial sequestration to mitigation is highest early in the century, reaching up to 20% of total carbon mitigation. This analysis provides insight into the behavior of terrestrial carbon mitigation options in the presence and absence of climate change mitigation policies.

  18. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  19. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Godde, Cécile M.; Thorburn, Peter J.; Biggs, Jody S.; Meier, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil–climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model’s outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat–chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and

  20. Understanding the Impacts of Soil, Climate, and Farming Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration: A Simulation Study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Godde, Cécile M; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Meier, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has the capacity to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as to improve soil biological, physical, and chemical properties. The review of literature pertaining to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics within Australian grain farming systems does not enable us to conclude on the best farming practices to increase or maintain SOC for a specific combination of soil and climate. This study aimed to further explore the complex interactions of soil, climate, and farming practices on SOC. We undertook a modeling study with the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator modeling framework, by combining contrasting Australian soils, climates, and farming practices (crop rotations, and management within rotations, such as fertilization, tillage, and residue management) in a factorial design. This design resulted in the transposition of contrasting soils and climates in our simulations, giving soil-climate combinations that do not occur in the study area to help provide insights into the importance of the climate constraints on SOC. We statistically analyzed the model's outputs to determinate the relative contributions of soil parameters, climate, and farming practices on SOC. The initial SOC content had the largest impact on the value of SOC, followed by the climate and the fertilization practices. These factors explained 66, 18, and 15% of SOC variations, respectively, after 80 years of constant farming practices in the simulation. Tillage and stubble management had the lowest impacts on SOC. This study highlighted the possible negative impact on SOC of a chickpea phase in a wheat-chickpea rotation and the potential positive impact of a cover crop in a sub-tropical climate (QLD, Australia) on SOC. It also showed the complexities in managing to achieve increased SOC, while simultaneously aiming to minimize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate leaching in farming systems. The transposition of contrasting soils and climates in

  1. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  2. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  3. Carbon sequestration potential for forage and pasture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland soils represent a large reservoir of organic and inorganic carbon. Regionally, grasslands are annual CO2 sources or sinks depending on crop and soil management, current soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and climate. Land management changes (LMC) impact SOC sequestration rate, the du...

  4. Outcome-based Carbon Sequestration Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundquist, E. T.; Jain, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Opportunities for carbon sequestration are an important consideration in developing policies to manage the mass balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Assessments of potential carbon sequestration, like other resource assessments, should be widely accepted within the scientific community and broadly applicable to public needs over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The essential public concern regarding all forms of carbon sequestration is their effectiveness in offsetting CO2 emissions. But the diverse forms and mechanisms of potential sequestration are reflected in diverse assessment methodologies that are very difficult for decision-makers to compare and apply to comprehensive carbon management. For example, assessments of potential geologic sequestration are focused on total capacities derived from probabilistic analyses of rock strata, while assessments of potential biologic sequestration are focused on annual rates calculated using biogeochemical models. Non-specialists cannot readily compare and apply such dissimilar estimates of carbon storage. To address these problems, assessment methodologies should not only tabulate rates and capacities of carbon storage, but also enable comparison of the time-dependent effects of various sequestration activities on the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2. This outcome-based approach requires consideration of the sustainability of the assessed carbon storage, as well as the response of carbon-cycle feedbacks. Global models can be used to compare atmospheric CO2 trajectories implied by alternative global sequestration strategies, but such simulations may not be accessible or useful in many decision settings. Simplified assessment metrics, such as ratios using impulse response functions, show some promise in providing comparisons of CO2 mitigation that are broadly useful while minimizing sensitivity to differences in global models and emissions scenarios. Continued improvements will require close

  5. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols. PMID:25265095

  6. Carbon Sequestration Efficiency of Organic Amendments in a Long-Term Experiment on a Vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982–2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput –0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols. PMID:25265095

  7. Carbon sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in a long-term experiment on a vertisol in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Hua, Keke; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Xisheng; Guo, Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important for improving soil fertility of cropland and for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The efficiency of SOC sequestration depends on the quantity and quality of the organic matter, soil type, and climate. Little is known about the SOC sequestration efficiency of organic amendments in Vertisols. Thus, we conducted the research based on 29 years (1982-2011) of long-term fertilization experiment with a no fertilizer control and five fertilization regimes: CK (control, no fertilizer), NPK (mineral NPK fertilizers alone), NPK+1/2W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with half the amount of wheat straw), NPK+W (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with full the amount of wheat straw), NPK+PM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined with pig manure) and NPK+CM (mineral NPK fertilizers combined cattle manure). Total mean annual C inputs were 0.45, 1.55, 2.66, 3.71, 4.68 and 6.56 ton/ha/yr for CK, NPK, NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM and NPKCM, respectively. Mean SOC sequestration rate was 0.20 ton/ha/yr in the NPK treatment, and 0.39, 0.50, 0.51 and 0.97 ton/ha/yr in the NPKW1/2, NPKW, NPKPM, and NPKCM treatments, respectively. A linear relationship was observed between annual C input and SOC sequestration rate (SOCsequestration rate  = 0.16 Cinput -0.10, R = 0.95, P<0.01), suggesting a C sequestration efficiency of 16%. The Vertisol required an annual C input of 0.63 ton/ha/yr to maintain the initial SOC level. Moreover, the C sequestration efficiencies of wheat straw, pig manure and cattle manure were 17%, 11% and 17%, respectively. The results indicate that the Vertisol has a large potential to sequester SOC with a high efficiency, and applying cattle manure or wheat straw is a recommendable SOC sequestration practice in Vertisols.

  8. Soil organic carbon accretion vs. sequestration using physicochemical fractionation and CQESTR simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of soil organic C (SOC) stocks are required to determine changes in SOC resulting from agricultural management practices. Our objectives were to: (i) determine total SOC; (ii) estimate the contribution of light fraction C (LF-C) to total SOC; and (iii) simulate SOC dynamics using ...

  9. Composition and mean residence time of soil organic matter eroded from temperate, forested catchments: implications for erosion-induced carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhe, A. A.; McCorkle, E. P.; Stacy, E.; Hart, S. C.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Topsoil and associated soil organic matter are continuously laterally distributed on the landscape by the process of soil erosion. The role of soil erosion on terrestrial carbon sequestration has been gaining a lot of attention over the last two decades. Soil erosion has been shown to lead to a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide in soil if at least some of the eroded carbon is replaced by production of new photosynthate and/or some of the eroded carbon is stabilized in downslope depositional landform positions. However, until recently most of the work in this area has been focused on agricultural or grassland systems. Here, we present results from temperate forested catchments in the southern part of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. We found that most of the soil organic matter eroded from low-order catchments in the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains is composed of forest floor material that has high concentrations of carbon. The steep slopes of these catchments also contribute to export of large proportion of the eroded forest floor material out of the catchments. Our radiocarbon analyses showed that the soil organic matter in the eroded material is composed of modern (post-1950) carbon with fraction modern values at or above 1. We also found that neither elevation, nor climate (across six years that we investigated) leads to significant changes in the composition and mean residence times of the eroded material, despite considerable differences in mean residence time of soil organic mater in soil profiles of the contributing hillslopes in the high vs. low elevation (low elevation: 1800 m, high elevation: 2300 m) catchments we studied. Our findings show that soil organic matter eroded from upland forested catchments is a lot more susceptible to decomposition, compared to organic matter eroded from agricultural or grassland systems likely leading to a less significant role of soil erosion on terrestrial carbon sequestration in forested catchments.

  10. Trade-based carbon sequestration accounting.

    PubMed

    King, Dennis M

    2004-04-01

    This article describes and illustrates an accounting method to assess and compare "early" carbon sequestration investments and trades on the basis of the number of standardized CO2 emission offset credits they will provide. The "gold standard" for such credits is assumed to be a relatively riskless credit based on a CO2 emission reduction that provides offsets against CO2 emissions on a one-for-one basis. The number of credits associated with carbon sequestration needs to account for time, risk, durability, permanence, additionality, and other factors that future trade regulators will most certainly use to assign "official" credits to sequestration projects. The method that is presented here uses established principles of natural resource accounting and conventional rules of asset valuation to "score" projects. A review of 20 "early" voluntary United States based CO2 offset trades that involve carbon sequestration reveals that the assumptions that buyers, sellers, brokers, and traders are using to characterize the economic potential of their investments and trades vary enormously. The article develops a "universal carbon sequestration credit scoring equation" and uses two of these trades to illustrate the sensitivity of trade outcomes to various assumptions about how future trade auditors are likely to "score" carbon sequestration projects in terms of their "equivalency" with CO2 emission reductions. The article emphasizes the importance of using a standard credit scoring method that accounts for time and risk to assess and compare even unofficial prototype carbon sequestration trades. The scoring method illustrated in this article is a tool that can protect the integrity of carbon sequestration credit trading and can assist buyers and sellers in evaluating the real economic potential of prospective trades.

  11. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  12. Sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon by Long-Term No-Tillage in a Cool Semi-Arid Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Patrick M.; Brevik, Eric C.; Horsley, Richard D.; Martin, Glenn B.

    2016-04-01

    Management choices are known to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) amounts and distribution in agricultural soils. No-tillage (NT) has been viewed as a management technique that sequesters SOC, but some recent studies have brought this into question. These studies have indicated that NT concentrates SOC in shallow horizons while depleting SOC at depth rather than increasing SOC throughout the entire soil profile, with no statistical difference between total profile SOC when soils are sampled to depths greater than about 20-30 cm. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if long-term NT management in a cool semiarid environment showed SOC sequestration as compared to clean-tillage (CT) and reduced-tillage (RT) management when soil depths >30 cm were considered. Soil samples were collected from 0-30, 30-60, and 60-90 cm depth intervals in research plots arranged in a randomized complete block design. No-tillage, RT, and CT treatments had been maintained in these plots at Dickinson, ND, USA for ≥19 yr. Data was analyzed using a mixed model where tillage and soil depth were considered fixed and blocks were considered random effects. SOC levels were higher under NT (64 Mg ha-1) than CT and RT (≤55 Mg ha-1) management in the 0-30 cm depth interval. The same trend was detected in the 30-60 cm depth interval under NT compared with RT, but not when NT was compared with CT. SOC levels were higher under NT (29 Mg ha-1) than under RT (23 Mg ha-1) in the 60-90 cm depth interval. Through the upper 90 cm of the soil profile, SOC levels were significantly higher under NT (127 Mg ha-1) than under CT and RT (≤112 Mg ha-1). The results of this research indicate that NT can increase SOC levels in the 0-90 cm soil depth interval in cool semiarid environments when compared to CT and RT.

  13. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold W.

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  14. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Steven G

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 10(12) g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes occur two out of three years across the eastern US. A single storm can convert the equivalent of 10% of the total annual carbon sequestrated by US forests into dead and downed biomass. Given that forests require at least 15 years to recover from a severe storm, a large amount of forest carbon is lost either directly (through biomass destruction) or indirectly (through lost carbon sequestration capacity) due to hurricanes. Only 15% of the total carbon in destroyed timber is salvaged following a major hurricane. The remainder of the carbon is left to decompose and eventually return to the atmosphere. Short-term increases in forest productivity due to increased nutrient inputs from detritus are not fully compensated by reduced stem stocking, and the recovery time needed to recover leaf area. Therefore, hurricanes are a significant factor in reducing short-term carbon storage in US forests.

  15. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengxiang X; Lindner, Jeff S; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO(2) requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO(2) is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO(2) hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO(2) loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of $11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration

  16. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Socioeconomic Characteristics and Landowner Acceptance of Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfomak, Elizabeth C.

    This study explores public acceptance of carbon dioxide sequestration sites through a mail survey of 4,001 landowners in central Illinois and Indiana, a region with high sequestration potential and recent siting proposals for FutureGen (an integrated power plant and sequestration demonstration project). The individuals sampled in this study include landowners both informed and uninformed about carbon sequestration, comparing groups based on ecological concern, economic conditions, views about the energy industry, environmental justice, familiarity with sequestration, and demographics. Of the survey respondents, 27% reported an understanding of carbon sequestration prior to receiving the survey, 2.5 times more than would be expected in the general U.S. population. Overall, 47% of survey respondents would oppose a local sequestration site while 30% would support one. The results suggest that greater familiarity with geologic sequestration has little influence on local site acceptance. Multivariate analysis found that landowner acceptance of sequestration sites derives primarily from gender, concern for the local environment, trust in government, experience with industrial activity, and belief in the potential of conservation/renewables. Because views on these issues are persistent, it may be difficult to overcome landowner opposition through education. Policy makers may, therefore, need to lower expectations for sequestration deployment in the United States and revisit other options for meeting the nation's CO2 emissions goals.

  17. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  18. Natural vegetation restoration is more beneficial to soil surface organic and inorganic carbon sequestration than tree plantation on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Dong, Yunshe; Wang, Yunqiang; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yafeng; Cui, Buli; Zhou, Weijian

    2014-07-01

    Natural vegetation restoration and tree plantation are the two most important measures for ecosystem restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. However, few studies have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC and SIC) sequestration or have further used SOC and SIC isotopes to analyze the inherent sequestration mechanism. This study examined a pair of neighboring small watersheds with similar topographical and geological backgrounds. Since 1954, natural vegetation restoration has been conducted in one of these watersheds, and tree plantation has been conducted in the other. The two watersheds have now formed completely different landscapes (naturally restored grassland and artificial forestland). Differences in soil bulk density, SOC and SIC content and storage, and SOC and SIC δ(13)C values were investigated in the two ecosystems in the upper 1m of the soil. We found that SOC storage was higher in the grassland than in the forestland, with a difference of 14.90 Mg ha(-1). The vertical changes in the δ(13)CSOC value demonstrated that the two ecosystems have different mechanisms of soil surface organic carbon accumulation. The SIC storage in the grassland was lower than that in the forestland, with a difference of 38.99 Mg ha(-1). The δ(13)CSIC values indicated that the grassland generates more secondary carbonate than the forestland and that SIC was most likely transported to the rivers from the grassland as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The biogeochemical characteristics of the grassland were favorable for the formation of bicarbonate. Thus, more DIC derived from the dissolution of root and microbial respired CO2 into soil water could have been transported to the rivers through flood runoff. It is necessary to study further the transportation of DIC from the grassland because this process can produce a large potential carbon sink.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  20. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: Science for enhancement and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Wilfred M.; Amonette, James E.; Birdsey, Richard; Garten, Charles T., Jr.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, Julie; Lal, Rattan; Marland, Gregg; McCarl, Bruce A.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, Tristram O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Metting, F. Blaine

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation [Watson et al., 2000]. Nevertheless, C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has not been seriously pursued since its introduction in the Kyoto Protocol over a decade ago. Concerns have been raised that C sequestration in the biosphere is finite and not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that any attention paid to environmental sequestration would be a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. International accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily, and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to reevaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity.

  1. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Cho, Kyu-Seong; Moberly, James G; Roh, Yul; Phelps, Tommy J

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of metal ions' leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  2. Simultaneous leaching and carbon sequestration in constrained aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Tommy Joe; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of metal ions leaching and precipitated mineral phases of metal-rich fly ash (FA) was examined in order to evaluate microbial impacts on carbon sequestration and metal immobilization. The leaching solutions consisted of aerobic deionized water (DW) and artificial eutrophic water (AEW) that was anaerobic, organic- and mineral-rich, and higher salinity as is typical of bottom water in eutrophic algae ponds. The Fe- and Ca-rich FAs were predominantly composed of quartz, mullite, portlandite, calcite, hannebachite, maghemite, and hematite. After 86 days, only Fe and Ca contents exhibited a decrease in leaching solutions while other major and trace elements showed increasing or steady trends in preference to the type of FA and leaching solution. Ca-rich FA showed strong carbon sequestration efficiency ranging up to 32.3 g CO(2)/kg FA after 86 days, corresponding to almost 65% of biotic carbon sequestration potential under some conditions. Variations in the properties of FAs such as chemical compositions, mineral constituents as well as the type of leaching solution impacted CO(2) capture. Even though the relative amount of calcite increased sixfold in the AEW and the relative amount of mineral phase reached 37.3 wt% using Ca-rich FA for 86 days, chemical sequestration did not accomplish simultaneous precipitation and sequestration of several heavy metals.

  3. DOE Ocean Carbon Sequestration Research Workshop 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Chavez, Francisco; Maltrud, Matthew; Adams, Eric; Arrigo, Kevin; Barry, James; Carmen, Kevin; Bishop, James; Bleck, Rainer; Gruber, Niki; Erickson, David; Kennett, James; Tsouris, Costas; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Paytan, Adina; Repeta, Daniel; Yager, Patricia L.; Marshall, John; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2007-01-11

    The purpose of this proposal was to fund a workshop to bring together the principal investigators of all the projects that were being funded under the DOE ocean carbon sequestration research program. The primary goal of the workshop was to interchange research results, to discuss ongoing research, and to identify future research priorities. In addition, we hoped to encourage the development of synergies and collaborations between the projects and to write an EOS article summarizing the results of the meeting. Appendix A summarizes the plan of the workshop as originally proposed, Appendix B lists all the principal investigators who were able to attend the workshop, Appendix C shows the meeting agenda, and Appendix D lists all the abstracts that were provided prior to the meeting. The primary outcome of the meeting was a decision to write two papers for the reviewed literature on carbon sequestration by iron fertilization, and on carbon sequestration by deep sea injection and to examine the possibility of an overview article in EOS on the topic of ocean carbon sequestration.

  4. Carbon sequestration and its role in the global carbon cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Brian J.; Sundquist, Eric T.

    2009-01-01

    For carbon sequestration the issues of monitoring, risk assessment, and verification of carbon content and storage efficacy are perhaps the most uncertain. Yet these issues are also the most critical challenges facing the broader context of carbon sequestration as a means for addressing climate change. In response to these challenges, Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle presents current perspectives and research that combine five major areas: • The global carbon cycle and verification and assessment of global carbon sources and sinks • Potential capacity and temporal/spatial scales of terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Assessing risks and benefits associated with terrestrial, oceanic, and geologic carbon storage • Predicting, monitoring, and verifying effectiveness of different forms of carbon storage • Suggested new CO2 sequestration research and management paradigms for the future. The volume is based on a Chapman Conference and will appeal to the rapidly growing group of scientists and engineers examining methods for deliberate carbon sequestration through storage in plants, soils, the oceans, and geological repositories.

  5. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  6. Genome-enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Xinye; Engle, Nancy L; Ranjan, Priya; Basu, Manojit M; Gunter, Lee E; Jawdy, Sara; Martin, Madhavi Z; Campbell, Alina S; DiFazio, Stephen P; Davis, John M; Hinchee, Maud; Pinnacchio, Christa; Meilan, R; Busov, V.; Strauss, S

    2009-01-01

    The fate of carbon below ground is likely to be a major factor determining the success of carbon sequestration strategies involving plants. Despite their importance, molecular processes controlling belowground C allocation and partitioning are poorly understood. This project is leveraging the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence to discover genes important to C sequestration in plants and soils. The focus is on the identification of genes that provide key control points for the flow and chemical transformations of carbon in roots, concentrating on genes that control the synthesis of chemical forms of carbon that result in slower turnover rates of soil organic matter (i.e., increased recalcitrance). We propose to enhance carbon allocation and partitioning to roots by 1) modifying the auxin signaling pathway, and the invertase family, which controls sucrose metabolism, and by 2) increasing root proliferation through transgenesis with genes known to control fine root proliferation (e.g., ANT), 3) increasing the production of recalcitrant C metabolites by identifying genes controlling secondary C metabolism by a major mQTL-based gene discovery effort, and 4) increasing aboveground productivity by enhancing drought tolerance to achieve maximum C sequestration. This broad, integrated approach is aimed at ultimately enhancing root biomass as well as root detritus longevity, providing the best prospects for significant enhancement of belowground C sequestration.

  7. Biomass Crop Production: Benefits for Soil Quality and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, W.; Bock, B.R.; Houston, A.; Joslin, J.D.; Pettry, D.E.; Schoenholtz, S.; Thornton, F.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Tyler, D.

    1999-08-29

    Research at three locations in the southeastern US is quantifying changes in soil quality and soil carbon storage that occur during production of biomass crops compared with row crops. After three growing seasons, soil quality improved and soil carbon storage increased on plots planted to cottonwood, sycamore, sweetgum with a cover crop, switchgrass, and no-till corn. For tree crops, sequestered belowground carbon was found mainly in stumps and large roots. At the TN site, the coarse woody organic matter storage belowground was 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}yr{sup {minus}1}, of which 79% was stumps and large roots and 21% fine roots. Switchgrass at the AL site also stored considerable carbon belowground as coarse roots. Most of the carbon storage occurred mainly in the upper 30 cw although coarse roots were found to depths of greater than 60 cm. Biomass crops contributed to improvements in soil physical quality as well as increasing belowground carbon sequestration. The distribution and extent of carbon sequestration depends on the growth characteristics and age of the individual biomass crop species. Time and increasing crop maturity will determine the potential of these biomass crops to significantly contribute to the overall national goal of increasing carbon sequestration and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Seagrass restoration enhances "blue carbon" sequestration in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jill T; McGlathery, Karen J; Gunnell, John; McKee, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that provide important ecosystem services in the coastal zone, including carbon and nutrient sequestration. Organic carbon in seagrass sediment, known as "blue carbon," accumulates from both in situ production and sedimentation of particulate carbon from the water column. Using a large-scale restoration (>1700 ha) in the Virginia coastal bays as a model system, we evaluated the role of seagrass, Zosteramarina, restoration in carbon storage in sediments of shallow coastal ecosystems. Sediments of replicate seagrass meadows representing different age treatments (as time since seeding: 0, 4, and 10 years), were analyzed for % carbon, % nitrogen, bulk density, organic matter content, and ²¹⁰Pb for dating at 1-cm increments to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment nutrient and organic content, and carbon accumulation rates were higher in 10-year seagrass meadows relative to 4-year and bare sediment. These differences were consistent with higher shoot density in the older meadow. Carbon accumulation rates determined for the 10-year restored seagrass meadows were 36.68 g C m⁻² yr⁻¹. Within 12 years of seeding, the restored seagrass meadows are expected to accumulate carbon at a rate that is comparable to measured ranges in natural seagrass meadows. This the first study to provide evidence of the potential of seagrass habitat restoration to enhance carbon sequestration in the coastal zone.

  9. Stuffing Carbon Away: Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, P J; Masiello, C A; Southon, J R; Trumbore, S E; Harden, J W; White, A F; Chadwick, O A; Torn, M S

    2003-01-24

    Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil carbon dynamics before we attempt to manage sequestration to control atmospheric CO{sub 2} buildup. Models of the terrestrial carbon cycle often use clay content to parameterize soil carbon turnover. Evidence from volcanic soils suggests that soil mineralogy is a major control on a soil's ability to store carbon, because different types of minerals have widely varying abilities to physically and chemically isolate soil organic matter from decomposition, however volcanic soils represent only a small percentage of the earth's soils. The relationship between precipitation and soil carbon storage is also complex and poorly constrained. Significantly, precipitation changes predicted as a result of atmospheric CO{sub 2} doubling include increased rainfall throughout California. We utilized {sup 14}C, {delta}{sup 13}C, and the total organic carbon, iron, and aluminum contents to address the question of the importance of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage in soils formed on a globally representative parent material. The California coastal terraces, formed over the last 500 thousand years as a result of tectonic uplift and sea level change, provide a natural laboratory to examine the effect of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage. We have focused on two terraces sequences, one near Eureka and one near Santa Cruz. Within each set of terraces only soil mineral development varies; all other variables are constant (rainfall, plant systems, and soil parent material, and land management). Annual precipitation at Eureka is twice that at Santa Cruz, allowing us to examine its role in the

  10. Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA.

  11. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Hu, Jian Z.; Hoyt, David W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2011-04-01

    Carbonation of formation minerals converts low viscosity supercritical CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs for geologic sequestration into an immobile form. Until recently the scientific focus of mineralization reactions with reservoir rocks has been those that follow an aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation mechanism, driven by the sharp reduction in pH that occurs with CO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase. For sedimentary basin formations the kinetics of aqueous-mediated dissolution/precipitation reactions are sufficiently slow to make the role of mineralization trapping insignificant over a century period. For basaltic saline formations aqueous-phase mineralization progresses at a substantially higher rate, making the role of mineralization trapping significant, if not dominant, over a century period. The overlooked mineralization reactions for both sedimentary and basaltic saline formations, however, are those that occur in liquid or supercritical CO2 phase; where, dissolved water appears to play a catalyst role in the formation of carbonate minerals. A model is proposed in this paper that describes mineral carbonation over sequestration reservoir conditions ranging from dissolved CO2 in aqueous brine to dissolved water in supercritical CO2. The model theory is based on a review of recent experiments directed at understanding the role of water in mineral carbonation reactions of interest in geologic sequestration systems occurring under low water contents.

  12. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  13. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  14. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

    2004-04-30

    This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  15. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  16. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  17. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  18. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I.

    2010-01-01

    Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, we measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N2O (a GHG ˜ 300 times more effective than CO2) in Southern California, USA. We also estimated CO2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N2O (0.1-0.3 g N m-2 yr-1) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m-2 yr-1), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

  19. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Perspectives from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Macdonald, L.; Baldock, J.

    2011-12-01

    Australia is currently embarking upon an unparalleled program to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by engaging farmers and landholders to reduce emissions and store carbon in the soil. Currently, the magnitude of a potential soil carbon sink in Australian agricultural soils is largely unknown. The oft repeated rubric that adoption of recommended management practices (RMP) can raise soil carbon levels to 50-66% of pre-clearing levels has lead many to conclude that soil carbon sequestration can offset a large portion of Australia's current greenhouse gas emissions. Is there evidence in Australia (and abroad) to support these sequestration rates? In this presentation, we will present findings from both a retrospective analysis of existing field trial data and preliminary results from a national scale assessment of current soil carbon stocks under different agricultural management practices. A comprehensive review of field-trial data in Australia suggests that most management shifts within a given agricultural system (i.e. tillage, stubble management, fertilizer application, etc...) result in modest relative gains of 0.1 to 0.3 tC ha-1 yr-1. Importantly, whenever time series data was available, we found that the relative improvement in soil carbon stocks under RMPs was due to a reduction in the rate of loss of soil carbon and not in an actual increase in soil carbon. This finding has important repercussions for both how we think about soil carbon sequestration and how we can account for it in an accounting framework. Current research within the National Soil Carbon Research Program looks to assess the potential for agricultural management to influence soil carbon content and its distribution within various measurable carbon pools (particulate, humus, charcoal-like). For example, 200 randomly selected farms have been sampled in two major agricultural regions in South Australia based on a soil-type by rainfall stratification. In addition to measuring carbon content and

  20. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  1. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, J.; Dixon, R.K.; Kinsman, J.D.; Sampson, R.N.; Lugo, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. Terrestrial ecosystems are currently accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) ecosystems to maintain or increase C storage. Forest ecosystems can be managed to sequester and store globally significant amounts of C. Agroecosystems and arid lands could be managed to conserve existing terrestrial C but CO2 sequestration rates by vegetation in these systems is relatively low. Biomass from forest agroecosystems has the potential to be used as an energy source and trees could be used to conserve energy in urban environments. Some ecosystem management practices that result in C sequestration and conservation provide ancillary benefits.

  3. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Hasselquist, Niles J; Bach, Lisbet H; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region.

  4. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition enhances carbon sequestration in boreal soils.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Hasselquist, Niles J; Bach, Lisbet H; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    It is proposed that carbon (C) sequestration in response to reactive nitrogen (Nr ) deposition in boreal forests accounts for a large portion of the terrestrial sink for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While studies have helped clarify the magnitude by which Nr deposition enhances C sequestration by forest vegetation, there remains a paucity of long-term experimental studies evaluating how soil C pools respond. We conducted a long-term experiment, maintained since 1996, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in the boreal zone of northern Sweden to understand how atmospheric Nr deposition affects soil C accumulation, soil microbial communities, and soil respiration. We hypothesized that soil C sequestration will increase, and soil microbial biomass and soil respiration will decrease, with disproportionately large changes expected compared to low levels of N addition. Our data showed that the low N addition treatment caused a non-significant increase in the organic horizon C pool of ~15% and a significant increase of ~30% in response to the high N treatment relative to the control. The relationship between C sequestration and N addition in the organic horizon was linear, with a slope of 10 kg C kg(-1) N. We also found a concomitant decrease in total microbial and fungal biomasses and a ~11% reduction in soil respiration in response to the high N treatment. Our data complement previous data from the same study system describing aboveground C sequestration, indicating a total ecosystem sequestration rate of 26 kg C kg(-1) N. These estimates are far lower than suggested by some previous modeling studies, and thus will help improve and validate current modeling efforts aimed at separating the effect of multiple global change factors on the C balance of the boreal region. PMID:25711504

  5. In situ sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments under stagnant contact with activated carbon. 1. Column studies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongju; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Luthy, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of activated carbon (AC) treatment to sequester hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments under stagnant contact was comprehensively studied for the first time. Two years of column experiments were conducted to simulate field conditions with two study sediments contaminated with petroleum and polychlorinated biphenyls, respectively, and variations in AC-sediment contact times, initial AC mixing regimes and distribution, AC particle sizes, and pore-water flow. The benefit of AC treatment was gradually enhanced with time toward the end point of the treatment, where sorption equilibrium is established between sediment and AC. After two years of stagnant contact, the contaminant uptake in polyethylene passive samplers embedded in the columns was reduced by 95-99% for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 93-97% for polychlorinated biphenyls with 5 and 4 wt % AC dose, respectively, when AC was initially applied by mechanical mixing. These results verify that AC treatment can effectively control the availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants under stagnant conditions within a reasonable time frame following an initial distribution of AC into the sediment. The effectiveness of AC treatment was strongly dependent on AC particle size and AC distribution, while the effect of AC initial mixing regimes and pore-water flow was not pronounced.

  6. Microbial respiration, but not biomass, responded linearly to increasing light fraction organic matter input: Consequences for carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yichao; Murphy, Daniel V.; Wang, Xiaoli; Hoyle, Frances C.

    2016-01-01

    Rebuilding ‘lost’ soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO2. Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9.6 t C ha−1 versus tilled + plant residue treatment (tilled + OM) = 18.0 t C ha−1] were incubated in the laboratory with a gradient of LFOM equivalent to 0 to 3.8 t C ha−1 (0 to 500% LFOM). Microbial biomass C significantly declined under increased rates of LFOM addition while microbial respiration increased linearly, leading to a decrease in the microbial C use efficiency. We hypothesise this was due to insufficient nutrients to form new microbial biomass as LFOM input increased the ratio of C to nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur of soil. Increased CO2 efflux but constrained microbial growth in response to LFOM input demonstrated the difficulty for C storage in this environment. PMID:27752083

  7. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for

  8. Long term yields and soil carbon sequestration from Miscanthus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael; Zimmerman, Jesko

    2016-04-01

    Perennial rhizomatous grasses such as Miscanthus have been assumed to give sustainable biomass yields over many years but there have been few productivity trials that have tested this assumption. In addition it has been suggested that soil carbon sequestration increases linearly over time. We review field trials of Miscanthus, established on former grassland and tilled land, that have been harvested annually for up to twenty years and in which changes in soil organic matter content have been measured. Yields of Miscanthus follow an establishment phase, a ceiling phase and then a phase of decline. The lengths of these phases are strongly influenced by climate, soils and management but it is likely that Miscanthus plantations can produce commercially acceptable yield beyond 20 years. Net soil carbon sequestration depends on previous land use and is strongly influenced by the soil carbon stocks at the time of planting. Under Miscanthus a large fraction of the accumulated carbon is labile and would be rapidly lost if Miscanthus plantations were reconverted to cropland. Currently it is not possible to derive a reliable default sequestration rate for land use change from cropland to Miscanthus energy crop.

  9. Saharan dust enhances carbon sequestration in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabortsava, Katsiaryna; Lampitt, Richard; Le Moigne, Frederic; Sanders, Richard; Statham, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We present unique time-series data from sediment traps deployed at 3000 m depth in the subtropical North (NOG) and South (SOG) Atlantic oligotrophic gyres during 2007-2010. The sampling sites have similar physical properties and carbon fixation rates but different surface ocean biogeochemistry owing to enhanced input of Saharan dust in the North. NOG and SOG sites are thus ideal to investigate the effects of dust input on carbon sequestration in low-nutrient low-chlorophyll oceans. Analyses of the trap material (chemical, microscopic and stable isotope) revealed significant inter-basin differences in the downward particle flux and its composition, showing that biogeochemical differences at the surface have major effects on deep ocean sequestration scenarios. Particulate organic carbon flux in the dustier Northern gyre was twice that in the dust-poor Southern gyre. We conclude that this is a consequence of tight coupling between fertilization and ballasting due to dust deposition. We suggest that excess of micronutrient Fe from the dust increased phytoplankton biomass by stimulating di-nitrogen fixation, while dust particles caused rapid and more efficient transport to depth via ballasting. These findings present compelling direct evidence of two distinct biogeochemical provinces in the subtropical oligotrophic Atlantic not only with respect to surface nutrient biogeochemistry but also with respect to carbon sequestration.

  10. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    , respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  11. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    yr‑1, respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m‑2 yr‑1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  12. Sequestration of Soil Carbon as Secondary Carbonates (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA Abstract World soils, the major carbon (C) reservoir among the terrestrial pools, contain soil organic C (SOC) and soil inorganic C (SIC). The SIC pool is predominant in soils of arid and semi-arid regions. These regions cover a land area of about 4.9x109 ha. The SIC pool in soils containing calcic and petrocalcic horizons is estimated at about 695-748 Pg (Pg = 1015 g = 1 gigaton) to 1-m depth. There are two types of carbonates. Lithogenic or primary carbonates are formed from weathering of carbonaceous rocks. Pedogenic or secondary carbonates are formed by dissolution of CO2 in the soil air to form carbonic acid and precipitation as carbonates of Ca+2 or Mg+2. It is the availability of Ca+2 or Mg+2 from outside the ecosystem that is essential to sequester atmospheric CO2. Common among outside sources of Ca+2 or Mg+2 are irrigation water, aerial deposition, sea breeze, fertilizers, manure and other amendments. The decomposition of SOC and root respiration may increase the partial pressure of CO2 in the soil air and lead to the formation of HCO_3^- upon dissolution in H20. Precipitation of secondary carbonates may result from decreased partial pressure of CO2 in the sub-soil, increased concentration of Ca+2, Mg+2 and HCO_3^- in soil solution, and decreased soil moisture content by evapotranspiration. Transport of bicarbonates in irrigated soils and subsequent precipitation above the ground water (calcrete), activity of termites and other soil fauna, and management of urban soils lead to formation of secondary carbonates. On a geologic time scale, weathering of silicate minerals and transport of the by-products into the ocean is a geological process of sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Factors affecting formation of secondary carbonates include land use, and soil and crop management including application of biosolids, irrigation and the quality of irrigation water

  13. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2007-12-31

    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  15. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C; Sutter, Lawrence L

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO2 emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) underambienttemperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion.

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C; Sutter, Lawrence L

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO2 emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) underambienttemperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2, and CaCO3 was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. PMID:19368202

  19. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  20. Carbon Sequestration: Enhanced Evaluation of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeish, J. A.; Wang, Y.; Dewars, T.; Hadgu, T.; Jove Colon, C. F.; Sun, A.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Initial studies indicate that for long-term geologic storage of carbon to be effective, the leakage rates must be less than 0.1 - 0.01%/yr. Recent efforts have been made to apply the existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage. However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the design and operational phases. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). This study formulates the advanced PA concept for CS systems and establishes a prototype PA framework for the concept. The new PA framework includes a built-in optimization capability for model parameterization and monitoring system design. The capabilities of this framework will be demonstrated with a hypothetical CS system. The work lays the foundation for the development of a new generation of PA tools for effective management of CS activities. The work supports energy security and climate change/adaptation by furthering the capability to effectively manage proposed carbon capture

  1. Carbon dynamics and sequestration in urban turfgrass ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urbanization is a global trend. Turfgrass covers 1.9% of land in the continental US. Here we review existing literature associated with carbon (C) pools, sequestration, and nitrous oxide emission of urban turfgrass ecosystems. Turfgrasses exhibit significant carbon sequestration (0.34–1.4 Mg ha-1 ye...

  2. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1).

  3. [Estimation of soil carbon sequestration potential in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia and associated uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Han, Xing-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the measurements in the enclosure and uncontrolled grazing plots in the typical steppe of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this paper studied the soil carbon storage and carbon sequestration in the grasslands dominated by Leymus chinensis, Stipa grandis, and Stipa krylovii, respectively, and estimated the regional scale soil carbon sequestration potential in the heavily degraded grassland after restoration. At local scale, the annual soil carbon sequestration in the three grasslands all decreased with increasing year of enclosure. The soil organic carbon storage was significantly higher in the grasslands dominated by L. chinensis and Stipa grandis than in that dominated by Stipa krylovii, but the latter had much higher soil carbon sequestration potential, because of the greater loss of soil organic carbon during the degradation process due to overgrazing. At regional scale, the soil carbon sequestration potential at the depth of 0-20 cm varied from -0.03 x 10(4) to 3.71 x 10(4) kg C x a(-1), and the total carbon sequestration potential was 12.1 x 10(8) kg C x a(-1). Uncertainty analysis indicated that soil gravel content had less effect on the estimated carbon sequestration potential, but the estimation errors resulted from the spatial interpolation of climate data could be about +/- 4.7 x 10(9) kg C x a(-1). In the future, if the growth season precipitation in this region had an average variation of -3.2 mm x (10 a)(-1), the soil carbon sequestration potential would be de- creased by 1.07 x 10(8) kg C x (10 a)(-1). PMID:22489476

  4. The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Brewer, P. G.; Seibel, B. A.; Drazen, J. C.; Tamburri, M. N.; Whaling, P. J.; Kuhnz, L.; Pane, E. F.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of low-pH, high-pCO2 conditions on deep-sea organisms were examined during four deep-sea CO2 release experiments simulating deep-ocean C sequestration by the direct injection of CO2 into the deep sea. We examined the survival of common deep-sea, benthic organisms (microbes; macrofauna, dominated by Polychaeta, Nematoda, Crustacea, Mollusca; megafauna, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Pisces) exposed to low-pH waters emanating as a dissolution plume from pools of liquid carbon dioxide released on the seabed during four abyssal CO2-release experiments. Microbial abundance in deep-sea sediments was unchanged in one experiment, but increased under environmental hypercapnia during another, where the microbial assemblage may have benefited indirectly from the negative impact of low-pH conditions on other taxa. Lower abyssal metazoans exhibited low survival rates near CO2 pools. No urchins or holothurians survived during 30-42 days of exposure to episodic, but severe environmental hypercapnia during one experiment (E1; pH reduced by as much as ca. 1.4 units). These large pH reductions also caused 75% mortality for the deep-sea amphipod, Haploops lodo, near CO2 pools. Survival under smaller pH reductions (ΔpH<0.4 units) in other experiments (E2, E3, E5) was higher for all taxa, including echinoderms. Gastropods, cephalopods, and fish were more tolerant than most other taxa. The gastropod Retimohnia sp. and octopus Benthoctopus sp. survived exposure to pH reductions that episodically reached -0.3 pH units. Ninety percent of abyssal zoarcids (Pachycara bulbiceps) survived exposure to pH changes reaching ca. -0.3 pH units during 30-42 day-long experiments.

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  6. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  7. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  10. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  11. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2006-01-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  12. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership--Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-10-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts); and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  13. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  14. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  15. Soil carbon sequestration via cover crops- A meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC) and have thus a huge potential to sequester SOC. This can primarily be achieved by increasing carbon inputs into the soil. Replacing winter fallows by cover crop cultivation for green manure has many benefits for the soil and forms an additional carbon input. An increase in carbon concentration has been reported in several studies worldwide. However, the effect on SOC stocks, as well as the influence of environmental parameters and management on SOC dynamics is not known. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to investigate those issues. A total of 33 studies, comprising 47 sites and 147 plots were compiled. A pedotransfer function was used to estimate bulk densities and calculate SOC stocks. SOC stock change was found to be a linear function of time since introduction, with an annual sequestration rate of 0.32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Since no saturation was visible in the observations, we used the model RothC to estimate a new steady state level and the resulting total SOC stock change for an artificial "average cropland". The total average SOC stock change with an annual input of 1.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 was 16.76 Mg C ha-1 for the average soil depth of 22 cm. We estimated a potential global SOC sequestration of 0.12±0.03 Pg C yr-1, which would compensate for 8 % of the direct annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

  16. Phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos.

    PubMed

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Li, Zimin; Wang, Hailong; Gui, Renyi; Song, Ruisheng

    2014-04-16

    Phytoliths, the amorphous silica deposited in plant tissues, can occlude organic carbon (phytolith-occluded carbon, PhytOC) during their formation and play a significant role in the global carbon balance. This study explored phylogenetic variation of phytolith carbon sequestration in bamboos. The phytolith content in bamboo varied substantially from 4.28% to 16.42%, with the highest content in Sasa and the lowest in Chimonobambusa, Indocalamus and Acidosasa. The mean PhytOC production flux and rate in China's bamboo forests were 62.83 kg CO2 ha(-1) y(-1) and 4.5 × 10(8)kg CO2 y(-1), respectively. This implies that 1.4 × 10(9) kg CO2 would be sequestered in world's bamboo phytoliths because the global bamboo distribution area is about three to four times higher than China's bamboo. Therefore, both increasing the bamboo area and selecting high phytolith-content bamboo species would increase the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 within bamboo phytoliths.

  17. [Seagrass ecosystems: contributions to and mechanisms of carbon sequestration].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guang-Long; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Li, Zong-Shan; Fan, Hang-Qing; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2014-06-01

    The ocean's vegetated habitats, in particular seagrasses, mangroves and salt marshes, each capture and store a comparable amount of carbon per year, forming the Earth's blue carbon sinks, the most intense carbon sinks on the planet. Seagrass meadows, characterized by high primary productivity, efficient water column filtration and sediment stability, have a pronounced capacity for carbon sequestration. This is enhanced by low decomposition rates in anaerobic seagrass sediments. The carbon captured by seagrass meadows contributes significantly to the total blue carbon. At a global scale, seagrass ecosystems are carbon sink hot spots and have profound influences on the global carbon cycle. This importance combined with the many other functions of seagrass meadows places them among the most valuable ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, seagrasses are declining globally at an alarming rate owing to anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, making them also among the most threatened ecosystems on the Earth. The role of coastal systems in carbon sequestration has received far too little attention and thus there are still many uncertainties in evaluating carbon sequestration of global seagrass meadows accurately. To better assess the carbon sequestration of global seagrass ecosystems, a number of scientific issues should be considered with high priorities: 1) more accurate measurements of seagrass coverage at national and global levels; 2) more comprehensive research into species- and location-specific carbon sequestration efficiencies; 3) in-depth exploration of the effects of human disturbance and global climate change on carbon capture and storage by seagrass ecosystems.

  18. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  19. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  20. The nuts and bolts of carbon sequestration in forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading as an incentive for conserving private forest lands. The presentation addresses carbon sequestration in forests and its significance for global warming. Carbon inventories, specifically in the are...

  1. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established, and clay content or mineral surface area has been used to estimate the sequestration potential of soils. Here, via incubation of a sieved (<2 mm) topsoil with labelled litter, we find that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind organic matter (OM). Surprisingly, <19% of the visible mineral areas show an OM attachment. OM is preferentially associated with organo-mineral clusters with rough surfaces. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. These results, which provide evidence that only a limited proportion of the clay-sized surfaces contribute to OM sequestration, revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration in soils and the widely used carbon saturation estimates. PMID:24399306

  2. Assessment on the rates and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-based model and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased rate of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower rate of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower rate of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased rate of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-based accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (base year or base period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-based accounting, defined

  3. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  4. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    To, Jennifer PC; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N

    2010-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration. PMID:21173868

  5. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  6. Soil carbon sequestration is a climate stabilization wedge: comments on Sommer and Bossio (2014).

    PubMed

    Lassaletta, Luis; Aguilera, Eduardo

    2015-04-15

    Sommer and Bossio (2014) model the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils (croplands and grasslands) during the next 87 years, concluding that this process cannot be considered as a climate stabilization wedge. We argue, however, that the amounts of SOC potentially sequestered in both scenarios (pessimistic and optimistic) fulfil the requirements for being considered as wedge because in both cases at least 25 GtC would be sequestered during the next 50 years. We consider that it is precisely in the near future, and meanwhile other solutions are developed, when this stabilization effort is most urgent even if after some decades the sequestration rate is significantly reduced. Indirect effects of SOC sequestration on mitigation could reinforce the potential of this solution. We conclude that the sequestration of organic carbon in agricultural soils as a climate change mitigation tool still deserves important attention for scientists, managers and policy makers.

  7. Effects of enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in the topsoil by fertilization on crop productivity and stability: Evidence from long-term experiments with wheat-maize cropping systems in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xubo; Sun, Nan; Wu, Lianhai; Xu, Minggang; Bingham, Ian J; Li, Zhongfang

    2016-08-15

    Although organic carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has been recommended as a 'win-win strategy' for mitigating climate change and ensuring food security, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop productivity. Using data from 17 long-term experiments in China we determined the effects of fertilization strategies on SOC stocks at 0-20cm depth in the North, North East, North West and South. The impacts of changes in topsoil SOC stocks on the yield and yield stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Results showed that application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) plus animal manure over 20-30years significantly increased SOC stocks to 20-cm depth by 32-87% whilst NPK plus wheat/maize straw application increased it by 26-38% compared to controls. The efficiency of SOC sequestration differed between regions with 7.4-13.1% of annual C input into the topsoil being retained as SOC over the study periods. In the northern regions, application of manure had little additional effect on yield compared to NPK over a wide range of topsoil SOC stocks (18->50MgCha(-1)). In the South, average yield from manure applied treatments was 2.5 times greater than that from NPK treatments. Moreover, the yield with NPK plus manure increased until SOC stocks (20-cm depth) increased to ~35MgCha(-1). In the northern regions, yield stability was not increased by application of NPK plus manure compared to NPK, whereas in the South there was a significant improvement. We conclude that manure application and straw incorporation could potentially lead to SOC sequestration in topsoil in China, but beneficial effects of this increase in SOC stocks to 20-cm depth on crop yield and yield stability may only be achieved in the South. PMID:27100005

  8. Effects of enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in the topsoil by fertilization on crop productivity and stability: Evidence from long-term experiments with wheat-maize cropping systems in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xubo; Sun, Nan; Wu, Lianhai; Xu, Minggang; Bingham, Ian J; Li, Zhongfang

    2016-08-15

    Although organic carbon sequestration in agricultural soils has been recommended as a 'win-win strategy' for mitigating climate change and ensuring food security, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and crop productivity. Using data from 17 long-term experiments in China we determined the effects of fertilization strategies on SOC stocks at 0-20cm depth in the North, North East, North West and South. The impacts of changes in topsoil SOC stocks on the yield and yield stability of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were determined. Results showed that application of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) plus animal manure over 20-30years significantly increased SOC stocks to 20-cm depth by 32-87% whilst NPK plus wheat/maize straw application increased it by 26-38% compared to controls. The efficiency of SOC sequestration differed between regions with 7.4-13.1% of annual C input into the topsoil being retained as SOC over the study periods. In the northern regions, application of manure had little additional effect on yield compared to NPK over a wide range of topsoil SOC stocks (18->50MgCha(-1)). In the South, average yield from manure applied treatments was 2.5 times greater than that from NPK treatments. Moreover, the yield with NPK plus manure increased until SOC stocks (20-cm depth) increased to ~35MgCha(-1). In the northern regions, yield stability was not increased by application of NPK plus manure compared to NPK, whereas in the South there was a significant improvement. We conclude that manure application and straw incorporation could potentially lead to SOC sequestration in topsoil in China, but beneficial effects of this increase in SOC stocks to 20-cm depth on crop yield and yield stability may only be achieved in the South.

  9. Accelerated carbonation of brucite in mine tailings for carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Anna L; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric CO(2) is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. The rate of carbon sequestration at some mine sites appears to be limited by the rate of CO(2) supply. If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO(2) annually, offsetting mine emissions. The effect of supplying elevated partial pressures of CO(2) (pCO(2)) at 1 atm total pressure, on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)(2)], a tailings mineral, was investigated experimentally with conditions emulating those at Mount Keith Nickel Mine (MKM), Western Australia. Brucite was carbonated to form nesquehonite [MgCO(3) · 3H(2)O] at a rate that increased linearly with pCO(2). Geochemical modeling indicated that HCO(3)(-) promoted dissolution accelerated brucite carbonation. Isotopic and aqueous chemistry data indicated that equilibrium between CO(2) in the gas and aqueous phases was not attained during carbonation, yet nesquehonite precipitation occurred at equilibrium. This implies CO(2) uptake into solution remains rate-limiting for brucite carbonation at elevated pCO(2), providing potential for further acceleration. Accelerated brucite carbonation at MKM offers the potential to offset annual mine emissions by ~22-57%. Recognition of mechanisms for brucite carbonation will guide ongoing work to accelerate Mg-silicate carbonation in tailings.

  10. NATIVE PLANTS FOR OPTIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    P. UNKEFER; M. EBINGER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Carbon emissions and atmospheric concentrations are expected to continue to increase through the next century unless major changes are made in the way carbon is managed. Managing carbon has emerged as a pressing national energy and environmental need that will drive national policies and treaties through the coming decades. Addressing carbon management is now a major priority for DOE and the nation. One way to manage carbon is to use energy more efficiently to reduce our need for major energy and carbon source-fossil fuel combustion. Another way is to increase our use of low-carbon and carbon free fuels and technologies. A third way, and the focus of this proposal, is carbon sequestration, in which carbon is captured and stored thereby mitigating carbon emissions. Sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere has emerged as the principle means by which the US will meet its near-term international and economic requirements for reducing net carbon emissions (DOE Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science. 1999; IGBP 1998). Terrestrial carbon sequestration provides three major advantages. First, terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes are of sufficient magnitude to effectively mitigate national and even global carbon emissions. The terrestrial biosphere stores {approximately}2060 GigaTons of carbon and transfers approximately 120 GigaTons of carbon per year between the atmosphere and the earth's surface, whereas the current global annual emissions are about 6 GigaTons. Second, we can rapidly and readily modify existing management practices to increase carbon sequestration in our extensive forest, range, and croplands. Third, increasing soil carbon is without negative environment consequences and indeed positively impacts land productivity. The terrestrial carbon cycle is dependent on several interrelationships between plants and soils. Because the soil carbon pool ({approximately}1500 Giga Tons) is approximately three times that in terrestrial vegetation

  11. Terrestrial Biological Carbon Sequestration: Science for Enhancement and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W. M.; Amonette, James E.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Garten, Jr, C. T.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jardine, Philip M.; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lal, Rattan; Marland , G.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Thomson, Allison M.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Metting, F. Blaine

    2009-12-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change have elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 280 ppmv at the beginning of the industrial era to more than 381 ppmv in 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement rose 71% during 1970–2000 to a rate of 7.0 PgC/y (1). Canadell et al. (2) estimated that CO2 emissions rose at a rate at 1.3% per year during 1990–1999, but since 2000 it has been growing at 3.3% per year. Emissions reached 8.4 PgC/y in 2006. It is likely that the current 2-ppm annual increase will accelerate as the global economy expands, increasing the risk of climate system impacts. There is good agreement that photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in above- and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms could be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation (3). Nevertheless, C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has been a source of contention before and since the drafting of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Concerns have been raised that C sequestration in the biosphere is not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be “carbon leakage” outside of the mitigation activity, and that any attention paid to environmental sequestration would be a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. A decade after drafting the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that international accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to re-evaluate all available options that might not be permanent yet have the potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Terrestrial sequestration is one option large enough to make a contribution in the coming decades using proven land-management methods and with the

  12. Exploring the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in carbon sequestration in agricultural soil, Part III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequestering carbon in agricultural soils can help mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2. Work at Rodale Institute’s Farming Systems Trial indicates significant potential for carbon sequestration in organically farmed soils. A potential mechanism for this is C storage in the arbuscular mycorrhizal...

  13. Ocean carbon sequestration by fertilization: An integrated bioeochemical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gnandesikan, A.

    2005-05-31

    Under this grant, the authors investigated a range of issues associated with the proposal to fertilize the ocean with nutrients (such as iron) in order to increase the export of organic matter from the ocean's near surface waters and consequently increase the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. There are several critical scientific questions that have the potential to be make-or-break issues for this proposed carbon sequestration mechanism: (1) If iron is added to the ocean, will export of organic carbon from the surface actually occur? Clearly, if no export occurs, then there will be no sequestration. (2) if iron fertilization does lead to export of organic carbon from the surface of the ocean, how much CO{sub 2} will actually be removed from the atmosphere? Even if carbon is removed from the surface of the ocean, this does not guarantee that there will be significant removal of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, since the CO{sub 2} may be supplied by a realignment of dissolved inorganic carbon within the ocean. (3) What is the time scale of any sequestration that occurs? If sequestered CO{sub 2} returns to the atmosphere on a relatively short time scale, iron fertilization will not contribute significantly to slowing the growth of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. (4) Can the magnitude of sequestration be verified? If verification is extremely difficult or impossible, this option is likely to be viewed less favorably. (5) What unintended consequences might there be from fertilizing the ocean with iron? If these are severe enough, they will be a significant impact on policy decisions. Most research on carbon sequestration by fertilization has focused on the first of these issues. Although a number of in situ fertilization experiments have successfully demonstrated that the addition of iron leads to a dramatic increase in ocean productivity, the question of whether this results in enhanced export remains an open one. The primary focus of the research was on the development

  14. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  15. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  16. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr-1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr-1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  17. CRADA Carbon Sequestration in Soils and Commercial Products

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.K.

    2002-01-31

    ORNL, through The Consortium for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE), collaborated with The Village Botanica, Inc. (VB) on a project investigating carbon sequestration in soils and commercial products from a new sustainable crop developed from perennial Hibiscus spp. Over 500 pre-treated samples were analyzed for soil carbon content. ORNL helped design a sampling scheme for soils during the planting phase of the project. Samples were collected and prepared by VB and analyzed for carbon content by ORNL. The project did not progress to a Phase II proposal because VB declined to prepare the required proposal.

  18. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  19. Evaluating Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, P. C.; Hunt, E. R.; McCarty, G. W.; Daughtry, C. S.; Izaurralde, C.

    2005-12-01

    The potential for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration through landuse and management of agricultural systems is of great interest worldwide. Agricultural soils can be a source of CO2 when not properly managed but can also be a sink for sequestering CO2 through proper soil and crop management. The EPIC-CENTURY biogeochemical model was used to simulate the baseline level of soil carbon from soil survey data and project changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) under different tillage and crop management practices for corn and soybean crops. The study was conducted in central Iowa (50 km x 100 km) to simulate changes in soil carbon over the next 50 years. The simulations were conducted in two phases; initially a 25-year period (1971-1995) was simulated using conventional tillage practices since there was a transition in new management after 1995. In the second 25-year period (1996-2020), four different modeling scenarios were applied namely; conventional tillage, mulch tillage, no-tillage and no-tillage with a rye cover crop over the winter. The model simulation results showed potential gains in soil carbon in the top layers of the soil for conservation tillage. The simulations were made at a spatial resolution of 1.6 km x 1.6 km and mapped for the study area. There was a mean reduction in soil organic carbon of 0.095 T/ha per year over the 25-year period starting with 1996 for the conventional tillage practice. However, for management practices of mulch tillage, no tillage and no tillage with cover crop there was an increase in soil organic carbon of 0.12, 0.202 and 0.263 T/ha respectively over the same 25-year period. These results are in general similar to studies conducted in this region.

  20. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  1. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration potential of Central African ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Justice, C O

    2001-09-01

    Joint Implementation under the Climate Change Convention and Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol require a scientific understanding of current carbon stocks, fluxes, and sequestration potential, especially in tropical ecosystems where there are large carbon reservoirs, significant carbon emissions, and large land areas available for reforestation. Central Africa contains 10% of the world's remaining tropical moist forests and has received little attention in carbon studies. In 1980, above-ground carbon stocks in the central African ecosystem were 28.92 Pg and were reduced to 24.79 Pg by 1990. Improved forest management aimed at increasing biomass density could sequester 18.32 Pg of carbon, and over 500,000 km2 formerly forested land will be available by 2050 for reforestation with a capacity to offset 10 Pg carbon. Understanding the spatial distribution of biomass carbon and sequestration potential will be essential for carbon trading initiatives through Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism.

  3. High resolution modeling of direct ocean carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Follows; John Marshall

    2004-04-22

    This work has followed two themes: (1) Developing and using the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model to examine the efficiency of carbon sequestration in a global configuration. We have demonstrated the power of the adjoint method for systematic ocean model sensitivity studies. We have shown that the relative efficiency of carbon sequestration in the Atlantic and Pacific basins changes with the period of interest. For decadal to centennial scales, the Pacific is more efficient. On longer timescales the Atlantic is more efficient . (2) We have developed and applied a high-resolution, North Atlantic circulation and tracer model to investigate the role of the mesoscale in controlling sequestration efficiency. We show that the mesoscale eddy field, and its explicit representation, significantly affects the estimated sequestration efficiency for local sources on the Eastern US seaboard.

  4. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions. PMID:26915193

  6. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions.

  7. Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar has been recently heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalities may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver o...

  8. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  9. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2003-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  10. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Alge in Long Term Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  11. Calcium Carbonate Produced by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2007-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO2 through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids - single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate - to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  12. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2006-06-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  13. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-09-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  14. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-10-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds or bioreactors to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  15. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J. Fabry

    2005-01-24

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids ? single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate ? to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  16. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-07-09

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  17. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHAPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V. J.Fabry

    2004-01-30

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  18. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2004-04-26

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  19. Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry

    2005-04-29

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  20. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2003-07-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  1. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2001-12-15

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  2. CALCIUM CARBONATE PRODUCTION BY COCCOLITHOPHORID ALGAE IN LONG TERM, CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    V.J. Fabry, Ph.D.

    2002-04-05

    Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bioprocessing methods to promote and accelerate biosequestration of CO{sub 2} from the environment through the growth of organisms such as coccolithophorids, which are capable of sequestering CO{sub 2} relatively permanently. Calcium and magnesium carbonates are currently the only proven, long-term storage reservoirs for carbon. Whereas organic carbon is readily oxidized and releases CO{sub 2} through microbial decomposition on land and in the sea, carbonates can sequester carbon over geologic time scales. This proposal investigates the use of coccolithophorids--single-celled, marine algae that are the major global producers of calcium carbonate--to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants. Cultivation of coccolithophorids for calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation is environmentally benign and results in a stable product with potential commercial value. Because this method of carbon sequestration does not impact natural ecosystem dynamics, it avoids controversial issues of public acceptability and legality associated with other options such as direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the sea and ocean fertilization. Consequently, cultivation of coccolithophorids could be carried out immediately and the amount of carbon sequestered as CaCO{sub 3} could be readily quantified. The significant advantages of this approach warrant its serious investigation. The major goals of the proposed research are to identify the growth conditions that will result in the maximum amount of CO{sub 2} sequestration through coccolithophorid calcite production and to evaluate the costs/benefits of using coccolithophorid cultivation ponds to abate CO{sub 2} emissions from power plants.

  3. Estimating the soil carbon sequestration potential of China's Grain for Green Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shengwei; Han, Pengfei

    2014-11-01

    The largest area of planted forest in the world has been established in China through implementation of key forestry projects in recent years. These projects have played an important role in sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere, which is considered to be a potential mitigation strategy for the effects of global climate change. However, carbon sequestration in soil (soil organic carbon, SOC) after afforestation or reforestation is not well understood, particularly for specific key forestry projects. In this study, the SOC change in the top 20 cm of soil for each type of restoration implemented under China's Grain for Green Project (GGP) was quantified by a meta-analysis of data from published literature and direct field measurements. Soil carbon sequestration due to the GGP during 1999-2012 was estimated using data on the annual restoration area at provincial level and functions that relate SOC stock change to controlling factors (e.g., plantation age, forest zone, and type of forestation). Soil carbon sequestration of the GGP was estimated to be 156±108 Tg C (95% confidence interval) for current restoration areas prior to 2013, with a mean accumulation rate of 12±8 Tg C yr-1. The soil carbon sequestration potential of existing plantation zones is predicted to increase from 156±108 Tg C in 2013 to 383±188 Tg C in 2050 under the assumption that all plantation areas are well preserved. Plantations in northwestern, southern, and southwestern zones contributed nearly 80% of total soil carbon sequestration, while soil C sequestration in northeastern China was much more variable. Improved data sources, measurements of SOC in the organic layer, greater sampling depth, and better distribution of sampling sites among GGP regions will reduce the uncertainty of the estimates made by this study.

  4. Brush management effects on soil carbon sequestration in sagebrush-dominated rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific information regarding soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in western rangelands, especially those with a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) component and in lower rainfall areas (<350 mm), remains a major knowledge gap in understanding the effects of land management. We sampled soils from two...

  5. Barriers and Prospects of Carbon Sequestration in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anjali; Nema, Arvind K

    2014-04-01

    Carbon sequestration is considered a leading technology for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity generating power plants and could permit the continued use of coal and gas whilst meeting greenhouse gas targets. India will become the world's third largest emitter of CO2 by 2015. Considering the dependence of health of the Indian global economy, there is an imperative need to develop a global approach which could address the capturing and securely storing carbon dioxide emitted from an array of energy. Therefore technology such as carbon sequestration will deliver significant CO2 reductions in a timely fashion. Considerable energy is required for the capture, compression, transport and storage steps. With the availability of potential technical storage methods for carbon sequestration like forest, mineral and geological storage options with India, it would facilitate achieving stabilization goal in the near future. This paper examines the potential carbon sequestration options available in India and evaluates them with respect to their strengths, weakness, threats and future prospects. PMID:26563072

  6. Barriers and Prospects of Carbon Sequestration in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anjali; Nema, Arvind K

    2014-04-01

    Carbon sequestration is considered a leading technology for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity generating power plants and could permit the continued use of coal and gas whilst meeting greenhouse gas targets. India will become the world's third largest emitter of CO2 by 2015. Considering the dependence of health of the Indian global economy, there is an imperative need to develop a global approach which could address the capturing and securely storing carbon dioxide emitted from an array of energy. Therefore technology such as carbon sequestration will deliver significant CO2 reductions in a timely fashion. Considerable energy is required for the capture, compression, transport and storage steps. With the availability of potential technical storage methods for carbon sequestration like forest, mineral and geological storage options with India, it would facilitate achieving stabilization goal in the near future. This paper examines the potential carbon sequestration options available in India and evaluates them with respect to their strengths, weakness, threats and future prospects.

  7. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Looking ahead: Research agenda for the study of carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Brian J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the greatest scientific obstacles faced by the geologic sequestration community at this time and to suggest a research agenda that addresses the major scientific and policy gaps. This chapter focuses on geologic sequestration because although underground storage appears to lack the tremendous political resistance faced by deliberate oceanic sequestration, it poses a greater set of technical challenges than surface (terrestrial) sequestration. Geologic sequestration faces several major obstacles. Probably the greatest obstacle lies with risk assessment of fundamental CO2 trapping mechanisms, including hydrostratigraphic trapping, solubility trapping, residual gas trapping, and mineral trapping. New research is particularly needed to provide better resolution of trapping failure modes. Another major scientific challenge is effective monitoring of the "intermediate zone," defined as the section between the top seal of the intended storage reservoir and ˜100 m from the surface. Another scientific challenge of geologic carbon sequestration is induced seismicity. Previous and ongoing injection projects illustrate that induced seismicity is a real risk, but careful characterization and engineering should facilitate the ability to control it. On the other hand, previous studies suggest it is easier to predict where earthquakes will not occur than where they will occur. Thus, a critical research need is to identify how and why some sites are more prone to induced seismicity than others. Finally, with respect to the practical application of geologic sequestration and associated policy, this chapter identifies major gaps and simple suggestions to fill those gaps. These gaps include the lack of a thorough carbon sequestration site rating and certification system that fulfills all possible technical and nontechnical requirements. Finally, at the time of publication of this book, standard risk assessment protocols and capacity

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

  10. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Lal, Rattan

    2006-08-01

    Global warming risks from emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible mitigation strategies of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have increased the need for the identification of ecosystems with high C sink capacity. Depleted soil organic C (SOC) pools of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems can be restored through conversion to an appropriate land use and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs). The objectives of this paper are to (1) synthesize available information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal mining and combustion activities, (2) understand mechanisms of SOC sequestration and its protection, (3) identify factors affecting C sequestration potential in RMSs, (4) review available methods for the estimation of ecosystem C budget (ECB), and (5) identify knowledge gaps to enhance C sink capacity of RMS ecosystems and prioritize research issues. The drastic perturbations of soil by mining activities can accentuate CO2 emission through mineralization, erosion, leaching, changes in soil moisture and temperature regimes, and reduction in biomass returned to the soil. The reclamation of drastically disturbed soils leads to improvement in soil quality and development of soil pedogenic processes accruing the benefit of SOC sequestration and additional income from trading SOC credits. The SOC sequestration potential in RMS depends on amount of biomass production and return to soil, and mechanisms of C protection. The rate of SOC sequestration ranges from 0.1 to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 0.7 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in grass and forest RMS ecosystem, respectively. Proper land restoration alone could off-set 16 Tg CO2 in the U.S. annually. However, the factors affecting C sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase in microbial activity, nutrient availability, soil aggregation, C build up, and soil profile development must be better understood in order to formulate guidelines for development of an

  11. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Lal, Rattan

    2006-08-01

    Global warming risks from emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible mitigation strategies of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have increased the need for the identification of ecosystems with high C sink capacity. Depleted soil organic C (SOC) pools of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems can be restored through conversion to an appropriate land use and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs). The objectives of this paper are to (1) synthesize available information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal mining and combustion activities, (2) understand mechanisms of SOC sequestration and its protection, (3) identify factors affecting C sequestration potential in RMSs, (4) review available methods for the estimation of ecosystem C budget (ECB), and (5) identify knowledge gaps to enhance C sink capacity of RMS ecosystems and prioritize research issues. The drastic perturbations of soil by mining activities can accentuate CO2 emission through mineralization, erosion, leaching, changes in soil moisture and temperature regimes, and reduction in biomass returned to the soil. The reclamation of drastically disturbed soils leads to improvement in soil quality and development of soil pedogenic processes accruing the benefit of SOC sequestration and additional income from trading SOC credits. The SOC sequestration potential in RMS depends on amount of biomass production and return to soil, and mechanisms of C protection. The rate of SOC sequestration ranges from 0.1 to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 0.7 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in grass and forest RMS ecosystem, respectively. Proper land restoration alone could off-set 16 Tg CO2 in the U.S. annually. However, the factors affecting C sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase in microbial activity, nutrient availability, soil aggregation, C build up, and soil profile development must be better understood in order to formulate guidelines for development of an

  12. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Erhun; Gunalay, Yavuz

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  13. Simulating the effects of forest managements on carbon sequestration: TREPLEX- Management model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Peng, C.; Lei, X.; Zhang, T.; Kneeshaw, D.; Larocque, G.

    2009-05-01

    With common concern surrounding the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the role of forest management (i.e. thinning) on carbon sequestration is growing as a hotspot in the post Kyoto period. However, the combination strategies between forest management and carbon management are less established. Jack pine is one of the most important commercial and reforestation species in lake states of the United States and Canada, and the specie was reported to show stronger response to forest management like thinning. Obviously, there is an urgent need for understanding how harvesting intensity (i.e., thinning) affects C sequestration in jack pine stands. The aim of this study is to quantify and predict the biomass and carbon sequestration in thinned jack pine stands in eastern Canada. TRIPLEX is a generic hybrid model for predicting forest growth and carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The TRIPLEX-Management concept model was developed. The following carbon components were considered: above ground live biomass carbon, standing dead biomass carbon, harvested wood product carbon and soil organic carbon. Thinning was linked with LAI (Leaf Area Index), stand density and soil conditions and included in NPP and biomass production and allocation models. The model was also integrated with DBH distribution models, biomass allometric models, and wood products C models as well as the established height-diameter models. It is expected to optimize thinning regimes for carbon and forest management in order to mitigate climate change impacts.

  14. Long term (>100 years) Carbon Sequestration in California Coastal Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.; Holmquist, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal salt marsh ecosystems rank as one of the ecosystems which sequester the most carbon (C) in the world (Chmura, 2003; Mcleod et al., 2011). California hosts multiple small marsh ecosystems outside of the San Francisco Bay that are limited in geographic extent but still contribute significantly to global soil C. This study evaluates 11 marsh sites along the California coast for annual soil C sequestration rates using 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb chronologies. Estimates of carbon sequestration for California over the past 100 years from this study average at 49 g C m-2 yr-1. Long term estimates of soil C generally are lower because of natural decomposition of organic C, but this study indicates a persistence of high C storage capacity for coastal marsh systems. These estimates provide valuable insight into the long term capacity for coastal salt marshes to mitigate climate change through sequestration of C.

  15. Climate change and terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of terrestrial carbon sequestration in Central Asia is extremely relevant and timely due to the increasing problem of land degradation and desertification in this region. Serious problems of soil and environmental degradation in general and that in Central Asia in particular exacerbated b...

  16. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  17. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation. PMID:17923147

  18. Modeling carbon sequestration potential in Mollisols under climate change scenarios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils, besides its importance in mitigating global climate change, impacts and will be impacted by provisioning, regulating and supporting agroecosystem services. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide an improved understanding of the role of projected ...

  19. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect (2nd Edition)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This volume is a second edition of the book “Soil Carbon Sequestration and The Greenhouse Effect”. The first edition was published in 2001 as SSSA Special Publ. #57. The present edition is an update of the concepts, processes, properties, practices and the supporting data. All chapters are new co...

  20. The carbon-sequestration potential of municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Diego; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2008-02-01

    The lack of proper wastewater treatment results in production of CO(2) and CH(4) without the opportunity for carbon sequestration and energy recovery, with deleterious effects for global warming. Without extending wastewater treatment to all urban areas worldwide, CO(2) and CH(4) emissions associated with wastewater discharges could reach the equivalent of 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025, with even more dramatic impact in the short-term. The carbon sequestration benefits of wastewater treatment have enormous potential, which adds an energy conservation incentive to upgrading existing facilities to complete wastewater treatment. The potential greenhouse gases discharges which can be converted to a net equivalent CO(2) credit can be as large as 1.91 x 10(5) t(CO2)d(-1) in 2025 by 2025. Biomass sequestration and biogas conversion energy recovery are the two main strategies for carbon sequestration and emission offset, respectively. The greatest potential for improvement is outside Europe and North America, which have largely completed treatment plant construction. Europe and North America can partially offset their CO(2) emissions and receive benefits through the carbon emission trading system, as established by the Kyoto protocol, by extending existing technologies or subsidizing wastewater treatment plant construction in urban areas lacking treatment. This strategy can help mitigate global warming, in addition to providing a sustainable solution for extending the health, environmental, and humanitarian benefits of proper sanitation.

  1. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Soussana, J F; Tallec, T; Blanfort, V

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (enhanced sinks) is the mechanism responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in the agriculture sector. Carbon sequestration in grasslands can be determined directly by measuring changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and indirectly by measuring the net balance of C fluxes. A literature search shows that grassland C sequestration reaches on average 5 ± 30 g C/m2 per year according to inventories of SOC stocks and -231 and 77 g C/m2 per year for drained organic and mineral soils, respectively, according to C flux balance. Off-site C sequestration occurs whenever more manure C is produced by than returned to a grassland plot. The sum of on- and off-site C sequestration reaches 129, 98 and 71 g C/m2 per year for grazed, cut and mixed European grasslands on mineral soils, respectively, however with high uncertainty. A range of management practices reduce C losses and increase C sequestration: (i) avoiding soil tillage and the conversion of grasslands to arable use, (ii) moderately intensifying nutrient-poor permanent grasslands, (iii) using light grazing instead of heavy grazing, (iv) increasing the duration of grass leys; (v) converting grass leys to grass-legume mixtures or to permanent grasslands. With nine European sites, direct emissions of N2O from soil and of CH4 from enteric fermentation at grazing, expressed in CO2 equivalents, compensated 10% and 34% of the on-site grassland C sequestration, respectively. Digestion inside the barn of the harvested herbage leads to further emissions of CH4 and N2O by the production systems, which were estimated at 130 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year. The net balance of on- and off-site C sequestration, CH4 and N2O emissions reached 38 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year, indicating a non-significant net sink activity. This net balance was, however, negative for intensively managed cut sites indicating a source to the atmosphere. In conclusion, this review confirms that

  2. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION BY MECHANOCHEMICAL CARBONATION OF MINERAL SILICATES

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Nelson

    2004-04-01

    The University of Utah and the University of Idaho investigated the carbonation of silicate minerals by mechanochemical processing. This method uses intense grinding, and has the potential of being much less expensive than other methods of mineral sequestration. Tests were conducted in three types of grinding devices. In these tests, natural and synthetic silicate compounds were ground for varying times in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. A significant change takes place in the lizardite variety of serpentine after 15 to 20 minutes of intense grinding in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of lizardite thus treated was much different than that of the untreated mineral. This spectrum could not be identified as that of any natural or synthetic material. Laboratory analyses showed that small amounts of carbon are fixed by grinding lizardite, forsterite, and wollastonite (all naturally-occurring minerals), and synthetic magnesium silicate, in the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2}. It was thus concluded that further investigation was warranted, and a follow-up proposal was submitted to the Department of Energy under solicitation number.

  4. Terrestrial C sequestration at elevated CO2 and temperature: the role of dissolved organic N loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rastetter, Edward B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Agren, Goran I.

    2005-01-01

    We used a simple model of carbona??nitrogen (Ca??N) interactions in terrestrial ecosystems to examine the responses to elevated CO2 and to elevated CO2 plus warming in ecosystems that had the same total nitrogen loss but that differed in the ratio of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loss. We postulate that DIN losses can be curtailed by higher N demand in response to elevated CO2, but that DON losses cannot. We also examined simulations in which DON losses were held constant, were proportional to the amount of soil organic matter, were proportional to the soil C:N ratio, or were proportional to the rate of decomposition. We found that the mode of N loss made little difference to the short-term (<60 years) rate of carbon sequestration by the ecosystem, but high DON losses resulted in much lower carbon sequestration in the long term than did low DON losses. In the short term, C sequestration was fueled by an internal redistribution of N from soils to vegetation and by increases in the C:N ratio of soils and vegetation. This sequestration was about three times larger with elevated CO2 and warming than with elevated CO2 alone. After year 60, C sequestration was fueled by a net accumulation of N in the ecosystem, and the rate of sequestration was about the same with elevated CO2 and warming as with elevated CO2 alone. With high DON losses, the ecosystem either sequestered C slowly after year 60 (when DON losses were constant or proportional to soil organic matter) or lost C (when DON losses were proportional to the soil C:N ratio or to decomposition). We conclude that changes in long-term C sequestration depend not only on the magnitude of N losses, but also on the form of those losses.

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOC in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F), in 1987 (R87-G), in 1982 (R82-F), in 1978 (R78-G), in 1969 (R69-F), in1956 (R56-G), and from the unmined control (UMS-G). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and three under forest cover since reclamation. The samples were air dried and fractionated using a wet sieving technique into macro (> 2.0 mm), meso (0.25-2.0 mm) and microaggregates (0.053-0.25 mm). The soil C and N concentrations were determined by the dry combustion method on these aggregate fractions. Soil C and N concentrations were higher at the forest sites compared to the grass sites in each aggregate fraction for both depths. Statistical analyses indicated that the number of random samples taken was probably not sufficient to properly consider distribution of SOC and TN concentrations in aggregate size fractions for both depths at each site. Erosional effects on SOC and TN concentrations were, however, small. With increasing time since reclamation, SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations also increased. The higher C and N concentrations in each aggregate size fraction in older than the newly reclaimed sites demonstrated the C sink capacity of newer sites.

  6. Applications of mineral carbonation to geological sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Rush, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 is a promising near-term sequestration methodology. However, migration of the CO2 beyond the natural reservoir seals could become problematic, thus the identification of means to enhance the natural seals could prove beneficial. Injection of a mineral reactant slurry could provide a means to enhance the natural reservoir seals by supplying the necessary cations for precipitation of mineral carbonates. The subject study evaluates the merit of several mineral slurry injection strategies by conduct of a series of laboratory-scale CO2 flood tests on whole core samples of the Mt. Simon sandstone from the Illinois Basin.

  7. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program: a collaborative approach to carbon management.

    PubMed

    Litynski, John T; Klara, Scott M; McIlvried, Howard G; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2006-01-01

    fossil fuel use, the industries present, and potential sequestration sinks across the United States dictate the use of a regional approach to address the sequestration of CO(2). To accommodate these differences, the DOE has created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the carbon sequestration technologies, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote CO(2) sequestration in different regions of the nation. These partnerships currently represent 40 states, three Indian Nations, four Canadian Provinces, and over 200 organizations, including academic institutions, research institutions, coal companies, utilities, equipment manufacturers, forestry and agricultural representatives, state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and national laboratories. These partnerships are dedicated to developing the necessary infrastructure and validating the carbon sequestration technologies that have emerged from DOE's core R&D and other programs to mitigate emissions of CO(2), a potent greenhouse gas. The partnerships provide a critical link to DOE's plans for FutureGen, a highly efficient and technologically sophisticated coal-fired power plant that will produce both hydrogen and electricity with near-zero emissions. Though limited to the situation in the U.S., the paper describes for the international scientific community the approach being taken by the U.S. to prepare for carbon sequestration, should that become necessary. PMID:16054694

  8. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships program: a collaborative approach to carbon management.

    PubMed

    Litynski, John T; Klara, Scott M; McIlvried, Howard G; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2006-01-01

    fossil fuel use, the industries present, and potential sequestration sinks across the United States dictate the use of a regional approach to address the sequestration of CO(2). To accommodate these differences, the DOE has created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the carbon sequestration technologies, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote CO(2) sequestration in different regions of the nation. These partnerships currently represent 40 states, three Indian Nations, four Canadian Provinces, and over 200 organizations, including academic institutions, research institutions, coal companies, utilities, equipment manufacturers, forestry and agricultural representatives, state and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and national laboratories. These partnerships are dedicated to developing the necessary infrastructure and validating the carbon sequestration technologies that have emerged from DOE's core R&D and other programs to mitigate emissions of CO(2), a potent greenhouse gas. The partnerships provide a critical link to DOE's plans for FutureGen, a highly efficient and technologically sophisticated coal-fired power plant that will produce both hydrogen and electricity with near-zero emissions. Though limited to the situation in the U.S., the paper describes for the international scientific community the approach being taken by the U.S. to prepare for carbon sequestration, should that become necessary.

  9. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-04-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOM in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 2003 (R03-G), in 1973 (R73-F), in 1969 (R69-G), in 1962 (R62-G and R62-F) and in 1957 (R57-F). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three landscape positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The samples were air dried and using wet sieving technique were fractionated into macro (> 2mm), meso (2-0.25 mm) and microaggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). These fractions were weighted separately and water stable aggregation (WSA) and geometric mean (GMD) and mean weight (MWD) diameters of aggregates were obtained. The soil C and N concentrations were also determined on these aggregate fractions. Analysis of mean values showed that in general, WSA and MWD of aggregates increased with increasing duration since reclamation or age of reclaimed soil for all three landscape positions and two depths in sites under continuous grass. The forest sites were relatively older than grass sites and therefore WSA or MWD of aggregates did not show any increases with age since reclamation. The lower WSA in R57-F site than R73-F clearly showed the effect of soil erosion on aggregate stability. Higher aggregation and aggregate diameters in R73-F than R62-F and R57

  11. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function

    SciTech Connect

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

  12. A disconnect between O horizon and mineral soil carbon - Implications for soil C sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2009-01-01

    Changing inputs of carbon to soil is one means of potentially increasing carbon sequestration in soils for the purpose of mitigating projected increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The effect of manipulations of aboveground carbon input on soil carbon storage was tested in a temperate, deciduous forest in east Tennessee, USA. A 4.5-year experiment included exclusion of aboveground litterfall and supplemental litter additions (three times ambient) in an upland and a valley that differed in soil nitrogen availability. The estimated decomposition rate of the carbon stock in the O horizon was greater in the valley than in the upland due to higher litter quality (i.e., lower C/N ratios). Short-term litter exclusion or addition had no effect on carbon stock in the mineral soil, measured to a depth of 30 cm, or the partitioning of carbon in the mineral soil between particulate- and mineral-associated organic matter. A two-compartment model was used to interpret results from the field experiments. Field data and a sensitivity analysis of the model were consistent with little carbon transfer between the O horizon and the mineral soil. Increasing aboveground carbon input does not appear to be an effective means of promoting carbon sequestration in forest soil at the location of the present study because a disconnect exists in carbon dynamics between O horizon and mineral soil. Factors that directly increase inputs to belowground soil carbon, via roots, or reduce decomposition rates of organic matter are more likely to benefit efforts to increase carbon sequestration in forests where carbon dynamics in the O horizon are uncoupled from the mineral soil.

  13. Impact of parameter uncertainty on carbon sequestration modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration through injection of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface is one option to reduce anthropogenic CO¬2 emissions. Widespread industrial-scale deployment, on the order of giga-tonnes of CO2 injected per year, will be necessary for carbon sequestration to make a significant contribution to solving the CO2 problem. Deep saline formations are suitable targets for CO2 sequestration due to their large storage capacity, high injectivity, and favorable pressure and temperature regimes. Due to the large areal extent of saline formations, and the need to inject very large amounts of CO2, multiple sequestration operations are likely to be developed in the same formation. The injection-induced migration of both CO2 and resident formation fluids (brine) needs to be predicted to determine the feasibility of industrial-scale deployment of carbon sequestration. Due to the larger spatial scale of the domain, many of the modeling parameters (e.g., permeability) will be highly uncertain. In this presentation we discuss a sensitivity analysis of both pressure response and CO2 plume migration to variations of model parameters such as permeability, compressibility and temperature. The impact of uncertainty in the stratigraphic succession is also explored. The sensitivity analysis is conducted using a numerical vertically-integrated modeling approach. The Illinois Basin, USA is selected as the test site for this study, due to its large storage capacity and large number of stationary CO2 sources. As there is currently only one active CO2 injection operation in the Illinois Basin, a hypothetical injection scenario is used, where CO2 is injected at the locations of large CO2 emitters related to electricity generation, ethanol production and hydrocarbon refinement. The Area of Review (AoR) is chosen as the comparison metric, as it includes both the CO2 plume size and pressure response.

  14. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  15. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agricultural Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through proper management, agricultural systems (cropland, pasture, and forest) have the ability to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and sequester it in soils and wood products. The carbon thus sequestered can help slow the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide currently occurring as a res...

  16. Agricultural Liming, Irrigation, and Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, B. M.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Row crop farmers routinely add inorganic carbon to soils in the form of crushed lime (e.g., calcite or dolomite minerals) and/or inadvertently as bicarbonate alkalinity naturally dissolved in groundwater used for irrigation. In the soil these carbonates can act as either a source or sink of carbon dioxide, depending in large part on nitrogen fertilization and nitrification. The potentially variable fate of lime carbon is not accounted for in the IPCC greenhouse gas inventory model for lime emissions, which assumes that all lime carbon becomes carbon dioxide (irrigation additions are not accounted for). In a corn-soybean-wheat crop rotation at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in southwest Michigan, we are collecting soil porewater from several depths in the vadose zone across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient with and without groundwater irrigation. The soil profile in this region is dominated by carbonate rich glacial outwash that lies 1.5 m below a carbonate-leached zone. We analyze the porewater stoichiometry of calcium, magnesium, and carbonate alkalinity in a conceptual model to reveal the source/sink fate of inorganic carbon. High nitrate porewater concentrations are associated with net carbon dioxide production in the carbonate-leached zone, according to our model. This suggests that the acidity associated with nitrification of the nitrogen fertilizer, which is evident from soil pH measurements, is driving the ultimate fate of lime carbon in the vadose zone. Irrigation is a significant source of both alkalinity and nitrate in drier years, compared to normal rates of liming and fertilization. We will also explore the observed dramatic changes in porewater chemistry and the relationship between irrigation and inorganic carbon fate above and within the native carbonate layer.

  17. Carbon sequestration function of check-dams: a case study of the Loess plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie

    2014-11-01

    Check-dams are the most common structures for controlling soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, the effect of check-dams on carbon sequestration, along with sediment transport and deposition, has not been assessed over large areas. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sequestration function of check-dams in the Loess Plateau. The results indicate that there were approximately 11 000 check-dams distributed in the Loess Plateau, with an estimate of the amount of sediment of 21 × 10⁹ m³ and a soil organic carbon storage amount of 0.945 Pg. Our study reveals that check-dams in the Loess Plateau not only conserve soil and water but also sequester carbon.

  18. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to <2 °C relative to the preindustrial era. Most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to reach the 2 °C target. A recent analysis of NETs, including direct air capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  19. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to <2 °C relative to the preindustrial era. Most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to reach the 2 °C target. A recent analysis of NETs, including direct air capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. PMID:26732128

  20. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Particles for Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Aaron C.; Adams, E. Eric; Israelsson, P. H.; Tsouris, Costas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO{sub 2} hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet hydrate reactor located at an ocean depth of 1500 m produced curved negatively buoyant cylindrical particles with diameters {approx} 2.5 cm and lengths up to {approx} 1 m. Accordingly we performed new laboratory experiments to determine the drag coefficient of such particles and, based on the measured drag coefficient and the initial settling velocity observed in the field, have concluded that the reactor efficiency (percentage of liquid CO{sub 2} converted to hydrate) in the field was {approx} 16%. Using the dissolution rates observed in the field, we conclude that such particles would ultimately sink to depth below discharge of {approx} 115 m. We have also predicted the sinking depth of particles potentially produced from various scaled-up reactors and have shown that, for example, a 10 cm diameter particle produced with a hydrate conversion of 50% could reach the ocean bottom before completely dissolving. In a real sequestration scenario, we are interested in following large groups of hydrate particles released continuously. We have previously shown that increasing particle size and hydrate conversion efficiency enhances the sinking of hydrate particle plumes produced by the continuous release of CO{sub 2} in a quiescent ambient, but that a sufficiently strong current will cause the entrained particles to separate from the plume and settle discretely. In the latter case, particles of different sizes and hydrate conversions (hence different settling velocities) will follow different settling trajectories as they dissolve. This particle fractionation, if employed deliberately, spreads the discharged CO{sub 2} in the down current and vertical directions, enhancing mixing, while turbulent diffusion helps spread the CO{sub 2} in the third direction. A

  2. Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

  3. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-01-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). Experimental sites characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil were identified. These sites are owned by Americal Electrical Power and are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. The sites chosen were: (1) reclaimed without topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover), (2) reclaimed with topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover) and (3) unmined sites (one under forest and another grass cover). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depths from each of the experimental site under continuous grass and SOC and, total nitrogen (TN) concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. The results of the study for the quarter (30 September to 31 December, 2003) showed that soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and therefore favorable for grass growth. Among the three reclamation treatments, SOC concentration increased from 1.9 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 2003 (newly reclaimed and at baseline) to 11.64 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 1987 (a 5-fold increase) to 20.41 g kg{sup -1} for sites reclaimed in 1978 (a 10- fold increase). However, for sites reclaimed without topsoil application, soil pH, EC, SOC and TN concentrations were similar for both depths. The SOC concentrations in reclaimed sites with topsoil application in 0 to 15 cm depth increased from a base value of 0.7 g kg{sup -1} at the rate of 0.76 g kg{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The high SOC concentration for 0-15 cm layer for site reclaimed in 1978 showed the high carbon sequestration potential upon reclamation and establishment of the grass cover on minesoils.

  4. Carbon sequestration in grasslands: grazing versus fire under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D. M.; Kelly, R.; Parton, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    We simulated different levels of grazing and frequencies of fire using the biogeochemical model DAYCENT across a climate gradient from Montana to New Mexico to look at their long-term implications on carbon sequestration in grasslands. We also used 3 future climate scenarios and 2 CO2 emission levels to estimate interactions between disturbance and climate. In all cases, total ecosystem carbon was driven by grazing pressure with carbon stocks declining by 15-35% under moderate to heavy grazing. Fire frequency had no effect on carbon levels when 50% of the aboveground biomass was consumed by grazers and has the most impact when no grazing occurred. Warmer drier climate scenarios increased the stress to growth and caused declines in carbon stocks unless a CO2 fertilization effect increased the water use efficiency. Again, under future climate change scenario, grazing had a greater impact than fire frequency in defining the overall levels of total ecosystem carbon. Potential woody plant invasion of grasslands would alter the role of disturbance on carbon sequestration potential since frequent fires would remove shrubs from the landscape reducing the potential for increased aboveground carbon stocks with lower palatability to grazers than grasses.

  5. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Wouter J J; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Comans, Rob N J

    2005-12-15

    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar CO2 pressure, 100 degrees C, and a particle size of <38 microm. The two most important factors determining the reaction rate are particle size (<2 mm to <38 microm) and reaction temperature (25-225 degrees C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step. The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zone during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism.

  6. NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr

    2006-01-09

    This report provides a brief summary of the milestone for Quarter 1 of 2006 of the NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB) This milestone assigns consistent symbology to the ''National CO{sub 2} Facilities'' GIS layer on the NATCARB website. As a default, CO{sub 2} sources provided by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and the National Group are now all one symbol type. In addition for sinks such as oil and gas fields where data is drawn from multiple partnerships, the symbology is given a single color. All these modifications are accomplished as the layer is passed through the national portal (www.natcarb.org). This documentation is sent to National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a Topical Report and will be included in the next Annual Report.

  7. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2006-12-01

    Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood basalts in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.

  8. Carbon sequestration, the precautionary approach and the responsibility of scientists.

    PubMed

    Buhl-Mortensen, L; Myhr, A; Welin, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews problems connected to the use of the deep-sea and sub-sea geological formations for carbon sequestration. We will focus on the risks and dangers involved in using this kind of large-scale engineering approach, which is not yet fully tested, to combat global warming. We will not provide a complete discussion on the technologies involved, but concentrate on a few principal questions, such as the responsibility of environmental scientists involved in this research. We will also discuss carbon sequestration in relation to the precautionary approach. We argue that there may be a place for large-scale engineering attempts, but this should be the last rather than the first option.

  9. Deep horizons: Soil Carbon sequestration and storage potential in grassland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Sallan, Gemma; Schulte, Rogier; Lanigan, Gary J.; Byrne, Kenneth A.; Reidy, Brian; Creamer, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) enhances soil fertility, holding nutrients in a plant-available form. It also improves aeration and water infiltration. Soils are considered a vital pool for C (Carbon) sequestration, as they are the largest pool of C after the oceans, and contain 3.5 more C than the atmosphere. SOC models and inventories tend to focus on the top 30 cm of soils, only analysing total SOC values. Association of C with microaggregates (53-250 μm) and silt and clay (<53 μm) is considered C sequestration as these fractions offer the greatest protection against mineralization. This study assessed the role of aggregation in C sequestration throughout the profile, down to 1 m depth, of 30 grassland sites divided in 6 soil types. One kg sample was collected for each horizon, sieved at 8 mm and dried at 40 °C. Through a wet sieving procedure, four aggregate sizes were isolated: large macroaggregates (>2000 μm); macroaggregates (250-2000 μm); microaggregates and silt & clay. Organic C associated to each aggregate fraction was analysed on a LECO combustion analyser. Sand-free C was calculated for each aggregate size. For all soil types, 84% of the SOC located in the first 30 cm was contained inside macroaggregates and large macroaggregates. Given that this fraction has a turnover time of 1 to 10 years, sampling at that depth only provides information on the labile fraction in soil, and does not consider the longer term C sequestration potential. Only when looking at the whole profile, two clear trends could be observed: 1) soils with a clay increase at depth had most of their C located in the silt and clay fractions, which indicate their enhanced C sequestration capacity, 2) free-draining soils had a bigger part of their SOC located in the macroaggregate fractions. These results indicate that current C inventories and models that focus on the top 30 cm, do not accurately measure soil C sequestration potential in soils, but rather the more labile fraction. However

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  11. [Assessment on the availability of nitrogen fertilization in improving carbon sequestration potential of China's cropland soil].

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Duan, Xiao-Nan; Zheng, Hua

    2008-10-01

    With reference to the situation of nitrogen fertilization in 2003 and the recommendations from agricultural experts on fertilization to different crops, two scenarios, namely, 'current situation' and 'fertilization as recommended', were set for estimating the current and potential carbon sequestration of China's cropland soil under nitrogen fertilization. After collecting and analyzing the typical data from the long-term agricultural experiment stations all over China, and based on the recent studies of soil organic matter and nutrient dynamics, we plotted China into four agricultural regions, and estimated the carbon sequestration rate and potential of cropland soil under the two scenarios in each province of China. Meanwhile, with the data concerning fossil fuel consumption for fertilizer production and nitrogen fertilization, the greenhouse gas leakage caused by nitrogen fertilizer production and application was estimated with the help of the parameters given by domestic studies and IPCC. We further proposed that the available carbon sequestration potential of cropland soil could be taken as the criterion of the validity and availability of carbon sequestration measures. The results showed that the application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer could bring about a carbon sequestration potential of 21.9 Tg C x a(-1) in current situation, and 30.2 Tg C x a(-1) with fertilization as recommended. However, under the two scenarios, the greenhouse gas leakage caused by fertilizer production and application would reach 72.9 Tg C x a(-1) and 91.4 Tg C x a(-1), and thus, the actual available carbon sequestration potential would be -51.0 Tg C x a(-1) and -61.1 Tg C x a(-1), respectively. The situation was even worse under the 'fertilization as recommended' scenario, because the increase in the amount of nitrogen fertilization would lead to 10. 1 Tg C x a(-1) or more net greenhouse gas emission. All these results indicated that the application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer

  12. Molecular and Metabolic Mechanisms of Carbon Sequestration in Marine Thrombolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobberley, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of my dissertation project has been to examine the molecular processes underlying carbon sequestration in lithifying microbial ecosystems, known as thrombolitic mats, and assess their feasibility for use in bioregenerative life support systems. The results of my research and education efforts funded by the Graduate Student Researchers Program can be summarized in four peer-reviewed research publication, one educational publication, two papers in preparation, and six research presentations at local and national science meetings (see below for specific details).

  13. Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Rutherford, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar is charcoal (similar to chars generated by forest fires) that is made for incorporation into soils to increase soil fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve and enrich soils and also slow the rate at which climate change is affecting our planet. Studies on biochar, such as those cited by this report, are applicable to both fire science and soil science.

  14. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Permanence Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Man-Keun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian

    2008-02-01

    One major concern regarding land-based carbon sequestration involves the issue of permanence. Sequestration may not last forever and may either be released in the future or require expenditure to maintain the practices that keep it sequestered. In this paper, we investigate the differential value of offsets in the face of impermanent characteristics by forming a price discount that equalizes the effective price per ton between a “perfect offsets” and one possessing some or all of these characteristics. We find this discount to be a function of the future needs to replace offsets (in the face of lease expiration quantity or volatilization upon activities such as timber harvest) and the magnitude of any needed maintenance costs. We investigate the magnitude of the discounts under alternative agricultural tillage and forest management cases. In those studies we find that permanence discounts in the range of 50% are not uncommon. This means that in the market place an impermanent sequestration offset may only receive payments amounting to 50% of the market carbon price. Furthermore we find that in the face of escalating carbon prices that offsets may prove to be worthless.

  16. Sequestration of CO2 by concrete carbonation.

    PubMed

    Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Mora, Pedro; Sanjuan, Miguel A

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation of reinforced concrete is one of the causes of corrosion, but it is also a way to sequester CO2. The characteristics of the concrete cover should ensure alkaline protection for the steel bars but should also be able to combine CO2 to a certain depth. This work attempts to advance the knowledge of the carbon footprint of cement. As it is one of the most commonly used materials worldwide, it is very important to assess its impact on the environment. In order to quantify the capacity of cement based materials to combine CO2 by means of the reaction with hydrated phases to produce calcium carbonate, Thermogravimetry and the phenolphthalein indicator have been used to characterize several cement pastes and concretes exposed to different environments. The combined effect of the main variables involved in this process is discussed. The moisture content of the concrete seems to be the most influential parameter. PMID:20225850

  17. How will Shrub Expansion Impact Soil Carbon Sequestration in Arctic Tundra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czimczik, C. I.; Holden, S. R.; He, Y.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that plant productivity, and especially shrub abundance, is increasing in the Arctic in response to climate change. This greening is substantiated by increases in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, repeat photography and field observations. The implications of a greener Arctic on carbon sequestration by tundra ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we explore existing datasets of plant productivity and soil carbon stocks to quantify how greening, and in particular an expansion of woody shrubs, may translate to the sequestration of carbon in arctic soils. As an estimate of carbon storage in arctic tundra soils, we used the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database v2. As estimates of tundra type and productivity, we used the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation map as well as the MODIS and Landsat Vegetation Continuous Fields, and MODIS GPP/NPP (MOD17) products. Preliminary findings suggest that in graminoid tundra and erect-shrub tundra higher shrub abundance is associated with greater soil carbon stocks. However, this relationship between shrub abundance and soil carbon is not apparent in prostrate-shrub tundra, or when comparing across graminoid tundra, erect-shrub tundra and prostrate-shrub tundra. Uncertainties originate from the extreme spatial (vertical and horizontal) heterogeneity of organic matter distribution in cryoturbated soils, the fact that (some) permafrost carbon stocks, e.g. yedoma, reflect previous rather than current vegetative cover, and small sample sizes, esp. in the High Arctic. Using Vegetation Continuous Fields and MODIS GPP/NPP (MOD17), we develop quantitative trajectories of soil carbon storage as a function of shrub cover and plant productivity in the Arctic (>60°N). We then compare our greening-derived carbon sequestration estimates to projected losses of carbon from thawing permafrost. Our findings will reduce uncertainties in the magnitude and timing of the carbon-climate feedback from the

  18. Soil carbon sequestration: Quantifying this ecosystem service

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils have a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis. These include food and fiber production, water cleansing and supply, nutrient cycling, waste isolation and degradation. Soils also provide a significant amount of carbon s...

  19. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

  20. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R; Mark, Darren F; Smith, Caroline L

    2013-01-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth's crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars' history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2. PMID:24149494

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, E.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Reed, J.; Beyer, J. H.; Wagoner, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Several states and countries have adopted or are in the process of crafting policies to enable geologic carbon sequestration projects. These efforts reflect the recognition that existing statutory and regulatory frameworks leave ambiguities or gaps that elevate project risk for private companies considering carbon sequestration projects, and/or are insufficient to address a government’s mandate to protect the public interest. We have compared the various approaches that United States’ state and federal governments have taken to provide regulatory frameworks to address carbon sequestration. A major purpose of our work is to inform the development of any future legislation in California, should it be deemed necessary to meet the goals of Assembly Bill 1925 (2006) to accelerate the adoption of cost-effective geologic sequestration strategies for the long-term management of industrial carbon dioxide in the state. Our analysis shows a diverse issues are covered by adopted and proposed carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) legislation and that many of the new laws focus on defining regulatory frameworks for underground injection of CO2, ambiguities in property issues, or assigning legal liability. While these approaches may enable the progress of early projects, future legislation requires a longer term and broader view that includes a quantified integration of CCS into a government’s overall climate change mitigation strategy while considering potentially counterproductive impacts on CCS of other climate change mitigation strategies. Furthermore, legislation should be crafted in the context of a vision for CCS as an economically viable and widespread industry. While an important function of new CCS legislation is enabling early projects, it must be kept in mind that applying the same laws or protocols in the future to a widespread CCS industry may result in business disincentives and compromise of the public interest in mitigating GHG emissions. Protection of the

  2. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    PubMed

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates.

  3. Climate Controls on Carbon Sequestration in Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Renik, B.; Maenza-Gmeich, T.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-latitude forest ecosystems have been proposed as a "missing sink" today. The role of soils (including wetlands) in this proposed sink is a very important unknown. In order to make estimates of future climate change effects on carbon storage, we can examine past wetland carbon sequestration. How did past climate change affect net wetland carbon storage? We present long-term data from existing wetland sites used for paleoclimate reconstruction to assess the net carbon storage in wetland over the last 15000 years. During times of colder and wetter climate, many mid-latitude sites show increases in carbon storage, while past warmer, drier climates produced decreases in storage. Comparison among bog, fen, swamp, and tidal marsh are demonstrated for the Hudson Valley region.

  4. Evidence for carbon sequestration by agricultural liming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Stephen K.; Kurzman, Amanda L.; Arango, Clay; Jin, Lixin; Robertson, G. Philip

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural lime can be a source or a sink for CO2, depending on whether reaction occurs with strong acids or carbonic acid. Here we examine the impact of liming on global warming potential by comparing the sum of Ca2+ and Mg2+ to carbonate alkalinity in soil solutions beneath unmanaged vegetation versus limed row crops, and of streams and rivers in agricultural versus forested watersheds, mainly in southern Michigan. Soil solutions sampled by tension indicated that lime can act as either a source or a sink for CO2. However, infiltrating waters tended to indicate net CO2 uptake, as did tile drainage waters and streams draining agricultural watersheds. As nitrate concentrations increased in infiltrating waters, lime switched from a net CO2 sink to a source, implying nitrification as a major acidifying process. Dissolution of lime may sequester CO2 equal to roughly 25-50% of its C content, in contrast to the prevailing assumption that all of the carbon in lime becomes CO2. The ˜30 Tg/yr of agricultural lime applied in the United States could thus sequester up to 1.9 Tg C/yr, about 15% of the annual change in the U.S. CO2 emissions (12 Tg C/yr for 2002-2003). The implications of liming for atmospheric CO2 stabilization should be considered in strategies to mitigate global climate change.

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Unconventional Reservoirs: Geophysical, Geochemical and Geomechanical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.

    In the face of the environmental challenges presented by the acceleration of global warming, carbon capture and storage, also called carbon sequestration, may provide a vital option to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, while meeting the world's energy demands. To operate on a global scale, carbon sequestration would require thousands of geologic repositories that could accommodate billions of tons of carbon dioxide per year. In order to reach such capacity, various types of geologic reservoirs should be considered, including unconventional reservoirs such as volcanic rocks, fractured formations, and moderate-permeability aquifers. Unconventional reservoirs, however, are characterized by complex pore structure, high heterogeneity, and intricate feedbacks between physical, chemical and mechanical processes, and their capacity to securely store carbon emissions needs to be confirmed. In this dissertation, I present my contribution toward the understanding of geophysical, geochemical, hydraulic, and geomechanical properties of continental basalts and fractured sedimentary formations in the context of their carbon storage capacity. The data come from two characterization projects, in the Columbia River Flood Basalt in Washington and the Newark Rift Basin in New York, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and TriCarb Consortium for Carbon Sequestration. My work focuses on in situ analysis using borehole geophysical measurements that allow for detailed characterization of formation properties on the reservoir scale and under nearly unaltered subsurface conditions. The immobilization of injected CO2 by mineralization in basaltic rocks offers a critical advantage over sedimentary reservoirs for long-term CO2 storage. Continental flood basalts, such as the Columbia River Basalt Group, possess a suitable structure for CO2 storage, with extensive reservoirs in the interflow zones separated by massive impermeable

  6. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, G.L.; Anisfeld, S.C.; Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4??S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5??N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ?? 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ?? 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmura, Gail L.; Anisfeld, Shimon C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Lynch, James C.

    2003-12-01

    Wetlands represent the largest component of the terrestrial biological carbon pool and thus play an important role in global carbon cycles. Most global carbon budgets, however, have focused on dry land ecosystems that extend over large areas and have not accounted for the many small, scattered carbon-storing ecosystems such as tidal saline wetlands. We compiled data for 154 sites in mangroves and salt marshes from the western and eastern Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico. The set of sites spans a latitudinal range from 22.4°S in the Indian Ocean to 55.5°N in the northeastern Atlantic. The average soil carbon density of mangrove swamps (0.055 ± 0.004 g cm-3) is significantly higher than the salt marsh average (0.039 ± 0.003 g cm-3). Soil carbon density in mangrove swamps and Spartina patens marshes declines with increasing average annual temperature, probably due to increased decay rates at higher temperatures. In contrast, carbon sequestration rates were not significantly different between mangrove swamps and salt marshes. Variability in sediment accumulation rates within marshes is a major control of carbon sequestration rates masking any relationship with climatic parameters. Globally, these combined wetlands store at least 44.6 Tg C yr-1 and probably more, as detailed areal inventories are not available for salt marshes in China and South America. Much attention has been given to the role of freshwater wetlands, particularly northern peatlands, as carbon sinks. In contrast to peatlands, salt marshes and mangroves release negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and store more carbon per unit area.

  8. Community perceptions of carbon sequestration: insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Ray, Isha

    2009-07-01

    Over the last decade, many energy experts have supported carbon sequestration as a viable technological response to climate change. Given the potential importance of sequestration in US energy policy, what might explain the views of communities that may be directly impacted by the siting of this technology? To answer this question, we conducted focus groups in two communities who were potentially pilot project sites for California's DOE-funded West Coast Regional Partnership (WESTCARB). We find that communities want a voice in defining the risks to be mitigated as well as the justice of the procedures by which the technology is implemented. We argue that a community's sense of empowerment is key to understanding its range of carbon sequestration opinions, where 'empowerment' includes the ability to mitigate community-defined risks of the technology. This sense of empowerment protects the community against the downside risk of government or corporate neglect, a risk that is rarely identified in risk assessments but that should be factored into assessment and communication strategies.

  9. Microbes under pressure: A comparison of CO2 stress responses on three model organisms and their implications for geologic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, E. U.; Franks, M. A.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    When carbon dioxide is captured and stored in deep saline aquifers, many biogeochemical changes will occur in these reservoirs. High concentrations of aqueous CO2 itself can be toxic to microorganisms as the gas easily enters cell membranes and alters intracellular cell functions. Because of this, we expect CO2 to be a perturbation that will alter microbial community composition. Microbes that are capable of withstanding CO2 stress will be selected for and their subsequent growth and metabolism will further affect brine chemistry. For this study, we examined three organisms representing metabolic functions and cellular structures potentially found in deep saline aquifers: the Gram-negative dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, the aerobic Gram-positive hydrocarbon degrading Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. Organisms were grown in batch cultures and subsequently exposed to high PCO2 ranging from 25 atm to 60 atm for 2 to 24 hours. Cultures were then plated for viability or tested for metabolic activity such as methane production. Following CO2 stress, organisms were also examined for membrane changes through phospholipid fatty acid analysis and for morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy. After only 2 hours of incubation in 30 atm of CO2, no viable cells were found in planktonic cultures of Shewanella. In contrast, cultures of Geobacillus remained viable (less than a log 2 reduction from initial counts) even after exposure to double the CO2 pressure and for 17 hours. However, when grown in the presence of quartz sandstone, biofilm formation on the rock surface occurred in Shewanella cultures, resulting in survival times greater than 8 hours. Our results suggest that biofilm formation and cell wall thickness may be two very important factors in resisting CO2 toxicity as they create a reactive barrier that slows the diffusion of CO2 into

  10. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    PubMed

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  11. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2008-08-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

  12. The role of renewable bioenergy in carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    The use of renewable resources represents a sound approach to producing clean energy and reducing the dependence on diminishing reserves of fossil fuels. Unfortunately, the widespread interest in renewable energy in the 1970s, spurred by escalating fossil fuel prices, subsided with the collapse of energy prices in the mid 1980s. Today, it is largely to reverse alarming environmental trends, particularly the buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than to reduce the cost of energy, that renewable energy resources are being pursued. This discussion focuses on a specific class of renewable energy resources - biomass. Unlike most other classes of renewable energy touted for controlling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, e.g., hydro, direct solar, wind, geothermal, and ocean thermal, which produce usable forms of energy while generating little or no carbon dioxide emissions, bioenergy almost always involves combustion and therefore generates carbon dioxide; however, if used on a sustained basis, bio-energy would not contribute to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide because the amount released in combustion would be balanced by that taken up via photosynthesis. It is in that context, i.e., sustained production of biomass as a modern energy carrier, rather than reforestation for carbon sequestration, that biomass is being discussed here, since biomass can play a much greater role in controlling global warming by displacing fossil fuels than by being used strictly for carbon sequestration (partly because energy crop production can reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions indefinitely, whereas under the reforestation strategy, carbon dioxide abatement ceases at forest maturity).

  13. Applications of Petroleum Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry to Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkle, R. J.; Jones, V. T.

    2006-12-01

    Evidence of reservoir leakage documented by Gulf Research and Development Company scientists in the 1970s and 1980s over many domestic and foreign petroleum basins has resulted in the establishment of geochemical methods that can accurately and cost-effectively find and characterize reservoir related seepage conduits. The determination of sequestered CO2 leakage from a subsurface reservoir requires measurements to be made within these natural seepage conduits. Measurements conducted over reservoirs studied for carbon sequestration potential have had limited success to date because flux chambers must be placed within active seepage pathways controlled by the geologic system. Seepage pathways are very discrete and localized, and are driven principally by pressure gradients, with secondary influences related to lithology, soil moisture and barometric pumping. Successfully measuring active seepage flux requires not only geologic knowledge, but must be guided by geochemical methods that can determine natural seepage patterns. Soil gas methodology provides the most accurate and cost-effective method for identifying flux chimneys in near surface sediments. Petroleum reservoir leakage characterization studies, coupled with observations from environmental monitoring, are directly applicable to studies of potential reservoir leakage which may result from carbon sequestration. We will use this large database of near surface exploration and environmental studies generated at Gulf Research and subsequent studies to address the following questions: Do reservoirs leak? If reservoirs leak, how can the leaks be detected at the surface? What are the conduits of vertical migration? How long do migrating gases take to reach the surface and what is the nature of their distribution in the near surface soils? Will tracers be necessary to identify sequestration related leakage? What is the range of concentrations and distribution of CO2 typically present in near surface soils prior to

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m(2) compared to 16.2 kg C/m(2) in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m(2)/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands.

  15. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m(2) compared to 16.2 kg C/m(2) in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m(2)/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands. PMID:26108413

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C.; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m2 compared to 16.2 kg C/m2 in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on 137Cs and 210Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m2/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands.

  17. The effect of ocean acidification on carbon storage and sequestration in seagrass beds; a global and UK context.

    PubMed

    Garrard, Samantha L; Beaumont, Nicola J

    2014-09-15

    Ocean acidification will have many negative consequences for marine organisms and ecosystems, leading to a decline in many ecosystem services provided by the marine environment. This study reviews the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on seagrasses, assessing how this may affect their capacity to sequester carbon in the future and providing an economic valuation of these changes. If ocean acidification leads to a significant increase in above- and below-ground biomass, the capacity of seagrass to sequester carbon will be significantly increased. The associated value of this increase in sequestration capacity is approximately £500 and 600 billion globally between 2010 and 2100. A proportionally similar increase in carbon sequestration value was found for the UK. This study highlights one of the few positive stories for ocean acidification and underlines that sustainable management of seagrasses is critical to avoid their continued degradation and loss of carbon sequestration capacity.

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  19. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  20. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges. PMID:27321139

  1. [Estimation of Topsoil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland Through Different Methods: A Case Study in Zhuanglang County, Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen-di; Xu, Ming-xiang; Qiu, Yu-jie

    2016-03-15

    By analyzing the sampled data and the SOC data of the second national soil survey by the mid 80s and the national cultivated land quality evaluation in 2006 in Zhuanglang County, the article studied the cropland topsoil organic carbon sequestration potential estimation using several different methods. The results showed that: (1) There was no significant difference among different estimation methods about cropland carbon sequestration potential in the same region. Taking cropland carbon sequestration potential in Zhuanglang County for example, the theoretical values estimated by maximum value method and classification grading method were 1. 13 Mt and 1.09 Mt, respectively. (2) The real values estimated by classification grading method, saturation method, weighting method were 0.37 Mt, 0.32 Mt, 0.28 Mt, respectively, which were about 1/3 of the theoretical value. (3) The SOC density increments to reach the real level of carbon sequestration potential estimated by classification grading method, saturation method and weighting method were 6.76 t · hm⁻², 5.21 t · hm⁻², 4.56 t · hm⁻² respectively. According to the topsoil carbon sequestration rate of cropland in Zhuanglang county in the recent 30 a, it would need about 24-34 a to achieve the real level. (4) At the county scale, the weighted method was superior to the saturation value method, and the saturation value method was better than the classification grading method in the actual carbon sequestration potential estimation. The classification grading method was better than the maximum value method in the ideal carbon sequestration potential estimation.

  2. [Estimation of Topsoil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Cropland Through Different Methods: A Case Study in Zhuanglang County, Gansu Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen-di; Xu, Ming-xiang; Qiu, Yu-jie

    2016-03-15

    By analyzing the sampled data and the SOC data of the second national soil survey by the mid 80s and the national cultivated land quality evaluation in 2006 in Zhuanglang County, the article studied the cropland topsoil organic carbon sequestration potential estimation using several different methods. The results showed that: (1) There was no significant difference among different estimation methods about cropland carbon sequestration potential in the same region. Taking cropland carbon sequestration potential in Zhuanglang County for example, the theoretical values estimated by maximum value method and classification grading method were 1. 13 Mt and 1.09 Mt, respectively. (2) The real values estimated by classification grading method, saturation method, weighting method were 0.37 Mt, 0.32 Mt, 0.28 Mt, respectively, which were about 1/3 of the theoretical value. (3) The SOC density increments to reach the real level of carbon sequestration potential estimated by classification grading method, saturation method and weighting method were 6.76 t · hm⁻², 5.21 t · hm⁻², 4.56 t · hm⁻² respectively. According to the topsoil carbon sequestration rate of cropland in Zhuanglang county in the recent 30 a, it would need about 24-34 a to achieve the real level. (4) At the county scale, the weighted method was superior to the saturation value method, and the saturation value method was better than the classification grading method in the actual carbon sequestration potential estimation. The classification grading method was better than the maximum value method in the ideal carbon sequestration potential estimation. PMID:27337906

  3. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  4. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality. PMID:23215015

  5. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2012-02-05

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO₂ or CO₂-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO₂, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO₂. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  6. Trace metal source terms in carbon sequestration environments.

    PubMed

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Torres, Sharon G; Hakala, J Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO(2) or CO(2)-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO(2). Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  7. Sequestration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) in a suitably chosen polymer is under investigation as a means of promoting the dissolution of the nanotubes into epoxies. The purpose of this investigation is to make it possible to utilize SWCNs as the reinforcing fibers in strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. SWCNs are especially attractive for use as reinforcing fibers because of their stiffness and strength-to-weight ratio: Their Young s modulus has been calculated to be 1.2 TPa, their strength has been calculated to be as much as 100 times that of steel, and their mass density is only one-sixth that of steel. Bare SWCNs cannot be incorporated directly into composite materials of the types envisioned because they are not soluble in epoxies. Heretofore, SWCNS have been rendered soluble by chemically attaching various molecular chains to them, but such chemical attachments compromise their structural integrity. In the method now under investigation, carbon nanotubes are sequestered in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV]. The strength of the carbon nanotubes is preserved because they are not chemically bonded to the PmPV. This method exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around carbon nanotubes: the wrapping occurs partly because there exists a favorable interface between the conjugated face of a nanotube and the conjugated backbone of the polymer and partly because of the helical molecular structure of PmPV. The constituents attached to the polymer backbones (the side chains) render the PmPV-wrapped carbon nanotubes PmPV soluble in organic materials that, in turn, could be used to suspend the carbon nanotubes in epoxy precursors. At present, this method is being optimized: The side chains on the currently available form of PmPV are very nonpolar and unable to react with the epoxy resins and/or hardeners; as a consequence, SWCN/PmPV composites have been

  8. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  9. Carbon sequestration from boreal wildfires via Pyrogenic Carbon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Preston, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    allowed, for the first time, quantifying the whole range of PyC components found in-situ immediately after a typical boreal forest fire. The fire examined had a fireline intensity of ~8000 kw/m, which is typical of boreal fires in NW Canada and we found that more than 18% of the fuel consumed was converted to PyC. This rate by far exceeds previous estimates (1-3%) and suggests that PyC production has indeed been substantially underestimated. As boreal forests are the world's largest terrestrial biome and contain half of the forest ecosystem C with a third its net primary productivity being consumed by fire every year, our findings could imply that PyC production from wildfires is a potential carbon sequestration mechanism of sufficient magnitude that warrants inclusion in boreal and perhaps global C budget estimations.

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-02-25

    The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation

  11. Do microorganism stoichiometric alterations affect carbon sequestration in paddy soil subjected to phosphorus input?

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Li, HongYi; Hu, Jiao; Li, Xia; He, Qiang; Tian, GuangMing; Wang, Hang; Wang, ShunYao; Wang, Bei

    2015-04-01

    Ecological stoichiometry provides a powerful tool for integrating microbial biomass stoichiometry with ecosystem processes, opening far-reaching possibilities for linking microbial dynamics to soil carbon (C) metabolism in response to agricultural nutrient management. Despite its importance to crop yield, the role of phosphorus (P) with respect to ecological stoichiometry and soil C sequestration in paddy fields remains poorly understood, which limits our ability to predict nutrient-related soil C cycling. Here, we collected soil samples from a paddy field experiment after seven years of superphosphate application along a gradient of 0, 30, 60, and 90 (P-0 through P-90, respectively) kg.ha-1.yr-1 in order to evaluate the role of exogenous P on soil C sequestration through regulating microbial stoichiometry. P fertilization increased soil total organic C and labile organic C by 1-14% and 4-96%, respectively, while rice yield is a function of the activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), acid phosphatase (AP), and the level of available soil P through a stepwise linear regression model. P input induced C limitation, as reflected by decreases in the ratios of C:P in soil and microbial biomass. An eco-enzymatic ratio indicating microbial investment in C vs. P acquisition, i.e., ln(BG): ln(AP), changed the ecological function of microbial C acquisition, and was stoichiometrically related to P input. This mechanism drove a shift in soil resource availability by increasing bacterial community richness and diversity, and stimulated soil C sequestration in the paddy field by enhancing C-degradation-related bacteria for the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources. Therefore, the decline in the C:P stoichiometric ratio of soil microorganism biomass under P input was beneficial for soil C sequestration, which offered a "win-win" relationship for the maximum balance point between C sequestration and P availability for rice production in the face of climate change. PMID

  12. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the potential saturation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and derived sequestration potentials in steppe soils is missing. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe locations in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of the fine mineral fraction (silt and clay particles <20 µm) of natural grassland soils, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the derived OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 84 to 89% despite massive SOC losses. As a result, the OC sequestration potential of degraded grassland soils was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and thus to a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC amounts. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and can thus not be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  13. Do microorganism stoichiometric alterations affect carbon sequestration in paddy soil subjected to phosphorus input?

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Li, HongYi; Hu, Jiao; Li, Xia; He, Qiang; Tian, GuangMing; Wang, Hang; Wang, ShunYao; Wang, Bei

    2015-04-01

    Ecological stoichiometry provides a powerful tool for integrating microbial biomass stoichiometry with ecosystem processes, opening far-reaching possibilities for linking microbial dynamics to soil carbon (C) metabolism in response to agricultural nutrient management. Despite its importance to crop yield, the role of phosphorus (P) with respect to ecological stoichiometry and soil C sequestration in paddy fields remains poorly understood, which limits our ability to predict nutrient-related soil C cycling. Here, we collected soil samples from a paddy field experiment after seven years of superphosphate application along a gradient of 0, 30, 60, and 90 (P-0 through P-90, respectively) kg.ha-1.yr-1 in order to evaluate the role of exogenous P on soil C sequestration through regulating microbial stoichiometry. P fertilization increased soil total organic C and labile organic C by 1-14% and 4-96%, respectively, while rice yield is a function of the activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), acid phosphatase (AP), and the level of available soil P through a stepwise linear regression model. P input induced C limitation, as reflected by decreases in the ratios of C:P in soil and microbial biomass. An eco-enzymatic ratio indicating microbial investment in C vs. P acquisition, i.e., ln(BG): ln(AP), changed the ecological function of microbial C acquisition, and was stoichiometrically related to P input. This mechanism drove a shift in soil resource availability by increasing bacterial community richness and diversity, and stimulated soil C sequestration in the paddy field by enhancing C-degradation-related bacteria for the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources. Therefore, the decline in the C:P stoichiometric ratio of soil microorganism biomass under P input was beneficial for soil C sequestration, which offered a "win-win" relationship for the maximum balance point between C sequestration and P availability for rice production in the face of climate change.

  14. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric; Burruss, Robert; Faulkner, Stephen; Gleason, Robert; Harden, Jennifer; Kharaka, Yousif; Tieszen, Larry; Waldrop, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. This increase in atmospheric CO2 - from about 280 to more than 380 parts per million (ppm) over the last 250 years - is causing measurable global warming. Potential adverse impacts include sea-level rise; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff; and disturbance of coastal marine and other ecosystems. Rising atmospheric CO2 is also increasing the absorption of CO2 by seawater, causing the ocean to become more acidic, with potentially disruptive effects on marine plankton and coral reefs. Technically and economically feasible strategies are needed to mitigate the consequences of increased atmospheric CO2. The United States needs scientific information to develop ways to reduce human-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  15. Contribution of Doñana Wetlands to Carbon Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward P.; Flecha, Susana; Figuerola, Jordi; Costas, Eduardo; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Pablo; Huertas, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010–2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of (−0.8 and 36.3 ). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and −1.2 ). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of (5.2 ). Up–scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous transport (13.1 ). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration. PMID:23977044

  16. [Variation of forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Wei; Huang, Mei; Zhai, Yin-Li; Chen, Ke; Gong, Ya-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The forest vegetation carbon stock and carbon sequestration rate in Liaoning Province, Northeast China, were predicted by using Canadian carbon balance model (CBM-CFS3) combining with the forest resource data. The future spatio-temporal distribution and trends of vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate were projected, based on the two scenarios, i. e. with or without afforestation. The result suggested that the total forest vegetation carbon storage and carbon density in Liaoning Province in 2005 were 133.94 Tg and 25.08 t x hm(-2), respectively. The vegetation carbon storage in Quercus was the biggest, while in Robinia pseudoacacia was the least. Both Larix olgensis and broad-leaved forests had higher vegetation carbon densities than others, and the vegetation carbon densities of Pinus tabuliformis, Quercus and Robinia pseudoacacia were close to each other. The spatial distribution of forest vegetation carbon density in Liaoning Province showed a decrease trend from east to west. In the eastern forest area, the future increase of vegetation carbon density would be smaller than those in the northern forest area, because most of the forests in the former part were matured or over matured, while most of the forests in the later part were young. Under the scenario of no afforestation, the future increment of total forest vegetation carbon stock in Liaoning Province would increase gradually, and the total carbon sequestration rate would decrease, while they would both increase significantly under the afforestation scenario. Therefore, afforestation plays an important role in increasing vegetation carbon storage, carbon density and carbon sequestration rate.

  17. Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2004-06-01

    The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient management, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil carbon pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, carbon sequestration has the potential to offset fossil-fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of carbon per year, or 5 to 15% of the global fossil-fuel emissions.

  18. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Lal, R

    2004-06-11

    The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50 to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon. The rate of soil organic carbon sequestration with adoption of recommended technologies depends on soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature, farming system, and soil management. Strategies to increase the soil carbon pool include soil restoration and woodland regeneration, no-till farming, cover crops, nutrient management, manuring and sludge application, improved grazing, water conservation and harvesting, efficient irrigation, agroforestry practices, and growing energy crops on spare lands. An increase of 1 ton of soil carbon pool of degraded cropland soils may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) for wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas. As well as enhancing food security, carbon sequestration has the potential to offset fossil fuel emissions by 0.4 to 1.2 gigatons of carbon per year, or 5 to 15% of the global fossil-fuel emissions.

  19. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  20. Mineral carbonation for carbon sequestration in cement kiln dust from waste piles.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gierke, John S; Sutter, Lawrence L; Kawatra, S Komar; Eisele, Timothy C

    2009-08-30

    Alkaline earth metals, such as calcium and magnesium oxides, readily react with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) to produce stable carbonate minerals. Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonate minerals is a potential means to reduce CO(2) emissions. Calcium-rich, industrial solid wastes and residues provide a potential source of highly reactive oxides, without the need for pre-processing. This paper presents the first study examining the feasibility of carbon sequestration in cement kiln dust (CKD), a byproduct generated during the manufacturing of cement. A series of column experiments were conducted on segments of intact core taken from landfilled CKD. Based on stoichiometry and measured consumption of CO(2) during the experiments, degrees of carbonation greater than 70% of the material's potential theoretical extent were achieved under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The overall extent of carbonation/sequestration was greater in columns with lower water contents. The major sequestration product appears to be calcite; however, more detailed material characterization is need on pre- and post-carbonated samples to better elucidate carbonation pathways and products.

  1. Net carbon sequestration potential and emissions in home lawn turfgrasses of the United States.

    PubMed

    Selhorst, Adam; Lal, Rattan

    2013-01-01

    Soil analyses were conducted on home lawns across diverse ecoregions of the U.S. to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC) sink capacity of turfgrass soils. Establishment of lawns sequestered SOC over time. Due to variations in ecoregions, sequestration rates varied among sites from 0.9 Mg carbon (C) ha(-1) year(-1) to 5.4 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Potential SOC sink capacity also varied among sites ranging from 20.8 ± 1.0-96.3 ± 6.0 Mg C ha(-1). Average sequestration rate and sink capacity for all sites sampled were 2.8 ± 0.3 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and 45.8 ± 3.5 Mg C ha(-1), respectively. Additionally, the hidden carbon costs (HCC) due to lawn mowing (189.7 kg Ce (carbon equivalent) ha(-1) year(-1)) and fertilizer use (63.6 kg Ce ha(-1) year(-1)) for all sites totaled 254.3 kg Ce ha(-1) year(-1). Considering home lawn SOC sink capacity and HCC, mean home lawn sequestration was completely negated 184 years post establishment. The potential SOC sink capacity of home lawns in the U.S. was estimated at 496.3 Tg C, with HCC of between 2,504.1 Gg Ce year(-1) under low management regimes and 7551.4 Gg Ce year(-1) under high management. This leads to a carbon-positive system for between 66 and 199 years in U.S. home lawns. More efficient and reduction of C-intensive maintenance practices could increase the overall sequestration longevity of home lawns and improve their climate change mitigation potential.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Peat Accretion Processes in Peatland Systems: A North-South Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, C. J.; Wang, H.; Bridgham, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Millions of hectares of peatlands exist in the U.S. and Canada but few comparisons have been made on the process controlling peat accretion, carbon sequestration and GHG losses across latitudinal gradients. Historic threats to carbon sequestration for these areas have been drainage and conversion to agriculture and forestry, which promotes the decomposition of the organic matter in the soil, leading to accelerated soil subsidence, severe carbon losses, and accelerated transport of C and nutrients to adjoining ecosystems. A more recent and insidious threat to the survival of peatlands worldwide is the increased temperature and drought conditions projected for many areas of global peatlands (IPCC 2007). A comparison of carbon sequestration rates and controlling processes for southeastern shrub bogs, the Florida Everglades and selected peatlands of the northern US and Canada under current climatic conditions reveals several major differences in controlling factors and rates of sequestration and carbon flux. Numerous studies have shown that drought or drainage can unlock historically stored carbon, thus releasing more CO2 ¬ and dissolved organic carbon (Blodau et al. 2004; Furukawa et al. 2005; Von Arnold et al. 2005; Hirano et al. 2007), and such effects might last for decades (Fenner & Freeman 2011). The main driver of this process is the O2 introduced by drought or drainage, which will increase the activity of phenol oxidase, then accelerate the decomposition of phenol compounds, which is generally considered the "enzymatic latch" for carbon storage in peatlands (Freeman et al. 2001). However, our recent studies in southeastern peatlands along the coast of North Carolina have found that drought or drainage does not affect CO2 emission in some southern peatlands where the initial water level is below the ground surface (unsaturated peats), as polyphenol increases rather than decreases. Our results suggest that additional controlling factors, rather than anoxia exist

  3. The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V

  4. Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.

    PubMed

    Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm( -2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 μm, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year( -1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin.

  5. Biogeologic Carbon Sequestration - a Cost-Effective Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, G. H.; Kuhns, R.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon sequestration has been proposed as a strategy for reducing the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels. There are two main routes: 1) capture CO2 emissions from power plants or other large point sources followed by some form of "burial/sequestration", and 2) extraction of CO2 from the ambient atmosphere (involving substantial concentration relative to atmospheric levels) also followed by burial/sequestration. In either case the goal is to achieve significant long-term isolation of CO2 at an economically sustainable price, perhaps measured by some "market price" for CO2, such as the European carbon futures market, where the price is now (2/3/09) about 14-15/tonne of CO2. The second approach, removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, has the potential benefit of reversing the previous buildup of atmospheric CO2, and perhaps even providing a means to "adjust" terrestrial climate by regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the present, ideas of planetary "geo-engineering" are not as popular as reducing the impact of continued CO2 emissions. In fact, the energy and capital costs of extraction from a dilute atmosphere appear to make this approach uneconomical. Proposals to fertilize the open ocean suffer from concerns about long term ecosystem effects, to say nothing of a lack of verifiability. There is, however, an approach using biological systems that can not only extract significant amounts of CO2, but can do so cost-effectively. Lakes are known in which primary productivity approaches or exceeds 1gm C/cm2-yr. This equates to removal of 35,000 tonnes of CO2 per km2 per year, with a "market value" of about 500,000/yr. Such productivity only occurs under highly eutrophic conditions, and presumably requires significant nutrient additions. As such it would be unthinkable to pursue this technique on a large scale in extant lakes. If, however, it is possible to produce one or more large artificial lakes under acceptable conditions it is

  6. Effects of Drought on Carbon Sequestration of Tropical Dry Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Contreras, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of knowledge associated with the controls on CO2 exchange and responses to climate change of tropical dry forests (TDF) represent substantial uncertainties in global climate models. These ecosystems contain large stores of biomass, which lead to rapid cycling of carbon pools through photosynthesis and respiration. The projected increase in severe drought in a climate change environment is expected to affect the mechanisms and total amounts of carbon sequestered by TDFs. Using eddy covariance CO2 and H2O flux measurements in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, we investigated the relationship between phenology and productivity in normal year, followed by two sequential drought years, in terms of net and gross ecosystem exchange (NEE and GEE, respectively). Eddy covariance measurements were used to derive phenologic indicators. Inflection points displaying the transition points between CO2 source and sink were determined using NEE flux measurements as well as the onset of phenologic stages (green-up, maturity, senescence and dormancy). Onset of green-up was significantly delayed due to drought; however, the total green-up period remained unchanged in length, compared to the normal year. Thus, the integrated carbon sequestration during green-up was significantly lower during drought. To compensate for this, in drought, the length of maturity and senescence were extended, allowing the ecosystem to reach similar carbon accumulation levels as observed during normal conditions. An increase in physiological activity seems to have also occurred. However, as drought persists in subsequent years and resources become limiting, we expect this activity to decrease, resulting in a reduction of total ecosystem carbon sequestration. The highly dynamic changes occurring in TDFs, make these ecosystems significantly important as we try to better understand the global carbon cycle in a climate change environment.

  7. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil.

  8. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. PMID:22444054

  9. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II.

  10. Soil carbon sequestration under Miscanthus x giganteus - A regional scale survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J.; Dauber, J.; Jones, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    The production of biofuels, particularly in North America and Europe, has recently increased significantly, both to secure energy independence and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts and benefits of biofuel production have generated some controversies within the scientific community. In particular land-use change to bioenergy crops can result in carbon emissions from soils and vegetation in amounts that could take decades of bioenergy crop production to compensate for. Perennial grasses (e.g. Miscanthus or switchgrass) offer a possible solution to this problem, as recent studies conducted in experimental plots of Miscanthus have shown soil carbon sequestration potential. It can, however, be assumed that sequestration potentials in commercial use might differ substantially from those measured in experimental plots due to different farming practices and a wider range of soils and climate conditions. The aim of this project is to analyse soil carbon sequestration under commercial Miscanthus plantations on different spatial scales. In an initial survey, commercial Miscanthus plantations on 16 farms in south east Ireland have been examined. Soil cores have been taken at 10 cm steps down to 30 cm depth. Soil organic carbon (SOC) has been measured on the Miscanthus fields as well as on adjacent control sites representing the former land-use (grassland and tillage). Miscanthus-derived soil carbon has been measured using the 13C natural abundance method. The study shows significant Miscanthus-derived soil carbon sequestration (0.62 ±0.59 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.90 ±0.53 Mg ha-1 yr-1 under former tilled and former grassland, respectively) two to three years after establishment. Also no significant differences in total SOC between the Miscanthus plots and adjacent control plots could be observed; indicating that land-use change to Miscanthus does not lead to a major SOC loss. However, Miscanthus-derived carbon values as well as total soil organic carbon

  11. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Mladenoff, David J.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2009-01-01

    One-third of net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere since 1850 are the result of land-use change, primarily from the clearing of forests for timber and agriculture, but quantifying these changes is complicated by the lack of historical data on both former ecosystem conditions and the extent and spatial configuration of subsequent land use. Using fine-resolution historical survey records, we reconstruct pre-EuroAmerican settlement (1850s) forest carbon in the state of Wisconsin, examine changes in carbon after logging and agricultural conversion, and assess the potential for future sequestration through forest recovery. Results suggest that total above-ground live forest carbon (AGC) fell from 434 TgC before settlement to 120 TgC at the peak of agricultural clearing in the 1930s and has since recovered to approximately 276 TgC. The spatial distribution of AGC, however, has shifted significantly. Former savanna ecosystems in the south now store more AGC because of fire suppression and forest ingrowth, despite the fact that most of the region remains in agriculture, whereas northern forests still store much less carbon than before settlement. Across the state, continued sequestration in existing forests has the potential to contribute an additional 69 TgC. Reforestation of agricultural lands, in particular, the formerly high C-density forests in the north-central region that are now agricultural lands less optimal than those in the south, could contribute 150 TgC. Restoring historical carbon stocks across the landscape will therefore require reassessing overall land-use choices, but a range of options can be ranked and considered under changing needs for ecosystem services. PMID:19369213

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability

  13. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-01-01

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants. PMID:24918576

  14. Water challenges for geologic carbon capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Newmark, Robin L; Friedmann, Samuel J; Carroll, Susan A

    2010-04-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the "capture penalty" for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use.

  15. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has been proposed as a means to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions with the continued use of fossil fuels. For geologic sequestration, the carbon dioxide is captured from large point sources (e.g., power plants or other industrial sources), transported to the injection site and injected into deep geological formations for storage. This will produce new water challenges, such as the amount of water used in energy resource development and utilization and the “capture penalty” for water use. At depth, brine displacement within formations, storage reservoir pressure increases resulting from injection, and leakage are potential concerns. Potential impacts range from increasing water demand for capture to contamination of groundwater through leakage or brine displacement. Understanding these potential impacts and the conditions under which they arise informs the design and implementation of appropriate monitoring and controls, important both for assurance of environmental safety and for accounting purposes. Potential benefits also exist, such as co-production and treatment of water to both offset reservoir pressure increase and to provide local water for beneficial use. PMID:20127328

  16. Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest.

    PubMed

    Brack, C L

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1900s, the Canberra plain was largely treeless. Graziers had carried out extensive clearing of the original trees since the 1820s leaving only scattered remnants and some plantings near homesteads. With the selection of Canberra as the site for the new capital of Australia, extensive tree plantings began in 1911. These trees have delivered a number of benefits, including aesthetic values and the amelioration of climatic extremes. Recently, however, it was considered that the benefits might extend to pollution mitigation and the sequestration of carbon. This paper outlines a case study of the value of the Canberra urban forest with particular reference to pollution mitigation. This study uses a tree inventory, modelling and decision support system developed to collect and use data about trees for tree asset management. The decision support system (DISMUT) was developed to assist in the management of about 400,000 trees planted in Canberra. The size of trees during the 5-year Kyoto Commitment Period was estimated using DISMUT and multiplied by estimates of value per square meter of canopy derived from available literature. The planted trees are estimated to have a combined energy reduction, pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration value of US$20-67 million during the period 2008-2012.

  17. Lithological control on phytolith carbon sequestration in moso bamboo forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Beilei; Song, Zhaoliang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Zimin; Jiang, Peikun; Zhou, Guomo

    2014-06-11

    Phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) is a stable carbon (C) fraction that has effects on long-term global C balance. Here, we report the phytolith and PhytOC accumulation in moso bamboo leaves developed on four types of parent materials. The results show that PhytOC content of moso bamboo varies with parent material in the order of granodiorite (2.0 g kg(-1)) > granite (1.6 g kg(-1)) > basalt (1.3 g kg(-1)) > shale (0.7 g kg(-1)). PhytOC production flux of moso bamboo on four types of parent materials varies significantly from 1.0 to 64.8 kg CO₂ ha(-1) yr(-1), thus a net 4.7 × 10(6) -310.8 × 10(6) kg CO₂ yr(-1) would be sequestered by moso bamboo phytoliths in China. The phytolith C sequestration rate in moso bamboo of China will continue to increase in the following decades due to nationwide bamboo afforestation/reforestation, demonstrating the potential of bamboo in regulating terrestrial C balance. Management practices such as afforestation of bamboo in granodiorite area and granodiorite powder amendment may further enhance phytolith C sequestration through bamboo plants.

  18. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert

  19. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    The utility industry is currently producing 2.1 x 109 tonnes of CO2 per year from burning coal. The amounts of CO2 produced by a single coal-burning station are typically around 0.1 tonnes/MW/h for a coal burn of 0.04 tonnes/MW/h. These large fixed sources of CO2 constitute an obvious target for carbon sequestration to minimize greenhouse-gas emissions. The generally favored approach in present sequestration research is to achieve a CO2 stream that is highly concentrated, compress it, and transport it to geologic sequestration sites, such as deep saline aquifers. The volume of the CO2 is of some interest here. Supercritical CO2, as supplied for example from natural wells to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites, has a density of approximately 0.9, and is relatively incompressible, which means that the volume of sequestered supercritical CO2 will be somewhat greater than that of the coal from which it was formed. The volume of water displaced by CO2 injection into aquifers would be closely comparable to the volume of the CO2 itself. An alternative path, which we have been following, would capture the gas as calcium carbonate, CaCO3, in a biomimetic approach that offers some obvious advantages. Sequestration, in this case, is in the form of a safe, stable, environmentally benign product. On a geologic timeframe, considerable amounts of CO2 have been sequestered as, for example, oolitic limestone deposits and dolomite deposits, suggesting that very long-lived or even permanent sequestration is possible in solid carbonate form. Not only would our approach remove the costly steps of concentrating and compressing the CO2, but also it is anticipated that it would remove the need for long-term monitoring to check for CO2 leakage. In a separate collaborative study detailed by Abel and others (this volume), ramifications of geologic sequestration of CO2 and/or bicarbonate-enriched brines are evaluated with laboratory flow experiments and computer model simulations. Porosity and

  20. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  1. Agricultural Encroachment: Implications for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical African Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.; Kansiime, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical wetlands have been shown to exhibit high rates of net primary productivity and may therefore play an important role in global climate change mitigation through carbon assimilation and sequestration. Many permanently flooded areas of tropical East Africa are dominated by the highly productive C4 emergent macrophyte sedge, Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus). However, increasing population densities around wetland margins in East Africa are reducing the extent of papyrus coverage due to the planting of subsistence crops such as Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). We have assessed the impact of this land use change on the carbon cycle in theis wetland environment. Eddy covariance techniques were used, on a campaign basis, to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide over both papyrus and cocoyam dominated wetlands located on the Ugandan shore of Lake Victoria. The integration of flux data over the annual cycle shows that papyrus wetlands have the potential to act as a sink for significant amounts of carbon, in the region of 10 t C ha-1 yr-1. The cocoyam vegetation was found to assimilate ~7 t C ha-1 yr-1 but when carbon exports from crop biomass removal were taken into account these wetlands represent a significant net loss of carbon of similar magnitude. The development of sustainable wetland management strategies are therefore required in order to promote the dual wetland function of crop production and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions especially under future climate change scenarios.

  2. Carbon sequestration kinetic and storage capacity of ultramafic mining waste.

    PubMed

    Pronost, Julie; Beaudoin, Georges; Tremblay, Joniel; Larachi, Faïçal; Duchesne, Josée; Hébert, Réjean; Constantin, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Mineral carbonation of ultramafic rocks provides an environmentally safe and permanent solution for CO(2) sequestration. In order to assess the carbonation potential of ultramafic waste material produced by industrial processing, we designed a laboratory-scale method, using a modified eudiometer, to measure continuous CO(2) consumption in samples at atmospheric pressure and near ambient temperature. The eudiometer allows monitoring the CO(2) partial pressure during mineral carbonation reactions. The maximum amount of carbonation and the reaction rate of different samples were measured in a range of experimental conditions: humidity from dry to submerged, temperatures of 21 and 33 °C, and the proportion of CO(2) in the air from 4.4 to 33.6 mol %. The most reactive samples contained ca. 8 wt % CO(2) after carbonation. The modal proportion of brucite in the mining residue is the main parameter determining maximum storage capacity of CO(2). The reaction rate depends primarily on the proportion of CO(2) in the gas mixture and secondarily on parameters controlling the diffusion of CO(2) in the sample, such as relative saturation of water in pore space. Nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate for reactions at 21 °C, whereas dypingite was most common at 33 °C.

  3. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 μm) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding

  4. Soil Carbon Sequestration - Science for Enhancement and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metting, F. B.; Post, W. M.; Amonette, J. E.; Bailey, V. L.; Garten, C. T.; Graham, R. L.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jardine, P. M.; Jastrow, J.; Lal, R.; Marland, G.; McCarl, B. A.; Sands, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Tyler, D.; West, T. O.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction Fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change have elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 280 ppmv at the beginning of the industrial era to more than 381 ppmv in 2006. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and cement rose 71% during 1970-2000 to a rate of 7.0 PgC/y. It is estimated that CO2 emissions rose at a rate at 1.3% per year during 1990-1999, but have been growing since 2000 at a rate of3.3% per year, reaching 8.4 PgC in 2006. It is likely that the current 2-ppm annual increase will accelerate as the global economy expands, increasing the risk of climate system impacts. There is good agreement that photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in above- and belowground biomass and in soil could be exploited for safe and affordable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Nevertheless, soil C sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere has been a source of contention before and since the drafting of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Concerns have been raised that soil C sequestration is not permanent, that it is difficult to measure and monitor, that there would be "carbon leakage" outside of the mitigation activity, and that it is a distraction from the central issue of reducing GHG emissions from energy production and use. A decade after drafting the Kyoto Protocol, it is clear that international accord and success in reducing emissions from the energy system are not coming easily and concerns about climate change are growing. It is time to re-evaluate options with potential to buy time, bridging to a future when new energy system technologies and a transformed energy infrastructure can fully address the climate challenge. Soil sequestration is one option large enough to make a difference in the coming decades using proven land management methods and with the possibility that new technologies could significantly enhance the opportunity. This presentation will review progress on key scientific, economic, and social issues, postulate

  5. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  6. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies. PMID:18621703

  7. Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

    2001-04-24

    Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

  8. Comparing carbon sequestration potential of pyrogenic carbon from natural and anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    The enhanced resistance to environmental degradation of Pyrogenic Carbon (PyC), both produced in wildfires (charcoal), and man-made (biochar), gives it the potential to sequester carbon by preventing it to be released into the atmosphere. Sustainable addition of biochar to soils is seen as a viable global approach for carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Also the role of its 'natural counterpart', i.e. wildfire charcoal, as a long-term carbon sink in soils is widely recognized. However, in spite of their fundamental similarities, research on the potential of 'man-made' biochar and wildfire charcoal for carbon sequestration has been carried out essentially in isolation as analogous materials for accurate comparison are not easily available. Here we assess the carbon sequestration potential of man-made biochar and wildfire charcoal generated from the same material under known production conditions: (i) charcoal from forest floor and down wood produced during an experimental boreal forest fire (FireSmart, June 2012, NWT- Canada) and (ii) biochar produced from the same feedstock by slow pyrolysis [three treatments: 2 h at 350, 500 and 650°C, respectively]. The carbon sequestration potential of these PyC materials is given by the recalcitrance index, R50, proposed by Harvey et al. (2012). R50 is based on the relative thermal stability of a given PyC material to that of graphite and is calculated using thermogravimetric analyses. Our results show highest R50 for PyC materials produced from down wood than from forest floor, which points to the importance of feedstock chemical composition in determining the C sequestration potential of PyC both from natural (charcoal) and anthropogenic (biochar) sources. Moreover, production temperature is also a major factor affecting the carbon sequestration potential of the studied PyC materials, with higher R50 for PyC produced at higher temperatures. Further investigation on the similarities and differences between man

  9. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

  10. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles <20 μm, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  11. Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon dioxide release facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Keith, Charlie J.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Carlsten, John L.; Spangler, Lee H.

    2008-02-01

    Two laser-based instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring have been developed and tested at a controlled carbon dioxide (CO2) release facility. The first instrument uses a temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0027-2.0042 μm spectral region that contains three CO2 absorption lines and is used for aboveground atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. The second instrument also uses a temperature tunable DFB diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0032-2.0055 μm spectral region that contains five CO2 absorption lines for underground CO2 soil gas concentration measurements. The performance of these instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring was studied using a newly developed controlled CO2 release facility. A 0.3 ton CO2/day injection experiment was performed from 3-10 August 2007. The aboveground differential absorption instrument measured an average atmospheric CO2 concentration of 618 parts per million (ppm) over the CO2 injection site compared with an average background atmospheric CO2 concentration of 448 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring. The underground differential absorption instrument measured a CO2 soil gas concentration of 100,000 ppm during the CO2 injection, a factor of 25 greater than the measured background CO2 soil gas concentration of 4000 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    K. Lorenz; M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2006-04-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed mine soil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by American Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. This report presents the results from two forest sites reclaimed with topsoil application and reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F) and in 1973 (R73-F), and two forest sites without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1969 (R69-F) and 1962 (R62-F). Results from one site under grass without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1962 (R62-G) are also shown. Three core soil samples were collected from each of the experimental sites and each landscape position (upper, middle and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) pores, and available water capacity (AWC) were determined. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths among the sites R94-F and R73-F reclaimed with topsoil application and under continuous forest cover (P<0.05). VTP and AWC did also not differ among upper, middle and lower landscape positions. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity in 0-15 cm depth at R73-F was significantly lower at the lower compared to the upper landscape position. No significant differences were observed for Ks among landscape positions at R94-F. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC among landscape positions and depths within R69-F, R62-F and R62-G. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher in 0-15 cm depth at R62-F than at R69-F and R62-G. At the latter site, Ks was higher in the upper compared to the lower landscape position whereas Ks did not

  13. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  14. Increased cuticular carbon sequestration and lignin oxidation in response to soil warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Wilson, Kevin P.; Dudley Williams, D.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2008-12-01

    Rising temperatures are predicted to accelerate the decomposition of labile soil organic compounds such as proteins and carbohydrates, whereas biochemically resistant compounds, such as lipids from leaf cuticles and roots and lignin from woody tissues, are expected to remain stable on decadal to centennial timescales. However, the extent to which soil warming changes the molecular composition of soil organic matter is poorly understood. Here we examine the impact of soil warming in a mixed temperate forest on the molecular make-up of soil organic matter. We show that the abundance of leaf-cuticle-derived compounds is increased following 14 months of soil warming; we confirm this with nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of soil organic matter extracts. In contrast, we find that the abundance of lignin-derived compounds is decreased after the same treatment, while soil fungi, the primary decomposers of lignin in soil, increase in abundance. We conclude that future warming could alter the composition of soil organic matter at the molecular level, accelerating lignin degradation and increasing leaf-cuticle-derived carbon sequestration. With annual litterfall predicted to increase in the world's major forests with a 3∘C warming, we suggest that future warming may enhance the sequestration of cuticular carbon in soil.

  15. Soil carbon sequestration resulting from long-term application of biosolids for land reclamation.

    PubMed

    Tian, G; Granato, T C; Cox, A E; Pietz, R I; Carlson, C R; Abedin, Z

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on the impact of application of biosolids for land reclamation on C sequestration in soil were conducted at Fulton County, Illinois, where 41 fields (3.6-66 ha) received biosolids at a cumulative loading rate from 455 to 1654 dry Mg ha(-1) for 8 to 23 yr in rotation from 1972 to 2004. The fields were cropped with corn, wheat, and sorghum and also with soybean and grass or fallowed. Soil organic carbon (SOC) increased rapidly with the application of biosolids, whereas it fluctuated slightly in fertilizer controls. The peak SOC in the 0- to 15-cm depth of biosolids-amended fields ranged from 4 to 7% and was greater at higher rates of biosolids. In fields where biosolids application ceased for 22 yr, SOC was still much higher than the initial levels. Over the 34-yr reclamation, the mean net soil C sequestration was 1.73 (0.54-3.05) Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in biosolids-amended fields as compared with -0.07 to 0.17 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in fertilizer controls, demonstrating a high potential of soil C sequestration by the land application of biosolids. Soil C sequestration was significantly correlated with the biosolids application rate, and the equation can be expressed as y = 0.064x - 0.11, in which y is the annual net soil C sequestration (Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1)), and x is annual biosolids application in dry weight (Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Our results indicate that biosolids applications can turn Midwest Corn Belt soils from current C-neutral to C-sink. A method for calculating SOC stock under conditions in which surface soil layer depth and mass changes is also described.

  16. Carbon sequestration in California agriculture, 1980-2000.

    PubMed

    Kroodsma, David A; Field, Christopher B

    2006-10-01

    To better understand agricultural carbon fluxes in California, USA, we estimated changes in soil carbon and woody material between 1980 and 2000 on 3.6 x 10(6) ha of farmland in California. Combining the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) model with data on harvest indices and yields, we calculated net primary production, woody production in orchard and vineyard crops, and soil carbon. Over the 21-yr period, two trends resulted in carbon sequestration. Yields increased an average of 20%, corresponding to greater plant biomass and more carbon returned to the soils. Also, orchards and vineyards increased in area from 0.7 x 10(6) ha to 1.0 x 10(6) ha, displacing field crops and sequestering woody carbon. Our model estimates that California's agriculture sequestered an average of 19 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Sequestration was lowest in non-rice annual cropland, which sequestered 9 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) of soil carbon, and highest on land that switched from annual cropland to perennial cropland. Land that switched from annual crops to vineyards sequestered 68 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1), and land that switched from annual crops to orchards sequestered 85 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1). Rice fields, because of a reduction in field burning, sequestered 55 g C x m(-2) x yr(-1) in the 1990s. Over the 21 years, California's 3.6 x 10(6) ha of agricultural land sequestered 11.0 Tg C within soils and 3.5 Tg C in woody biomass, for a total of 14.5 Tg C statewide. This is equal to 0.7% of the state's total fossil fuel emissions over the same time period. If California's agriculture adopted conservation tillage, changed management of almond and walnut prunings, and used all of its orchard and vineyard waste wood in the biomass power plants in the state, California's agriculture could offset up to 1.6% of the fossil fuel emissions in the state.

  17. Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Spokas, Kurt A; Cantrell, Keri B; Novak, Jeffrey M; Archer, David W; Ippolito, James A; Collins, Harold P; Boateng, Akwasi A; Lima, Isabel M; Lamb, Marshall C; McAloon, Andrew J; Lentz, Rodrick D; Nichols, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    Biochar has been heralded as an amendment to revitalize degraded soils, improve soil carbon sequestration, increase agronomic productivity, and enter into future carbon trading markets. However, scientific and economic technicalties may limit the ability of biochar to consistently deliver on these expectations. Past research has demonstrated that biochar is part of the black carbon continuum with variable properties due to the net result of production (e.g., feedstock and pyrolysis conditions) and postproduction factors (storage or activation). Therefore, biochar is not a single entity but rather spans a wide range of black carbon forms. Biochar is black carbon, but not all black carbon is biochar. Agronomic benefits arising from biochar additions to degraded soils have been emphasized, but negligible and negative agronomic effects have also been reported. Fifty percent of the reviewed studies reported yield increases after black carbon or biochar additions, with the remainder of the studies reporting alarming decreases to no significant differences. Hardwood biochar (black carbon) produced by traditional methods (kilns or soil pits) possessed the most consistent yield increases when added to soils. The universality of this conclusion requires further evaluation due to the highly skewed feedstock preferences within existing studies. With global population expanding while the amount of arable land remains limited, restoring soil quality to nonproductive soils could be key to meeting future global food production, food security, and energy supplies; biochar may play a role in this endeavor. Biochar economics are often marginally viable and are tightly tied to the assumed duration of agronomic benefits. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which biochar can provide economic and agronomic benefits and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these benefits. PMID:22751040

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L

    2008-07-22

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+))CO(3) infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future.

  19. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2015-07-23

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  20. Options for accounting carbon sequestration in German forests

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Joachim; Koehl, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Bormann, Kristin; Rueter, Sebastian; Elsasser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accra climate change talks held from 21–27 August 2008 in Accra, Ghana, were part of an ongoing series of meetings leading up to the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. During the meeting a set of options for accounting carbon sequestration in forestry on a post-2012 framework was presented. The options include gross-net and net-net accounting and approaches for establishing baselines. Results This article demonstrates the embedded consequences of Accra Accounting Options for the case study of German national GHG accounting. It presents the most current assessment of sequestration rates by forest management for the period 1990 – 2007, provides an outlook of future emissions and removals (up to the year 2042) as related to three different management scenarios, and shows that implementation of some Accra options may reverse sources to sinks, or sinks to sources. Conclusion The results of the study highlight the importance of elaborating an accounting system that would prioritize the climate convention goals, not national preferences. PMID:19650896

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; Takahashi, Taro; Slagle, Angela L.

    2008-01-01

    Developing a method for secure sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in geological formations is one of our most pressing global scientific problems. Injection into deep-sea basalt formations provides unique and significant advantages over other potential geological storage options, including (i) vast reservoir capacities sufficient to accommodate centuries-long U.S. production of fossil fuel CO2 at locations within pipeline distances to populated areas and CO2 sources along the U.S. west coast; (ii) sufficiently closed water-rock circulation pathways for the chemical reaction of CO2 with basalt to produce stable and nontoxic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+)CO3 infilling minerals, and (iii) significant risk reduction for post-injection leakage by geological, gravitational, and hydrate-trapping mechanisms. CO2 sequestration in established sediment-covered basalt aquifers on the Juan de Fuca plate offer promising locations to securely accommodate more than a century of future U.S. emissions, warranting energized scientific research, technological assessment, and economic evaluation to establish a viable pilot injection program in the future. PMID:18626013

  2. A national look at carbon capture and storage-National carbon sequestration database and geographical information system (NatCarb)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Iqbal, A.; Callaghan, N.; ,; Look, K.; Saving, S.; Nelson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are responsible for generating geospatial data for the maps displayed in the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. Key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential storage sites, transportation, land use, etc.) are required for the Atlas, and for efficient implementation of carbon sequestration on a national and regional scale. The National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System (NatCarb) is a relational database and geographic information system (GIS) that integrates carbon storage data generated and maintained by the RCSPs and various other sources. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project is working to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO2 carbon capture and storage data. NatCarb is organizing and enhancing the critical information about CO2 sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, model, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data related to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. NatCarb is a functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. It forms the first step toward a functioning National Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (NCCI). NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2016-07-12

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    DePaolo, Don

    2010-02-03

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  5. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  6. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Andrew W; Bostick, Benjamin C; Kaste, James M; Friedland, Andrew J

    2008-05-15

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-rayfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest O(i) samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (approximately 20-35%) and SOM (-65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  7. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Lead Sequestration And Species Redistribution During Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2009-05-27

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-rayfluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest O{sub i} samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases ({approx}20--35%) and SOM ({approx}65--80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  9. Lead Sequestration and Species Redistribution During Soil Organic Matter Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth,A.; Bostick, B.; Kaste, J.; Friedland, A.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases ({approx}20-35%) and SOM ({approx}65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility.

  10. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  11. Carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species in lower Gangetic plain.

    PubMed

    Jana, Bipal K; Biswas, Soumyajit; Majumder, Mrinmoy; Roy, Pankaj K; Mazumdar, Asis

    2011-07-01

    Carbon is sequestered by the plant photosynthesis and stored as biomass in different parts of the tree. Carbon sequestration rate has been measured for young species (6 years age) of Shorea robusta at Chadra forest in Paschim Medinipur district, Albizzia lebbek in Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah district and Artocarpus integrifolia at Banobitan within Kolkata in the lower Gangetic plain of West Bengal in India by Automated Vaisala Made Instrument GMP343 and aboveground biomass carbon has been analyzed by CHN analyzer. The specific objective of this paper is to measure carbon sequestration rate and aboveground biomass carbon potential of three young species of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia. The carbon sequestration rate (mean) from the ambient air during winter season as obtained by Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 11.13 g/h, 14.86 g/h and 4.22g/h, respectively. The annual carbon sequestration rate from ambient air were estimated at 8.97 t C ha(-1) by Shorea robusta, 11.97 t C ha(-1) by Albizzia lebbek and 3.33 t C ha(-1) by Artocarpus integrifolia. The percentage of carbon content (except root) in the aboveground biomass of Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 47.45, 47.12 and 43.33, respectively. The total aboveground biomass carbon stock per hectare as estimated for Shorea robusta, Albizzia lebbek and Artocarpus integrifolia were 5.22 t C ha(-1) , 6.26 t C ha(-1) and 7.28 t C ha(-1), respectively in these forest stands.

  12. [Effects of tillage conversion on carbon sequestration capability of farmland soil doubled cropped with wheat and corn].

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Kong, Fan-Lei; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2010-01-01

    By the methods of field experiment, laboratory analysis, and in situ investigation, this paper studied the effects of different tillage conversion on the carbon sequestration capability of farmland soil doubled cropped with wheat and corn. Compared with conventional tillage (CTA), conservation tillage practices benefited the accumulation of soil organic carbon, among which, no-tillage plus straw returning (NTS) increased the organic carbon accumulation in 0-5 cm soil layer by 18.0%, rotary tillage plus straw returning (RTS) increased this accumulation in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers by 17.6% and 25.0%, respectively, and conventional tillage plus straw returning (CTS) increased the organic carbon in 10-30 cm soil layer by 31.8%. After the conversion from CTA to NTS, the carbon emission from farm operations decreased by 54.3 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1); while the conversion from CTA to CTS and RTS resulted in an increase of this emission by 46.9 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) and 34.4 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively. Considering of the accumulation of soil organic carbon and the carbon emission from farm operations, it could be concluded that the conversion from CTA to conservation tillage changed this farmland soil from carbon source to carbon sink, and the RTS among the three conservation tillage modes resulted in the highest soil carbon sequestration (1011.1 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1)).

  13. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Szyszko, Jan; Schwerk, Axel; Malczyk, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB) of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance), representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use. PMID:21738434

  14. Animals as an indicator of carbon sequestration and valuable landscapes.

    PubMed

    Szyszko, Jan; Schwerk, Axel; Malczyk, Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    Possibilities of the assessment of a landscape with the use of succession development stages, monitored with the value of the Mean Individual Biomass (MIB) of carabid beetles and the occurrence of bird species are discussed on the basis of an example from Poland. Higher variability of the MIB value in space signifies a greater biodiversity. Apart from the variability of MIB, it is suggested to adopt the occurrence of the following animals as indicators, (in the order of importance), representing underlying valuable landscapes: black stork, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, wolf, crane and white stork. The higher number of these species and their greater density indicate a higher value of the landscape for biodiversity and ecosystem services, especially carbon sequestration. All these indicators may be useful to assess measures for sustainable land use.

  15. Carbon sequestration by Miscanthus energy crops plantations in a broad range semi-arid marginal land in China.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jia; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenhui; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2014-10-15

    Carbon sequestration is an essential ecosystem service that second-generation energy crops can provide. To evaluate the ability of carbon sequestration of Miscanthus energy crops in the Loess Plateau of China, the yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) changes were measured for three Miscanthus species in the experimental field in Qingyang of the Gansu Province (QG). With the highest yield of the three species, Miscanthus lutarioriparius contributed to the largest increase of SOC, 0.57 t ha(-1)yr(-1), comparing to the field left unplanted. Through modeling M. lutarioriparius yield across the Loess Plateau, an average increase of SOC was estimated at 0.46 t ha(-1)yr(-1) for the entire region. Based on the measurements of SOC mineralization under various temperatures and moistures for soil samples taken from QG, a model was developed for estimating SOC mineralization rates across the Loess Plateau and resulted in an average of 1.11 t ha(-1)yr(-1). Combining the estimates from these models, the average of net carbon sequestration was calculated at a rate of 9.13 t ha(-1)yr(-1) in the Loess Plateau. These results suggested that the domestication and production of M. lutarioriparius hold a great potential for carbon sequestration and soil restoration in this heavily eroded region.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program: Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litynski, J.; Plasynski, S.; Spangler, L.; Finley, R.; Steadman, E.; Ball, D.; Nemeth, K.J.; McPherson, B.; Myer, L.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a nationwide network of seven regional partnerships to help determine the best approaches for capturing and permanently storing gases that can contribute to global climate change. The Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) are tasked with determining the most suitable technologies, regulations, and infrastructure for carbon capture, transport, and storage in their areas of the country and parts of Canada. The seven partnerships include more than 350 state agencies, universities, national laboratories, private companies, and environmental organizations, spanning 42 states, two Indian nations, and four Canadian provinces. The Regional Partnerships initiative is being implemented in three phases: ???Characterization Phase (2003-2005): The objective was to collect data on CO2 sources and sinks and develop the human capital to support and enable future carbon sequestration field tests and deployments. The completion of this Phase was marked by release of the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada-Version 1 which included a common methodology for capacity assessment and reported over 3,000GT of storage capacity in saline formations, depleted oil and gas fields, and coal seams.???Validation Phase (2005-2009): The objective is to plan and implement small-scale (<1??million tons CO2) field testing of storage technologies in areas determined to be favorable for carbon storage. The partnerships are currently conducting over 20 small-scale geologic field tests and 11 terrestrial field tests.???Development Phase (2008-2018): The primary objective is the development of large-scale (>1??million tons of CO2) Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects, which will demonstrate that large volumes of CO2 can be injected safely, permanently, and economically into geologic formations representative of large storage capacity. Even though the RCSP Program is being implemented in three phases, it should be viewed

  17. Magnesite formation in playas: A natural analogue for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Ian; Harrison, Anna; Wilson, Siobhan; Dipple, Gregory; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonate deposits are of renewed interest as natural analogues for carbon sequestration and storage. Specifically, the sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2)in Mg-carbonate minerals is being actively investigated as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions1. In northern British Columbia, hydromagnesite-magnesite playas (hectare-scale) have formed since the last deglaciation, suggesting that these minerals possess a level of stability required for long-term carbon storage2. Quantitative mineralogical and hydrogeochemical data, as well as microscopy and field observations, were used to formulate a comprehensive facies model that describes the depositional environments for the formation of these playas. Over several millennia, there have been transitions from deposition of siliciclastic to subaqueous Ca-Mg-carbonate to subaerial Mg-carbonate sediments3,4. Consequently, a complex assemblage of carbonate minerals is present within the playas including magnesite [MgCO3], the most stable Mg-carbonate for storing CO2. Magnesite precipitation at near-surface temperatures is kinetically inhibited due to the strong hydration of Mg2+ ions in solution5. Thus, understanding the rates of, and controls on, magnesite formation at low temperatures remains a challenge. Magnesite abundances at the surface (1 to 41 wt.%) and at depth (1 to 86 wt.%) within the playas are highly variable4. There is a propensity for hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals to undergo transformation to less hydrated, more stable forms (lansfordite > nesquehonite > dypingite > hydromagnesite)5; however, stable, radiogenic, and clumped isotope6 data as well as electron microscopy demonstrate that magnesite formation is likely dominated by direct precipitation from aqueous solution in the shallow subsurface (~3-10 ° C). An observed variation in magnesite crystal morphology with depth is attributed to different crystal growth mechanisms induced by changes in magnesite saturation state

  18. Clay mineral continental amplifier for marine carbon sequestration in a greenhouse ocean.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martin J; Wagner, Thomas

    2011-06-14

    The majority of carbon sequestration at the Earth's surface occurs in marine continental margin settings within fine-grained sediments whose mineral properties are a function of continental climatic conditions. We report very high mineral surface area (MSA) values of 300 and 570 m(2) g in Late Cretaceous black shales from Ocean Drilling Program site 959 of the Deep Ivorian Basin that vary on subcentennial time scales corresponding with abrupt increases from approximately 3 to approximately 18% total organic carbon (TOC). The observed MSA changes with TOC across multiple scales of variability and on a sample-by-sample basis (centimeter scale), provides a rigorous test of a hypothesized influence on organic carbon burial by detrital clay mineral controlled MSA. Changes in TOC also correspond with geochemical and sedimentological evidence for water column anoxia. Bioturbated intervals show a lower organic carbon loading on mineral surface area of 0.1 mg-OC m(-2) when compared to 0.4 mg-OC m(-2) for laminated and sulfidic sediments. Although either anoxia or mineral surface protection may be capable of producing TOC of < 5%, when brought together they produced the very high TOC (10-18%) apparent in these sediments. This nonlinear response in carbon burial resulted from minor precession-driven changes of continental climate influencing clay mineral properties and runoff from the African continent. This study identifies a previously unrecognized land-sea connection among continental weathering, clay mineral production, and anoxia and a nonlinear effect on marine carbon sequestration during the Coniacian-Santonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 3 in the tropical eastern Atlantic.

  19. Clay mineral continental amplifier for marine carbon sequestration in a greenhouse ocean

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Martin J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The majority of carbon sequestration at the Earth’s surface occurs in marine continental margin settings within fine-grained sediments whose mineral properties are a function of continental climatic conditions. We report very high mineral surface area (MSA) values of 300 and 570 m2 g in Late Cretaceous black shales from Ocean Drilling Program site 959 of the Deep Ivorian Basin that vary on subcentennial time scales corresponding with abrupt increases from approximately 3 to approximately 18% total organic carbon (TOC). The observed MSA changes with TOC across multiple scales of variability and on a sample-by-sample basis (centimeter scale), provides a rigorous test of a hypothesized influence on organic carbon burial by detrital clay mineral controlled MSA. Changes in TOC also correspond with geochemical and sedimentological evidence for water column anoxia. Bioturbated intervals show a lower organic carbon loading on mineral surface area of 0.1 mg-OC m-2 when compared to 0.4 mg-OC m-2 for laminated and sulfidic sediments. Although either anoxia or mineral surface protection may be capable of producing TOC of < 5%, when brought together they produced the very high TOC (10–18%) apparent in these sediments. This nonlinear response in carbon burial resulted from minor precession-driven changes of continental climate influencing clay mineral properties and runoff from the African continent. This study identifies a previously unrecognized land–sea connection among continental weathering, clay mineral production, and anoxia and a nonlinear effect on marine carbon sequestration during the Coniacian-Santonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 3 in the tropical eastern Atlantic. PMID:21576498

  20. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon turnover and their potential application for enhancing carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jastrow, Julie D.; Amonette, James E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2007-01-01

    Two major mechanisms, (bio)chemical alteration and physicochemical protection, stabilize soil organic carbon (SOC) and thereby control soil carbon turnover. With (bio)chemical alteration, SOC is transformed by biotic and abiotic processes to chemical forms that are more resistant to decomposition and, in some cases, more easily retained by sorption to soil solids. With physicochemical protection, biochemical attack of SOC is inhibited by organomineral interactions at molecular to millimeter scales. Stabilization of otherwise decomposable SOM can occur via sorption to soil surfaces, complexation with soil minerals, occlusion within aggregates, and deposition in pores inaccessible to decomposers and extracellular enzymes. Soil structure (i.e., the arrangement of solids and pores in the soil) is a master integrating variable that both controls and indicates the SOC stabilization status of a soil. To enhance SOC sequestration, the best option is to modify the soil physicochemical environment to favor the activities of fungi. Specific practices that accomplish this include minimizing tillage, maintaining a near-neutral soil pH and an adequate base cation exchange capacity (particularly Ca), ensuring adequate drainage, and minimizing erosion by water and wind. In some soils, amendments with various high-specific-surface micro- and mesoporous sorbents such as fly ash or charcoal can be beneficial.

  1. A Holocene record of climate-driven shifts in coastal carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Zimmerman, A.R.; Hunsinger, G.B.; Willard, D.; Dunn, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A sediment core collected in the mesohaline portion of Chesapeake Bay was found to contain periods of increased delivery of refractory black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The BC was most likely produced by biomass combustion during four centennialscale dry periods as indicated by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), beginning in the late Medieval Warm Period of 1100 CE. In contrast, wetter periods were associated with increased non-BC organic matter influx into the bay, likely due to greater runoff and associated nutrient delivery. In addition, an overall increase in both BC and non-BC organic matter deposition during the past millennium may reflect a shift in climate regime. The finding that carbon sequestration in the coastal zone responds to climate fluctuations at both centennial and millennial scales through fire occurrence and nutrient delivery has implications for past and future climate predictions. Drought-induced fires may lead, on longer timescales, to greater carbon sequestration and, therefore, represent a negative climate feedback. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Properties and Soil Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Zhu, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar addition to soils potentially affects various soil properties and soil carbon sequestration, and these effects are dependent on biochars derived from different feedstock materials and pyrolysis processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of amendment of different biochars on soil physical and biological properties as well as soil carbon sequestration. Biochars were produced with dairy manure and woodchip at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. Each biochar was mixed at 5% (w/w) with a forest soil and the mixture was incubated for 180 days, during which soil physical and biological properties, and soil respiration rates were measured. Results showed that the biochar addition significantly enhanced the formation of soil macroaggregates at the early incubation time. The biochar application significantly reduced soil bulk density, increased the amount of soil organic matter, and stimulated microbial activity and soil respiration rates at the early incubation stage. Biochar applications improved water retention capacity, with stronger effects by biochars produced at higher pyrolysis temperatures. At the same suction, the soil with woodchip biochars possessed higher water content than with the dairy manure biochars. Biochar addition significantly affected the soil physical and biological properties, which resulted in different soil carbon mineralization rates and the amount of soil carbon storage.

  3. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water

  4. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  5. Perceptions of Utah ranchers toward carbon sequestration: policy implications for US rangelands.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhao; Coppock, D Layne

    2012-11-30

    Enhanced carbon sequestration is one means to mitigate climate change. Rangelands are arid and semi-arid lands, typified by relatively low and variable levels of net primary productivity, where carbon sequestration might be increased via alterations in land management. Rangelands are vast in size and dominate the land area in the western US and worldwide. It has been estimated that privately owned rangelands in the US could sequester an additional 60 million tons of carbon annually, roughly equal to five percent of the US annual CO(2) emissions. Ranchers are the target population that could implement changes in rangeland management to promote carbon sequestration, but little is known about how they might receive such programs. Therefore, for Utah, we conducted a combined mail and telephone survey of 495 randomly selected ranchers to assess their knowledge of and attitude toward carbon sequestration, possible benefits of carbon sequestration as perceived by ranchers, and factors influencing their likelihood of participating in carbon sequestration programs. Overall, despite that 70 percent of respondents had little or no self-reported knowledge about carbon sequestration, 63 percent had negative views about it. Ranchers reporting the most knowledge also tended to have the most negative attitudes. The least important benefit that might accrue to ranchers from carbon sequestration was seen as climate change mitigation, while the most important benefit was improved land stewardship. Only four percent of respondents indicated an unconditional willingness to participate in carbon sequestration programs, but 71 percent could be interested depending on new information received. Before carbon sequestration programs are developed for rangelands, further research is needed to clarify why more knowledge of carbon sequestration can lead to greater skepticism of relevant programs. We respect this finding, as it may be based on well-founded rancher concerns such as technical or

  6. Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failey, Elisabeth L.; Dilling, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'—that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

  7. [Straw return to rice paddy: soil carbon sequestration and increased methane emission].

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the long-term datasets of soil organic matter content and the observation data of rice paddies' methane (CH4) emission collected from the agricultural experiment stations across the country, the rice paddies in China were divided into single cropping and double cropping regions. The soil carbon sequestration potential of straw return in three types of rice paddies in the two regions, i. e., single cropping rice paddies, upland/paddy alternated rice paddies, and double cropping rice paddies, was evaluated, based on the datasets of soil organic matter content; and the total CH4 emission from rice paddies without straw return was estimated, with reference to the experimental data of paddies' CH4 emission and by the method of mean emission coefficient. The total CH4 emission from our paddies after straw return and the global warming potential of the increased CH4 emission were also estimated by using the related methods and parameters given by IPCC. It was estimated that the full popularization of straw return to China's rice paddies would sequester 10.48 Tg x a(-1) of C, and the contribution to the global warming mitigation was 38.43 Tg CO2-eqv x a(-1). In the meanwhile, the CH4 emission from our rice paddies would be increased from 5.796 Tg x a(-1) to 9.114 Tg x a(-1), and the increased 3.318 Tg x a(-1) of CH4 emission would lead to a global warming potential of 82.95 Tg CO2 -eqv x a(-1), which was 2.158 times of the mitigation from carbon sequestration in rice paddies. Therefore, the increased CH4 emission due to straw return should be regarded as an important greenhouse gas leakage, since it could greatly offset the mitigation benefits of soil carbon sequestration in China's rice paddies.

  8. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  9. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  10. Multi-nutrient vs. nitrogen-only effects on carbon sequestration in grassland soils.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Dario A; Banin, Lindsay; Crawley, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Human activities have greatly increased the availability of biologically active forms of nutrients [e.g., nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg)] in many soil ecosystems worldwide. Multi-nutrient fertilization strongly increases plant productivity but may also alter the storage of carbon (C) in soil, which represents the largest terrestrial pool of organic C. Despite this issue is important from a global change perspective, key questions remain on how the single addition of N or the combination of N with other nutrients might affect C sequestration in human-managed soils. Here, we use a 19-year old nutrient addition experiment on a permanent grassland to test for nutrient-induced effects on soil C sequestration. We show that combined NPKMg additions to permanent grassland have 'constrained' soil C sequestration to levels similar to unfertilized plots whereas the single addition of N significantly enhanced soil C stocks (N-only fertilized soils store, on average, 11 t C ha(-1) more than unfertilized soils). These results were consistent across grazing and liming treatments suggesting that whilst multi-nutrient additions increase plant productivity, soil C sequestration is increased by N-only additions. The positive N-only effect on soil C content was not related to changes in plant species diversity or to the functional composition of the plant community. N-only fertilized grasslands show, however, increases in total root mass and the accumulation of organic matter detritus in topsoils. Finally, soils receiving any N addition (N only or N in combination with other nutrients) were associated with high N losses. Overall, our results demonstrate that nutrient fertilization remains an important global change driver of ecosystem functioning, which can strongly affect the long-term sustainability of grassland soil ecosystems (e.g., soils ability to deliver multiple ecosystem services).

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed without topsoil application between 1956 and 1969. Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three slope positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths, and texture, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) stocks were determined. No differences in sand and clay contents, bulk density, SOC and TN stocks were observed within different slope positions within each site. However, sand [R56-G (17.1%) < R69-G (29.1%) = R62-G (29.1%)], and silt [R56-G (58.3%) > R69-G (47.7%)] contents, bulk density [R62-G (1.25 Mg ha{sup -1}) > R69-G (0.94 Mg ha{sup -1}) = R62-G (0.90 Mg ha{sup -1})] varied significantly on the upper slope position among sites under continuous grass cover. Smaller but significant differences were also observed for pH [R69-G (8.3) > R56-G (7.7) = R62-G (7.9)] and EC [R56-G (0.66 dS m{sup -1}) > R62-G (0.25 dS m{sup -1}) = R69-G (0.24 dS m{sup -1})] on upper slope positions among sites under grass. Comparing all sites stochastically, sand and clay contents were similar among all sites except R62-F for both depths. Similarly, soil bulk density was also similar among all sites except R62-G for both depths. There were few differences in total

  12. [Carbon sequestration effects of rice straw return in double season paddy field in Southern China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Mei; Ji, Xiong-Hui; Peng, Hua; Shi, Li-Hong; Liu, Zhao-Bing; Tian, Fa-Xiang; Huo, Lian-Jie; Zhu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In a long-term site-specific experiment with rice straw return (RSR) and in a short-term experiment with different RSR modes, this paper studied the effects of RSR on the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, methane emission, and net carbon sink in a double season paddy field. RSR increased the SOC content, and the annual increasing rate of soil carbon sink in plow layer (0-15 cm) under long-term RSR was 0.07 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1). With the increasing amount of RSR, the apparent SOC transformation rate decreased. RSR promoted the methane emission from the paddy field significantly, and the methane emission flux in treatment RSR plus NPK during early- and late rice growth seasons increased by 75.0% and 251.5% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with that in treatment NPK. The methane emission increased with the increasing amount of RSR. Under the similar tillage mode and rice yield, the rice straw returned had the similar apparent methane transformation rate. Considering the soil carbon sequestration and the net carbon sink after methane emission in the paddy field comprehensively, treatment RSR plus NPK had significant negative effect on the carbon sink which was basically approached to the bio-fixation of carbon by rice and increased by 158.3%, as compared with treatment NPK. Among different RSR modes, rice straw mulching plus no tillage decreased soil methane emission significantly, with the net carbon sink decreased by 50.9% as compared with the treatment high stubble plus tillage, and benefited the high and stable yielding of rice. PMID:22384587

  13. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenxu; Duan, Yongmei; Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0-100cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600kgNha(-1)yr(-)(1)) for 15years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0-100cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0-60cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO3(-) and the HCO3(-)/(Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0-80cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO2 and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO2. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. PMID:27135576

  14. Using experimental and geospatial data to estimate regional carbon sequestration potential under no-till management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Z.; Lal, R.; Liu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation management of croplands at the plot scale has demonstrated a great potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect through sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) into soil. This study estimated the potential of soil to sequester C through the conversion of croplands from conventional tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in the East Central United States between 1992 and 2012. This study used the baseline soil organic C (SOC) pool (SOCP) inventory and the empirical models that describe the relationships of the SOCP under CT and NT, respectively, to their baseline SOCP in the upper 30-cm depth of soil. The baseline SOCP were obtained from the State Soil Geographic database, and the cropland distribution map was generated from the 1992 National Land Cover Database. The results indicate that if all the croplands under CT in 1992 were converted to NT, the SOCP would increase by 16.8% by 2012, which results in a total C sink of 136 Tg after 20 years. A greater sequestration rate would occur in soils with lower baseline SOCP, but the sink strength would be weaker with increasing SOCP levels. The CT-induced C sources tend to become larger in soils with higher baseline levels, which can be significantly reduced by adopting NT. We conclude that baseline SOC contents are an indicator of C sequestration potential with NT practices. ?? 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  15. Soil microstructure and organic matter: keys for chlordecone sequestration.

    PubMed

    Woignier, T; Fernandes, P; Soler, A; Clostre, F; Carles, C; Rangon, L; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M

    2013-11-15

    Past applications of chlordecone, a persistent organochlorine pesticide, have resulted in diffuse pollution of agricultural soils, and these have become sources of contamination of cultivated crops as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Chlordecone is a very stable and recalcitrant molecule, mainly present in the solid phase, and has a strong affinity for organic matter. To prevent consumer and ecosystem exposure, factors that influence chlordecone migration in the environment need to be evaluated. In this study, we measured the impact of incorporating compost on chlordecone sequestration in andosols as a possible way to reduce plant contamination. We first characterized the transfer of chlordecone from soil to plants (radish, cucumber, and lettuce). Two months after incorporation of the compost, soil-plant transfers were reduced by a factor of 1.9-15 depending on the crop. Our results showed that adding compost modified the fractal microstructure of allophane clays thus favoring chlordecone retention in andosols. The complex structure of allophane and the associated low accessibility are important characteristics governing the fate of chlordecone. These results support our proposal for an alternative strategy that is quite the opposite of total soil decontamination: chlordecone sequestration.

  16. Soil microstructure and organic matter: keys for chlordecone sequestration.

    PubMed

    Woignier, T; Fernandes, P; Soler, A; Clostre, F; Carles, C; Rangon, L; Lesueur-Jannoyer, M

    2013-11-15

    Past applications of chlordecone, a persistent organochlorine pesticide, have resulted in diffuse pollution of agricultural soils, and these have become sources of contamination of cultivated crops as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Chlordecone is a very stable and recalcitrant molecule, mainly present in the solid phase, and has a strong affinity for organic matter. To prevent consumer and ecosystem exposure, factors that influence chlordecone migration in the environment need to be evaluated. In this study, we measured the impact of incorporating compost on chlordecone sequestration in andosols as a possible way to reduce plant contamination. We first characterized the transfer of chlordecone from soil to plants (radish, cucumber, and lettuce). Two months after incorporation of the compost, soil-plant transfers were reduced by a factor of 1.9-15 depending on the crop. Our results showed that adding compost modified the fractal microstructure of allophane clays thus favoring chlordecone retention in andosols. The complex structure of allophane and the associated low accessibility are important characteristics governing the fate of chlordecone. These results support our proposal for an alternative strategy that is quite the opposite of total soil decontamination: chlordecone sequestration. PMID:24056248

  17. The use of clays to sequestrate organic pollutants. Leaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, V; Benzi, M; Croce, G; Frascarolo, P; Gosetti, F; Mazzucco, E; Bottaro, M; Gennaro, M C

    2008-12-01

    Leaching experiments are performed from clay-pollutant systems in order to evaluate the capability of clays to sequestrate organic pollutants from wastewaters. Reference kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorrillonite SWy-2 and reference soil BCR-700 are the sorbent materials. 2,4,6-trichloroaniline (2,4,6-TCA) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) are the typical pollutants, sorbed at amounts of 10.0 mg g(-1) and 5.8 mg g(-1) on SWy-2 and 7.3 mg g(-1) and 2.2 mg g(-1) on KGa-1b, respectively. The leaching agents are ultrapure water and model solutions of acid rain and surface waters that simulate meteoric leaching. 1.0mM HNO(3), 1.0mM H(2)SO(4) solutions and a methanol/water 50/50 (v/v) mixture simulate leaching agents of industrial source. The results are compared and the preferential capability of the clays to sequestrate the more lipophilic 2,4,6-TCA is evidenced. The bond interactions are discussed and explained through preferential adsorption reactions. For montmorrillonite also a simultaneous intercalation in the phyllosilicate interlayer is proposed.

  18. Carbon sequestration via aqueous olivine mineral carbonation: role of passivating layer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdallah Bearat; Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Deirdre Gormley; Ryan Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; Kyle Squires; George H. Wolf

    2006-08-01

    CO{sub 2} sequestration via carbonation of widely available low-cost minerals, such as olivine, can permanently dispose of CO{sub 2} in an environmentally benign and a geologically stable form. The paper reports the results of studies of the mechanisms that limit aqueous olivine carbonation reactivity under the optimum sequestration reaction conditions observed to date: 1 M NaCl + 0.64 M NaHCO{sub 3} at T {approx} 185{sup o}C and P{sub CO{sub 2}} {approx} 135 bar. A reaction limiting silica-rich passivating layer (PL) forms on the feedstock grains, slowing carbonate formation and raising process cost. The morphology and composition of the passivating layers are investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atomic level modeling. Postreaction analysis of feedstock particles, recovered from stirred autoclave experiments at 1500 rpm, provides unequivocal evidence of local mechanical removal (chipping) of PL material, suggesting particle abrasion. This is corroborated by the observation that carbonation increases dramatically with solid particle concentration in stirred experiments. Multiphase hydrodynamic calculations are combined with experiment to better understand the associated slurry-flow effects. Large-scale atomic-level simulations of the reaction zone suggest that the PL possesses a 'glassy' but highly defective SiO{sub 2} structure that can permit diffusion of key reactants. Mitigating passivating layer effectiveness is critical to enhancing carbonation and lowering sequestration process cost. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Leakage Potential and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.; Fitts, J. P.; Wilson, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    The geologic reservoirs that could be used for long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) may have natural or manmade pathways that allow injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, to leak into overlying formations. Using a basin-scale leakage estimation model, we investigated the geophysical parameters that govern this leakage, and the resulting accumulations of leaked fluids in overlying formations. The results are discussed in the context of two polices aimed at governing long-term sequestration and protecting groundwater: the U.S. DOE guideline for storage permanence and the U.S. EPA UIC Program Class VI Rule. For a case study of CO2 injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone in the Michigan sedimentary basin, we showed that (1) the U.S. DOE guideline would allow for more leakage from larger injection projects than for smaller ones; (2) leakage amounts are determined mostly by well leakage permeability rather than by variation in formation permeabilities; (3) numerous leaking wells with anomalously high leakage permeabilities are necessary in order to achieve substantial leakage rates; (4) leakage can reach potable groundwater but intervening stratigraphic traps reduce the amount to be multiple orders of magnitude less than the leakage out of the reservoir, and (5) this leakage can reduce the Area of Review that is defined by the U.S. EPA as the area within which leakage can threaten groundwater. In summary, leakage that exceeds the U.S. DOE storage permanence goal would occur only under extreme conditions, the amount that reaches shallow potable groundwater may be inconsequential from a pollution standpoint, and leakage may be beneficial. Future federal policies should be harmonized to achieve the dual goals of protecting groundwater while allowing for adaptive management that incorporates uncertainties and imperfections inherent in geologic reservoirs.

  20. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2005-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. Among the three sites chosen for this study one was reclaimed in 1978 (Cumberland), one in 1987 (Switch Grass) and one site was reclaimed in 1994 (Tilton's Run). All three sites were reclaimed with topsoil application and were under continuous grass cover. Eighteen experimental plots were developed on each site. Five fertilization treatments were applied in triplicate on each experimental site. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental plots. Soil samples were analyzed for soil moisture characteristics. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, and available water capacity (AWC) of soil. The infiltration rates after 5 min (i{sub 5}) showed high statistical variability (CV > 0.62) among the three sites. Both steady state infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration showed moderate to high variability (CV > 0.35). The mean values for the infiltration rate after 5 min, steady state infiltration rate, and cumulative infiltration were higher for Switch Grass (2.93 {+-} 2.05 cm min{sup -1}; 0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 113.07 {+-} 39.37 cm) than for Tilton's Run (1.76 {+-} 1.42 cm min{sup -1}; 0.40 {+-} 0.18 cm min{sup -1}; 73.68 {+-} 25.94 cm), and lowest for Cumberland (0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 0.27 {+-} 0.19 cm min{sup -1}; 57.89 {+-} 31.00 cm). The AWC for 0-15 cm soil was highest at Tilton's Run (4.21 {+-} 1.75 cm) followed by Cumberland (3.83 {+-} 0.77 cm) and Switch Grass (3.31 {+-} 0.10 cm). In 15-30 cm depth Switch Grass had

  1. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-07-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, bulk and core soil samples were collected from all 13 experimental sites for 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm depths. In addition, 54 experimental plots (4 x 4 m) were established at three separate locations on reclaimed minesites to assess the influence of compost application on SOC during project period 2. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978. The first site is under grass and the other under forest cover. The soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined for these two sites on a 20 x 20 m grid. The preliminary analysis showed that the {rho}{sub b} ranged from 0.88 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.16 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 0.91 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.32 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.93 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths in Cumberland tree site, and it's statistical variability was low. The variability in {rho}{sub b} was also low in Wilds grass site and ranged from 0.82 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 1.04 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.83 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths. The {rho}{sub b} showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm depth only in the Cumberland tree site. The SOC concentrations and stocks were highly variable with CV > 0.36 from all depths in both Wilds grass site and Cumberland tree site. The SOC stocks showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and moderate to strong for 20-50 cm depth in the Cumberland tree site. In contrast, in

  2. Measuring and Monitoring Soil Carbon Sequestration at the Project Level

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-05-26

    This paper presents an overview of the status of soil carbon sequestration (SCS) and discusses methods for measuring and monitoring carbon changes in agricultural and grassland soils. The topics reviewed include: soil sampling, analysis, models and remote sensing. Significant scientific and technological advances in the area of SCS have been achieved during the last 15 years. A number of feasibility or pilot projects are underway worldwide under a variety of environmental and socioeconomic situations. To further advance the field of SCS, more projects like these will have to be implemented in order to develop an internationally-accepted and adaptable framework that can guide landowner, energy, and government groups in the development of SCS projects. The formation of a collaborative network for this type of SCS projects can be very helpful to compare the methodologies in use across diverse environments and to exchange data for laboratory quality controls and verification of simulation models among other purposes. These projects will also be useful to advance new methodologies that integrate many of the novel concepts discussed in the previous sections as well as many yet to be discovered.

  3. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: A Regulatory Gap Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln Davies; Kirsten Uchitel; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2012-04-30

    Though a potentially significant climate change mitigation strategy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) remains mired in demonstration and development rather than proceeding to full-scale commercialization. Prior studies have suggested numerous reasons for this stagnation. This Report seeks to empirically assess those claims. Using an anonymous opinion survey completed by over 200 individuals involved in CCS, it concludes that there are four primary barriers to CCS commercialization: (1) cost, (2) lack of a carbon price, (3) liability risks, and (4) lack of a comprehensive regulatory regime. These results largely confirm previous work. They also, however, expose a key barrier that prior studies have overlooked: the need for comprehensive, rather than piecemeal, CCS regulation. The survey data clearly show that the CCS community sees this as one of the most needed incentives for CCS deployment. The community also has a relatively clear idea of what that regulation should entail: a cooperative federalism approach that directly addresses liability concerns and that generally does not upset traditional lines of federal-state authority.

  4. Carbon Sequestration on Mars: Constraints from the Nili Fossae Carbonate Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Martian carbonates have been observed telescopically, from orbit, in situ and in Martian meteorites; however, a long-postulated geologic reservoir that accounts for proposed thinning of a multi-bar early Mars atmosphere by CO2 sequestration has not yet been identified. One striking aspect of the Martian geologic record is the presence of valley networks and open basin lakes last active around the Noachian/Hesperian boundary, at ca. 3.5 Ga. If surface waters were supported by a thicker atmosphere, hundreds of millibars to bars of CO2 would need to be lost to space during the Hesperian/Amazonian, inconsistent with current atmospheric models. Was this late CO2 sequestered in the Martian crust? We consider the role of diffuse and localized CO2 sequestration and constrain the timing and explore implications for late Noachian atmospheric conditions via examination of the age and composition of the largest contiguous exposure of carbonate-bearing rock on Mars, the Nili Fossae carbonate plains (21.5°N, 78.5°E). Morphological, spectral and thermophysical data sets from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, Thermal Emission Imaging System, and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment are considered in the context of past atmospheric drawdown. We find the olivine-enriched (~20%-25%) basalts of the Nili Fossae plains have been altered, by low-temperature, in-situ carbonation processes, to at most ~20% Fe-Mg carbonate, thus limiting carbon sequestration in the Nili Fossae region to ~0.25-12 mbar of CO2 during the late Noachian/early Hesperian, before or concurrent with valley network formation. While large compared to modern-day CO2 reservoirs, the lack of additional, comparable-sized post-Late Noachian carbonate-bearing deposits on Mars indicates ineffective carbon sequestration in rock units over the past ~3.7 Ga. This implies a thin atmosphere (≲500 mbar) during valley network formation, extensive post

  5. Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E M; Munkholm, L J; Olesen, J E; Melander, B

    2015-05-01

    Crop management factors, such as tillage, rotation, and straw retention, need to be long-term to allow conclusions on effects on crop yields, nitrate leaching, and carbon sequestration. In 2002, two field experiments, each including four cash crop rotations, were established on soils with 9 and 15% clay, under temperate, coastal climate conditions. Direct drilling and harrowing to two different depths were compared to plowing with respect to yield, nitrate N leaching, and carbon sequestration. For comparison of yields across rotations, grain and seed dry matter yields for each crop were converted to grain equivalents (GE). Leaching was compared to yields by calculating yield-scaled leaching (YSL, g N kg GE), and N balances were calculated as the N input in manure minus the N output in products removed from the fields. Direct drilling reduced yields, but no effect on leaching was found. Straw retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish ( L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat ( L.) was higher than for spring barley ( L.) grown after fodder radish due to the efficient catch crop. Soil organic carbon (SOC) did not increase significantly after 7 yr of straw incorporation or noninversion tillage. There was no correlation between N balances calculated for each growing season and N leaching measured in the following percolation period. PMID:26024267

  6. Assessing the impact of afforestation on soil organic C sequestration by means of sequential density fractionation.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weiwei; Ren, Tusheng; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation is a prevalent practice carried out for soil recovery and carbon sequestration. Improved understanding of the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and dynamics is necessary to identify the particular processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation and/or decomposition that result from afforestation. To elucidate these mechanisms, we have used a sequential density fractionation technique to identify the transfer mechanisms of forest derived C to soil fractions and investigate the impact of afforestation on SOC sequestration. Surface soil samples from continuous maize crop land (C4) and forest land (C3), which had been established 5, 12 and 25 yr, respectively, on the Northeast China Plain were separated into five density fractions. SOC, nitrogen (N) concentration and δ13C data from the three forests and adjacent cropland were compared. Afforestation decreased SOC concentration in the < 2.5 g cm-3 fractions from 5 yr forest sites, but increased SOC content in the < 2.0 g cm-3 fractions from 25 yr forest sites. Afforestation did not affect soil mass distribution, SOC and N proportional weight distributions across the density fractions. The < 1.8 g cm-3 fractions from 12 and 25 yr forests showed higher C/N and lower δ13C as compared to other fractions. Incorporation of forest litter-derived C occurred from low density (< 1.8 g cm-3) fractions to aggregates of higher density (1.8-2.5 g cm-3) through aggregate recombination and C transport in the pore system of the aggregates. Some forest litter-derived C could transfer from the light fractions or directly diffuse and adsorb onto mineral particles. Results from this study indicate that microaggregate protection and association between organic material and minerals provide major contribution to the SOC sequestration in the afforested soil system.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Afforestation on Soil Organic C Sequestration by Means of Sequential Density Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Weiwei; Ren, Tusheng; Li, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Afforestation is a prevalent practice carried out for soil recovery and carbon sequestration. Improved understanding of the effects of afforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and dynamics is necessary to identify the particular processes of soil organic matter (SOM) formation and/or decomposition that result from afforestation. To elucidate these mechanisms, we have used a sequential density fractionation technique to identify the transfer mechanisms of forest derived C to soil fractions and investigate the impact of afforestation on SOC sequestration. Surface soil samples from continuous maize crop land (C4) and forest land (C3), which had been established 5, 12 and 25 yr, respectively, on the Northeast China Plain were separated into five density fractions. SOC, nitrogen (N) concentration and δ13C data from the three forests and adjacent cropland were compared. Afforestation decreased SOC concentration in the < 2.5 g cm-3 fractions from 5 yr forest sites, but increased SOC content in the < 2.0 g cm-3 fractions from 25 yr forest sites. Afforestation did not affect soil mass distribution, SOC and N proportional weight distributions across the density fractions. The < 1.8 g cm-3 fractions from 12 and 25 yr forests showed higher C/N and lower δ13C as compared to other fractions. Incorporation of forest litter-derived C occurred from low density (< 1.8 g cm-3) fractions to aggregates of higher density (1.8-2.5 g cm-3) through aggregate recombination and C transport in the pore system of the aggregates. Some forest litter-derived C could transfer from the light fractions or directly diffuse and adsorb onto mineral particles. Results from this study indicate that microaggregate protection and association between organic material and minerals provide major contribution to the SOC sequestration in the afforested soil system. PMID:25705896

  8. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  9. Enzymes for carbon sequestration: neutron crystallographic studies of carbonic anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S. Z. Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Domsic, J.; Mustyakimov, M.; Silverman, D. N.; McKenna, R.; Langan, P.

    2010-11-01

    The first neutron crystal structure of carbonic anhydrase is presented. The structure reveals interesting and unexpected features of the active site that affect catalysis. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO{sub 2} to form HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sup +} using a Zn–hydroxide mechanism. The first part of catalysis involves CO{sub 2} hydration, while the second part deals with removing the excess proton that is formed during the first step. Proton transfer (PT) is thought to occur through a well ordered hydrogen-bonded network of waters that stretches from the metal center of CA to an internal proton shuttle, His64. These waters are oriented and ordered through a series of hydrogen-bonding interactions to hydrophilic residues that line the active site of CA. Neutron studies were conducted on wild-type human CA isoform II (HCA II) in order to better understand the nature and the orientation of the Zn-bound solvent (ZS), the charged state and conformation of His64, the hydrogen-bonding patterns and orientations of the water molecules that mediate PT and the ionization of hydrophilic residues in the active site that interact with the water network. Several interesting and unexpected features in the active site were observed which have implications for how PT proceeds in CA.

  10. Soil carbon sequestration in semi-arid soil through the addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu; Oh, Chamteut

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated a new strategy for increasing carbon retention in slightly alkaline soils through addition of fuel gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG, CaSO4•2H2O). FGDG is moderately soluble and thus the FGDG amendment may be effective to reduce microbial respiration, to accelerate calcite (CaCO3) precipitation, and to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces, but rates of these processes need to be understood. The effects of FGDG addition were tested in laboratory soil columns with and without FGDG-amended layers, and in greenhouse soil columns planted with switchgrass, a biofuel crop. The results of laboratory column experiments demonstrated that additions of FGDG promote soil carbon sequestration through suppressing microbial respiration to the extent of ~200 g per m2 soil per m of supplied water, and promoting calcite precipitation at similar rates. The greenhouse experiments showed that the FGDG treatments did not adversely affect biomass yield (~600 g dry biomass/m2/harvest) at the higher irrigation rate (50 cm/year), but substantially reduced recoverable biomass under the more water-limited conditions (irrigation rate = 20 cm/year). The main achievements of this study are (1) the identification of conditions in which inorganic and organic carbon sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils, (2) development of a method for measuring the total carbon balance in unsaturated soil columns, and (3) the quantification of different pathways for soil carbon sequestration in response to FGDG amendments. These findings provide information for evaluating land use practices for increased soil carbon sequestration under semi-arid region biofuel crop production.

  11. Woody encroachment reduces nutrient limitation and promotes soil carbon sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Wilma J; Shanungu, Griffin K; Edwards, Peter J; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, the biomass of woody species has increased in many grassland and savanna ecosystems. As many of these species fix nitrogen symbiotically, they may alter not only soil nitrogen (N) conditions but also those of phosphorus (P). We studied the N-fixing shrub Dichrostachys cinerea in a mesic savanna in Zambia, quantifying its effects upon pools of soil N, P, and carbon (C), and availabilities of N and P. We also evaluated whether these effects induced feedbacks upon the growth of understory vegetation and encroaching shrubs. Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs increased total N and P pools, as well as resin-adsorbed N and soil extractable P in the top 10-cm soil. Shrubs and understory grasses differed in their foliar N and P concentrations along gradients of increasing encroachment, suggesting that they obtained these nutrients in different ways. Thus, grasses probably obtained them mainly from the surface upper soil layers, whereas the shrubs may acquire N through symbiotic fixation and probably obtain some of their P from deeper soil layers. The storage of soil C increased significantly under D. cinerea and was apparently not limited by shortages of either N or P. We conclude that the shrub D. cinerea does not create a negative feedback loop by inducing P-limiting conditions, probably because it can obtain P from deeper soil layers. Furthermore, C sequestration is not limited by a shortage of N, so that mesic savanna encroached by this species could represent a C sink for several decades. We studied the effects of woody encroachment on soil N, P, and C pools, and availabilities of N and P to Dichrostachys cinerea shrubs and to the understory vegetation. Both N and P pools in the soil increased along gradients of shrub age and cover, suggesting that N fixation by D. cinerea did not reduce the P supply. This in turn suggests that continued growth and carbon sequestration in this mesic savanna ecosystems are unlikely to be constrained by nutrient

  12. Quantification of the effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by forests at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Wim; Dentener, Frank; Bouwman, Lex

    2014-05-01

    The severe perturbation of the nitrogen (N) cycle since the beginning of nineteenth century has caused an enhanced N deposition on forests. Due to N limitation in most forest ecosystems increased N deposition usually increases net primary production (NPP) thus stimulating carbon (C) sequestration in trees. Increased productivity may also increase C sequestration in the soil due to increased litter production and reduced decomposition of organic matter, depending on the stage of humus formation. It is estimated that at present about 26% of the anthropgenic CO2 emission is sequestered in terrestrial ecosystems, predominantly forest ecosystems. An important question is: which fraction of this global C sequestration is determined by enhanced N deposition and how will changes in N deposition affect global C sequestration? Quantification will depend on both the magnitude of N deposition and the CO2-C response per kg N input. These C-to-N deposition-response ratios (Nitrogen Use Efficiency; NUE) are dependent on the occurrence of N limitation versus possible limitation by other factors, such as low temperature, limited water availability and/ or limited availability of other nutrients such as phophate (P). Responses thus differ between type of forest ecosystem, such as boreal, temperate and tropical forests. Furthermore, NUE will most likely decrease with N input and with time (no fixed C-to-N deposition ratios). In this presentation, we shortly review approaches to quantify impacts N on CO2-C exchange by forest ecosystems, including N retention measurements combined with stoichiometric scaling, C responses to N addition experiments (meta-analysis), empirical relations between spatial patterns of forest carbon uptake N deposition, while accounting for other environmental factors and large scale modelling. Ranges in CO2-C per kg N input, are then presented for major world forest ecosystems making use of those approaches. Using these factors, a quantification is made of the

  13. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "grain for green" project in Loess Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, R.; Fu, B.; Liu, Gaisheng; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  14. Soil carbon sequestration potential for "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ruiying; Fu, Bojie; Liu, Guohua; Liu, Shuguang

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of cropland into perennial vegetation land can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation, which might be an important mitigation measure to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The "Grain for Green" project, one of the most ambitious ecological programmes launched in modern China, aims at transforming the low-yield slope cropland into grassland and woodland. The Loess Plateau in China is the most important target of this project due to its serious soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to answer three questions: (1) what is the rate of the SOC accumulation for this "Grain for Green" project in Loess Plateau? (2) Is there a difference in SOC sequestration among different restoration types, including grassland, shrub and forest? (3) Is the effect of restoration types on SOC accumulation different among northern, middle and southern regions of the Loess Plateau? Based on analysis of the data collected from the literature conducted in the Loess Plateau, we found that SOC increased at a rate of 0.712 TgC/year in the top 20 cm soil layer for 60 years under this project across the entire Loess Plateau. This was a relatively reliable estimation based on current data, although there were some uncertainties. Compared to grassland, forest had a significantly greater effect on SOC accumulation in middle and southern Loess Plateau but had a weaker effect in the northern Loess Plateau. There were no differences found in SOC sequestration between shrub and grassland across the entire Loess Plateau. Grassland had a stronger effect on SOC sequestration in the northern Loess Plateau than in the middle and southern regions. In contrast, forest could increase more SOC in the middle and southern Loess Plateau than in the northern Loess Plateau, whereas shrub had a similar effect on SOC sequestration across the Loess Plateau. Our results suggest that the "Grain for Green" project can significantly increase the SOC storage in Loess Plateau, and it is

  15. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Considerations in forecasting the demand for carbon sequestration and biotic storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified forestry and other land-use based mitigation measures as possible sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. An overview of sequestration and biotic storage is presented, and the potential impacts of the use of carbon sequestration as a mitigation technology are briefly noted. Carbon sequestration is also compare to other mitigation technologies. Biotic mitigation technologies are concluded to be a legitimate and potentially important part of greenhouse gas mitigation due to their relatively low costs, ancillary benefits, and climate impact. However, not all biotic mitigation techniques perfectly match the idealized definition of a mitigation measure, and policies are becoming increasingly biased against biotic technologies.

  17. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  18. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) < 0.70) or Class C (R(50) < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  19. Mobilization of Trace Metals in an Experimental Carbon Sequestration Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, V.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mobilizing trace metals with injection of supercritical CO2 into deep saline aquifers is a concern for geologic carbon sequestration. The potential for leakage from these systems requires an understanding of how injection reservoirs interact with the overlying potable aquifers. Hydrothermal experiments were performed to evaluate metal mobilization and mechanisms of release in a carbonate storage reservoir and at the caprock-reservoir boundary. Experiments react synthetic Desert Creek limestone and/or Gothic Shale, formations in the Paradox Basin, Utah, with brine that is close to equilibrium with these rocks. A reaction temperature of 1600C accelerates the reaction kinetics without changing in-situ water-rock reactions. The experiments were allowed to reach steady state before injecting CO2. Changes in major and trace element water chemistry, dissolved carbon and sulfide, and pH were tracked throughout the experiments. CO2 injection decreases the pH by 1 to 2 units; concomitant mineral dissolution produces elevated Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the brine. Concentrations subsequently decrease to approximately steady state values after 120-330 hours, likely due to mineral precipitation as seen in SEM images and predicted by geochemical modeling. In experiments that emulate the caprock-reservoir boundary, final Fe (0.7ppb), an element of secondary concern for the EPA, and Pb (0.05ppb) concentrations exceed EPA limits, whereas Ba (0.140ppb), Cu (48ppb), and Zn (433ppb) values remain below EPA limits. In experiments that simulate deeper reservoir conditions, away from the caprock boundary, final Fe (3.5ppb) and Pb (0.017ppb) values indicate less mobilization than seen at the caprock-reservoir boundary, but values still exceed EPA limits. Barium concentrations always remain below the EPA limit of 2ppb, but are more readily mobilized in experiments replicating deeper reservoir conditions. In both systems, transition elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn behave in a

  20. Towards a default soil carbon sequestration rate after cropland to Miscanthus conversion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel

    2013-04-01

    In Europe, an estimated 17-21 million hectares (Mha) of land will need to be converted to bioenergy crop production to meet the EU bioenergy targets for 2020. Conventional bioenergy crops, such as maize and oilseed rape, are known for high greenhouse gas emissions. Perennial grases, such as Miscanthus, are seen as sustainable alternative, due to low fertilizer demand, relatively high yields and the potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the variability of currently published SOC stock changes is huge, ranging from -6.8 to +7.7 Mg ha-1 yr-1, which we attribute to different organic manure applications and differences in the baseline SOC stocks between the sampled plots in the paired plot approach. The conversion from cropland to Miscanthus involves a C3-C4 vegetation change, which allows following the incorporation of C4 Miscanthus-derived carbon into the soil by measuring the abundance of the stable isotope 13C. This was done for six different Miscanthus plantations across Europe, which were older than ten years. C3 carbon decomposition was estimated using the carbon turnover model RothC. Both, C4 and C3 carbon dynamics were summed to obtain the vegetation change-induced SOC stock change. We subsequently applied this approach to all European sites, where C4 carbon dynamic after cropland to Miscanthus conversion has been investigated (n=14) and derived a temperature dependant SOC sequestration rate. We found a mean annual accumulation of 0.40±0.20 Mg C ha-1. Furthermore, we conducted a SOC fractionation to assess the incorporation of C4 carbon into different SOC fractions. After a mean time of 16 years, the particulate organic matter (POM) fraction consisted of 68% Miscanthus-derived carbon in 0-10 cm soil depth. The NaOCl resistant fraction, which is considered "inert", consisted of 12% Miscanthus-derived carbon in 0-10 cm soil depth.

  1. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  2. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  3. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.; Jordan, P.; Zhang, Y.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a simple and transparent approach for assessing CO{sub 2} and brine leakage risk associated with CO{sub 2} injection at geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. The approach, called the Certification Framework (CF), is based on the concept of effective trapping, which takes into account both the probability of leakage from the storage formation and impacts of leakage. The effective trapping concept acknowledges that GCS can be safe and effective even if some CO{sub 2} and brine were to escape from the storage formation provided the impact of such leakage is below agreed-upon limits. The CF uses deterministic process models to calculate expected well- and fault-related leakage fluxes and concentrations. These in turn quantify the impacts under a given leakage scenario to so-called 'compartments,' which comprise collections of vulnerable entities. The probabilistic part of the calculated risk comes from the likelihood of (1) the intersections of injected CO{sub 2} and related pressure perturbations with well or fault leakage pathways, and (2) intersections of leakage pathways with compartments. Two innovative approaches for predicting leakage likelihood, namely (1) fault statistics, and (2) fuzzy rules for fault and fracture intersection probability, are highlighted here.

  4. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, Hanna M.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Borgia, Andrea; Price, Phillip N.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  5. Estimates of Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Coastal Wetlands Along the US east Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, salt marshes are reported to sequester carbon (210 g C m-2 y -1), and along with mangroves in the US, they are reported to account for 1–2 % of the carbon sink for the conterminous US. Using the published salt marsh carbon sequestration rate and National Wetland Invent...

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  7. Estimates of Carbon Sequestration and Storage in Tidal Coastal Wetlands Along the US East Coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, salt marshes are reported to sequester carbon (210 g C m-2 y -1), and along with mangroves in the US, they are reported to account for 1–2 % of the carbon sink for the conterminous US. Using the published salt marsh carbon sequestration rate and National Wetland Invent...

  8. [Changes of carbon storage and carbon sequestration in plantation ecosystems on purple soil].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhanyuan; Yang, Yusheng; Chen, Guangshui

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the carbon storages and carbon sequestration capacities of degraded plantation ecosystems in purple soil area. Using space-time replacement method, four ecological restoration treatments (I, II, III and IV) were selected on the basis of erosion intensions from high to low in Ninghua, Fujian. Treatment I was not treated with any other measures after afforestation. Treatment II adopted engineering soil and water conservation measure after afforestation. In treatment III, the engineering measure associated biological measure was taken after afforestation. As for treatment IV, enclosure was adopted to protect against anthropogenic disturbances after afforestation. We observed that the carbon sequestration potential was increased with weakening erosion degree, i.e., I < II < III < IV. The carbon storage of 4 treatments was 1.4, 8.5, 25.6 and 37.6 t x hm(-2), and the annual assimilation of CO2 was 712.87, 1458.01, 9718.10 and 11,109.56 kg x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that the restored forest ecosystem was one of the important carbon sinks in this area. Engineering soil and water conservation measure associated biological measure would be the main means of restoring degraded ecosystem. But presently, the reasonable strategy was to decrease human's disturbances, and hence, the enclosure for reforestation could be used to transform forest ecosystem into carbon sink.

  9. Predictable and efficient carbon sequestration in the North Pacific Ocean supported by symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Karl, David M.; Church, Matthew J.; Dore, John E.; Letelier, Ricardo M.; Mahaffey, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric and deep sea reservoirs of carbon dioxide are linked via physical, chemical, and biological processes. The last of these include photosynthesis, particle settling, and organic matter remineralization, and are collectively termed the “biological carbon pump.” Herein, we present results from a 13-y (1992–2004) sediment trap experiment conducted in the permanently oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre that document a large, rapid, and predictable summertime (July 15–August 15) pulse in particulate matter export to the deep sea (4,000 m). Peak daily fluxes of particulate matter during the summer export pulse (SEP) average 408, 283, 24.1, 1.1, and 67.5 μmol·m−2·d−1 for total carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus (PP), and biogenic silica, respectively. The SEP is approximately threefold greater than mean wintertime particle fluxes and fuels more efficient carbon sequestration because of low remineralization during downward transit that leads to elevated total carbon/PP and organic carbon/PP particle stoichiometry (371:1 and 250:1, respectively). Our long-term observations suggest that seasonal changes in the microbial assemblage, namely, summertime increases in the biomass and productivity of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in association with diatoms, are the main cause of the prominent SEP. The recurrent SEP is enigmatic because it is focused in time despite the absence of any obvious predictable stimulus or habitat condition. We hypothesize that changes in day length (photoperiodism) may be an important environmental cue to initiate aggregation and subsequent export of organic matter to the deep sea. PMID:22308450

  10. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region.

  11. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Paula; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Garcillán, Pedro P; Costa, Matthew T; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio

    2016-04-19

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900-34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth-age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico's arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yin-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhakypbek, Yryszhan; Peng, Su-Ping; Liu, Wen-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L.), cerasus humilis (Prunus dictyneura Diels L.), shiny leaf Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge L.) and apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L.)]. AMF increased Pn of four species ranging from 15.3% to 33.1% and carbon storage, averaged by 17.2% compared to controls. Soil organic carbon (OC), easily extractable glomalin-relation soil protein (EE-GRSP), and total glomalin-relation soil protein (T-GRSP) were significantly increased by AMF treatment. The effect of AMF on the sensitivity of Rs depended on soil temperature. The results highlighted the exponential models to explain the responses of Rs to soil temperature, and for the first time quantified AMF caused carbon sequestration and Rs. Thus, to our knowledge, AMF is beneficial to ecosystems through facilitating carbon conservation in coalfield soils. PMID:27748365

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yin-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhakypbek, Yryszhan; Peng, Su-Ping; Liu, Wen-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L.), cerasus humilis (Prunus dictyneura Diels L.), shiny leaf Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge L.) and apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L.)]. AMF increased Pn of four species ranging from 15.3% to 33.1% and carbon storage, averaged by 17.2% compared to controls. Soil organic carbon (OC), easily extractable glomalin-relation soil protein (EE-GRSP), and total glomalin-relation soil protein (T-GRSP) were significantly increased by AMF treatment. The effect of AMF on the sensitivity of Rs depended on soil temperature. The results highlighted the exponential models to explain the responses of Rs to soil temperature, and for the first time quantified AMF caused carbon sequestration and Rs. Thus, to our knowledge, AMF is beneficial to ecosystems through facilitating carbon conservation in coalfield soils.

  14. Coastal landforms and accumulation of mangrove peat increase carbon sequestration and storage

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán, Pedro P.

    2016-01-01

    Given their relatively small area, mangroves and their organic sediments are of disproportionate importance to global carbon sequestration and carbon storage. Peat deposition and preservation allows some mangroves to accrete vertically and keep pace with sea-level rise by growing on their own root remains. In this study we show that mangroves in desert inlets in the coasts of the Baja California have been accumulating root peat for nearly 2,000 y and harbor a belowground carbon content of 900–34,00 Mg C/ha, with an average value of 1,130 (± 128) Mg C/ha, and a belowground carbon accumulation similar to that found under some of the tallest tropical mangroves in the Mexican Pacific coast. The depth–age curve for the mangrove sediments of Baja California indicates that sea level in the peninsula has been rising at a mean rate of 0.70 mm/y (± 0.07) during the last 17 centuries, a value similar to the rates of sea-level rise estimated for the Caribbean during a comparable period. By accreting on their own accumulated peat, these desert mangroves store large amounts of carbon in their sediments. We estimate that mangroves and halophyte scrubs in Mexico’s arid northwest, with less than 1% of the terrestrial area, store in their belowground sediments around 28% of the total belowground carbon pool of the whole region. PMID:27035950

  15. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands