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Sample records for organic food market

  1. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  2. The Irish organic food market: shortfalls, opportunities and the need for research.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Rachel; Larkin, Tracey; Moane, Siobhan

    2011-09-01

    In 2009 the Irish organic food market was forecasted to grow from €120 m to €239 m by 2013; however, recent figures set its value at just €90 m. An estimated 70% of this market is imported. Surveys of Irish consumers reveal that 66% of consumers prefer to buy local produce and most organic consumers are buying organic at supermarkets. This evidence reveals that Irish producers must trade at supermarkets, and promote 'local produce' to ensure their produce reach the majority of buyers. Seventy-eight % of organic rejecters state price and 21% state unawareness of the benefits as reasons for not buying organic. Many Irish consumers are buying organic food on the perceived belief that it is healthier, safer and tastes better; however, a review of studies on organic versus conventional foods in terms of health benefits, safety and sensory quality has shown that existing data is limited in scope and fails to show a clear trend. The review concludes with the need for a comprehensive study of a range of organic and conventional foods available to the Irish consumer in order to determine if differences in organic cultivation result in statistically significant differences in health linked compounds and sensory quality.

  3. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  4. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered.

  5. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  6. Certified organic vegetable production for market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelines provide general provisions and processes for obtaining and maintaining organic certification, but did not specify best management practices for crop...

  7. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  8. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  9. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  10. Supporting equitable food systems through food assistance at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paula; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2011-05-01

    The failure to consider access to food resources in an integrated way may lead to inequalities in nutritional opportunities among populations. Working with community groups and other public agencies, the San Francisco Department of Public Health has led interagency food system planning in San Francisco, California, since 2002. We report on one of the interventions within that initiative-a partnership between a public health agency, a local nonprofit organization, and the local food stamp program to institutionalize improved access to farmers' markets for federal food assistance beneficiaries. We further report on monitoring data collected at farmers' markets that documents significant and sustained increases of utilization by food stamp recipients since the initial intervention.

  11. Organic foods for children: health or hype.

    PubMed

    Batra, Prerna; Sharma, Nisha; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-05-01

    Organic foods are promoted as superior and safer options for today's health-conscious consumer. Manufacturers of organic food claim it to be pesticide-free and better in terms of micronutrients. Consumers have to pay heavily for these products--and they are willing to--provided they are assured of the claimed advantages. Scientific data proving the health benefits of organic foods, especially in children, are lacking. Indian Government has developed strict guidelines and certification procedures to keep a check on manufacturers in this financially attractive market. American Academy of Pediatrics, in its recently issued guidelines, did not recommend organic foods over conventional food for children. Indian Academy of Pediatrics has not opined on this issue till date. In this perspective, we present a critical review of production and marketing of organic foods, and scientific evidence pertaining to their merits and demerits, with special reference to pediatric population.

  12. Marketing foods to children: are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has prompted a range of regulatory initiatives that seek to reduce the impact of food marketing on children. Policy recommendations by government and public health organizations have suggested regulating the promotion of high-sugar, -fat, and/or -salt foods to children, while the food industry has created voluntary nutrition guidelines to channel child-targeted marketing toward only "better-for-you" products. This article argues that the overarching focus on the nutrient profile of foods (nutritionism) is wrong-headed: The slippage in terms from "better-for-you" foods to "healthy dietary choices" is problematic and also makes it difficult for children to identify the healthy choice. Nutritionism further works to sidestep important questions pertaining to the ethics of food marketing, not to mention the way that marketing foods as fun and entertainment works to encourage overeating in children.

  13. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices. PMID:26626921

  14. Food and Beverage Marketing to Youth.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori

    2014-12-01

    After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.

  15. Strategic marketing for charitable organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, N G; Fitzgibbons, D A

    1992-01-01

    A new marketing strategy unites major for-profit corporations with charitable organizations in such a way that both benefit. Most major charitable organizations are finding cause related marketing a new strategy for fund raising. The largest charities in the country including the Red Cross, Special Olympics and the American Heart Association have all become involved with cause related marketing and have all realized its benefits. With these benefits come some risks. The decade of the 1990s should include increased awareness and participation among charitable organizations regarding cause related marketing. PMID:10118945

  16. Strategic marketing for charitable organizations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, N G; Fitzgibbons, D A

    1992-01-01

    A new marketing strategy unites major for-profit corporations with charitable organizations in such a way that both benefit. Most major charitable organizations are finding cause related marketing a new strategy for fund raising. The largest charities in the country including the Red Cross, Special Olympics and the American Heart Association have all become involved with cause related marketing and have all realized its benefits. With these benefits come some risks. The decade of the 1990s should include increased awareness and participation among charitable organizations regarding cause related marketing.

  17. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  18. A market price for organs?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Has not the time fully come to lift the prohibition on a regulated market in organs for transplantation? Is there a price for such a market that would be too high to pay? The author revisits the cases for and against organ markets in the light of cultural shifts in society and asks whether the traditional insistence on altruism represents a hindrance to much needed developments or a safeguard for much valued public goods.

  19. Marketing of human organs?

    PubMed

    Bernat, E

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.

  20. The Organic Foods System: Its Discursive Achievements and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, David M.; Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    Taking the emergence of the organic foods system as a case study, the authors aim to demonstrate both how the discursive richness of the organic foods system offers a challenge to the traditional operations of the market and how activity systems theory as understood in English studies can productively be tied to and enriched by theories of social…

  1. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    PubMed

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  2. A marketing matrix for health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Weaver, F J; Gombeski, W R; Fay, G W; Eversman, J J; Cowan-Gascoigne, C

    1986-06-01

    Irrespective of the formal marketing structure successful marketing for health care organizations requires the input on many people. Detailed here is the Marketing Matrix used at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Cleveland, Ohio. This Matrix is both a philosophy and a tool for clarifying and focusing the organization's marketing activities.

  3. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  4. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  5. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  6. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  7. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  8. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth.

  9. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.

  10. New strategies to improve food marketing to children.

    PubMed

    Dietz, William H

    2013-09-01

    Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children. The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in 2011. Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children. PMID:24019372

  11. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  12. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  13. Linking Local Food Systems and the Social Economy? Future Roles for Farmers' Markets in Alberta and British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittman, Hannah; Beckie, Mary; Hergesheimer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Often organized as grassroots, nonprofit organizations, many farmers' markets serve as strategic venues linking producers and consumers of local food while fulfilling multiple social, economic, and environmental objectives. This article examines the potential of farmers' markets to play a catalyst role in linking local food systems to the social…

  14. The proposed market for human organs.

    PubMed

    Spurr, S J

    1993-01-01

    During the last decade there have been enormous advances in the transplantation of vital human organs--in particular, the kidney, lung, heart, liver, pancreas, and small intestine. Unfortunately, efforts to provide the benefits of these operations to patients have been severely hindered by limitations in the supply of organs--limitations that are a consequence of regulation prohibiting the use of market incentives to increase the supply. Markets for organs could take various forms: sales by living donors; sales of future interests in organs, to be removed on the death of the donor; and sales of organs of a recently deceased person by the family of the deceased. Two additional issues relate to the design of a market: the geographic scope of the market and rules of liability for the sale of diseased or defective organs.

  15. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  16. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments.

  17. Food and Beverage Marketing to Latinos: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Baldwin, Shannon; Gallion, Kip; Grier, Sonya; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2015-10-01

    Obesity rates among U.S. adults and children have increased over the past two decades and, although signs of stabilization and decline among certain age groups and geographies are being reported, the prevalence of obesity among Latino adults and children remain high. The Latino population is growing in parallel to these obesity rates and marketers realize they cannot ignore this growing, high-spending, media-consuming segment. Studies examining food and beverage marketing strategies tend to discuss minority groups in general but do not account for racial and ethnic differences, reducing our ability to explain existing inequities. This article aimed to identify the food and beverage marketing strategies used to influence food environments for Latinos versus non-Latinos. A systematic literature review and analysis, guided by an established marketing conceptual framework, determined that the food and beverage marketing environment for Latinos is less likely to promote healthy eating and more likely to encourage consumption of low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. This analysis also determined that Latinos' food environment and the placement of food retail stores appears to influence their body mass index; however, placement of these stores cannot be generalized, as geographical differences exist. While food and beverage marketing is only one of many sources of influence on food and beverage consumption, these findings reinforce the notion that Latinos are at a disadvantage when it comes to exposure of healthy lifestyle messaging and health-promoting food environments. PMID:25504570

  18. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  19. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  20. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  1. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…

  2. Food labels as boundary objects: how consumers make sense of organic and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Eden, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering products. I use the concept of "boundary objects" to demonstrate how such labels are intended to work between the worlds of food producers and food consumers and to show how information is not merely transferred as a "knowledge fix" to consumer ignorance. Rather, consumers drew on a binary of "raw" and "processed" food and familiarity with marketing in today's consumer culture to make sense of such labeling.

  3. Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.

    PubMed

    Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    2006-05-01

    Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

  4. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  5. US market for food animal veterinary medical services.

    PubMed

    Wise, J K

    1987-06-15

    American agribusiness is undergoing significant change and stress. In the future, agriculture faces continued instability and uncertainty because of ever-changing global economic conditions, rapid technological advances, increasing production efficiencies, shifts in demand for agricultural products, and a growing dependence of US producers on increasingly competitive world markets. In order to better understand changes and trends facing food animal veterinarians, the AVMA's Executive Board at its March 1986 meeting approved a proposal from the Council on Public Relations for a study of the US food animal market for veterinary medical services. The objectives of the study were to describe the current market for veterinary medical services, products, and information; determine and explain the demand for food animal veterinary services provided by private practicing veterinarians; and identify markets representing potential demand for which marketing strategies could be developed.

  6. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls.

  7. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. PMID:22858428

  8. The Food and Agriculture Organization food-composition initiative.

    PubMed

    Lupien, J R

    1997-04-01

    The 1992 International Conference on Nutrition, new legislation in developing countries, and international trade agreements have renewed interest in food-composition data. Because of the costs involved in gathering such information and the need for it to be uniform, collaborative efforts are required. The production of new food-composition data must be viewed with respect to value gained for money spent, the need for more precise information, and the opportunity to use new analytic methods while not depending too heavily on high-technology systems. The Food and Agriculture Organization and the United Nations University have agreed to collaborate in stimulating the development of new food-composition programs. Their efforts will be directed toward promoting national, regional, and international activities in the food-composition field and will include strengthening existing laboratory facilities and programs, publishing technical manuals and documents, assisting countries to disseminate data, training workers, and sponsoring regional workshops. The Food and Agriculture Organization is well positioned to fulfill this coordinating role because of its past work in food composition, international mandates regarding its activities, its established communication system with national governments, and its ability to provide open forums for discussion of food-composition issues.

  9. Marketing of Food in the Grocery Store Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goals/hypothesis: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or any marketing using health or nutrition information beyond minimum requirements) is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat (approx. 20% daily value), sodium (...

  10. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    PubMed

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources.

  11. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    PubMed

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources. PMID:8992643

  12. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  13. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... organic food is one that is grown without: pesticides fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge ... the hot sun is cheaper but requires more pesticides and chemical fertilizers to grow. Cage-Free or ...

  14. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  15. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity. PMID:24177440

  16. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  17. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  18. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced. PMID:21566563

  19. Observations of marketing on food packaging targeted to youth in retail food stores.

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Moise, Imelda K; Geiger, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    There is growing evidence that exposure to food marketing influences dietary preferences among youth. Few studies exploring this association, however, have focused on the retail food store environment where families negotiate the influence of food and beverage marketing on purchasing practices. Consequently, we sought to examine: (i) the extent to which foods marketed on the internet and television to youth are also available and marketed in retail food stores, and (ii) whether differences exist in the marketing practices across store types and by neighborhood racial composition. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 118 food stores was conducted in four Midwestern cities in the United States. Results showed that 82% of stores assessed carried items commonly marketed to youth via television or the internet. The items most likely to have some type of marketing technique were noncarbonated drinks (97.7%), fruit and cereal bars (76.9%), and soda (62.2%). Grocery stores were significantly more likely than convenience stores to have marketing for breads and pastries (34.6% vs. 17.9%), breakfast cereals (52.0% vs. 22.9%), cookies and crackers (54.2% vs. 25.3%), dairy (70.8% vs. 42.7%), and ice cream (23.8% vs. 9.8%). Stores located in black neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have marketing, in comparison to white neighborhoods, for breads and pastries (35.7% vs. 17.1%), breakfast cereals (44.4% vs. 25.0%), and cookies and crackers (48.1% vs. 26.3%). Our results highlight the importance of examining food marketing techniques in the retail food store environment, where visual cues from television and the internet may be reinforced.

  20. Your Personal Guide to Marketing a Nonprofit Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    In recent years, many nonprofit organizations have begun to use marketing principles, partly because of the more competitive environment. This guide to marketing such an organization consists of four sections. Section 1, "Understanding Marketing," includes "Your Part in the Marketing Process" and "What is Marketing? Why Should You Do It?" Section…

  1. A commercial market for organs? Why not?

    PubMed

    Manga, Pranlal

    1987-10-01

    Manga examines the issues surrounding controversial proposals to commercialize organ procurement as a means of reducing the shortage of organs for transplantation. He begins by attempting to define the term "commercialization." Then he discusses the ethical issues of a market approach to organ procurement: the exploitation of the poor, especially in the Third World; the potential negative effect on voluntary donation; the right to dispose of a body or its parts as private property; the question of justice in access to organs; the quality of purchased organs; and the overall social implications of a policy that allows or even encourages the buying and selling of a desperately-needed medical resource. Manga next considers alternative solutions to increasing the supply of organs, and recommends a strategy that could alleviate the organ shortage without resorting to commercialization.

  2. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  3. Labeling to manage marketing of GM foods.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart; Phillips, Peter W B

    2003-09-01

    Biotechnology has the potential to introduce new food safety risks, liabilities and benefits, and although privately managed supply chains (involving proactive management of the production of branded products) are effective at providing, managing and communicating adequate information about products with well understood risks, products with uncertain risks pose a greater challenge. The demand for increased product information regarding genetically modified content, in particular, places new constraints on food supply chains, frequently resulting in communication failures. Here we assess and reject mandatory labeling as an appropriate response.

  4. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML. PMID:26406785

  5. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  6. Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    1997-11-01

    Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens are proteins but only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic. The assessment of the allergenicity of the newly introduced proteins should focus on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the immunochemical reactivity of the newly introduced protein with IgE from the blood serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and the physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein.

  7. The application of post-market monitoring to novel foods.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, P; Howlett, J; Boeing, H; Cockburn, A; Constable, A; Davi, A; de Jong, N; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Robertson, C; Wal, J M; Samuels, F

    2008-01-01

    The role of post-market monitoring (PMM) in the safety assessment of novel foods is critically discussed in order to derive guidelines as to in which situations the application of PMM might be warranted. Available data sources on food consumption and health status, and the methodologies for generating such data are reviewed. The paper suggests improvements to make them more applicable for PMM purposes. It is concluded that any PMM programme must be a hypothesis-driven scientific exercise. PMM can have a role as a complement to, but not as a replacement for, a comprehensive pre-market safety assessment. Its use may be appropriate to confirm that product use is as predicted in the pre-market assessment; to provide reassurance that effects observed in the pre-market assessment occur with no greater frequency or intensity in the post-market phase than anticipated; and to investigate the significance of any adverse effects reported by consumers after market-launch. However PMM is insufficiently powerful to test the hypothesis that any effects seen in the pre-market assessment are absent in the post-market phase. Current methodologies place limitations on what PMM can achieve. PMM should only be used when triggered by or when the focus is on specific evidence-based questions.

  8. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  9. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health.

  10. Food marketing to children in the context of a marketing maelstrom.

    PubMed

    Linn, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the United States, yet US children are targeted as never before with marketing for foods high in sugar, fat, salt, and calories. Food marketing to children is highly sophisticated, increasingly well-funded, and takes place within the context of a barrage of other kinds of child-targeted marketing. The proliferation and sophistication of electronic media, the escalation of marketing in schools, changing families, and a political climate that favors deregulation have allowed marketers unprecedented access to children, including babies and toddlers. The notion--promulgated by the food industry--that parents can "just say no" to requests for highly marketed snacks and junk food is simplistic at best and cynical at worst. Instead of being viewed as a familial problem, the current marketing maelstrom should be viewed as a societal issue and addressed as such. Restriction of advertising to children is common in industrial democracies other than the United States--and is just one of many corrective actions that could be taken by our governments.

  11. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  12. The Spaces and Ethics of Organic Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Barnett, Clive; Malpass, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Initial assessments of the potential for organic food systems have offered an optimistic interpretation of the progressive political and ethical characteristics involved. This positive gloss has prompted a stream of critique emphasising the need to explore the ambiguities and disconnections inherent therein. In this paper, we consider the case of…

  13. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  14. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  15. Whole Foods Market Improves Energy Efficiency in New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-20041 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  16. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for MA organization marketing. 422.2268... § 422.2268 Standards for MA organization marketing. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 54634, Sept. 1, 2011. In conducting marketing activities, MA organizations may not— (a) Provide cash or...

  17. Digital marketing of unhealthy foods to Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues. PMID:25769977

  18. Digital marketing of unhealthy foods to Australian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of new media-including branded websites, social media and mobile applications-has created additional touch points for unhealthy food and beverage companies to target children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to perform an audit of new media for three top selling food and beverage brands in Australia. The top selling brand in three of the most advertised food and beverage categories was identified. Facebook, websites and mobile phone applications from these three brands were assessed using a combination of descriptive analyses and structured data collection during June and July 2013. Information on target audience, main focus of the activity, marketing strategies employed and connectivity were collected. Promotional activities were assessed against industry self-regulatory codes. McDonald's, Coca-Cola and Cadbury Dairy Milk were audited, with 21 promotional activities identified. These promotional activities appeared to use a number of marketing strategies, with frequent use of indirect product association, engagement techniques and branding. We identified strategic targeting of both children and adolescents. We found that while all promotional activities technically met self-regulatory codes (usually due to media-specific age restrictions) a number appeared to employ unhealthy food or beverage marketing directed to children. Brands are using engaging content via new media aimed at children and adolescents to promote unhealthy food and beverages. Given the limitations of self-regulatory codes in the context of new media, strategies need to be developed to reduce exposure of children and adolescents to marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products via these avenues.

  19. [Food supplements on the Hungarian market: regulations of marketing and of the composition of the products].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Eva

    2010-09-26

    According to recent legislation, food supplements are foodstuffs with the purpose of supplementing normal diet. Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. In Hungary, marketing of food supplements has not been bound to pre-market authorization since joining to the European Union. The food business operator, who is responsible for production or distribution of the product, must notify it at National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science latest at the time when the product has been placed on the market and it can be distributed simultaneously. Distribution, ingredients, and all those information which appear on the label are determined by numerous regulations and prescriptions but at the same time the lack of harmonized legislation at certain places may cause a lot of problems on Community level. The first part of the study shows the laws and regulations influencing the distribution and ingredients of food supplements, while the main target of the second part is to introduce the evaluation process of components from nutritional and physiological point of view, and the role played by the food supplements in nutrition.

  20. Cummings Memorial Lecture - 1975. The market basket: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Deichman, W B

    1975-06-01

    The world food crisis is as critical today as when it was debated at the 1974 World Food Conference in Rome. Since the United States and Canada-and to a lesser extent, Australia and New Zealand-lead in the production of corn, wheat and soybeans, the North American "bread basket" has become the "market basket" of the world. For welfare, economic, and political reasons, our energies, resources, and deliberations must be expanded toward optimum production of wholesome food products. I do not recommend that we permit food additives in "questionably" safe or excessive concentrations in our agricultural products. I do recommend, however, that tolerance limits for food additives be established based on a comprehensive review of all contributing factors-the world food crisis and the rational interpretation of both positive and negative animal data as they relate to man. As Dr. Herbert Stokinger put it so aptly: "Avoid the establishment of unnecessarily severe standards." 2. Funds for research and teaching of food and nutrition should be greatly increased, so that all who can read and write may be made aware of the daily dietary requirements for the maintenance of good health. 3. Unsubstantiated scare tactics in publications of the scientific and lay press can only lead to well-intended but often emotionally-inspired restrictions, ordinances, and laws. Such decisions are likely to either under- or over-define the requirements and standards for food additives and other chemicals which are important to the well-being of the populace.

  1. Cummings Memorial Lecture - 1975. The market basket: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Deichman, W B

    1975-06-01

    The world food crisis is as critical today as when it was debated at the 1974 World Food Conference in Rome. Since the United States and Canada-and to a lesser extent, Australia and New Zealand-lead in the production of corn, wheat and soybeans, the North American "bread basket" has become the "market basket" of the world. For welfare, economic, and political reasons, our energies, resources, and deliberations must be expanded toward optimum production of wholesome food products. I do not recommend that we permit food additives in "questionably" safe or excessive concentrations in our agricultural products. I do recommend, however, that tolerance limits for food additives be established based on a comprehensive review of all contributing factors-the world food crisis and the rational interpretation of both positive and negative animal data as they relate to man. As Dr. Herbert Stokinger put it so aptly: "Avoid the establishment of unnecessarily severe standards." 2. Funds for research and teaching of food and nutrition should be greatly increased, so that all who can read and write may be made aware of the daily dietary requirements for the maintenance of good health. 3. Unsubstantiated scare tactics in publications of the scientific and lay press can only lead to well-intended but often emotionally-inspired restrictions, ordinances, and laws. Such decisions are likely to either under- or over-define the requirements and standards for food additives and other chemicals which are important to the well-being of the populace. PMID:779439

  2. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2002-05-01

    Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and limiting dilution-PCR methods, are discussed. Where information on modified gene sequences is not available, new approaches, such as near-infrared spectrometry, might tackle the problem of detection of non-approved genetically modified (GM) foods. The efficiency of screening, identification and confirmation strategies should be examined with respect to false-positive rates, disappearance of marker genes, increased use of specific regulator sequences and the increasing number of GM foods.

  3. Recruitment for the '90s: Marketing Student Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Douglas; McGinnity, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An effective campaign to recruit members to student organizations must use contemporary marketing strategies. Market positioning involves understanding the prospect's thinking, simplifying the message being conveyed, being first in the prospect's mind, and finding a market niche. The organization should be treated as a product, the potential…

  4. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  6. Food policy in the Canadian North: Is there a role for country food markets?

    PubMed

    Ford, James D; Macdonald, Joanna Petrasek; Huet, Catherine; Statham, Sara; MacRury, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Food insecurity is widely reported to be at a crisis level in the Inuit territory of Nunavut, Canada. Various policies, programs, and initiatives have been proposed to tackle the problem, with increasing interest in developing a system of country food markets (CFMs) similar to Greenland. We examine if CFMs offer a feasible, sustainable, and effective model for strengthening food systems in Nunavut, examining the model of Greenland and drawing on semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 45). The Greenland experience indicates that CFMs can provide access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food on a regular basis, and can diversify locally available foods. These benefits are transferable to Nunavut, although knowledge gaps, regulatory and institutional conditions, and concerns over how CFMs might affect the cultural basis of food systems, underlies apprehension over their development in the territory. We conclude that Nunavut is not currently in the position to develop CFMs, but the role of such markets in potentially strengthening food systems should not be discounted. Future development would need to solicit community input on CFMs, resolve regulatory issues around wildlife management and harvesting, and study how future risks would affect sustainability and effectiveness. PMID:26829007

  7. Food policy in the Canadian North: Is there a role for country food markets?

    PubMed

    Ford, James D; Macdonald, Joanna Petrasek; Huet, Catherine; Statham, Sara; MacRury, Allison

    2016-03-01

    Food insecurity is widely reported to be at a crisis level in the Inuit territory of Nunavut, Canada. Various policies, programs, and initiatives have been proposed to tackle the problem, with increasing interest in developing a system of country food markets (CFMs) similar to Greenland. We examine if CFMs offer a feasible, sustainable, and effective model for strengthening food systems in Nunavut, examining the model of Greenland and drawing on semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 45). The Greenland experience indicates that CFMs can provide access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food on a regular basis, and can diversify locally available foods. These benefits are transferable to Nunavut, although knowledge gaps, regulatory and institutional conditions, and concerns over how CFMs might affect the cultural basis of food systems, underlies apprehension over their development in the territory. We conclude that Nunavut is not currently in the position to develop CFMs, but the role of such markets in potentially strengthening food systems should not be discounted. Future development would need to solicit community input on CFMs, resolve regulatory issues around wildlife management and harvesting, and study how future risks would affect sustainability and effectiveness.

  8. Food marketing to children in India: comparative review of regulatory strategies across the world.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Dudeja, Puja

    2014-11-01

    Food marketing directed to children is an issue of concern in the present day society. Revolution in food industry, increasing globalization and boom in information technology has introduced various types of food products and the way they are placed in front of likely consumers. This has resulted in rising trend of obesity and switch from communicable to non-communicable diseases, which is not cost effective for nation as a whole. Multinational companies have targeted children as a naïve audience to boost their sales. In-ethical practice of misleading claims in the advertisements is instrumental in many cases. Food marketing to children has been assumed a public health threat since times of yore. World Health Organization has resolutions and recommendations on this subject. Member countries, including India are a signatory to this declaration. However, much needs to be done to counter these multinational food giants. Regulations and policies need to be enforced at national and institutional levels. Parents must be educated; schools and social organizations to be made proactive on this aspect.

  9. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities.

  10. The role of food culture and marketing activity in health disparities.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jerome D; Crockett, David; Harrison, Robert L; Thomas, Kevin D

    2012-11-01

    Marketing activities have attracted increased attention from scholars interested in racial disparities in obesity prevalence, as well as the prevalence of other preventable conditions. Although reducing the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to racial/ethnic communities would represent a significant step forward in eliminating racial disparities in health, we focus instead on a critical-related question. What is the relationship between marketing activities, food culture, and health disparities? This commentary posits that food culture shapes the demand for food and the meaning attached to particular foods, preparation styles, and eating practices, while marketing activities shape the overall environment in which food choices are made. We build on prior research that explores the socio-cultural context in which marketing efforts are perceived and interpreted. We discuss each element of the marketing mix to highlight the complex relationship between food culture, marketing activities, and health disparities. PMID:22227280

  11. Marketing home health care to health maintenance organizations.

    PubMed

    Shalowitz, J

    1987-01-01

    Home health care is a rapidly growing industry whose continued success depends upon expansion into new markets. One target market a successful company will need to reach is health maintenance organizations. The following article summarizes basic marketing strategies a home care company needs to follow in order to access such contracts.

  12. Regulating and litigating in the public interest: regulating food marketing to young people worldwide: trends and policy drivers.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2007-11-01

    The pressure to regulate the marketing of high-energy, nutrient-poor foods to young people has been mounting in light of concern about rising worldwide levels of overweight and obesity. In 2004, the World Health Organization called on governments, industry, and civil society to act to reduce unhealthy marketing messages. Since then, important changes have taken place in the global regulatory environment regarding the marketing of food to young people. Industry has developed self-regulatory approaches, civil society has campaigned for statutory restrictions, and governments have dealt with a range of regulatory proposals. Still, there have been few new regulations that restrict food marketing to young people. Despite calls for evidence-based policy, new regulatory developments appear to have been driven less by evidence than by ethics.

  13. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level.

  14. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  15. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level. PMID:21843422

  16. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  17. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  18. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. PMID:27178878

  19. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  20. Analysis of phthalates in food products and packaging materials sold on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Servaes, K; Van Holderbeke, M; Geerts, L; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I; Vanermen, G

    2012-07-01

    Phthalates are organic lipophilic compounds that are principally used as plasticiser to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Other applications are a.o. the use of phthalates in printing inks and lacquers. Human exposure to phthalates mainly occurs via food ingestion and can induce adverse health effects. In this study, the presence of eight phthalate compounds--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)--was investigated in 400 food products, divided over eleven groups, and packages sold on the Belgian market. For this purpose, suitable extraction techniques were developed and validated for four different matrices, namely high-fat foods, low-fat food products, aqueous-based beverages and packaging materials. The instrumental analysis was performed by means of gas chromatography-low resolution-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). A wide variety of phthalate concentrations was observed in the different groups. DEHP was found in the highest concentration in almost every group. Moreover, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate compound, followed by DiBP, DnBP and BBP. This survey is part of the PHTAL project, which is the first project that discusses phthalate contamination on the Belgian food market.

  1. 76 FR 51308 - Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Store Advertising and Marketing Practices: Statement of Basis and Purpose: The Rule, 36 FR 8777 (May 13... Rule Concerning Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices, 54 FR 35456 (Aug. 28, 1989). \\4... CFR Part 424 Retail Food Store Advertising and Marketing Practices Rule AGENCY: Federal...

  2. Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Loco, Joris; Matsiko, Eric; Lachat, Carl; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Canfyn, Michael; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was found above the level of detection in 58% of analyzed samples with the highest contents found in processed foods such as smoked and canned fish, and foods which contained these as ingredients (up to 76.21 μg kg(-1)). Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. The mean benzene intake for all foods was 0.020 μg kg bw d(-1) according to a probabilistic analysis. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d(-1)). PMID:22483726

  3. Assessment of human exposure to benzene through foods from the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Loco, Joris; Matsiko, Eric; Lachat, Carl; de Schaetzen, Thibault; Canfyn, Michael; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Benzene is a volatile organic compound known to be carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and may be present in food. In the present study, 455 food samples from the Belgian market were analyzed for benzene contents and some possible sources of its occurrence in the foodstuffs were evaluated. Benzene was found above the level of detection in 58% of analyzed samples with the highest contents found in processed foods such as smoked and canned fish, and foods which contained these as ingredients (up to 76.21 μg kg(-1)). Unprocessed foods such as raw meat, fish, and eggs contained much lower concentrations of benzene. Using the benzene concentrations in food, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of benzene intake was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population over 15 years of age. The mean benzene intake for all foods was 0.020 μg kg bw d(-1) according to a probabilistic analysis. These values are below the minimum risk level for oral chronic exposure to benzene (0.5 μg kg bw d(-1)).

  4. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong.

  5. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong. PMID:19782462

  6. Self-directed work teams in marketing organizations.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, T F

    1999-01-01

    As marketing organizations move toward the 21st century they are becoming concerned with the development of self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that have informed, motivated, skilled, trained, and committed employees will out perform organizations which operate in the traditional manner. Many self-directed work teams have grown out of the quality circles. The goal of these teams is to increase employee involvement in decisions of the organization to the greatest extent that employees' knowledge and training allow. In fact, today's marketing organizations need to be able to respond quickly to change driven by internal and external customers. The winning organizations will be able to produce more product with better quality in less time by staying lean, flexible, and implementing self-directed work teams. Marketing organizations that can commit to self-directed work teams will benefit by having customer and employee satisfaction, money saved, and excessive bureaucracy eliminated.

  7. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications. PMID:26432955

  8. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications.

  9. Accountable Care Organizations in California: Market Forces at Work?

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Frech, H E; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), one of the most recent and promising health care delivery innovations, encourage care coordination among providers. While ACOs hold promise for decreasing costs by reducing unnecessary procedures, improving resource use as a result of economies of scale and scope, ACOs also raise concerns about provider market power. This study examines the market-level competition factors that are associated with ACO participation and the number of ACOs. Using data from California, we find that higher levels of preexisting managed care leads to higher ACO entry and enrollment growth, while hospital concentration leads to fewer ACOs and lower enrollment. We find interesting results for physician market power - markets with concentrated physician markets have a smaller share of individuals in commercial ACOs but a larger number of commercial ACO organizations. This finding implies smaller ACOs in these markets. PMID:26124301

  10. Accountable Care Organizations in California: Market Forces at Work?

    PubMed

    Whaley, Christopher; Frech, H E; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), one of the most recent and promising health care delivery innovations, encourage care coordination among providers. While ACOs hold promise for decreasing costs by reducing unnecessary procedures, improving resource use as a result of economies of scale and scope, ACOs also raise concerns about provider market power. This study examines the market-level competition factors that are associated with ACO participation and the number of ACOs. Using data from California, we find that higher levels of preexisting managed care leads to higher ACO entry and enrollment growth, while hospital concentration leads to fewer ACOs and lower enrollment. We find interesting results for physician market power - markets with concentrated physician markets have a smaller share of individuals in commercial ACOs but a larger number of commercial ACO organizations. This finding implies smaller ACOs in these markets.

  11. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  12. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  13. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  14. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  15. 18 CFR 42.1 - Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets Offer Long-Term Firm Transmission Rights. 42.1... ELECTRICITY MARKETS § 42.1 Requirement that Transmission Organizations with Organized Electricity Markets... with one or more organized electricity markets (administered either by it or by another entity) to...

  16. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  17. Body futures: the case against marketing human organs.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C J

    1987-06-01

    Creation of a market for the buying and selling of human organs for transplantation, even if it did allow supply to match demand, would be a serious mistake. Even if the market were fairly constructed, it might not dramatically increase the supply of transplantable organs, since donations likely would decrease if selling were allowed. Such a market would create a relative disadvantage for the poor, who would feel disproportionately greater pressure to sell their organs than would the wealthy. The possibility of realizing a profit from the organs of the dead could provide an incentive for murder or for doing less than we might to save lives. An organ market, where parts of a person are viewed as commodities, could lead to a general cheapening and coarsening of human relationships. Any organ selling system would create an economic relationship between buyer and seller, rather than a charitable one, raising quality control problems. The economic system, would drive out the volunteer donor system, sapping the altruistic bond that draws people together. Finally, an organ market presents a metaphysical threat in that it demeans our bodies to the status of articles to trade. An alternative to the current voluntary donor system and an organ market is to presume passive consent to organ donation with the right to informed refusal. Unless a record of the decedent's opposition to organ removal exists, the next of kin objects on being informed of the intent to remove organs, or the decedent was a member of a group known to oppose organ removal, we should presume a person's willingness to donate organs after death to save another person's life.

  18. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  19. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  20. Study Abroad Programs in Business: Planning, Organizing, and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakori, Ahmad; Dotson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on study abroad programs as a means of increasing the intercultural understanding of U.S. business students. Offers guidelines for planning, organizing, and marketing such programs. (Author/JOW)

  1. Food references and marketing to children in Australian magazines: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the content and extent of food references and marketing within popular children's magazines in Australia. Sixteen popular Australian children's magazines were selected, as determined by readership and circulation data. Back copies of each magazine were purchased for publications released between January and December 2006 (n = 76). Each magazine was assessed for food references on the basis of 23 food categories and 7 food-referencing types and as either branded or non-branded food references. There were a high number of overall food references within the children's magazines, with the majority of these being for unhealthy food products (63.7% unhealthy versus 36.3% healthy foods, p < 0.001). The food groups with the highest proportion of branded food references, and therefore paid marketing, were ice cream and iced confection (85.6% branded references), fast food restaurant meals (83.4%), high-sugar drinks (78.9%) and snack foods (73.4%). Of all magazines, those targeting males and children aged 7-12 years had the highest proportion of unhealthy food references (78.1 and 69.8% unhealthy food references, respectively). Food references within children's magazines are common and skewed towards unhealthy foods. Children's high magazine readership rates and a lack of advertising and product placement regulations for magazines in Australia make this media an attractive target for food marketers. The timely establishment of food marketing regulations within magazines are recommended to prevent further expansion of food marketing in this area.

  2. Strategies to Improve Marketing and Promotion of Foods and Beverages at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing often appears throughout schools in the form of posters, vending machine fronts, in-school television advertisements, school newspapers, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards. Many foods marketed in schools are of poor nutritional quality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of…

  3. A "Queen of Hearts" trial of organ markets: why Scheper-Hughes's objections to markets in human organs fail.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S

    2007-04-01

    Nancy Scheper-Hughes is one of the most prominent critics of markets in human organs. Unfortunately, Scheper-Hughes rejects the view that markets should be used to solve the current (and chronic) shortage of transplant organs without engaging with the arguments in favour of them. Scheper-Hughes's rejection of such markets is of especial concern, given her influence over their future, for she holds, among other positions, the status of an adviser to the World Health Organization (Geneva) on issues related to global transplantation. Given her influence, it is important that Scheper-Hughes's moral condemnation of markets in human organs be subject to critical assessment. Such critical assessment, however, has not generally been forthcoming. A careful examination of Scheper-Hughes's anti-market stance shows that it is based on serious mischaracterisations of both the pro-market position and the medical and economic realities that underlie it. In this paper, the author will expose and correct these mischaracterisations and, in so doing, show that her objections to markets in human organs are unfounded.

  4. Public moralities and markets in organs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2014-06-01

    Schweda and Schicktanz argue that the debate over the ethics of using financial incentives to procure human transplant organs rests on socioempirical premises that need to be critically assessed. They contend that once this is achieved a completely new perspective on the debate should be adopted, with organ donation being viewed primarily as a reciprocal social interaction between donor and recipient. This paper challenges this conclusion, arguing that rather than supporting a new perspective on the debate over the commercial procurement of organs, the observations of Schweda and Schicktanz support the view that human organs should be commercialized.

  5. The economics and ethics of markets for human organs.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, federal legislation outlawing payment for human organs for transplantation was adopted after only cursory discussion of the underlying policy issues. More considered analysis suggests that this prohibition may be overly broad. It appears possible to design suitably regulated market-type approaches to the acquisition and allocation of cadaveric organs (and perhaps of organs from living donors as well) that will be neither unduly offensive to ethical sensibilities nor easily abused and that may yield significant improvements over the existing system of organ procurement, which presents important ethical and practical problems of its own. Moreover, whatever ultimate judgment we reach concerning the merits of markets for transplantable organs, analysis of the sources of the initial moral resistance to the commercialization that lies behind measures such as the 1984 legislation offers insights into the respective roles of market and nonmarket institutions in general.

  6. Proposal for a future delivery market for transplant organs.

    PubMed

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A R

    1986-01-01

    Improvements in surgical procedures and immunosuppressive practices have greatly increased the range and success rate of organ transplants. Unfortunately, supply does not meet demand, and demand is increasing. This paper documents the current level of unsatisfied demand for several transplantable organs, and argues that the extant system of altruistic organ donation is unlikely ever to provide adequate supply because of lack of incentives to donate and the ambiguity surrounding property rights over transplantable organs. A greater reliance on markets would help attenuate these problems. However, unorganized private spot markets for human organs are likely to be both inefficient and inequitable, and are perceived as morally offensive. A feasible alternative is an organized, publicly operated future delivery market, wherein an individual can contract, for valuable consideration, with a government agency for delivery of a specific organ upon death. The implementation of such a market would encounter difficult (but not intractable) problems such as price determination, the selection of a medium of exchange, and contractual issues, particularly the role of minors in such a system. Finally, it is argued that such a market is superior to the much-discussed compulsory expropriation alternative.

  7. Getting serious about protecting New Zealand children against unhealthy food marketing.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-03

    Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity.

  8. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-02-10

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies.

  9. Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US

    PubMed Central

    Story, Mary; French, Simone

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the food and beverage industry in the US has viewed children and adolescents as a major market force. As a result, children and adolescents are now the target of intense and specialized food marketing and advertising efforts. Food marketers are interested in youth as consumers because of their spending power, their purchasing influence, and as future adult consumers. Multiple techniques and channels are used to reach youth, beginning when they are toddlers, to foster brand-building and influence food product purchase behavior. These food marketing channels include television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements, kids clubs, the Internet, toys and products with brand logos, and youth-targeted promotions, such as cross-selling and tie-ins. Foods marketed to children are predominantly high in sugar and fat, and as such are inconsistent with national dietary recommendations. The purpose of this article is to examine the food advertising and marketing channels used to target children and adolescents in the US, the impact of food advertising on eating behavior, and current regulation and policies. PMID:15171786

  10. A legal market in organs: the problem of exploitation.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the objection to a commercial market in living donor organs for transplantation on the ground that such a market would be exploitative of the vendors. It examines a key challenge to that objection, to the effect that denying poor people the option to sell an organ is to withhold from them the best that a bad situation has to offer. The article casts serious doubt on this attempt at justifying an organ market, and its philosophical underpinning. Drawing, in part, from the catalogued consequences of a thriving kidney market in some parts of India, it is argued that the justification relies on conditions which are extremely unlikely to obtain, even in a regulated donor market: that organ selling meaningfully improves the material situation of the organ vendor. Far from being axiomatic, both logic and the extant empirical evidence point towards the unlikelihood of such an upshot. Finally, the article considers a few conventional counter-arguments in favour of a permissive stance on organ sales.

  11. A legal market in organs: the problem of exploitation.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the objection to a commercial market in living donor organs for transplantation on the ground that such a market would be exploitative of the vendors. It examines a key challenge to that objection, to the effect that denying poor people the option to sell an organ is to withhold from them the best that a bad situation has to offer. The article casts serious doubt on this attempt at justifying an organ market, and its philosophical underpinning. Drawing, in part, from the catalogued consequences of a thriving kidney market in some parts of India, it is argued that the justification relies on conditions which are extremely unlikely to obtain, even in a regulated donor market: that organ selling meaningfully improves the material situation of the organ vendor. Far from being axiomatic, both logic and the extant empirical evidence point towards the unlikelihood of such an upshot. Finally, the article considers a few conventional counter-arguments in favour of a permissive stance on organ sales. PMID:23001920

  12. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable "win-win" adjustments to help consumers eat better.

  13. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable "win-win" adjustments to help consumers eat better. PMID:23035805

  14. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chandon, Pierre; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Food marketing is often singled out as the leading cause of the obesity epidemic. The present review examines current food marketing practices to determine how exactly they may be influencing food intake, and how food marketers could meet their business objectives while helping people eat healthier. Particular attention is paid to the insights provided by recently published studies in the areas of marketing and consumer research, and those insights are integrated with findings from studies in nutrition and related disciplines. The review begins with an examination of the multiple ways in which 1) food pricing strategies and 2) marketing communication (including branding and food claims) bias food consumption. It then describes the effects of newer and less conspicuous marketing actions, focusing on 3) packaging (including the effects of package design and package-based claims) and 4) the eating environment (including the availability, salience, and convenience of food). Throughout, this review underscores the promising opportunities that food manufacturers and retailers have to make profitable “win-win” adjustments to help consumers eat better. PMID:23035805

  15. Marketing whole grain breads in Canada via food labels.

    PubMed

    Sumanac, Dunja; Mendelson, Rena; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-03-01

    A recommendation for increased whole grain consumption was released in Canada in 2007 to promote adequate intakes of fibre and magnesium. Since then, a proliferation of 'whole grain' claims on food packaging has been observed, but whole grain labelling is voluntary and unregulated in Canada. Through a detailed survey of bread sold in three supermarkets, this study examined how the presence of front-of-package reference to whole grain relates to (i) the presence and nature of whole grain ingredients, (ii) nutrient content, and (iii) price of the product. Twenty-one percent of breads bore a reference to whole grain on the front-of-package and the front-of-package reference to whole grain was a better predictor of fibre content than any information that could be gleaned from the ingredient list. On average, breads with a whole grain reference were higher in fibre and magnesium and lower in sodium. Mean price did not differ by presence of a whole grain reference, but breads with whole grain labelling were less likely to be low in price. Voluntary nutrition labelling may be targeting a discrete market of health-conscious consumers who are willing to pay premium prices for more healthful options. PMID:23178749

  16. New Media but Same Old Tricks: Food Marketing to Children in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Freeman, Becky; Jenkin, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    'New media' refers to digital technologies, which offer unmatched opportunities for food companies to engage with young people. This paper explores the emergence of food marketing using new media, the potential impact of this marketing on young people, and current and potential policy responses to limit exposure to these promotions. Foremost in any informed policy discussion is the need for robust evidence to demonstrate the need for intervention. In this case, such evidence relates to the extent of children's exposures to commercial food promotions via new media, and the nature of these promotions. Approaches to, and challenges of, collecting and assessing these data are discussed. There is accumulating evidence that food marketing on new media is increasing and influences children's food preferences and choices. The impact of integrated campaigns, which reinforce commercial messages across multiple platforms, and of new media, which engage personally with potential consumers, is likely to be greater than that of traditional marketing.

  17. New Media but Same Old Tricks: Food Marketing to Children in the Digital Age.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Freeman, Becky; Jenkin, Gabrielle

    2015-03-01

    'New media' refers to digital technologies, which offer unmatched opportunities for food companies to engage with young people. This paper explores the emergence of food marketing using new media, the potential impact of this marketing on young people, and current and potential policy responses to limit exposure to these promotions. Foremost in any informed policy discussion is the need for robust evidence to demonstrate the need for intervention. In this case, such evidence relates to the extent of children's exposures to commercial food promotions via new media, and the nature of these promotions. Approaches to, and challenges of, collecting and assessing these data are discussed. There is accumulating evidence that food marketing on new media is increasing and influences children's food preferences and choices. The impact of integrated campaigns, which reinforce commercial messages across multiple platforms, and of new media, which engage personally with potential consumers, is likely to be greater than that of traditional marketing. PMID:26627088

  18. 75 FR 31430 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice Establishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference re Frequency... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... technical conference regarding frequency regulation in the organized wholesale power markets, as...

  19. Food safety knowledge and behavior of emergency food relief organization workers: effects of food safety training intervention.

    PubMed

    Finch, Cristin; Daniel, Eileen

    2005-05-01

    The food safety knowledge and food-handling behaviors of 267 volunteer and staff workers in emergency food relief organizations in western New York State were assessed before and after food safety training. Training was voluntary and emphasized basic food safety and prevention of foodborne illness. Results from the pre-test showed major gaps in the knowledge and behaviors of those working with physically vulnerable populations in emergency food services. These gaps, particularly failure to use food thermometers and unsafe use of hands, could lead to outbreaks of foodborne disease. Independent-samples t-tests, used to compare pre- and post-test scores, indicated that workers' knowledge and reported behaviors significantly improved followin good safety training (p < .0001). There is a need for relevant and ongoing food safety education in this group.

  20. An overview of the functional food market: from marketing issues and commercial players to future demand from life in space.

    PubMed

    Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functional foods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functional food products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets.

  1. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  2. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  3. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030.

  4. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children.

    PubMed

    Kraak, Vivica I; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-07-01

    In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 - by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries - to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  5. Progress achieved in restricting the marketing of high-fat, sugary and salty food and beverage products to children

    PubMed Central

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Sacks, Gary; Brinsden, Hannah; Hawkes, Corinna; Barquera, Simón; Lobstein, Tim; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices, other United Nations (UN) organizations, philanthropic institutions and transnational industries – to help decrease the prevalence of obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases among young people. By providing relevant technical and policy guidance and tools to Member States, WHO and other UN organizations have helped protect young people from the marketing of branded food and beverage products that are high in fat, sugar and/or salt. The progress achieved by the other actors we investigated appears variable and generally less robust. We suggest that the progress being made towards the full implementation of Resolution WHA63.14 would be accelerated by further restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy food and beverage products and by investing in the promotion of nutrient-dense products. This should help young people meet government-recommended dietary targets. Any effective strategies and actions should align with the goal of WHO to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025 and the aim of the UN to ensure healthy lives for all by 2030. PMID:27429493

  6. Biofuel-Food Market Interactions:A Review of Modeling Approaches and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Msangi, Siwa

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between biofuels and food markets remains a policy issue for a number of reasons. There is a continuing need to understand the role of biofuels in the recent spikes in global food prices. Also, there is an ongoing discussion of changes to biofuel policy as a means to cope with severe weather-induced crop losses. Lastly, there are potential interactions between food markets and advanced biofuels, although most of the latter are expected to be produced from non-food feedstocks. This study reviews the existing literature on the food market impacts of biofuels. Findings suggest that initial conclusions attributing most of the spike in global food prices between 2005 and 2008 to biofuels have been revised. Instead, a multitude of factors, in addition to biofuels, converged during the period. Quantitative estimates of the impacts of biofuels on food markets vary significantly due to differences in modeling approaches, geographical scope, and assumptions about a number of crucial factors. In addition, many studies do not adequately account for the effects of macroeconomic changes, adverse weather conditions and direct market interventions during the recent food price spikes when evaluating the role of biofuels.

  7. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Wendy S; Saksvig, Brit I; Gittelsohn, Joel; Williams, Sonja; Jones, Lindsey; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2012-02-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American adolescents, particularly girls. While ethnically targeted marketing of unhealthful food products contributes to this disparity, it is not known how African Americans perceive the food marketing environment in their communities. Qualitative methods, specifically photovoice and group discussions, were used to understand perceptions of African American adults and teen girls regarding targeted food marketing to adolescent girls. An advisory committee of four students, two faculty, and two parents was formed, who recruited peers to photograph their environments and participate in group discussions to answer "what influences teen girls to eat what they do." Seven adults and nine teens (all female) participated in the study. Discussions were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS.ti to identify common and disparate themes among participants. Results indicated that adults and teens perceived the type of food products, availability of foods, and price to influence the girls' choices. The girls spoke about products that were highly convenient and tasty as being particularly attractive. The adults reported that advertisements and insufficient nutrition education were also influencers. The teens discussed that the places in which food products were available influenced their choices. Results suggest that the marketing of highly available, convenient food at low prices sell products to teen girls. Future work is needed to better understand the consumer's perspective on the food and beverage marketing strategies used.

  8. Consistency of Nutrition Recommendations for Foods Marketed to Children in the United States, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Quilliam, Elizabeth Taylor; Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Venkatesh, Sumathi; Plasencia, Julie; Lee, Mira; Rifon, Nora J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing has emerged as an environmental factor that shapes children’s dietary behaviors. “Advergames,” or free online games designed to promote branded products, are an example of evolving food marketing tactics aimed at children. Our primary objective was to classify foods marketed to children (aged 2–11 y) in advergames as those meeting or not meeting nutrition recommendations of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food & Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). We document the consistency of classification of those foods across agency guidelines and offer policy recommendations. Methods We used comScore Media Builder Metrix to identify 143 websites that marketed foods (n = 439) to children aged 2 to 11 years through advergames. Foods were classified on the basis of each of the 4 agency criteria. Food nutrient labels provided information on serving size, calories, micronutrients, and macronutrients. Results The websites advertised 254 meals, 101 snacks, and 84 beverages. Proportions of meals and snacks meeting USDA and FDA recommendations were similarly low, with the exception of saturated fat in meals and sodium content in snacks. Inconsistency in recommendations was evidenced by only a small proportion of meals and fewer snacks meeting the recommendations of all the agencies per their guidelines. Beverage recommendations were also inconsistent across the 3 agencies that provide recommendations (USDA, IOM, and CSPI). Most (65%–95%) beverages advertised in advergames did not meet some of these recommendations. Conclusion Our findings indicate that a large number of foods with low nutritional value are being marketed to children via advergames. A standardized system of food marketing guidance is needed to better inform the public about healthfulness of foods advertised to children. PMID:24070037

  9. The ethics of selectively marketing the health maintenance organization.

    PubMed

    Waymack, M H

    1990-12-01

    Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) administrators have been accused of engaging in 'selective marketing'. That is, through such strategies as tailoring the benefits package of the program or advertising in styles or in media that do not appeal to certain 'undesirable' audiences, the administrator can minimize the percentage of persons in the HMO who are heavy users of health care services. By means of analyzing what 'insurance' is (philosophically) and what it means for something to be a free market commodity, the author argues that, as long as American society chooses to regard health insurance as a commodity or service of the free market. the use of such strategies is within the moral rights of health administrators. The author concludes by noting some morally undesirable results of treating health insurance as a market commodity.

  10. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  11. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  12. 76 FR 10492 - Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... discussed below. \\1\\ Credit Reforms in Organized Wholesale Electric Markets, Order No. 741, 75 FR 65942 (Oct.... 888, 61 FR 21540 (May 10, 1996), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,036, at 31,937 (1996) (pro forma OATT, section 11 (Creditworthiness)), order on reh'g, Order No. 888-A, 62 FR 12274 (Mar. 14, 1997), FERC...

  13. Thinking Like a Whole Building: A Whole Foods Market New Construction Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.; McIntyre, M.; Scheib, J.

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. Food marketing expenditures aimed at youth: putting the numbers in context.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Harris, Jennifer L; Fox, Tracy

    2013-10-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed.

  15. Food marketing expenditures aimed at youth: putting the numbers in context.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Harris, Jennifer L; Fox, Tracy

    2013-10-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC's analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children's meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12-16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar, or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. PMID:24050422

  16. Food Marketing Expenditures Aimed at Youth Putting the Numbers in Context

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Fox, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    In response to concerns about childhood obesity, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released two reports documenting food and beverage marketing expenditures to children and adolescents. The recently released 2012 report found an inflation-adjusted 19.5% reduction in marketing expenditures targeted to youth from $2.1 billion in 2006 to $1.8 billion in 2009. The current article highlights features of the FTC’s analysis, examines how expenditures relate to youth exposure to food marketing, and assesses changes in the nutritional content of marketed products. Of the $304.0 million decline in expenditures, $117.8 million (38.7%) was from a decline in premium (i.e., restaurant children’s meal toys) expenditures rather than direct marketing. Although inflation-adjusted TV expenditures fell by 19.4%, children and teens still see 12–16 TV advertisements (ads)/day for products generally high in saturated fat, sugar or sodium. In addition, newer digital forms of unhealthy food and beverage marketing to youths are increasing; the FTC reported an inflation-adjusted 50.7% increase in new media marketing expenditures. The self-regulatory Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) is limited in scope and effectiveness: expenditures increased for many noncovered marketing techniques (i.e., product placement, movie/video, cross-promotion licenses, athletic sponsorship, celebrity fees, events, philanthropy, and other); only two restaurants are members of CFBAI, and nonpremium restaurant marketing expenditures were up by $86.0 million (22.5% inflation-adjusted increase); industry pledges do not protect children aged >11 years, and some marketing appears to have shifted to older children; and, nutritional content remains poor. Continued monitoring of and improvements to food marketing to youth are needed. PMID:24050422

  17. 75 FR 30812 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Further Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Organized Wholesale Power Markets, 75 FR 23,759, as supplemented by Supplemental Notice of Technical... Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... of Proposed Rulemaking on Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power...

  18. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P < 0.05) and premium offers (P < 0.001). During programs most popular with children, there were 3.3 non-core food advertisements per hour containing premium offers, compared to 0.2 per hour during programs most popular with adults. The majority of advertisements containing persuasive marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  19. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world.

  20. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television.

    PubMed

    Jenkin, G; Madhvani, N; Signal, L; Bowers, S

    2014-04-01

    The ubiquitous marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food and beverages is a key modifiable influence on childhood dietary patterns and obesity. Much of the research on television food advertising is focused on identifying and quantifying unhealthy food marketing with comparatively few studies examining persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy food to children. This review identifies the most frequently documented persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children via television. A systematic search of eight online databases using key search terms identified 267 unique articles. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis of the reviewed studies revealed the most commonly reported persuasive techniques used on television to promote food to children. These were the use of premium offers, promotional characters, nutrition and health-related claims, the theme of taste, and the emotional appeal of fun. Identifying and documenting these commonly reported persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television is critical for the monitoring and evaluation of advertising codes and industry pledges and the development of further regulation in this area. This has a strong potential to curbing the international obesity epidemic besieging children throughout the world. PMID:24433359

  1. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    PubMed

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  2. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health. PMID:23657233

  3. Action needed to combat food and drink companies' social media marketing to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Reports have shown how behavioural marketing through social media sites is heavily dominated by soft drink and fast food franchises, with additional concern arising due to the direct targeting of this marketing at 13 to 17-year-olds. Dr Simon Williams from Northwestern University, Chicago, USA suggests ways in which the medical community can tackle this threat to public health.

  4. Food for Thought: Building a High-Quality School Choice Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Although the for-profit retail and nonprofit education markets are not identical, many of the strategies used by reformers to improve markets for banking and food services could nonetheless benefit public education. As district and community leaders, charter school authorizers, and policymakers expand the marketplace of schools, they would be…

  5. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  6. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  7. Unpacking the Terms of Engagement with Local Food at the Farmers' Market: Insights from Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithers, John; Lamarche, Jeremy; Joseph, Alun E.

    2008-01-01

    Amidst much discussion of the values and venues of local food, the Farmers' Market (FM) has emerged as an important, but somewhat uncertain, site of engagement for producers, consumers and local food "champions". Despite the evident certainty of various operational rules, the FM should be seen as a complex and ambiguous space where (contingent)…

  8. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  9. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

  10. Marketing nutrition & health-related benefits of food & beverage products: enforcement, litigation & liability issues.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sarah; Pippins, Raqiyyah

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the liability risks associated with food and beverage product marketing have increased significantly, particularly with respect to nutrition and health-related product benefit claims. FDA and FTC enforcement priorities appear to have contributed to the increasing liability trends that are associated with these nutrition and health-related claims. This article examines key enforcement and litigation developments involving conventional food and beverage product marketing claims during the first 18 months of President Obama's administration: Part I considers FDA enforcement priorities and recent warning letters; Part II considers FTC enforcement priorities, warning letters, and consent orders; and Part III considers the relationship between FDA and FTC enforcement priorities and recent false advertising cases brought by private parties challenging nutrition and health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products. The article makes recommendations concerning ways in which food and beverage companies can help minimize liability risks associated with health-related marketing claims. In addition, the article suggests that federal policy reforms may be required to counter the perverse chilling effects current food liability trends appear to be having on health-related marketing claims for food and beverage products, and proposes a number of specific reforms that would help encourage the responsible use of well-substantiated marketing claims that can help foster healthy dietary practices. In view of the obesity prevention and other diet-related public health priorities of the Obama administration, the article suggests that this is an opportune time to address the apparent chilling effects increasing food liability risks are having on nutrition and health-related marketing claims for healthy food and beverage products, and potential adverse consequences for public health. PMID:24479235

  11. The context for choice: health implications of targeted food and beverage marketing to African Americans.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2008-09-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive.

  12. The Context for Choice: Health Implications of Targeted Food and Beverage Marketing to African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Grier, Sonya A.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted marketing of high-calorie foods and beverages to ethnic minority populations, relative to more healthful foods, may contribute to ethnic disparities in obesity and other diet-related chronic conditions. We conducted a systematic review of studies published in June 1992 through 2006 (n = 20) that permitted comparison of food and beverage marketing to African Americans versus Whites and others. Eight studies reported on product promotions, 11 on retail food outlet locations, and 3 on food prices. Although the evidence base has limitations, studies indicated that African Americans are consistently exposed to food promotion and distribution patterns with relatively greater potential adverse health effects than are Whites. The limited evidence on price disparities was inconclusive. PMID:18633097

  13. Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers' choice for healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Nayga, R M

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables, nutrition and health related factors, attitudes, and use of nutritional labels on consumers' choice for healthier food products. Seven equations are estimated representing different food types: luncheon meat, milk, cheese, ice cream, salad dressing, dessert, and meats. The results generally indicate that individuals who are less likely to choose a healthier alternative of a food product include: blacks, younger individuals, males, those with smaller households, smokers, those who take less exercise, those who are not on a special diet, those who are less aware about the linkage between diet and disease, those who put more importance on taste when food shopping, and those who less frequently use nutrition panels and labels that describe health benefits on food packages.

  14. Overcoming challenges to effectiveness of mobile markets in US food deserts.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Lydia; Reznickova, Anna; Lohr, Luanne

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate whether mobile food markets may be effective in facilitating healthy food choices in food deserts. We investigate who does and does not use mobile food markets and why, and whether mobile markets have the potential to alter attitudes and food choices, and if so, how? We use a focus group study at four sites in the US to ask groups of mobile market shoppers and non-shoppers about their shopping, cooking, and eating attitudes and behaviors. We find that mobile market shoppers eat significantly more servings of fruits and vegetables, however, both shoppers and non-shoppers perceive fruits and vegetables as luxury items, and both groups lack knowledge about what is a serving and what is the recommended number of servings per day. Both groups identified the following needs for mobile markets to be more successful: increased awareness and advertising; affordability; improved convenience by offering more stops and hours, as well as greater variety of items for one-stop shopping; emphasis on value and service; and building trust within communities.

  15. Overcoming challenges to effectiveness of mobile markets in US food deserts.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Lydia; Reznickova, Anna; Lohr, Luanne

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate whether mobile food markets may be effective in facilitating healthy food choices in food deserts. We investigate who does and does not use mobile food markets and why, and whether mobile markets have the potential to alter attitudes and food choices, and if so, how? We use a focus group study at four sites in the US to ask groups of mobile market shoppers and non-shoppers about their shopping, cooking, and eating attitudes and behaviors. We find that mobile market shoppers eat significantly more servings of fruits and vegetables, however, both shoppers and non-shoppers perceive fruits and vegetables as luxury items, and both groups lack knowledge about what is a serving and what is the recommended number of servings per day. Both groups identified the following needs for mobile markets to be more successful: increased awareness and advertising; affordability; improved convenience by offering more stops and hours, as well as greater variety of items for one-stop shopping; emphasis on value and service; and building trust within communities. PMID:24727100

  16. Post-market surveillance of GM foods: applicability and limitations of schemes used with pharmaceuticals and some non-GM novel foods.

    PubMed

    Wal, J-M; Hepburn, P A; Lea, L J; Crevel, R W R

    2003-08-01

    Post-market surveillance (PMS) is increasingly required by some regulatory authorities for the marketing approval of GM-Novel Foods. This requirement, in addition to a complete conventional safety assessment, aims to show that unexpected (adverse) effects do not occur after long-term everyday exposure. Large food manufacturers have systems to obtain feedback from consumers on their products. We show that such systems can be enhanced to collect information on possible health effects of specific products and relate these to intake in specific groups of consumers. The term post-launch monitoring (PLM) is proposed to distinguish the process from that used for pharmaceuticals. GM foods differ from branded products to which existing systems have been applied. The paper discusses whether and how such systems could be applied to GM foods and what additional elements would need to be incorporated in them. A PLM system should define and organize the flow of information between the different stakeholders. We conclude that because such data will be generated from a range of sources and will need to be collated, verified, and integrated, an independent agency will be essential to undertake this activity in order to balance the interests of all stakeholders and ensure public trust.

  17. Congestion Measures for Organized Markets in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-12-16

    Transmission lines deliver electricity that is generated at power plants to loads. When there is not sufficient transmission capacity to schedule or transport all desired electricity transfers, the transmission system is constrained, and the particular line, flowgate or interface is congested. While it is useful to measure congestion for several reasons—to identify where and how much congestion exists and how this changes over time, to determine whether or what to do about it, and to assess the effectiveness of actions taken—it is challenging to measure congestion in a meaningful and consistent way across markets or over time in the same market. This paper examines current public reporting of congestion measures for organized markets in the U.S., and what these measures can and cannot tell us about congestion across regions or over time in the same region.

  18. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. PMID:21527099

  19. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts. PMID:22133361

  20. Persuasive techniques used in television advertisements to market foods to UK children.

    PubMed

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Halford, Jason C G

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the nature and extent of use of persuasive marketing techniques in television advertisements (adverts) to promote foods to children. Popular UK commercial television channels broadcasting children's/family viewing were recorded for 2 days (6 am-10 pm) every month in 2008 and recordings were screened for adverts. Eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty eight adverts were for food and these were coded for peak/non-peak children's viewing time and representation of core (healthy)/non-core (unhealthy)/miscellaneous foods. The analysis assessed use of persuasive appeals, premium offers, promotional characters (brand equity and licensed characters), celebrity endorsers and website promotion in food adverts. Promotional characters, celebrity endorsers and premium offers were used more frequently to promote non-core than core foods, even on dedicated children's channels. Brand equity characters featured on a greater proportion of food adverts than licensed characters. A food brand website was promoted in a third of food adverts (websites are not covered by the statutory regulation on food advertising). This extensive analysis of television adverts demonstrated that the use of persuasive marketing techniques to promote unhealthy foods was extensive in broadcasting popular with children despite regulations. Further studies should incorporate an analysis of the content of websites promoted during food adverts.

  1. Marketing of human organs and tissues is justified and necessary.

    PubMed

    Kevorkian, J

    1989-01-01

    The bioethical guidelines now banning commerce in human body parts to be used for transplantation manifest unrealistic and arbitrary inflexibility which perpetuates and worsens the deficit in organ supply. Instead of relying on traditionally revered but now outmoded and even irrelevant bioethical maxims, formulators of the guidelines should have concentrated on a more meaningful situational adaptation to contemporary real-life circumstances. Many unexpectedly relevant and important nuances of concepts such as property, ownership, and altruism must now be taken into account. Hypothetical examples explore the morality of a universal ban by fiat and the associated problems of organ supply and demand, of cost and affordability, and of fair equity. It is difficult to justify purely altruistic organ donation today, when the health care professions and industries are frantically pursuing commercial profits. It is concluded that the ban should be scrapped in favor of a well-organized, open, and legally regulated commercial market for human organs and tissues.

  2. Common DNA sequences with potential for detection of genetically manipulated organisms in food.

    PubMed

    MacCormick, C A; Griffin, H G; Underwood, H M; Gasson, M J

    1998-06-01

    Foods produced by genetic engineering technology are now appearing on the market and many more are likely to emerge in the future. The safety aspects, regulation, and labelling of these foods are still contentious issues in most countries and recent surveys highlight consumer concerns about the safety and labelling of genetically modified food. In most countries it is necessary to have approval for the use of genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs) in the production of food. In order to police regulations, a technology to detect such foods is desirable. In addition, a requirement to label approved genetically modified food would necessitate a monitoring system. One solution is to 'tag' approved GMOs with some form of biological or genetic marker, permitting the surveillance of foods for the presence of approved products of genetic engineering. While non-approved GMOs would not be detected by such a surveillance, they might be detected by a screen for DNA sequences common to all or most GMOs. This review focuses on the potential of using common DNA sequences as detection probes for GMOs. The identification of vector sequences, plant transcription terminators, and marker genes by PCR and hybridization techniques is discussed.

  3. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new ‘learning organization’ and using effective internal marketing. Methods A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. Results A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a ‘learning organization’, internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Conclusion Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses. PMID:24708601

  4. Rice farming in Bali: organic production and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    All is not well with agriculture in Southeast Asia. The productivity gains of the Green Revolution have slowed and even reversed and environmental problems and shortages of water and land are evident. At the same time changing world markets are shifting the dynamics of national agricultural economies. But from the point of view of farmers themselves, it is their season-to-season economic survival that is at stake. Bali is in some ways typical of other agricultural areas in the region, but it is also a special case because of its distinctive economic and cultural environment dominated by tourism. In this environment, farmers are doubly marginalized. At the same time the island offers them unique market opportunities for premium and organic produce. This article examines the ways in which these opportunities have been approached and describes their varying degrees of success. It focuses especially on one project that has been successful in reducing production costs by conversion to organic production, but less so in marketing its produce. It argues finally for the need for integrated studies of the entire rice production/marketing complex, especially from the bottom-up point of view of farmers.

  5. Rice farming in Bali: organic production and marketing challenges.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme

    2011-01-01

    All is not well with agriculture in Southeast Asia. The productivity gains of the Green Revolution have slowed and even reversed and environmental problems and shortages of water and land are evident. At the same time changing world markets are shifting the dynamics of national agricultural economies. But from the point of view of farmers themselves, it is their season-to-season economic survival that is at stake. Bali is in some ways typical of other agricultural areas in the region, but it is also a special case because of its distinctive economic and cultural environment dominated by tourism. In this environment, farmers are doubly marginalized. At the same time the island offers them unique market opportunities for premium and organic produce. This article examines the ways in which these opportunities have been approached and describes their varying degrees of success. It focuses especially on one project that has been successful in reducing production costs by conversion to organic production, but less so in marketing its produce. It argues finally for the need for integrated studies of the entire rice production/marketing complex, especially from the bottom-up point of view of farmers. PMID:21898940

  6. Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Food Supplements and Over-The-Counter Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Dzeparoski, Marjan; Trajkovic-Jolevska, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Marketing strategy is correlated with the regulations for the corresponding product category. Accordingly, there is a big difference in the marketing strategy of food supplements and over-the-counter medicines. In this paper are presented 2 different marketing strategies of a new small pharmaceutical company in two studies. The findings of studies analysis can be used for developing marketing strategies in the wider sense and other products, for other small to medium sized companies in other countries of interest with similar regulations and help them understand how to position and promote themselves and their products. PMID:27703582

  7. Food Marketing Targeting Youth and Families: What Do We Know about Stores Where Moms Actually Shop?

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Rooney, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  8. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop. PMID:24163701

  9. Food marketing targeting youth and families: what do we know about stores where moms actually shop?

    PubMed

    Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Rooney, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Although efforts are underway to examine marketing that targets the youth and families in the retail food store environment, few studies have specifically focused on stores that families identify as their primary sites for food shopping. Between November 2011 and April 2012, we examined the frequency and types of marketing techniques of 114 packaged and nonpackaged items in 24 food stores that mothers of young children in Champaign County, IL, said they commonly frequented. Chi-square tests were used to determine whether significant differences existed between items with regard to marketing by store type, store food-assistance-program acceptance (i.e., WIC), and claims. Overall, stores accepting WIC and convenience stores had higher frequencies of marketing compared to non-WIC and grocery stores. Fruits and vegetables had the lowest frequency of any marketing claim, while salty snacks and soda had the highest frequency of marketing claims. Nutrition claims were the most common across all items, followed by taste, suggested use, fun, and convenience. Television tie-ins and cartoons were observed more often than movie tie-ins and giveaways. Our results suggest an opportunity to promote healthful items more efficiently by focusing efforts on stores where mothers actually shop.

  10. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  11. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  12. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  13. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.304 Section 205.304 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  14. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  15. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  16. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  17. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  18. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  19. 75 FR 47499 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... markets administered by Independent System Operators or Regional Transmission Organizations. The... Commission proposed to require Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations... wholesale electricity markets: PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM); New York Independent System Operator,...

  20. New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Ruhan Aşkın

    2016-07-01

    Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age. For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds. Experiments were carried out at pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 MPa and temperatures ranging from 40 to 200 ℃ with and without modifier for 2 h of extraction time. The flow rate was kept at 4 and 1 ml/min for CO2 and water, respectively. The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was 78.10%. Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate (a) frequency of staple food usage, (b) the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, (c) knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc. Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods. PMID:26337983

  1. New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Uzel, Ruhan Aşkın

    2016-07-01

    Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age. For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds. Experiments were carried out at pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 MPa and temperatures ranging from 40 to 200 ℃ with and without modifier for 2 h of extraction time. The flow rate was kept at 4 and 1 ml/min for CO2 and water, respectively. The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was 78.10%. Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate (a) frequency of staple food usage, (b) the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, (c) knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc. Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods.

  2. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  3. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    PubMed

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  4. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  5. How healthcare organizations use the Internet to market quality achievements.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Robinson, Leroy

    2010-01-01

    The increasingly competitive environment is having a strong bearing on the strategic marketing practices of hospitals. The Internet is a fairly new marketing tool, and it has the potential to dramatically influence healthcare consumers. This exploratory study investigates how hospitals use the Internet as a tool to market the quality of their services. Significant evidence exists that customers use the Internet to find information about potential healthcare providers, including information concerning quality. Data were collected from a random sample of 45 U.S. hospitals from the American Hospital Association database. The data included hospital affiliation, number of staffed beds, accreditation status, Joint Commission quality awards, and number of competing hospitals. The study's findings show that system-affiliated hospitals do not provide more, or less, quality information on their websites than do non-system-affiliated hospitals. The findings suggest that the amount of quality information provided on a hospital website is not dependent on hospital size. Research provides evidence that hospitals with more Joint Commission awards promote their quality accomplishments more so than their counterparts that earned fewer Joint Commission awards. The findings also suggest that the more competitors in a marketplace the more likely a hospital is to promote its quality as a potential differential advantage. The study's findings indicate that a necessary element of any hospital's competitive strategy should be to include the marketing of its quality on the organization's website.

  6. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR 15362 (Mar. 29, 2010... Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28, 2008), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,281 (2008...., Wholesale Competition in Regions with Organized Electric Markets, Order No. 719, 73 FR 64100 (Oct. 28,...

  7. Organization of bulk power markets: A concept paper

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.

    1995-12-01

    The electricity industry in the US today is at a crossroads. The restructuring debate going on in most regions has made it clear that the traditional model of vertically integrated firms serving defined franchise areas and regulated by state commissions may not be the pattern for the future. The demands of large customers seeking direct access to power markets, the entry of new participants, and proposed reforms of the regulatory process all signify a momentum for fundamental change in the organization of the industry. This paper addresses electricity restructuring from the perspective of bulk power markets. The authors focus attention on the organization of electricity trade and the various ways it has been and might be conducted. Their approach concentrates on conceptual models and empirical case studies, not on specific proposals made by particular utilities or commissions. They review literature in economics and power system engineering that is relevant to the major questions. The objective is to provide conceptual background to industry participants, e.g. utility staff, regulatory staff, new entrants, who are working on specific proposals. While they formulate many questions, they do not provide definitive answers on most issues. They attempt to put the industry restructuring dialogue in a neutral setting, translating the language of economists for engineers and vice versa. Towards this end they begin with a review of the basic economic institutions in the US bulk power markets and a summary of the engineering practices that dominate trade today.

  8. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  9. Accountable Care Organizations: Integrated Care Meets Market Power.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Will accountable care organizations (ACOs) deliver high-quality care at lower costs? Or will their potential market power lead to higher prices and lower quality? ACOs appear in various forms and structures with financial and clinical integration at their core; however, the tools to assess their quality and the incentive structures that will determine their success are still evolving. Both market forces and regulatory structures will determine how these outcomes emerge. This introduction reviews the evidence presented in this special issue to tackle this thorny trade-off. In general the evidence is promising, but the full potential of ACOs to improve the health care delivery system is still uncertain. This introductory review concludes that the current consensus is to let ACOs grow, anticipating that they will make a contribution to improve our poor-quality and high-cost delivery system.

  10. Healthy food outside: farmers' markets, taco trucks, and sidewalk fruit vendors.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alfonso; Kettles, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the many dimensions of street vending and public markets, the multiple intersections vending and markets have with food regulation, and the historical connection markets have with other policy problems. We develop the article in four parts, following the introduction found in section one the article touches on three elements of law and public policy. The second section considers markets and merchants in public goods with their associated dilemmas. Our approach is to reconfigure the emphasis on public space as transportation by justifying the use of the street and sidewalk for street vending. The importance of public space for commerce and other creative activities bridges the second and third sections of the article. The third section chronicles the history of law and regulation around street and public markets. Here we emphasize how cities historically used public markets as public policy tools to address food security, employment, and to help those growing cities accommodate new immigrants. The fourth section focuses on public health by examining the law of outdoor food sold on the street. Through our analysis we set forth numerous suggestions for advocacy, policy, and legal reform.

  11. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies.

  12. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    PubMed

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. PMID:25881665

  13. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  14. Targeted Food Marketing to Youth: Engaging Professionals in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katras, Mary Jo; Kunkel, Kelly; Croymans, Sara R.; Routh, Brianna; Schroeder, Mary; Olson, Carrie Ann

    2014-01-01

    The use of technology provides unique ways to create an engaged online community of learning for professionals that can be integrated into existing and future Extension programming. The Targeted Food Marketing to Youth online professional development course uses strategies and tools to create and support an engaged online community.

  15. Maps & Apps: Mobile Media Marketing Education for Food and Farm Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Julie; Leeds, Rob; Barrett, Eric

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing number of consumers using smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices to find and interact with local businesses, Ohio State University Extension developed a new curriculum aimed at improving market access for food and farm entrepreneurs. The literature review, curriculum framework, and lessons learned shared in this article…

  16. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen associated with severe disease in humans. We determined the prevalence, levels, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsotypes of L. monocytogenes in foodstuffs of common sale in three retail markets of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico. The pathogen was isolate...

  17. In Buyer's Market, Colleges Turn to Posh Dorms and Fast Food to Lure Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1989-01-01

    More and more colleges are building fancy residence halls and improving their grounds to stand out in an increasingly competitive market for freshmen. Colleges are also finding that they must upgrade their dining halls because students are going off campus for pizza and other fast food. (MLW)

  18. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  19. Internal marketing within a health care organization: developing an implementation plan.

    PubMed

    Hallums, A

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.

  20. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture. PMID:25221987

  1. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  2. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products. PMID:26243938

  3. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  4. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    PubMed

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices. PMID:21114068

  5. Alchemy in eden: entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880–1920.

    PubMed

    Lonier, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Through an investigation into the origins of American food marketing, this dissertation reveals how branding—specifically, the centennial brands Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, and Crisco—came to underpin much of today's market-driven economy. In a manner akin to alchemy, the entrepreneurs behind these three firms recognized the inherent value of an agricultural Eden, then found ways to convert common, low-cost agricultural goods—oats, sugar, and cottonseed oil—into appealing, high-revenue branded food products. In the process, these ventures devised new demand-driven business models that exploited technology and communications advances, enabling them to tap a nascent consumer culture. Their pioneering efforts generated unprecedented profits, laid the foundation for iconic billion-dollar brands, and fundamentally changed how Americans make daily food choices.

  6. Children’s Recall of Fast Food Television Advertising—Testing the Adequacy of Food Marketing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald’s and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. Methods One hundred children aged 3–7 years were shown McDonald’s and Burger King children’s (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010–11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. Results Premiums/tie-ins were common in children’s but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children’s ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children’s vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children’s ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions Children’s net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice. PMID:25738653

  7. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  8. Strategic considerations for provider sponsored organizations entering the risk-bearing Medicare market.

    PubMed

    Treash, M; Thomson, K

    1997-01-01

    This article considers Michael Porter's five forces of industry competition as it relates to provider sponsored organizations and asks four important questions on marketing differentiation, quality, size of market, and product/service scope.

  9. Strategic considerations for provider sponsored organizations entering the risk-bearing Medicare market.

    PubMed

    Treash, M; Thomson, K

    1997-01-01

    This article considers Michael Porter's five forces of industry competition as it relates to provider sponsored organizations and asks four important questions on marketing differentiation, quality, size of market, and product/service scope. PMID:10175719

  10. Obesity and fast food in urban markets: a new approach using geo-referenced micro data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Susan Elizabeth; Florax, Raymond J; Snyder, Samantha D

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a new method of assessing the relationship between features of the built environment and obesity, particularly in urban areas. Our empirical application combines georeferenced data on the location of fast-food restaurants with data about personal health, behavioral, and neighborhood characteristics. We define a 'local food environment' for every individual utilizing buffers around a person's home address. Individual food landscapes are potentially endogenous because of spatial sorting of the population and food outlets, and the body mass index (BMI) values for individuals living close to each other are likely to be spatially correlated because of observed and unobserved individual and neighborhood effects. The potential biases associated with endogeneity and spatial correlation are handled using spatial econometric estimation techniques. Our application provides quantitative estimates of the effect of proximity to fast-food restaurants on obesity in an urban food market. We also present estimates of a policy simulation that focuses on reducing the density of fast-food restaurants in urban areas. In the simulations, we account for spatial heterogeneity in both the policy instruments and individual neighborhoods and find a small effect for the hypothesized relationships between individual BMI values and the density of fast-food restaurants.

  11. Intake of bisphenol A from canned beverages and foods on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Geens, Tinne; Apelbaum, Tali Zipora; Goeyens, Leo; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a contaminant which may be present in the coating of cans, was determined in 45 canned beverages and 21 canned food items from the Belgian market. Beverages had an average BPA concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, while canned foods had a higher average concentration of 40.3 ng/g. The amount of BPA present in food items was dependent on the type of can and sterilisation conditions rather than the type of food. For example, BPA was not detected in non-canned beverages (<0.02 ng/ml), while non-canned food items had a very low average concentration of 0.46 ng/g. Using detailed information from the Belgian food consumption survey, the BPA intake of adults through canned foods and beverages was estimated to be 1.05 µg/day or 0.015 µg/kg body weight/day (assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg). Intake assessments, based on urinary metabolite concentrations from the literature, resulted in slightly higher BPA intakes (range 0.028-0.059 µg/kg body weight/day). This suggests that sources other than canned foods and beverages contribute to BPA exposure in humans.

  12. Are we indeed what we eat? Street food consumption in the Market Circle area of Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hiamey, Stephen Edem; Amuquandoh, Francis Eric; Boison, Grace Aba

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the high consumption of street foods in the Market Circle was for reasons other than nutrition and health. PMID:26341743

  13. Are we indeed what we eat? Street food consumption in the Market Circle area of Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hiamey, Stephen Edem; Amuquandoh, Francis Eric; Boison, Grace Aba

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the high consumption of street foods in the Market Circle was for reasons other than nutrition and health.

  14. Policy insights from the nutritional food market transformation model: the case of obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Struben, Jeroen; Chan, Derek; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics policy model of nutritional food market transformation, tracing over-time interactions between the nutritional quality of supply, consumer food choice, population health, and governmental policy. Applied to the Canadian context and with body mass index as the primary outcome, we examine policy portfolios for obesity prevention, including (1) industry self-regulation efforts, (2) health- and nutrition-sensitive governmental policy, and (3) efforts to foster health- and nutrition-sensitive innovation. This work provides novel theoretical and practical insights on drivers of nutritional market transformations, highlighting the importance of integrative policy portfolios to simultaneously shift food demand and supply for successful and self-sustaining nutrition and health sensitivity. We discuss model extensions for deeper and more comprehensive linkages of nutritional food market transformation with supply, demand, and policy in agrifood and health/health care. These aim toward system design and policy that can proactively, and with greater impact, scale, and resilience, address single as well as double malnutrition in varying country settings.

  15. Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the gatekeepers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Inghelbrecht, Linde; Dessein, Joost; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-25

    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the food industry) explain and defend the exclusion of GM-labelled food products on the EU market. The study design places emphasis on the role of perceptions in the strategic behaviour of gatekeepers and on the role of interaction in this regard, as we assume that the way in which gatekeepers perceive the 'rules of the game' for commercialising GM crop applications on the EU food market will be influenced by their interaction with other agribusiness actors. In a first stage, the analysis determines thematic congruence in the (types of) perceptions that explain an agribusiness actor's overall interpretation of the EU business environment for GM crop applications. This perceived 'structuring arena' (SA) for GM crop applications - as conceptualised within our framework - contains areas of either internal and external tensions, that have a compelling or non-committal influence on the agribusiness actor's interpretation. In a second stage, the analysis particularly defines how gatekeepers in the food industry perceive and experience the SA for GM crop applications on the EU market, and how these perceptual tensions subsequently influence their strategic behaviour for GM-labelled products on the EU market. Finally, we highlight how these perceptions and actions (or inaction) suppress the main changes in practice that are necessary to manage this wicked problem.

  16. Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the gatekeepers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Inghelbrecht, Linde; Dessein, Joost; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-25

    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the food industry) explain and defend the exclusion of GM-labelled food products on the EU market. The study design places emphasis on the role of perceptions in the strategic behaviour of gatekeepers and on the role of interaction in this regard, as we assume that the way in which gatekeepers perceive the 'rules of the game' for commercialising GM crop applications on the EU food market will be influenced by their interaction with other agribusiness actors. In a first stage, the analysis determines thematic congruence in the (types of) perceptions that explain an agribusiness actor's overall interpretation of the EU business environment for GM crop applications. This perceived 'structuring arena' (SA) for GM crop applications - as conceptualised within our framework - contains areas of either internal and external tensions, that have a compelling or non-committal influence on the agribusiness actor's interpretation. In a second stage, the analysis particularly defines how gatekeepers in the food industry perceive and experience the SA for GM crop applications on the EU market, and how these perceptual tensions subsequently influence their strategic behaviour for GM-labelled products on the EU market. Finally, we highlight how these perceptions and actions (or inaction) suppress the main changes in practice that are necessary to manage this wicked problem. PMID:25252022

  17. Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy David

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence.

  18. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables. PMID:27191549

  19. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  20. Effects of Market, E-Marketing, and Technology Orientations on Innovativeness and Performance in Turkish Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We hypothesize that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  1. Food marketing to children on U.S. Spanish-language television.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dale; Mastro, Dana; Ortiz, Michelle; McKinley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Latino children in particular are at risk of childhood obesity. Because exposure to televised food marketing is a contributor to childhood obesity, it is important to examine the nutritional quality of foods advertised on Spanish-language children's programming. The authors analyzed a sample of 158 Spanish-language children's television programs for its advertising content and compared them with an equivalent sample of English-language advertising. The authors evaluated nutritional quality of each advertised product using a food rating system from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, the authors assessed compliance with industry self-regulatory pledges. The authors found that amount of food advertising on Spanish-language channels (M = 2.2 ads/hour) was lower than on English-language programs, but the nutritional quality of food products on Spanish-language channels was substantially poorer than on English channels. Industry self-regulation was less effective on Spanish-language channels. The study provides clear evidence of significant disparities. Food advertising targeted at Spanish-speaking children is more likely to promote nutritionally poor food products than advertising on English-language channels. Industry self-regulation is less effective on Spanish-language television channels. Given the disproportionately high rate of childhood obesity among Latinos, the study's findings hold important implications for public health policy. PMID:23638634

  2. Food marketing to children on U.S. Spanish-language television.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, Dale; Mastro, Dana; Ortiz, Michelle; McKinley, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Latino children in particular are at risk of childhood obesity. Because exposure to televised food marketing is a contributor to childhood obesity, it is important to examine the nutritional quality of foods advertised on Spanish-language children's programming. The authors analyzed a sample of 158 Spanish-language children's television programs for its advertising content and compared them with an equivalent sample of English-language advertising. The authors evaluated nutritional quality of each advertised product using a food rating system from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, the authors assessed compliance with industry self-regulatory pledges. The authors found that amount of food advertising on Spanish-language channels (M = 2.2 ads/hour) was lower than on English-language programs, but the nutritional quality of food products on Spanish-language channels was substantially poorer than on English channels. Industry self-regulation was less effective on Spanish-language channels. The study provides clear evidence of significant disparities. Food advertising targeted at Spanish-speaking children is more likely to promote nutritionally poor food products than advertising on English-language channels. Industry self-regulation is less effective on Spanish-language television channels. Given the disproportionately high rate of childhood obesity among Latinos, the study's findings hold important implications for public health policy.

  3. Determinatıon of bisphenol a migrating from canned food and beverages in markets.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Köroğlu, Muaz; Özkan, Abdo

    2014-01-01

    The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in foods and beverages sold in Turkish markets was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. In this research, foods packed in packages with an inner surface covered with plastic film, such as milk, fruit juice, cream, pudding and tuna samples were used. Furthermore, foods in glass jar and metal cans such as green peas, garniture, corn, tomato paste, pepper paste, pickles, mushroom and bean samples were also used. BPA concentrations were 21.86±0.80-1858.71±8.24μg kg(-1) for canned foodstuffs, 36.48±0.95-554.69±3.18μgkg(-1) for foods in paper box, "not detected" - 399.21±3.26μgkg(-1)for foods in glass jar. The change in the amount of bisphenol A in all of these food, based on expiration date, the amount of glucose and sodium chloride in it has been determined. We see that in these kind of food the amount of bisphenol A increases with an increase in the amount of glucose, NaCl and expiration date.

  4. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  5. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Independent System Operators; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory... Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) (centralized capacity markets)....

  6. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  7. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  8. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  9. Research needs on food marketing to children. Report of the StanMark project.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, T

    2013-03-01

    A series of meetings on the topic of children's exposure to the marketing of food and beverages was held between researchers and government officials based in Europe and the Americas during 2010-2011. The meetings resulted in a number of outputs, including observations from policy-makers on the types of evidence they needed to strengthen policy-making. Their observations on the definitions of a child, the specification of foods using nutrient profiling schemes, the types of media carrying marketing messages, and the related policy implementation problems, are summarised in this Short Communication. The paper highlights the need for research which can directly support policy-making and which can evaluate its effectiveness.

  10. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut.

  11. The Food and Drug Administration and pragmatic clinical trials of marketed medical products.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique L; Griffin, Joseph; Goldkind, Sara F; Zeitler, Emily P; Wing, Liz; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sherman, Rachel E

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials can help answer questions of comparative effectiveness for interventions routinely used in medical practice. Pragmatic clinical trials may examine outcomes of one or more marketed medical products, and they are heterogeneous in design and risk. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with protecting the rights, safety, and welfare of individuals enrolled in clinical investigations, as well as assuring the integrity of the data upon which approval of medical products is made. The Food and Drug Administration has broad jurisdiction over drugs and medical devices (whether or not they are approved for marketing), and as such, clinical investigations of these products are subject to applicable Food and Drug Administration regulations. While many pragmatic clinical trials will meet the criteria for an exemption from the requirements for an investigational new drug application or investigational device exemption, in general, all clinical investigations of medical products that fall under Food and Drug Administration jurisdiction must adhere to regulations for informed consent and review by an institutional review board. We are concerned that current Food and Drug Administration requirements for obtaining individual informed consent may deter or delay the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials intended to develop reliable evidence of comparative safety and effectiveness of approved medical products that are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Under current regulations, there are no described mechanisms to alter or waive informed consent to make it less burdensome or more practicable for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials. We recommend that the Food and Drug Administration establish a risk-based approach to obtaining informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials that would facilitate the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials without compromising the protection of enrolled individuals or the integrity of the resulting data.

  12. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  13. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  14. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    PubMed Central

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Navarra, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products. PMID:23606886

  15. Food as pharma: marketing nutraceuticals to India’s rural poor

    PubMed Central

    Street, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies’ claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed and distributed in rural areas; and the concepts of health and well-being that are being promulgated through those marketing campaigns. Lastly, it asks what kinds of impact fast-moving nutraceuticals are likely to have on the lives of India’s rural poor. It concludes by questioning how smooth a transition to nutraceutical consumption Big Food marketing strategies can really facilitate and how readily low-income families seeking to feed their families and safeguard health will actually adopt concepts of wellness and internalise micro-nutrient associated risks. PMID:25866449

  16. Comparing Farmers’ Market Revenue Trends Before and After the Implementation of a Monetary Incentive for Recipients of Food Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Mattison-Faye, Amy; Alia, Kassandra; Guest, M. Aaron; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined the influence of an intervention to increase fruit and vegetable purchases at farmers’ markets for recipients of food assistance, Shop N Save (SNS), on revenue trends at a farmers’ market located at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in rural South Carolina. We compared revenue trends for 20 weeks before the intervention (2011) and 20 weeks after (2012). Methods SNS provided one $5 monetary incentive per week to customers spending $5 or more in food assistance at the farmers’ market. SNS was available to any farmers’ market customer using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and/or Senior or WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) vouchers. Sales receipts were recorded for each transaction at the farmers’ market to document payment type and the cost of the purchase. All SNS participants completed a one-time enrollment survey. Results A total of 336 customers self-enrolled in SNS from June through October 2012. Most SNS participants were female, African American, and patients at the FQHC. In total, the use of all forms of food assistance (SNAP, WIC, and FMNP) at the farmers’ market increased significantly after the intervention (from 10% before, to 25% after, P = .003). Senior FMNP vouchers and SNAP usage increased the most. Conclusion Interventions that provide incentives to recipients of food assistance programs at farmers’ markets are a viable strategy for increasing food assistance usage and revenue. PMID:24854238

  17. Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Jacobson, Michael F

    2016-10-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) in foods and beverages may be harmful to children. This study assesses the percentage of grocery store products marketed to children that contain AFCs, by category and company. The research team collected product and food-color information about 810 products in one grocery store in North Carolina in 2014. Overall, 350 products (43.2%) contained AFCs. The most common AFCs were Red 40 (29.8% of products), Blue 1 (24.2%), Yellow 5 (20.5%), and Yellow 6 (19.5%). Produce was the only category that did not have any AFCs. The highest percentage of products with AFCs was found in candies (96.3%), fruit-flavored snacks (94%), and drink mixes/powders (89.7%). Forty-one of the 66 companies marketed products containing AFCs. Given concerns about health effects of AFCs and high proportions of high-AFC categories, clinicians, parents, food companies, and the government can take steps to support children's healthy eating and development by reducing AFCs in children's diets. PMID:27270961

  18. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  19. Determination of contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Van Holderbeke, Mirja; Geerts, Lieve; Vanermen, Guido; Servaes, Kelly; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Fierens, Tine

    2014-10-01

    As numerous studies have indicated that food ingestion is the most important exposure pathway to several phthalates, this study aimed to determine possible contamination pathways of phthalates in food products sold on the Belgian market. To do this, concentrations of eight phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) were determined in 591 foods and 30 packaging materials. In general, the four most prominent phthalates in Belgian food products were DEHP, DiBP, DnBP and BBP. Special attention was given to the origin of these phthalates in bread, since high phthalate concentrations (especially DEHP) were determined in this frequently consumed food product. Phthalates seemed to occur in Belgian bread samples due to the use of contaminated ingredients (i.e. use of contaminated flour) as well as due to migration from phthalate containing contact materials used during production (e.g. coated baking trays). Also the results of the conducted concentration profiles of apple, bread, salami and two cheese types revealed the important role of processing - and not packaging - on phthalate contents in foods.

  20. LC-TOF/MS determination of phthalates in edible salts from food markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Dirwono, Warnadi; Nam, Yun Sik; Park, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2013-01-01

    Residual quantities of 12 phthalates have been monitored in edible salts (raw salts, refined salts, refined salts with additives and baked salts) available in Korean food markets. Liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) was used to analyse the samples. The method was validated and showed linear correlation (R² > 0.996) in the range 0.5-100 ng g⁻¹ for all target analytes. Recoveries were 85.9-108.4%, except for diethyl phthalate (DEP). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.7-6.0% and the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.2-2.8 ng g⁻¹. Although the contamination of phthalates in salt would be trivial in comparison to those of other main foods and below the reference dose of the Chronic Oral Exposure recommended by US-EPA, the availability of reference data could be valuable for food chemists and salt manufacturers.

  1. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change.

  2. A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Lobstein, Tim; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that food marketing to children is (a) massive; (b) expanding in number of venues (product placements, video games, the Internet, cell phones, etc.); (c) composed almost entirely of messages for nutrient-poor, calorie-dense foods; (d) having harmful effects; and (e) increasingly global and hence difficult to regulate by individual countries. The food industry, governmental bodies, and advocacy groups have proposed a variety of plans for altering the marketing landscape. This article reviews existing knowledge of the impact of marketing and addresses the value of various legal, legislative, regulatory, and industry-based approaches to change. PMID:18976142

  3. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  4. A nutritional comparison of foods and beverages marketed to children in two advertising policy environments.

    PubMed

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with children's exposure to food/beverage marketing. Policy options in this area are being sought in order to reduce childhood obesity rates on a population-level. We examined the nutritional quality of foods advertised to children during their preferred television viewing in Ontario (Canada), where advertising is self-regulated by industry, and in Quebec (Canada), where a child-directed advertising ban exists. A total of 428 children aged 10-12 years completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. Thirty-two television stations were recorded simultaneously between 6 AM and midnight. A content analysis of 90 h of English Ontario, French Quebec, and English Quebec children's preferred viewing was then undertaken. A total of 429 food and beverage advertisements were analyzed and their nutritional quality was assessed. Food advertisements in the Quebec French sample were statistically significantly higher in total fat, saturated fat and protein, and lower in carbohydrates and sugar per 100 g, and as a percentage of energy than food ads in the two English samples. A statistically significantly lower percentage of the Quebec French food advertisements were classified as either high fat, sugar or sodium and a smaller proportion of food ads were classified as "less healthy" compared to the Ontario and Quebec English samples. These results suggest that the Quebec advertising ban is influencing the macronutrient profile of advertised foods viewed by French Quebec children during their preferred viewing and that their promotions are marginally healthier than that viewed by the English samples. PMID:21720425

  5. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality.

  6. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality. PMID:24375441

  7. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: a phenomenological psychological analysis.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-06-14

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world.

  8. Organic food as a healthy lifestyle: A phenomenological psychological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Von Essen, Elisabeth; Englander, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of the lived experience of choosing a healthy lifestyle based upon an organic diet as seen from the perspective of the young adult. Interviews were collected in Sweden and analyzed using the descriptive phenomenological psychological research method. The results showed the general psychological structure of the phenomenon, comprising four constituents: (1) the lived body as the starting point for life exploration, (2) a narrative self through emotional-relational food memories, (3) a conscious life strategy for well-being and vitality, and (4) a personal set of values in relation to ethical standards. The results provide plausible insights into the intricate relation between psychological meaning and the natural world. PMID:23769652

  9. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives.

  10. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  11. Why People Drink Shampoo? Food Imitating Products Are Fooling Brains and Endangering Consumers for Marketing Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release – e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers – and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  12. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...\\ Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 75 FR... Rulemaking and Notice of Technical Conference (Supplemental Notice), 75 FR 47,499, 132 FERC ] 61,094 (issued... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets;...

  13. Food Marketing towards Children: Brand Logo Recognition, Food-Related Behavior and BMI among 3–13-Year-Olds in a South Indian Town

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Peter; Tong, Leilei; Viedma, Cristobal; Chandy, Sujith J.; Marrone, Gaetano; Simon, Anna; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess exposure to marketing of unhealthy food products and its relation to food related behavior and BMI in children aged 3–13, from different socioeconomic backgrounds in a south Indian town. Methods Child-parent pairs (n = 306) were recruited at pediatric clinics. Exposure to food marketing was assessed by a digital logo recognition test. Children matched 18 logos of unhealthy food (high in fat/sugar/salt) featured in promotion material from the food industry to pictures of corresponding products. Children's nutritional knowledge, food preferences, purchase requests, eating behavior and socioeconomic characteristics were assessed by a digital game and parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results Recognition rates for the brand logos ranged from 30% to 80%. Logo recognition ability increased with age (p<0.001) and socioeconomic level (p<0.001 comparing children in the highest and lowest of three socioeconomic groups). Adjusted for gender, age and socioeconomic group, logo recognition was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.022) and nutritional knowledge (p<0.001) but not to unhealthy food preferences or purchase requests. Conclusions Children from higher socioeconomic groups in the region had higher brand logo recognition ability and are possibly exposed to more food marketing. The study did not lend support to a link between exposure to marketing and poor eating behavior, distorted nutritional knowledge or increased purchase requests. The correlation between logo recognition and BMI warrants further investigation on food marketing towards children and its potential role in the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases in this part of India. PMID:23082137

  14. Design and preparation of market baskets of European Union commercial baby foods for the assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals and to their effects.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, R; Pandelova, M; Le Donne, C; Ferrari, M; Schramm, K-W; Leclercq, C

    2010-10-01

    The assessment of acute and chronic dietary exposure to contaminants in baby foods is needed to ensure healthy infant growth. Monthly European Union market baskets of commercial baby foods were designed for the first 9 months of life by the 'babyfood' study group of the CASCADE Network of Excellence for the specific purpose of assessing exposure to potentially toxic substances in infants fed with such foods. The present paper reports the different steps that led to the preparation of monthly pooled samples of commercial baby foods ('Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' and 'Other baby foods') that may constitute the extreme case of the diet for an infant who would not be breast fed at all. Several market baskets were generated for an 'average European Union infant' and for infants of four selected countries (Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the Slovakia), fed with either milk infant formulae, soy infant formulae or hypoallergenic infant formulae and weaned (at the fifth month) with commercial baby foods and beverages available on the European Union market. Market share data for 2007 for baby foods were used to design the baskets. Holding companies and the name of all their products were identified. Monthly diets for European Union infants were elaborated in terms of food categories (e.g. infant cereals) of typologies of products (e.g. infant cereals without gluten) and of a specific product. The number of baskets generated was 30 for 'Infant formulae and follow-on formulae' (including 62 products) and 13 for 'Other baby foods' (including 35 products). These market baskets were designed to be used for the determination of certain contaminants and nutrients in the diet of European Union infants and for the assessment of their effects on infant health.

  15. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace.

  16. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace. PMID:19699433

  17. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  18. The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among Polish consumers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness.

  19. Volatile nitrosamines in foods and beverages: preliminary survey of the Italian market

    SciTech Connect

    Gavinelli, M.; Fanelli, R.; Bonfanti, M.; Davoli, E.; Airoldi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The question whether humans suffer from cancer as a result of exposure to N-nitroso compounds has not been yet answered. Food is one of the sources of human exposure to these compounds, and during the past decade considerable attention has in fact been paid to the identification and quantitative determination of N-nitroso compounds in food, volatile N-nitrosamines being those studied most extensively. Many studies have been made in different countries to establish the degree of contamination of foodstuffs typical for each country and to identify the efforts needed to remove or at least reduce their presence in the environment. So far, there are only a few reports of nitrosamines in Italian cheese and beers, but no extensive studies have been made in Italy. The authors present here a preliminary survey on volatile nitrosamine content in foods and beverages on the Italian market, including canned beef, pork, poultry, cured meat, milk products, domestic Italian canned wines and beers. A recently developed methods used for measuring nitrosamines in solid food matrices by simultaneous distillation-extraction followed by high resolution gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis (HRGC-TEA). Liquid food matrices and beverages were screened for nitrosamine content after column extraction and HRGC-TEA.

  20. The role of appeals to tradition in origin food marketing. A survey among Polish consumers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    The frequency of the use of tradition in marketing is growing. Appealing to tradition reflects the need to have reference points, trust and stability. The perceived authenticity of a product is strongly connected with its origin, which is expressed by the factors of time (history), place (area), socialisation (local community) and naturalness (raw materials). The paper aims to examine consumer attitudes, preferences and behaviours regarding origin food in Poland. We carried out a survey in a representative sample of 1000 Polish consumers. According to our respondents, the characteristics differentiating origin food from conventional food include links with tradition as well as sensory and health properties. Referring to the typology proposed by van der Meulen, traditionality and territoriality are the most important characteristics of origin food. The perceived authenticity of origin products depends to the largest extent on such factors as: natural taste, product quality, sale in the region of origin and labelling. The most important determinants of origin food selection include: traditional recipe, taste, and product uniqueness. PMID:25916623

  1. Pulga (Flea Market) Contributions to the Retail Food Environment of Colonias in the South Texas Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; St. John, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of the retail food environment have been limited by research that focused on supermarkets, grocery stores and restaurants as the principal food sources for consumers. Little is known about alternative retail food-sources, especially in rural and underserved areas such as the colonias along the South Texas border with Mexico. Many colonias are located near pulgas (flea markets). This is the first study to examine this alternative food source for colonia residents. This study's purpose is to provide preliminary data on food availability in this unstudied element of the retail food environment. Five pulgas were identified for study by local informants. Two separate teams of two promotores (indigenous community health workers) conducted observations, wrote field notes, and surveyed vendors in each pulga. Traditional foods, prepared foods, and fresh fruit and vegetables were available in the observed pulgas. Traditional foods included staples, meal items, and snacks and sweets. Prepared foods were available in small stands run by independent operators, and each pulga had permanent restaurants which served prepared foods. A large variety of fresh fruit and vegetables were also available. An emphasis on supermarkets and grocery stores will provide an incomplete account of the retail food environment. Further studies should attempt to provide a more complete account by identifying alternative retail sources used by local residents. One such alternative retail food-source, the pulga, provides a range of traditional food stuffs, prepared food items, and fruits and vegetables that complement conventionally studied aspects of the retail food environment. PMID:21515116

  2. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  3. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  4. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  5. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  6. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  7. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  8. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  9. 42 CFR 422.2268 - Standards for MA organization marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Offer gifts to potential enrollees, unless the gifts are of nominal (as defined in the CMS Marketing... participation in Medicare. (f) Market non-health care related products to prospective enrollees during any MA or Part D sales activity or presentation. This is considered cross-selling and is prohibited. (g)...

  10. A Summative Evaluation of a Food Safety Social Marketing Campaign "4-Day Throw-Away" Using Traditional and Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Katie J.; Albrecht, Julie A.; Litchfield, Ruth E.; Weishaar, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses remain a common problem in the United States. Focus group results indicated that lack of knowledge and improper handling of leftovers were common among food preparers in families with young children. The USDA-recommended storage time for leftovers was used to develop and conduct a food safety social marketing campaign, "4…

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced.

  12. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.

  13. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010. PMID:27306078

  14. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food samples on the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Papanicolaou, Christina; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2004-11-01

    Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish, vegetable oil, eggs, fruit, vegetable and rice collected between August and December 2002. After extraction, extracts were cleaned up on a series of carbon column chromatography, silica gel, alumina chromatography, and then analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. All samples had a dioxin content far below the EC Regulation (2375/2001/EC) limits. PMID:15331268

  15. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted.

  16. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  17. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Riis, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's ‘thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in ‘tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering ‘right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  18. Systematic reviews of the evidence on the nature, extent and effects of food marketing to children. A retrospective summary.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Angus, Kathryn; Hastings, Gerard; Caraher, Martin

    2013-03-01

    A 2009 systematic review of the international evidence on food and beverage marketing to children is the most recent internationally comprehensive review of the evidence base. Its findings are consistent with other independent, rigorous reviews conducted during the period 2003-2012. Food promotions have a direct effect on children's nutrition knowledge, preferences, purchase behaviour, consumption patterns and diet-related health. Current marketing practice predominantly promotes low nutrition foods and beverages. Rebalancing the food marketing landscape' is a recurring policy aim of interventions aimed at constraining food and beverage promotions to children. The collective review evidence on marketing practice indicates little progress towards policy aims has been achieved during the period 2003-2012. There is a gap in the evidence base on how substantive policy implementation can be achieved. We recommend a priority for future policy relevant research is a greater emphasis on translational research. A global framework for co-ordinated intervention to constrain unhealthy food marketing which has received high level support provides valuable insight on some aspects of immediate implementation research priorities. PMID:22561190

  19. Systematic reviews of the evidence on the nature, extent and effects of food marketing to children. A retrospective summary.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Angus, Kathryn; Hastings, Gerard; Caraher, Martin

    2013-03-01

    A 2009 systematic review of the international evidence on food and beverage marketing to children is the most recent internationally comprehensive review of the evidence base. Its findings are consistent with other independent, rigorous reviews conducted during the period 2003-2012. Food promotions have a direct effect on children's nutrition knowledge, preferences, purchase behaviour, consumption patterns and diet-related health. Current marketing practice predominantly promotes low nutrition foods and beverages. Rebalancing the food marketing landscape' is a recurring policy aim of interventions aimed at constraining food and beverage promotions to children. The collective review evidence on marketing practice indicates little progress towards policy aims has been achieved during the period 2003-2012. There is a gap in the evidence base on how substantive policy implementation can be achieved. We recommend a priority for future policy relevant research is a greater emphasis on translational research. A global framework for co-ordinated intervention to constrain unhealthy food marketing which has received high level support provides valuable insight on some aspects of immediate implementation research priorities.

  20. Healthy Foods, Healthy Families: combining incentives and exposure interventions at urban farmers’ markets to improve nutrition among recipients of US federal food assistance

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, April B.; Moretti, Mikayla; Ringelheim, Kayla; Tran, Alvin; Davison, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy Foods, Healthy Families (HFHF) is a fruit and vegetable (F&V) exposure/incentive program implemented at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods, targeting families receiving US federal food assistance. We examined program effects on participants’ diet and associations between attendance, demographics and dietary change. Methods: Exposure activities included F&V tastings and cooking demonstrations. Incentives included 40% F&V bonus for electronic benefit transfer (EBT) card users and $20 for use purchasing F&V at every third market visit. Self-report surveys measuring nutritional behaviors/literacy were administered to participants upon enrollment (n = 425, 46.2% Hispanic, 94.8%female). Participants were sampled for follow-up at markets during mid-season (n = 186) and at season end (n = 146). Attendance was tracked over 16 weeks. Results: Participants post-intervention reported significantly higher vegetable consumption(P = 0.005) and lower soda consumption (P = 0.005). Participants reporting largest F&V increases attended the market 6-8 times and received $40 in incentives. No change in food assistance spent on F&V (P = 0.94); 70% reported significant increases in family consumption of F&V,indicating subsidies increased overall F&V purchasing. Participants reported exposure activities and incentives similarly affected program attendance. Conclusion: Interventions combining exposure activities and modest financial incentives at farmers’ markets in low-income neighborhoods show strong potential to improve diet quality of families receiving federal food assistance. PMID:27123431

  1. Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and adolescents in New Zealand: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    No, Elizabeth; Kelly, Bridget; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10-17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10-17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10-17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012-January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. 'Snack items' such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while 'vegetables and fruits' were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In

  2. Food references and marketing in popular magazines for children and adolescents in New Zealand: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    No, Elizabeth; Kelly, Bridget; Devi, Anandita; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-12-01

    Food marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing children's food preferences and consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent of unhealthy food marketing and non-branded food references in magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents 10-17 years old in New Zealand. A content analysis was conducted of all food references (branded and non-branded) found in the five magazines with the highest readership among 10-17 year olds, and the three magazines (of which two were already included among the five most popular magazines) targeted to 10-17 year olds. For each of the six magazines, one issue per month (n = 72 issues in total) over a one-year period (December 2012-January 2014) was included. All foods referenced were classified into healthy/unhealthy according to the food-based Ministry of Health classification system. Branded food references (30% of total) were more frequent for unhealthy (43%) compared to healthy (25%) foods. Magazines specifically targeted to children and adolescents contained a significantly higher proportion of unhealthy branded food references (n = 51/71, 72%) compared to the most popular magazines among children and adolescents (n = 133/317, 42%), of which most were targeted to women. 'Snack items' such as chocolates and ice creams were marketed most frequently (n = 104; 36%), while 'vegetables and fruits' were marketed the least frequently (n = 9; 3%). Direct advertisements accounted for 27% of branded food references and 25% of those featured health or nutrition claims. Both branded and non-branded food references were common within magazines targeted at and popular among children and adolescents, and skewed toward unhealthy foods. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of self-regulation in marketing and emphasizes that government regulations are needed in order to curb children's current potential high exposures to unhealthy food marketing. In

  3. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  4. FRET Sensor for Erythrosine Dye Based on Organic Nanoparticles: Application to Analysis of Food Stuff.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2016-07-01

    fluorescent organic nanoprobe developed for the detection of erythrosine (ETS) food dye in aqueous medium based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET process between donor (nanoparticles) and acceptor (ETS dye) arises due to oppositely charge attraction through hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantitative determination of ETS dye in food stuff sample collected from local market. PMID:27246163

  5. FRET Sensor for Erythrosine Dye Based on Organic Nanoparticles: Application to Analysis of Food Stuff.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2016-07-01

    fluorescent organic nanoprobe developed for the detection of erythrosine (ETS) food dye in aqueous medium based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The FRET process between donor (nanoparticles) and acceptor (ETS dye) arises due to oppositely charge attraction through hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantitative determination of ETS dye in food stuff sample collected from local market.

  6. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Promoting excess food... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  7. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting excess food... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  8. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting excess food... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: Promoting Excess Food Donation to Nonprofit...

  9. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting excess food... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  10. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Venhuis, Bastiaan J; de Kaste, Dries; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Martena, Martijn J

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight loss properties. Herbal food supplements intended for weight loss (n = 50) were sampled from August 2004 to May 2013. An HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was used to screen for the presence of the APIs in herbal supplements. In 24 samples the APIs sibutramine, desmethylsibutramine (DMS), didesmethylsibutramine (DDMS), rimonabant, sildenafil and/or the laxative phenolphthalein were identified 41 times. The presence of these APIs was, however, not stated on the label. The potential pharmacological effects of the detected APIs were estimated using data from reported effective doses of approved drugs. Use of 20 of the 24 herbal food supplements may result in potential pharmacological effects. Furthermore, risk assessment of phenolphthalein, a suspected carcinogen and found to be present in 10 supplements, based on the margin of exposure (MOE) approach, resulted in MOE values of 96-30,000. MOE values lower than 10,000 (96-220) were calculated for the daily intake levels of four out of these 10 supplements in which phenolphthalein was found. However, taking into account that weight loss preparations may be used for only a few weeks or months rather than during a lifetime, MOE values may be two to three orders of magnitude higher. The current study shows that the use of food supplements with sibutramine, DMS, DDMS and/or phenolphthalein could result in pharmacological effects.

  11. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-08-23

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D.; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L.; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I.; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R.; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J.

    2011-01-01

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873184

  13. The Impact of Sector on School Organizations: Institutional and Market Logics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Quirke, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on new institutional and market theories, this article derives three hypotheses for the effects of markets on educational organizations: They (1) weaken formal structures, (2) reverse tendencies toward isomorphism, and (3) force schools to recouple and compete via performance indicators. These ideas are investigated with data on private…

  14. 77 FR 66658 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') October 31, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... October 22, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange''), filed with the Securities...

  15. Imposing options on people in poverty: the harm of a live donor organ market.

    PubMed

    Rippon, Simon

    2014-03-01

    A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what would be best for them. The author shows that this 'Laissez-Choisir Argument' for organ selling rests on a mistake. This is because the claim that it would be better for people in poverty to sell their organs if given the option is consistent with the claim that it would be even better for them to not have the option at all. The upshot is that objections to an organ market need not be at all paternalistic, since we need not accept that the absence of a market makes those in poverty any worse off, even from their own point of view. The author goes on to argue that there are strong theoretical and empirical reasons for believing that people in poverty would in fact be harmed by the introduction of a market for live donor organs and that the harm constitutes sufficient grounds for prohibiting a market.

  16. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  17. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  18. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  19. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  20. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  1. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  2. 76 FR 37817 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization... source cooperative agreement with the World Health Organization (WHO). The goal of the Food and...

  3. Self-organizing Ising model of financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.-X.; Sornette, D.

    2007-01-01

    We study a dynamical Ising-like model of agents' opinions (buy or sell) with learning, in which the coupling coefficients are re-assessed continuously in time according to how past external news (time-varying magnetic field) have explained realized market returns. By combining herding, the impact of external news and private information, we find that the stylized facts of financial markets are reproduced only when agents misattribute the success of news to predict return to herding effects, thereby providing positive feedbacks leading to the model functioning close to the Ising critical point.

  4. Changes in the volume, power and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Martin, Cherie L; Kent, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the self-regulatory Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pre- and post-implementation in terms of volume of marketing, marketing techniques, and nutritional quality of foods marketed to children on television. Methods Data for 11 food categories for May 2006 and 2011 were purchased from Nielsen Media Research for two children's specialty channels in Toronto. A content analysis of food advertisements examining the volume and marketing techniques was undertaken. Nutritional information on each advertisement was collected and comparisons were made between 2006 and 2011. Results The volume of ads aired by Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) companies on children's specialty channels decreased by 24% between 2006 and 2011; however, children and teens were targeted significantly more, and spokes-characters and licensed characters were used more frequently in 2011 compared to 2006. The overall nutritional quality of CAI advertisements remains unchanged between 2006 and 2011. Conclusion There are clear weaknesses in the self-regulatory system in Canada. Food advertising needs to be regulated to protect the health of Canadian children. PMID:24975614

  5. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health.

  6. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  7. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

  8. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital.

  9. Self-regulation and the response to concerns about food and beverage marketing to children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Parke

    2009-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine reported in 2005 that food and beverage marketing to children and youth is "out of balance with healthful diets". The dominant policy response in the United States has been to encourage self-regulation by the food, beverage, advertising, and media industries. From a nutrition perspective, this deference to the private sector may seem surprising. This article reviews current economic and legal perspectives on food marketing to children that are motivating the policy decision to attempt a period of self-regulation. The empirical literature on this topic has been reinvigorated by new data on marketing practices and expenditures. The article concludes by considering whether more directive policies are possible in the future.

  10. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject.

  11. Television food marketing to children revisited: the Federal Trade Commission has the constitutional and statutory authority to regulate.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The evidence reveals that young children are targeted by food and beverage advertisers but are unable to comprehend the commercial context and persuasive intent of marketing. Although the First Amendment protects commercial speech, it does not protect deceptive and misleading speech for profit. Marketing directed at children may fall into this category of unprotected speech. Further, children do not have the same First Amendment right to receive speech as adults. For the first time since the Federal Trade Commission's original attempt to regulate marketing to children in the 1970s (termed KidVid), the political, scientific, and legal climate coalesce to make the time well-suited to reevaluate the FTC's authority for action. This paper analyzes the constitutional authority for the FTC to regulate television food marketing directed at children as deceptive in light of the most robust public health evidence on the subject. PMID:20446988

  12. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios indicate traditional and market food intake in an indigenous circumpolar population.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Bersamin, Andrea; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Church, Rebecca S; Pasker, Renee L; Luick, Bret R; Mohatt, Gerald V; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    The transition of a society from traditional to market-based diets (termed the nutrition transition) has been associated with profound changes in culture and health. We are developing biomarkers to track the nutrition transition in the Yup'ik Eskimo population of Southwest Alaska based on naturally occurring variations in the relative abundances of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C values). Here, we provide three pieces of evidence toward the validation of these biomarkers. First, we analyzed the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of a comprehensive sample of Yup'ik foods. We found that δ(15)N values were elevated in fish and marine mammals and that δ(13)C values were elevated in market foods containing corn or sugar cane carbon. Second, we evaluated the associations between RBC δ(15)N and δ(13)C values and self-reported measures of traditional and market food intake (n = 230). RBC δ(15)N values were correlated with intake of fish and marine mammals (r = 0.52; P < 0.0001). RBC δ(13)C values were correlated with intake of market foods made from corn and sugar cane (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001) and total market food intake (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001). Finally, we assessed whether stable isotope ratios captured population-level patterns of traditional and market intake (n = 1003). Isotopic biomarkers of traditional and market intake were associated with age, community location, sex, and cultural identity. Self-report methods showed variations by age and cultural identity only. Thus, stable isotopes show potential as biomarkers for monitoring dietary change in indigenous circumpolar populations.

  13. Soil food web changes during spontaneous succession at post mining sites: a possible ecosystem engineering effect on food web organization?

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1- 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel.

  14. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market. PMID:10292841

  15. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market.

  16. Mass spectrometry imaging for visualizing organic analytes in food.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Eric; Chingin, Konstantin; Wang, Nannan; Dai, Ximo; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    The demand for rapid chemical imaging of food products steadily increases. Mass spectrometry (MS) is featured by excellent molecular specificity of analysis and is, therefore, a very attractive method for chemical profiling. MS for food imaging has increased significantly over the past decade, aided by the emergence of various ambient ionization techniques that allow direct and rapid analysis in ambient environment. In this article, the current status of food imaging with MSI is reviewed. The described approaches include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), but emphasize desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (SDAPCI), and laser ablation flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). The methods are compared with regard to spatial resolution; analysis speed and time; limit of detection; and technical aspects. The performance of each method is illustrated with the description of a related application. Specific requirements in food imaging are discussed.

  17. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V

    2008-01-01

    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors. PMID:18935879

  18. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain.

  19. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  20. Awareness and Perceptions of Food Safety Risks and Risk Management in Poultry Production and Slaughter: A Qualitative Study of Direct-Market Poultry Producers in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Patrick; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document and understand the perceptions and opinions of small-scale poultry producers who market directly to consumers about microbial food safety risks in the poultry supply chain. Between January and November 2014, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a convenience sample of 16 owner-operators of Maryland direct-market commercial poultry farms. Three overarching thematic categories emerged from these interviews that describe: 1) characteristics of Maryland direct-market poultry production and processing; 2) microbial food safety risk awareness and risk management in small-scale poultry production, slaughter and processing; and 3) motivations for prioritizing food safety in the statewide direct-market poultry supply chain. Key informants provided valuable insights on many topics relevant to evaluating microbial food safety in the Maryland direct-market poultry supply chain, including: direct-market poultry production and processing practices and models, perspectives on issues related to food safety risk management, perspectives on direct-market agriculture economics and marketing strategies, and ideas for how to enhance food safety at the direct-market level of the Maryland poultry supply chain. The findings have policy implications and provide insights into food safety in small-scale commercial poultry production, processing, distribution and retail. In addition, the findings will inform future food safety research on the small-scale US poultry supply chain. PMID:27341034

  1. Organ transplantation: is the best approach a legalized market or altruism?

    PubMed

    Clemmons, Allison

    2009-01-01

    More than 100,000 individuals are on the waiting list to receive a lifesaving transplant, but many of them will not receive the organ they need. Legislation has been passed to support organ donation--the current organ procurement system in the United States is governed by the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 1968 and the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984--but a shortage of donated organs remains. Potential solutions include a legalized organ market, expanded legislation, therapeutic cloning, and xenotransplantation. If no change occurs, the black market in organ procurement will continue to expand. A comprehensive approach consisting of both short-term (increased education and national paired-kidney exchange) and long-term solutions (expanded legislation to fund and promote therapeutic cloning) is presented in this essay. PMID:19681356

  2. Determining the content of lead and cadmium in infant food from the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the toxic metals in the baby fruit and vegetable desserts, juices and dinners available on the Polish market, and find that these products a less are safe for infants. The average daily intake of cadmium and lead found in one jar of dessert, one bottle of juice and one jar of baby dinner is, respectively, 0.20 μg (2% of PTDI) and 0.82 μg (2.2% of PTDI), 0.15 μg (2% of PTDI) and 4.86 μg (13.6% of PTDI), and 0.98 μg (10% of PTDI) and 2.36 μg (6.7% of PTDI). It was confirmed that all the examined baby food met the requirements regarding lead and cadmium contamination, and the obtained results were lower than the maximum acceptable level of the contamination with these metals. It may be assumed that fruit and vegetable products available on the Polish market are safe for infants. However, in some products, the levels of cadmium and lead were high.

  3. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy.

  4. Determining the content of lead and cadmium in infant food from the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the toxic metals in the baby fruit and vegetable desserts, juices and dinners available on the Polish market, and find that these products a less are safe for infants. The average daily intake of cadmium and lead found in one jar of dessert, one bottle of juice and one jar of baby dinner is, respectively, 0.20 μg (2% of PTDI) and 0.82 μg (2.2% of PTDI), 0.15 μg (2% of PTDI) and 4.86 μg (13.6% of PTDI), and 0.98 μg (10% of PTDI) and 2.36 μg (6.7% of PTDI). It was confirmed that all the examined baby food met the requirements regarding lead and cadmium contamination, and the obtained results were lower than the maximum acceptable level of the contamination with these metals. It may be assumed that fruit and vegetable products available on the Polish market are safe for infants. However, in some products, the levels of cadmium and lead were high. PMID:22229828

  5. Stakeholder insights on the planning and development of an independent benchmark standard for responsible food marketing.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Georgina; Macdonald, Laura

    2016-06-01

    A mixed methods qualitative survey investigated stakeholder responses to the proposal to develop an independently defined, audited and certifiable set of benchmark standards for responsible food marketing. Its purpose was to inform the policy planning and development process. A majority of respondents were supportive of the proposal. A majority also viewed the engagement and collaboration of a broad base of stakeholders in its planning and development as potentially beneficial. Positive responses were associated with views that policy controls can and should be extended to include all form of marketing, that obesity and non-communicable diseases prevention and control was a shared responsibility and an urgent policy priority and prior experience of independent standardisation as a policy lever for good practice. Strong policy leadership, demonstrable utilisation of the evidence base in its development and deployment and a conceptually clear communications plan were identified as priority targets for future policy planning. Future research priorities include generating more evidence on the feasibility of developing an effective community of practice and theory of change, the strengths and limitations of these and developing an evidence-based step-wise communications strategy. PMID:27085486

  6. The effect of attractiveness on food sharing preferences in human mating markets.

    PubMed

    Stirrat, Michael; Gumert, Michael; Perrett, David

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored how physical attractiveness affects food sharing by studying payment preferences for hypothetical romantic dinner dates (a hypothetical mating market). We analyzed payment preferences, self-rated attractiveness, and rated attractiveness for hypothetical dates in 416 participants. We hypothesized that (1) men would be more likely to prefer to pay than would women, (2) attractive individuals of both sexes would be less willing to pay, and (3) preferences to enter an exchange would be influenced by the attractiveness of prospective partners such that (3a) men would prefer to pay for attractive women, and (3b) women would prefer to be paid for by attractive men. All hypotheses were supported by our results. Individuals with higher self-rated attractiveness were more likely to prefer that their date would pay for the meal, and we found clear sex differences in how the attractiveness of potential dates affected payment preferences. Male participants preferred to pay for dates that had higher facial attractiveness, while female participants preferred that attractive men would pay. Individuals show condition dependent financial preferences consistent with the provisioning hypothesis in this mating market that are adaptive to evaluations of their own quality and that of prospective partners. PMID:22947957

  7. Cardioprotective cryptides derived from fish and other food sources: generation, application, and future markets.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Hayes, Maria

    2015-02-11

    The primary function of dietary protein is to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. However, protein is also a source of latent bioactive peptides or cryptides with potential health benefits including the control and regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major, controllable risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is also implicated in the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and end-stage diabetes. Cryptides can act on various systems of the body including the circulatory, gastrointestinal (GI), nervous, skeletal, and respiratory systems. A number of studies carried out to date have examined the health benefits of food protein isolates and hydrolysates. This review provides an overview of existing blood pressure regulating peptides and products derived from fish and other protein sources and hydrolysates. It discusses the methods used currently to generate and identify cryptides from these sources and their application in food and pharmaceutical products. It also looks at the current market for protein-derived peptides and peptide-containing products, legislation governing their use, and the future development of research in this area. PMID:25597264

  8. 76 FR 29014 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization... the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II....

  9. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  10. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying...

  11. Quantifying the linkages among soil health, organic farming, and food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming systems utilize organic amendments, diverse crop rotations and cover crops to promote soil fertility and enhance soil health. These practices increase biologically available forms of soil organic matter, and increase the activities of beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Physi...

  12. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2015-09-16

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. In a recent study, in which we investigated neglected exogenous routes of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union, we have isolated 15 L. monocytogenes strains in food products, which were imported from the Republic of Moldavia to Romania and illegally sold at a local market. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these 15 L. monocytogenes strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that these L. monocytogenes strains belong to six different sequence types (ST2, ST8, ST9, ST20, ST121 and ST155). In addition, in vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells showed a high strain variability regarding the invasion efficiency in Caco2 cells (0.98-2.78%) and the intracellular growth rate in both cell types. Both ST121 strains and the ST9 isolate were unable to invade Caco2 cells, and all ST155 strains showed no proliferation inside macrophages and revealed low cytotoxicity. Furthermore we performed sequence analysis of three main virulence factors: PrfA, internalin A (InlA) and listeriolysin O (LLO). The Romanian food isolates showed a high diversity in the InlA and LLO amino acid sequences, whereas the amino acid sequence of PrfA of all strains was identical. Overall, the amino acid sequences of PrfA, InlA and LLO were identical for strains belonging to the same ST. We detected in total 30 different amino acid substitutions, resulting in seven different InlA variants, two of which have not yet been described. The three strains, which were unable to invade Caco2 cells, harboured a premature stop codon resulting in truncated InlA. Furthermore, we detected four different amino acid substitutions in the LLO sequence, which are present in four variants. The number of LLO mutations correlates negatively with intracellular growth in Caco2 and THP1 cells and

  13. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

  14. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  15. The influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and body mass index: a cross-national time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Gimeno, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of fast food consumption on mean population body mass index (BMI) and explore the possible influence of market deregulation on fast food consumption and BMI. Methods The within-country association between fast food consumption and BMI in 25 high-income member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development between 1999 and 2008 was explored through multivariate panel regression models, after adjustment for per capita gross domestic product, urbanization, trade openness, lifestyle indicators and other covariates. The possible mediating effect of annual per capita intake of soft drinks, animal fats and total calories on the association between fast food consumption and BMI was also analysed. Two-stage least squares regression models were conducted, using economic freedom as an instrumental variable, to study the causal effect of fast food consumption on BMI. Findings After adjustment for covariates, each 1-unit increase in annual fast food transactions per capita was associated with an increase of 0.033 kg/m2 in age-standardized BMI (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.013–0.052). Only the intake of soft drinks – not animal fat or total calories – mediated the observed association (β: 0.030; 95% CI: 0.010–0.050). Economic freedom was an independent predictor of fast food consumption (β: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.16–0.37). When economic freedom was used as an instrumental variable, the association between fast food and BMI weakened but remained significant (β: 0.023; 95% CI: 0.001–0.045). Conclusion Fast food consumption is an independent predictor of mean BMI in high-income countries. Market deregulation policies may contribute to the obesity epidemic by facilitating the spread of fast food. PMID:24623903

  16. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  17. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food. PMID:26386300

  18. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  19. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  20. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for obtaining building-block chemicals from renewable carbon sources. Although some acids have been produced for some time and in-depth knowledge of these microbial production processes has been gained, further microbial production processes seem to be feasible, but large-scale production has not yet been possible. Citric, lactic and succinic acid production exemplify three processes in different stages of industrial development. Although the questions being addressed by current research on these processes are diverging, a comparison is helpful for understanding microbial organic acid production in general. In this article, through analysis of the current advances in production of these acids, we present guidelines for future developments in this fast-moving field. PMID:18191255

  1. Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Scott, Steffanie

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

  2. Shoppers' perceived embeddedness and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Scott, Steffanie

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the concept of perceived embeddedness (PE) and its impact on purchasing behavior at an organic farmers' market. Based on a review of the prior literature, the study refines the conceptualization and measurement of PE as a second-order factor construct reflected in its three dimensions: perceived social embeddedness, perceived spatial embeddedness, and perceived natural embeddedness. The study also suggests that organic farmers' market shoppers' PE is positively related to the two measures of purchasing behavior: expenditure per visit and repurchase intention. In a sample of 492 organic farmers' market shoppers in Beijing municipality, China, the study find support for the second-order factor structure of PE and the theorized relationship between the shoppers' PE and their purchasing behavior. The study also discusses theoretical and managerial implications of the findings. PMID:25128837

  3. Organic farming: Impacts on soil, food, and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...

  4. Soil food web changes during spontaneous succession at post mining sites: a possible ecosystem engineering effect on food web organization?

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1- 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel. PMID:24260281

  5. Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1– 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel. PMID:24260281

  6. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  7. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  8. Foods from black market at EU border as a neglected route of potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Oniciuc, Elena-Alexandra; Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Bolocan, Andrei-Sorin; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Rovira, Jordi; Hernández, Marta; Fernández-Natal, Isabel; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-09-16

    The illegal entrance of foods to EU through black markets at the EU borders can constitute a neglected route of dissemination of foodborne pathogens, and in particular of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we have assessed the presence of MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border (the southeast part of Romania, on the border with Republic of Moldavia). We performed a search for MRSA among 200 food samples collected from 2012 to 2013. All S. aureus were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec typing, and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) virulence factors. Overall, 32 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 16 food samples (8%). One isolate detected in a pork lard sample was MRSA (0.5%). PFGE with the restriction enzyme SmaI revealed 12 genotypes among the 32 S. aureus isolates. The MRSA isolate belonged to sequence type 398, harbored SCCmec type V, tested negative for the presence of the PVL genes and was resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and cefazolin, besides all β-lactams. Among 31 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 29% were resistant to penicillin, 9.7% to tetracycline and 3.2% to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, in this study we report the presence of livestock-associated MRSA in foods sold in a black market at an EU border: ST398-MRSA-V. These results confirm the potential role of food in the dissemination of MRSA lineages among population, and the potential role of illegally introduced food to EU in the prevalence and evolution of MRSA clones in the community.

  9. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p < 0.001), changed explicit beliefs in specific FF (p < 0.001) and shifted the automatic association of FF with health to performance (p < 0.001). Explicitly expressed beliefs and automatic associations appear to be independent. Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a

  10. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  11. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  12. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations.

  13. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations. PMID:27407182

  14. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    PubMed

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  15. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    PubMed

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape? PMID:18374111

  16. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products. PMID:25920234

  17. Fairness Is an Emergent Self-Organized Property of the Free Market for Labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2010-06-01

    The excessive compensation packages of CEOs of U.S. corporations in recent years have brought to the foreground the issue of fairness in economics. The conventional wisdom is that the free market for labor, which determines the pay packages, cares only about efficiency and not fairness. We present an alternative theory that shows that an ideal free market environment also promotes fairness, as an emergent property resulting from the self-organizing market dynamics. Even though an individual employee may care only about his or her salary and no one else's, the collective actions of all the employees, combined with the profit maximizing actions of all the companies, in a free market environment under budgetary constraints, lead towards a more fair allocation of wages, guided by Adam Smith's invisible hand of self-organization. By exploring deep connections with statistical thermodynamics, we show that entropy is the appropriate measure of fairness in a free market environment which is maximized at equilibrium to yield the lognormal distribution of salaries as the fairest inequality of pay in an organization under ideal conditions.

  18. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed.

  19. Food-Grade Organisms as Vaccine Biofactories and Oral Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos; Meza, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The use of food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles has been explored during the past 25 years, opening new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Herein, a comparative and updated scenario on the production of oral vaccines in food-grade organisms is provided and placed in perspective. The status of clinical evaluations and the adoption of this technology by the industry are highlighted.

  20. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications.

  1. 78 FR 15392 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... in securities, and to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a... perfect the mechanism of a free and open market and a national market system because it will allow member... competition for retail orders. B. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition...

  2. 76 FR 77032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...) the shares of liquidity provided in all securities through one of its Market Participant...

  3. 18 CFR 35.47 - Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tariff provisions regarding credit practices in organized wholesale electric markets. 35.47 Section 35.47 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS...

  4. 77 FR 3024 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Options Fees January 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...

  5. 75 FR 15362 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... market price for energy for such reductions.\\4\\ \\1\\ Demand response means a reduction in the consumption... price of electric energy or to incentive payments designed to induce lower consumption of electric... decline of six to 12 percent.\\10\\ Demand response can also lower prices in the organized wholesale...

  6. 77 FR 52373 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ...), 73 FR 69685 (November 19, 2008) (SR-BSE-2008-48). See also BX Rule 1013(a)(5). The process by which... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58927 (November 10, 2008), 73 FR 69685 (November 19, 2008) (SR-BSE-2008... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

  7. 75 FR 26225 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Notice of Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... conference to elicit input on issues pertaining to Frequency Regulation Compensation in the ISO/RTO...

  8. 75 FR 29531 - Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Frequency Regulation Compensation in the Organized Wholesale Power Markets... the April 27 Notice, the conference will provide a forum to consider issues related to...

  9. La Selva and the Magnetic Pull of Markets: Organic Coffee-Growing in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen Contreras

    1995-01-01

    A confederation of 10 coffee producers from southern Mexico seeks to improve the lives and incomes of participants by taking advantage of the lucrative organic coffee market. A farmer-to-farmer extension approach teaches over 200 participants to improve the quality and production of coffee in a manner that conserves natural resources and…

  10. The Sensitivity of Food Prices to Climate Dynamics in the Informal Markets of Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Pinzon, J. E.; Prince, S. D.

    2006-05-01

    Systematic evaluation of food security throughout the West African Sahel has been attempted for nearly two decades. Food security analyses use food prices to determine the ability of the population to access food, and satellite derived vegetation indices to establish how much food is available each year. The relationship between these different food security indicators was explored in this study using correspondence analysis and through the use of Markov chain models. Two sources of quantitative data were used in these analysis that are readily available: 8km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the NOAA series of satellites carrying the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and monthly millet grain prices from 445 markets in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. The results of this study show that the quality of the growing season affects the price of millet at the annual and the seasonal time scales. If the growing season was characterized by erratic, sparse rainfall it resulted in higher prices, and well- distributed, abundant rainfall resulted in lower prices. Model output was used to determine the impact of coupled price pressure and production deficits on the livelihoods of three demographic groups in Niger, demonstrating the power of integrating disparate datasets for food security estimation. The model can be used to estimate the economic and societal impacts resulting from climate variation, causing significant changes in human consumptions patterns. These changes can have global consequences when drought affects large portions of the growing regions simultaneously in the same year.

  11. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  12. Fluorinated organic compounds in an eastern Arctic marine food web.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Gregg T; Budakowski, Wes; Halldorson, Thor; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Friesen, Ken; Pepper, Karen; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Fisk, Aaron T

    2004-12-15

    An eastern Arctic marine food web was analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO-), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, C8F17SO2NH2), and N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtPFOSA, C8F17SO2NHCH2CH3) to examine the extent of bioaccumulation. PFOS was detected in all species analyzed, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.28 +/- 0.09 ng/g (arithmetic mean +/- 1 standard error, wet wt, whole body) in clams (Mya truncata) to 20.2 +/- 3.9 ng/g (wet wt, liver) in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). PFOA was detected in approximately 40% of the samples analyzed at concentrations generally smaller than those found for PFOS; the greatest concentrations were observed in zooplankton (2.6 +/- 0.3 ng/g, wet wt). N-EtPFOSA was detected in all species except redfish with mean concentrations ranging from 0.39 +/- 0.07 ng/g (wet wt) in mixed zooplankton to 92.8 +/- 41.9 ng/g (wet wt) in Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). This is the first report of N-EtPFOSA in Arctic biota. PFOSA was only detected in livers of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) (20.9 +/- 7.9 ng/g, wet wt) and narwhal (Monodon monoceros) (6.2 +/- 2.3 ng/g, wet wt), suggesting that N-EtPFOSA and other PFOSA-type precursors are likely present but are being biotransformed to PFOSA. A positive linear relationship was found between PFOS concentrations (wet wt) and trophic level (TL), based on delta15N values, (r2 = 0.51, p < 0.0001) resulting in a trophic magnification factor of 3.1. TL-corrected biomagnification factor estimates for PFOS ranged from 0.4 to 9. Both results indicate that PFOS biomagnifies in the Arctic marine food web when liver concentrations of PFOS are used for seabirds and marine mammals. However, transformation of N-EtPFOSA and PFOSA and potential other perfluorinated compounds to PFOS may contribute to PFOS levels in marine mammals and may inflate estimated biomagnification values. None of the other fluorinated compounds (N-EtPFOSA, PFOSA, and PFOA) were

  13. News report. Gaps and weaknesses in controls on food and drink marketing to children in the UK.

    PubMed

    Landon, Jane

    2013-03-01

    In 2011 the National Heart Forum completed a commission from the UK Department of Health to conduct a mapping and consultation exercise on the marketing and promotion of food and drinks to children. One of the outputs was an analysis of the regulatory environment including statutory and self-regulatory rules and voluntary codes of conduct. The key findings and observations from this analysis are presented in this short report.

  14. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell. PMID:22050823

  15. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell.

  16. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials. PMID:18681201

  17. Marketing the health care experience: eight steps to infuse brand essence into your organization.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Diane Gage; Rhodes, Sonia; Miller, Todd; Solomon, Jared

    2006-01-01

    One of the most elusive challenges in health care marketing is hitting on a strategy to substantially differentiate your organization in the community and drive profitable business. This article describes how Sharp HealthCare, the largest integrated health care delivery system in San Diego, has proven that focusing first on improving the health care experience for patients, physicians, and employees can provide the impetus for a vital marketing strategy that can lead to increased market share and net revenue. Over the last five years, this nonprofit health system has transformed the health care experience into tangible actions that are making a difference in the lives of all those the system serves. That difference has become Sharp's "brand essence"--a promise to the community that has been made through marketing, public relations, and advertising and then delivered through the dedicated work of Sharp's 14,000 team members. They call this performance improvement strategy The Sharp Experience. This article outlines the eight-step journey that led the organization to this brand essence marketing campaign, a campaign whose centerpiece is an award-winning 30-minute television documentary that use real-time patient stories to demonstrate Sharp's focus on service and patient-centered care against a backdrop of clinical quality and state-of-the-art technology, and documentary-style radio and television commercials.

  18. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed.

  19. National markets for organic waste-derived fertilizers and soil amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Pierzynski, G.M.; Pepperman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The last decade has seen enormous growth in the U.S. in the recycling of organic waste materials like sewage sludge, manures, yard waste, solid waste and various industrial wastes. This has been prompted by real or perceived shortages of landfill capacity, state and federal regulations favoring beneficial use of organic wastes, and public support for recycling. Use of fertilizers and soil amendments derived from these wastes has been stimulated by favorable supply-side economics, a shift to organic/sustainable agriculture, and water quality concerns that favor slow-release nutrient sources. This paper summarizes the properties and beneficial use attributes of the various wastes and their derived products, markets for these materials, and constraints/strategies for market penetration.

  20. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  1. Detection of genetically modified organisms in foods by DNA amplification techniques.

    PubMed

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro; González, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the different DNA amplification techniques that are being used for detecting genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods are examined. This study intends to provide an updated overview (including works published till June 2002) on the principal applications of such techniques together with their main advantages and drawbacks in GMO detection in foods. Some relevant facts on sampling, DNA isolation, and DNA amplification methods are discussed. Moreover; these analytical protocols are discuissed from a quantitative point of view, including the newest investigations on multiplex detection of GMOs in foods and validation of methods.

  2. Bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic selenium in a laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.M.; Canfield, T.J.; La Point, T.W. )

    1993-01-01

    Aquatic organisms accumulated selenium (Se) from inorganic and organic Se species via aqueous and food-chain exposure routes. The authors measured aqueous and food-chain Se bioaccumulation from selenate, selenite, and seleno-L-methionine in a laboratory food chain of algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus). Selenium concentrations were monitored radiometrically with [sup 75]Se-labeled compounds. All three organisms concentrated Se more strongly from aqueous selenomethionine than from either inorganic Se species. Bioconcentration factors estimated from 1 [mu]g Se/L Se-methionine exposures were approximately 16,000 for algae, 200,000 for daphnids, and 5,000 for bluegills. Algae and daphnids concentrated Se more strongly from selenite than selenate whereas bluegills concentrated Se about equally from both inorganic species. Bioaccumulation of foodborne Se by daphnids and bluegills was similar in food chains dosed with different Se species. Daphnids and bluegills did not accumulate Se concentrations greater than those in their diet, except at very low dietary Se concentrations. Food-chain concentration factors (CFs) for daphnids decreased from near 1.0 to 0.5 with increases in algal Se concentrations, whereas CFs estimated from bluegill exposures averaged 0.5 over a range of foodborne Se concentrations. In exposures based on selenite, bluegills accumulated greater Se concentrations from food than from water.

  3. Foodomics: A new tool to differentiate between organic and conventional foods.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2016-07-01

    The demand for organic food is increasing annually due to the growing consumer trend for more natural products that have simpler ingredient lists, involve less processing and are grown free of pesticides. However, there is still not enough nutritional evidence in favor of organic food consumption. Classical chemical analysis of macro- and micronutrients has demonstrated that organic crops are poorer in nitrogen, but clear evidence for other nutrients is lacking. Omics technologies forming part of the new discipline of foodomics have allowed the detection of possible nutritional differences between organic and conventional production, although many results remain controversial and contradictory. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that use foodomics techniques as a tool to differentiate between organic and conventional production. PMID:26553784

  4. Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002–2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food. Results The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a ‘health and sustainability component’, with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n = 5786), was associated with increased scores on the ‘health and sustainability component’ (p < 0.001). The increase in score represented approximately 1/10 of the total variation and was independent of sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Participants with frequent consumption of organic food had a diet with higher density of fiber and most nutrients such as folate, beta-carotene and vitamin C, and lower density of sodium compared to participants with no or low organic consumption. Conclusion The present study showed that pregnant Norwegian women reporting frequent consumption of organically produced food had dietary pattern and quality more in line with public advice for healthy and sustainable diets. A methodological implication is that the overall diet needs to be

  5. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions. PMID:21879100

  6. [Genetically modified organisms in food--production, detection and risks].

    PubMed

    Zeljezić, Davor

    2004-11-01

    The first genetically modified plant (GMP) was a tobacco resistant to antibiotics in 1983. In 1996, the first genetically altered crop, a delayed-ripening tomato was commercially released. In the year 2003, the estimated global area of GM crops for was 67.7 million hectares. To produce such a plant a gene of interest has to be isolated from the donor. Together with a promoter, terminator sequence and marker gene it has to be introduced into the plant cell which is then stimulated to generate a whole GMP expressing new characteristics (herbicide/insect resistance, delayed ripening). The last few months have seen a strong public debate over genetically modified organisms which has raised scientific, economic, political, and ethical issues. Some questions concerning the safety of GMPs are still to be answered, and decisions about their future should be based on scientifically validated information.

  7. A non-equilibrium model for predicting bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in aquatic food-webs

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H.; Lazar, R.; Haffner, G.D.; Whittle, D.M.; Gobas, F.A.P.C.

    1995-12-31

    A sub-model describing bioaccumulation and biomagnification in benthic invertebrates was incorporated into a steady-state food-web model (Gobas, 1993) was modified, to estimate concentrations of organic contaminants in aquatic organisms based on chemical concentrations in water and sediments. Model predictions were in good agreement with field data when applied to western Lake Erie. The improved ability of the model to simulate bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates, makes this model particularly useful for quantifying contaminant transfer in the benthic food-web.

  8. Use of Vendedores (Mobile Food Vendors), Pulgas (Flea Markets), and Vecinos o Amigos (Neighbors or Friends) as Alternative Sources of Food for Purchase among Mexican-origin Households in Texas Border Colonias

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; Johnson, Cassandra M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies acknowledging the existence of alternative food sources, and factors associated with food purchasing from three common alternative sources: vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos/amigos (neighbors/friends). This analysis aims to examine the use of alternative food sources by Mexican-origin women from Texas-border colonias and determine factors associated with their use. The design was cross-sectional. Promotora-researchers (promotoras de salud trained in research methods) recruited 610 Mexican-origin women from 44 colonias and conducted in-person surveys. Surveys included participant characteristics and measures of food environment use and household food security. Statistical analyses included separate logistic regressions, modeled for food purchase from mobile food vendors, pulgas, or neighbors/friends (NFs). Child food insecurity was associated with purchasing food from mobile food vendors, while household food security was associated with using pulgas or NFs. School nutrition program participants were more likely to live in households that depend on alternative food sources. Efforts to increase healthful food consumption such as fruits and vegetables should acknowledge all potential food sources (traditional, convenience, non-traditional, and alternative), especially those preferred by colonia residents. Current findings support the conceptual broadening of the retail food environment, and the importance of linking use with spatial access (proximity) to more accurately depict access to food sources. PMID:22709775

  9. Use of vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos o amigos (neighbors or friends) as alternative sources of food for purchase among Mexican-origin households in Texas border colonias.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies acknowledging the existence of alternative food sources, and factors associated with food purchasing from three common alternative sources: vendedores (mobile food vendors), pulgas (flea markets), and vecinos/amigos (neighbors/friends). This analysis aims to examine the use of alternative food sources by Mexican-origin women from Texas-border colonias and determine factors associated with their use. The design was cross-sectional. Promotora-researchers (promotoras de salud trained in research methods) recruited 610 Mexican-origin women from 44 colonias and conducted in-person surveys. Surveys included participant characteristics and measures of food environment use and household food security. Statistical analyses included separate logistic regressions, modeled for food purchase from mobile food vendors, pulgas, or neighbors/friends. Child food insecurity was associated with purchasing food from mobile food vendors, while household food security was associated with using pulgas or neighbors/friends. School nutrition program participants were more likely to live in households that depend on alternative food sources. Efforts to increase healthful food consumption such as fruits and vegetables should acknowledge all potential food sources (traditional, convenience, nontraditional, and alternative), especially those preferred by colonia residents. Current findings support the conceptual broadening of the retail food environment, and the importance of linking use with spatial access (proximity) to more accurately depict access to food sources.

  10. Self-organizing Ising model of artificial financial markets with small-world network topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haijie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Anghui; Su, Guifeng; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    We study a self-organizing Ising-like model of artificial financial markets with underlying small-world (SW) network topology. The asset price dynamics results from the collective decisions of interacting agents which are located on a small-world complex network (the nodes symbolize the agents of a financial market). The model incorporates the effects of imitation, the impact of external news and private information. We also investigate the influence of different network topologies, from regular lattice to random graph, on the asset price dynamics by adjusting the probability of the rewiring procedure. We find that a specific combination of model parameters reproduce main stylized facts of real-world financial markets.

  11. Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green?

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine M

    2002-02-01

    Consumer concern regarding possible adverse health effects of foods produced using intensive farming methods has led to considerable interest in the health benefits of organically-produced crops and animal products. There appears to be widespread perception amongst consumers that such methods result in foods of higher nutritional quality. The present review concludes that evidence that can support or refute such perception is not available in the scientific literature. A limited number of studies have compared the nutrient compositions of organically- and conventionally-produced crops, with a very small number of studies that have compared animal products (meat, milk and dairy products) produced under the two agricultural systems. Very few compositional differences have been reported, although there are reasonably consistent findings for higher nitrate and lower vitamin C contents of conventionally-produced vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables. Data concerning possible impacts on animal and human health of diets comprising organic or conventional produce are extremely sparse. Data from controlled studies in animal models, particularly within single species, are limited or poorly designed, and findings from these studies provide conflicting conclusions. There are no reports in the literature of controlled intervention studies in human subjects. Comparison of health outcomes in populations that habitually consume organically- or conventionally-produced foods are flawed by the large number of confounding factors that might contribute to any differences reported. If consumer perceptions regarding potential health benefits of organic foods are to be supported, more research of better quality is needed than that which is currently available.

  12. Gender and food, a study of attitudes in the USA towards organic, local, U.S. grown, and GM-free foods.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Alcaraz V, Gabriela; Hallman, William K

    2010-12-01

    Food choice is influenced by consumer attitudes towards food attributes. This U.S.-based study (n = 601) simultaneously compares attitudes towards selected food attributes of organic, locally grown, U.S. grown, and GM-free food in relation to other food attributes. Exploratory factor analysis identifies underlying constructs that determine, together and separately, female and male food choice decisions. Gendered analysis of the value of food in life and food behaviours (cooking and shopping) support the investigation of the highlighted food attributes. Respondents generally assigned greater importance to the U.S. grown, followed by GM-free, locally grown, and organically produced food attributes in deciding what to eat. Analysis of the female and male subsamples yielded similar factor results. All four main attributes were captured in a single factor, associated with respondents in both the female and male subsamples who are older, have lower incomes, and who are religiously observant. Additionally, among females, this factor was associated with higher education; and among males, living in households with children and/or with partners. Additional studies should further explore the interaction of food attributes now becoming increasingly important and prevalent in current food products.

  13. Gluten detection in foods available in the United States - a market survey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-15

    Many gluten-free (GF) food choices are now available in supermarkets. However, the unintentional presence of gluten in these foods poses a serious health risk to wheat-allergic and celiac patients. Different GF labelled foods (275) and non-GF labelled foods, without wheat/rye/barley on the ingredient label (186), were analysed for gluten content by two different enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Considering the gluten threshold of 20ppm, GF labelled foods had 98.9% GF labelling compliance with 1.1% (3 out of 275) of foods being mislabelled/misbranded. Among the non-GF labelled foods, 19.4% (36 out of 186) of foods had >20ppm of gluten, as measured by at least one ELISA kit, of which 19 foods had >100ppm of gluten. The presence of oats in non-GF labelled foods was strongly correlated with a positive ELISA result. Gluten was also found in a significant number of foods with gluten/wheat-related advisory warnings.

  14. Self-Organized Criticality and Stock Market Dynamics: an Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bartolozzi; D. B. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas

    2004-05-01

    The Stock Market is a complex self-interacting system, characterized by an intermittent behavior. Periods of high activity alternate with periods of relative calm. In the present work we investigate empirically about the possibility that the market is in a self-organized critical state (SOC). A wavelet transform method is used in order to separate high activity periods, related to the avalanches of sandpile models, from quiescent. A statistical analysis of the filtered data show a power law behavior in the avalanche size, duration and laminar times. The memory process, implied by the power law distribution, of the laminar times is not consistent with classical conservative models for self-organized criticality. We argue that a ''near-SOC'' state or a time dependence in the driver, which may be chaotic, can explain this behavior.

  15. Thinking Like a Whole Building: Whole Foods Market New Construction Summary, U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    Whole Foods Market participates in the U.S. Department of Energy's Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) to identify and develop cost-effective, readily deployed, replicable energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for commercial buildings. Whole Foods Market is working with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on a retrofit and a new construction CBP project. Whole Foods Market's CBP new construction project is a standalone store in Raleigh, North Carolina. Whole Foods Market examined the energy systems and the interactions between those systems in the design for the new Raleigh store. Based on this collaboration and preliminary energy modeling, Whole Foods Market and NREL identified a number of cost-effective EEMs that can be readily deployed in other Whole Foods Market stores and in other U.S. supermarkets. If the actual savings in the Raleigh store - which NREL will monitor and verify - match the modeling results, each year this store will save nearly $100,000 in operating costs (Raleigh's rates are about $0.06/kWh for electricity and $0.83/therm for natural gas). The store will also use 41% less energy than a Standard 90.1-compliant store and avoid about 3.7 million pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.

  16. The effects of structure, strategy and market conditions on the operating practices of physician-organization arrangements.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Vaughn, T E; Burns, L R

    2000-11-01

    Research to date has documented weak or inconsistent associations between market and organizational factors and the adoption of physician-organization arrangements (POAs) (e.g. physician-hospital organizations, management service organizations and independent practice associations) designed to increase physician integration. We argue that POAs may mask considerable variation in how these entities are operated and governed. Further, because the operating policies and practices of POAs are likely to influence more directly the behaviour of physicians than the structural form of the POA, they may be more sensitive to the market and organizational contingencies that encourage integration. This study attempts to test empirically the relative effects of POA type and market, strategic and organization factors on the operating policies and practices of market-based POAs. Results suggest that type of POA, and market, strategic and organizational factors affect risk sharing, physician selection practices, physician monitoring practices and ways in which monitoring information is used to influence physician behaviour in POAs.

  17. A ban on marketing of foods/beverages to children: the who, why, what and how of a population health intervention.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Daniel J; Campbell, Norman R C; Elliott, Charlene; McLaren, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition in Canada and elsewhere of the need for population-level interventions related to diet. One example of such an intervention is a ban on the marketing of foods/beverages to children, for which several health organizations have or are in the process of developing position statements. Considering the federal government's inaction to impose restrictions that would yield meaningful impact, there is opportunity for the health community to unite in support of a stronger set of policies. However, several issues and challenges exist, some of which we outline in this commentary. We emphasize that, despite challenges, the present and predicted future of diet-related illness in Canadian children is such that population-level intervention is necessary and becoming increasingly urgent, and there is an important role for the health community in facilitating action.

  18. Electricity generation from food wastes and characteristics of organic matters in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xiaoyue; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2016-04-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated as an alternative way to recover electricity from canteen based food waste. Characteristics of the organics in food waste before and after the MFC treatment were analyzed to investigate how the organic matters were biodegraded and transformed during the MFC treatment. A maximum power density of 5.6W/m(3) and an average output voltage of 0.51V were obtained. During the MFC operation, the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions. Additionally, aromatic compounds in the hydrophilic fraction were more preferentially removed than non-aromatic compounds. The MFC could easily remove the tryptophan protein-like substances in all fractions and aromatic proteins in hydrophilic and hydrophobic neutral fractions. Additionally, the hydrophobic amide-1 proteins and aliphatic components were readily hydrolyzed and biodegraded in the MFC. These findings may facilitate the pretreatment and posttreatment choices for MFC system fed with food waste.

  19. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  20. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2013-07-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 µg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 µg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  1. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  2. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  3. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed. PMID:26610287

  4. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  5. Class and ethnicity in the global market for organs: the case of Korean cinema.

    PubMed

    Garden, Rebecca; Yoo Murphree, Hyon Joo

    2007-12-01

    While organ transplantation has been established in the medical imagination since the 1960s, this technology is currently undergoing a popular re-imagination in the era of global capitalism. As transplantation procedures have become routine in medical centers in non-Western and developing nations and as organ sales and transplant tourism become increasingly common, organs that function as a material resource increasingly derive from subaltern bodies. This essay explores this development as represented in Korean filmmaker Park Chan-wook's 2002 Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance, focusing on the ethnic and class characteristics of the global market in organs and possible modes of counter-logic to transplant technologies and related ethical discourses.

  6. Prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw and ready-to-eat foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence, levels, and relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) strains isolated from select raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at retail markets in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico were determined during 2011. LM was isolated from 26 (14.4%) of 180 food samples. Raw chicken breast showed the highest ...

  7. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) LEVELS IN AN EXPANDED MARKET BASKET SURVEY OF UNITED STATES (U.S) FOOD AND ESTIMATED PBDE DIETARY INTAKE BY AGE AND SEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study enhances a previously reported U.S. market basket survey of food for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels with a larger sample size of 62 individual analyses for 13 congeners. In addition, it estimates levels of PBDE intake from food by gender and age for the U....

  8. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  9. Receptivity to Television Fast-Food Restaurant Marketing and Obesity Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768

  10. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  11. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms.

  12. The Meaning of ‘Dining’: The Social Organization of Food in Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Ruth; Armstrong, Pat; Daly, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the social organization of food provision in publicly funded and regulated long-term care facilities. Methods Observations were conducted, along with 90 interviews with residents, families, and health providers in two Southern Ontario sites using rapid site-switching ethnography within a feminist political economy framework as part of an international, interdisciplinary study investigating healthy ageing. Results Food is purchased within a daily $7.80/per resident allotment, limiting high quality choices, which is further problematized by privatization of food services. Funding restrictions also result in low staffing levels, creating tensions in aligning with other Ministry mandated tasks such as bathing, and documenting: competing demands often lead to rushed meals. Regulations, primarily set in response to scandals and to ensure appropriate measured nutrition, reinforce the problem. Further, regulations regarding set meal times result in lack of resident agency, which is compounded by fixed menu options and seating arrangements in one common dining room. Rather than being viewed as an important part of resident socialization, food is reduced to a medicalized task, organized within a climate of cost-containment. Implications Findings warrant Ministry financial support for additional staff and for food provision. Policy changes are also required to give primacy to this population’s quality of life. PMID:27088052

  13. Analysis of food advertising to children on Spanish television: probing exposure to television marketing

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Daniel; Hernández-Torres, Juan José; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; López, Juan Carlos; Macías, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutrient dense, low energy), non-core (NCFA) (unbalanced energy profile or high in energy), or others (OFA) (supermarkets and special food). Results One thousand two hundred sixty-three food advertisements were recorded (TC: 579/GC: 684) in 2013. NCFA were the most shown (54.9%) in the regular full day TV programming (p < 0.001). In 2013, children watching GC had a higher relative risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than when watching TC (RR = 2.133, 95% CI: 1.398–3.255); CFA were broadcast most frequently in 2013 (GC: 23.7%; and TC: 47.2%) vs. 2007 (TC: 22.9%) (p < 0.001). The proportion of broadcasting between NCFA/CFA and OFA food advertisements in children's peak time slots was higher on TC (203/162) during 2013 than on GC (189/140), and significantly higher than that shown on TC in 2007 (180/36, p < 0.001). Conclusions Broadcasting of unhealthy TV food advertising on TC is lower today than six years ago; but, children's exposure to TV advertising of unhealthy food is worrying in Spain, and there is more exposure to unhealthy than healthy food by TV. Watching GC in 2013 had higher risk of being exposed to fast food advertisements than watching TC. PMID:27478462

  14. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  15. Estimating organic, local, and other price premiums in the Hawaii fluid milk market.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Xu, Xun; Leung, PingSun

    2015-04-01

    With retail scanner data, we applied hedonic price modeling to explore price premiums for organic, local, and other product attributes of fluid milk in Hawaii. Within the context of revealed preference, this analysis of organic and local attributes, under a single unified framework, is significant, as research in this area is deficient in the existing literature. This paper finds both organic and local attributes delivered price premiums over imported, conventional, whole fluid milk. However, the estimated price premium for organic milk (24.6%) is significantly lower than findings in the existing literature. Likewise, the price premium for the local attribute is estimated at 17.4%, again substantially lower compared with an earlier, stated preference study in Hawaii. Beyond that, we estimated a robust price premium of 19.7% for nutritional benefits claimed. The magnitude of this estimated coefficient reinforces the notion that nutrition information on food is deemed beneficial and valuable. Finally, package size measures the influence of product weight. With each larger package size, the estimate led to a corresponding larger price discount. This result is consistent with the practice of weight discounting that retailers usually offer with fresh packaged food. Additionally, we estimated a fairly high Armington elasticity of substitution, which suggests a relatively high degree of substitution between local and imported fluid milk when their relative price changes. Overall, this study establishes price premiums for organic, local, and nutrition benefits claimed for fluid milk in Hawaii.

  16. Organic Nutrients and Contaminants In Subsistence Species of Alaska: Concentrations and Relationship To Food Preparation Method

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wang, Xiaowa; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of Kotzebue, Alaska. Study design Eleven organic nutrients and 156 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake criteria. POPs were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). Results Cooking, as well as absence/presence of skin during sheefish processing, altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations in seals and fish. Sheefish muscle and seal blubber were particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids and seal liver in vitamin A. Seal liver exceeded the recommended upper limit for vitamin A. POP contribution to TDIL was <25% in all tissues except blubber, in which 4 POPs were present at >25% TDIL. No POPs exceeded TDIL in a serving of any tissue studied. The most prominent concerns identified were levels of vitamin A in spotted seal liver and certain POPs in blubber, warranting consideration when determining how much and how often these foods should be consumed. Conclusions Preparation methods altering tissues from their raw state significantly affect nutrient and contaminant concentrations, thus direct evaluation of actual food items is highly recommended to determine risk-benefits ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide essential nutrients with very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage the consumption of traditional foods and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models to assess overall food safety and quality. PMID:19917188

  17. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis. PMID:26958644

  18. Data in support of the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Noor; Alzubi, Hussein; Kader, Ahmad Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data. The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis.

  19. Trace elements in animal-based food from Shanghai markets and associated human daily intake and uptake estimation considering bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Chen, Liang; Hao, Ying; Cao, Tiehua; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-10-01

    The concentrations of four human essential trace elements [iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)] and non-essential elements [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] in eighteen animal-based foods including meat, fish, and shellfish collected from markets in Shanghai, China, were analyzed, and the associated human daily intake and uptake considering bioaccessibility were estimated. The mean concentration ranges for eight trace elements measured in the foods were 3.98-131µgg(-1) for Fe, 0.437-18.5µgg(-1) for Mn, 5.47-53.8µgg(-1) for Zn, none detected-0.101µgg(-1) for Cr, 2.88×10(-4)-2.48×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Cd, 1.18×10(-3)-0.747µgg(-1) for Pb, none detected-0.498µgg(-1) for As, and 8.98×10(-4)-6.52×10(-2)µgg(-1) for Hg. The highest mean concentrations of four human essential elements were all found in shellfish. For all the trace elements, the observed mean concentrations are mostly in agreement with the reported values around the world. The total daily intake of trace elements via ingestion of animal-based food via an average Shanghai resident was estimated as 7371µgd(-1) for the human essential elements and 13.0µgd(-1) for the human non-essential elements, but the uptake decreased to 4826µgd(-1) and 6.90µgd(-1), respectively, after trace element bioaccessibility was considered. Livestock and fish for human essential and non-essential elements, respectively, were the main contributor, no matter whether the bioaccessibility was considered or not. Risk estimations showed that the intake and uptake of a signal trace element for an average Shanghai resident via ingestion animal-based foods from Shanghai markets do not exceed the recommended dietary allowance values; consequently, a health risk situation is not indicated.

  20. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products.

  1. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products. PMID:24261938

  2. 77 FR 46535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change...) No change. * * * * * II. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and...

  3. 75 FR 36460 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

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  5. 77 FR 64167 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

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  8. 76 FR 64411 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... hereby given that on September 30, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'') filed with the... volatility may use the order type to avoid selling only a small portion of the order at the price...

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    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule... January 29, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... use of non-standard cabinet sizes or special cabinet cooling equipment, or the re-selling of...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Market Center March 2, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify Fees for Members Using the NASDAQ Options Market September 12, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

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  15. 75 FR 5822 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1 Thereto, To Amend Its Financial... hereby given that on January ] 21, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  16. Magnet status as a competitive strategy of hospital organizations: marketing a culture of excellence in nursing services.

    PubMed

    Tropello, Paula Grace Dunn

    2003-01-01

    With issues of patient safety, the nursing shortage, and managed care fiscal constraints, hospital organizations can strategically capture market share, while insuring best care practices, if they adopt the "Magnet Status" accreditation model. This quality indicator signifies to the consumer a culture of excellence in nursing services and fulfills the priority of customer satisfaction as a marketing strategy objective.

  17. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues.

  18. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues. PMID:23581670

  19. Undeclared allergenic ingredients in foods from animal origin: survey of an Italian region's food market, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Decastelli, Lucia; Gallina, Silvia; Manila Bianchi, Daniela; Fragassi, Sandra; Restani, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Several EC Directives have been promulgated to protect allergic individuals but no rule has been established with regard to allergen cross-contamination caused by shared transport vehicles or common processing equipment. The aim of this research was to quantify, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or real-time polymerase chain reaction, the presence in meat- or fish-based foods of four allergens (milk, egg, crustaceans and molluscs) that was not indicated either in the list of ingredients or in the label alert. In the time frame of 2007-2009, a total of 723 samples were subjected to 1983 analyses. The percentage of samples scoring positive ranged between 1.8% and 6.8% over the 3 years, and the concentrations of undeclared allergens found were 0.3-13.3 mg kg⁻¹ for milk (β-lactoglobulin) and 0.21-12 mg kg⁻¹ for egg white proteins. On this basis, the possibility of cross-contamination serious enough to raise public health concern cannot be dismissed.

  20. Ginkgo biloba medicines and food supplements on the Belgian market: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Saevels, J; Corthout, J

    2005-01-01

    Medicines and food supplements based on the dry extract of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. were evaluated by determination of the content of total flavonoids, rutin and terpene lactones by means of liquid chromatography. All examined medicines complied with the fixed requirements whereas all food supplements deviated from 1 or more of the criteria. It could also be demonstrated that some products contained extracts to which rutin was added.

  1. How Television Fast Food Marketing Aimed at Children Compares with Adult Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Amy M.; Wilking, Cara; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Bergamini, Elaina; Marijnissen, Jill; Sargent, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Quick service restaurant (QSR) television advertisements for children’s meals were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies to assess whether self-regulatory pledges for food advertisements to children had been implemented. Methods All nationally televised advertisements for the top 25 US QSR restaurants from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010 were obtained and viewed to identify those advertising meals for children and these advertisements were compared with adult advertisements from the same companies. Content coding included visual and audio assessment of branding, toy premiums, movie tie-ins, and depictions of food. For image size comparisons, the diagonal length of the advertisement was compared with the diagonal length of salient food and drink images. Results Almost all of the 92 QSR children’s meal advertisements that aired during the study period were attributable to McDonald’s (70%) or Burger King (29%); 79% of 25,000 television placements aired on just four channels (Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, Disney XD, and Nicktoons). Visual branding was more common in children’s advertisements vs. adult advertisements, with food packaging present in 88% vs. 23%, and street view of the QSR restaurant present in 41% vs. 12%. Toy premiums or giveaways were present in 69% vs. 1%, and movie tie-ins present in 55% vs. 14% of children’s vs. adult advertisements. Median food image diagonal length was 20% of the advertisement diagonal for children’s and 45% for adult advertisements. The audio script for children’s advertisements emphasized giveaways and movie tie-ins whereas adult advertisements emphasized food taste, price and portion size. Conclusions Children’s QSR advertisements emphasized toy giveaways and movie tie-ins rather than food products. Self-regulatory pledges to focus on actual food products instead of toy premiums were not supported by this analysis. PMID:24015250

  2. Just Say No to NOTA: Why the Prohibition of Compensation for Human Transplant Organs in NOTA Should Be Repealed and a Regulated Market for Cadaver Organs Instituted.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristy Lynn; Finley, Marisa; Rohack, J James

    2014-01-01

    The United States faces a shortage of organs for transplantation; thousands of individuals die each year while waiting for organs. The organ donation system relies on altruism because the National Organ Transplantation Act (NOTA) prohibits donors from receiving valuable consideration for organs to be used for transplantation. This paper contains a proposal for a regulated market for cadaveric organs as a mechanism to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. A regulated market for cadaveric organs is appropriate in the United States for the following reasons: (1) it is consistent with the numerous ways in which bodies. are currently treated as commodities; (2) it is unlikely to further disadvantage the poor; (3) it would not expose organ recipients to undue harm; (4) in the current organ transplantation system, everyone except the organ donor, benefits financially; (5) the prohibition in NOTA is inconsistent with laws permitting next of kin to recover for damage to the body of a deceased family member; (6) the protection of the dignitary interests of organs for donation is inconsistent with the current protections of the dignitary interests of human specimens; and (7) permitting a market for organs promotes the American values of autonomy and liberty.

  3. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  4. Genetically modified organisms in food-screening and specific detection by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vollenhofer, S; Burg, K; Schmidt, J; Kroath, H

    1999-12-01

    PCR methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were developed that can be used for screening purposes and for specific detection of glyphosate-tolerant soybean and insect-resistant maize in food. Primers were designed to amplify parts of the 35S promoter derived from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus, the NOS terminator derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene NPTII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II), to allow for general screening of foods. PCR/hybridization protocols were established for the detection of glyphosate-tolerant RoundUp Ready soybean and insect-resistant Bt-maize. Besides hybridization, confirmation of the results using restriction analysis was also possible. The described methods enabled a highly sensitive and specific detection of GMOs and thus provide a useful tool for routine analysis of raw and processed food products.

  5. Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, K E; Balkwill, A; Spencer, E A; Roddam, A W; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Key, T J; Beral, V; Pirie, K; Banks, Emily; Beral, Valerie; English, Ruth; Green, Jane; Patnick, Julietta; Peto, Richard; Reeves, Gillian; Vessey, Martin; Wallis, Matthew; Abbiss, Hayley; Abbott, Simon; Armstrong, Miranda; Balkwill, Angela; Banks, Emily; Benson, Vicky; Beral, Valerie; Black, Judith; Bradbury, Kathryn; Brown, Anna; Cairns, Benjamin; Canfell, Karen; Canoy, Dexter; Crossley, Barbara; Crowe, Francesca; Ewart, Dave; Ewart, Sarah; Fletcher, Lee; Floud, Sarah; Gathani, Toral; Gerrard, Laura; Goodill, Adrian; Green, Jane; Guiver, Lynden; Lingard, Isobel; Wan Kan, Sau; Kirichek, Oksana; Kroll, Mary; Langston, Nicky; Liu, Bette; Luque, Maria-Jose; Moser, Kath; Pank, Lynn; Pirie, Kirstin; Reeves, Gillian; Shaw, Keith; Sherman, Emma; Sherry-Starmer, Evie; Strange, Helena; Sweetland, Sian; Timadjer, Alison; Tipper, Sarah; Travis, Ruth; Wright, Lucy; Yang, Owen; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organically produced foods are less likely than conventionally produced foods to contain pesticide residues. Methods: We examined the hypothesis that eating organic food may reduce the risk of soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other common cancers in a large prospective study of 623 080 middle-aged UK women. Women reported their consumption of organic food and were followed for cancer incidence over the next 9.3 years. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks for cancer incidence by the reported frequency of consumption of organic foods. Results: At baseline, 30%, 63% and 7% of women reported never, sometimes, or usually/always eating organic food, respectively. Consumption of organic food was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of all cancer (n=53 769 cases in total) (RR for usually/always vs never=1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.07), soft tissue sarcoma (RR=1.37, 95% CI: 0.82–2.27), or breast cancer (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.02–1.15), but was associated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.96). Conclusions: In this large prospective study there was little or no decrease in the incidence of cancer associated with consumption of organic food, except possibly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:24675385

  6. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  7. Marketing strategies of hospital service organizations in Nigeria: a study of selected privately owned hospitals in Port Harcourt.

    PubMed

    Okwandu, Gabriel A

    2002-01-01

    This study was centered on the identification of the marketing strategies of hospitals and the factors that militate against their effective adoption and implementation. A total of 80 hospitals in Port Harcourt responded to a structured questionnaire administered on them. It was found, among other things, that many hospital organizations apply marketing strategies, and that hospitals that adopt effective marketing strategies perform better than those that do not. Some of the factors militating against the effective adoption and implementation of marketing strategies include lack of planning, lack of top management support, and non-utilization of all the promotional mix elements. PMID:12569994

  8. Marketing strategies of hospital service organizations in Nigeria: a study of selected privately owned hospitals in Port Harcourt.

    PubMed

    Okwandu, Gabriel A

    2002-01-01

    This study was centered on the identification of the marketing strategies of hospitals and the factors that militate against their effective adoption and implementation. A total of 80 hospitals in Port Harcourt responded to a structured questionnaire administered on them. It was found, among other things, that many hospital organizations apply marketing strategies, and that hospitals that adopt effective marketing strategies perform better than those that do not. Some of the factors militating against the effective adoption and implementation of marketing strategies include lack of planning, lack of top management support, and non-utilization of all the promotional mix elements.

  9. An arctic terrestrial food-chain bioaccumulation model for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Barry C; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2003-07-01

    A model representing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic terrestrial mammalian food-chains is developed, parametrized, tested, and analyzed. The model predicts concentrations of POPs in lichen, caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and wolf (Canis lupus) food-chains of Canada's central and western arctic region from measured concentrations in air and snowpack meltwater. The model accounts for temporal and seasonal variation in diet composition, life-stage, body weight, and fat content over the life-span of the animal. Model predicted concentrations of 25 organic chemicals forecasted for caribou and wolves from Cambridge Bay (69 degrees 07' N 105 degrees 03' W), Inuvik (68 degrees 18' N 133 degrees 29' W) and Bathurst Inlet (64 degrees 15' N 113 degrees 07' W) are shown to be in good agreement with the observed data. The model illustrates a strong relationship between biomagnification factors and chemical K(OA) and illustrates the effect of age, sex, and temperature on POPs bioaccumulation. Model results show that POPs with K(OA)s < 10(5) do not biomagnify in arctic terrestrial food-chains, while substances that exhibit log K(OA)s > 5 and also exhibit a log K(OW) > 2, show significant bioaccumulation in arctic terrestrial food-chains. The model shows that persistent low K(OW) (K(OW)s < 10(5)) but high K(OA) substances such as beta-HCH, 1,2,4,5 tetrachlorobenzene, and beta-endosulfan biomagnify in terrestrial mammals. PMID:12875402

  10. Tackling pollution by organic farming is capable of increasing fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aviñó, J P; Navarro, J J Fernández; Castro, V Vargas; Ripoll, I Ilzarbe; Sahuquillo, M J Márquez

    2016-01-01

    The global pollution stage is poisoning the biosphere and causing global temperatures to rise, necessitating a drastic change in the way man is dealing with nature. One change that may produce many beneficial effects on the biosphere and human health is the use of specific organic farming to produce food in a more integrated way in nature and to increase the capacity of man's own response. Despite many experts' opinion another way to deal with environmental contamination is possible: organic farming, which can increase man's ability to fortify foods. After more than 20 years working under this discipline, Bodegas Dagon is able to achieve the highest stilbenes concentrations (as resveratrol). Versus 14.3 mg/l, "Bodegas Dagón" wines contain resveratrol (HPLC and UV-spectroscopy) up to 1611.73 ± 72.66 mg/l, standing as world's potentially healthiest wine reported to date.

  11. Survey of the migration of melamine and formaldehyde from melamine food contact articles available on the UK market.

    PubMed

    Bradley, E L; Boughtflower, V; Smith, T L; Speck, D R; Castle, L

    2005-06-01

    The migration of melamine and formaldehyde, monomers used in the production of melamine-ware food contact articles, has been determined from 50 retail articles purchased in the UK. The food simulant 3% aqueous acetic acid was used as this is the most aggressive simulant towards melamine plastics. The test conditions used were repeated exposure to the simulant for 2 hours at 70 degrees C, since the articles were all intended for general use including contact with hot foods and beverages. Melamine migrated from 43 of the 50 samples tested and formaldehyde migrated from all 50 samples. Directive 2002/72/EC specifies migration limits for both of these monomers in foods and food simulants. Melamine is restricted by a specific migration limit (SML) of 30 mg/kg (equivalent to 5 mg/dm(2)) and formaldehyde, along with hexamethylenetetramine expressed as formaldehyde, is restricted by a total (T) SML(T) of 15 mg/kg (equivalent to 2.5 mg/dm(2)). In all cases the migration of melamine was much lower than the SML for this monomer. The migration of formaldehyde exceeded the SML(T) for 5 of the 50 samples tested. The failure to comply with the SML(T) was accompanied by a number of visible surface effects including discolouration and/or pitting of the simulant contact surface and cracking of the articles. Similar surface effects were observed when one of the samples was exposed to fruit juice which confirmed the suitability of the exposure conditions and 3% acetic acid as a simulant for the articles tested. The ratio of specific migration to overall migration was consistent with, but did not prove, the hypothesis that high formaldehyde migration could be due to the use of excessive hexamethylenetetramine in the polymer formulation. All illegal products were voluntarily removed from the market by the product suppliers.

  12. Evidence for the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon in a proglacial stream food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Hudson, J.H.; Bozeman, Maura; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.

    2015-01-01

    We used natural abundance δ13C, δ15N, and Δ14C to compare trophic linkages between potential carbon sources (leaf litter, epilithic biofilm, and particulate organic matter) and consumers (aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish) in a nonglacial stream and two reaches of the heavily glaciated Herbert River. We tested the hypothesis that proglacial stream food webs are sustained by organic carbon released from glacial ecosystems. Carbon sources and consumers in the nonglacial stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -30‰ to -25‰ for δ13C and from -14‰ to 53‰ for Δ14C reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial stream sites was highly Δ14C-depleted (-215‰ to 175‰) relative to the nonglacial stream consistent with the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon. IsoSource modeling showed that in upper Herbert River, macroinvertebrates (Δ14C = -171‰ to 22‰) and juvenile salmonids (Δ14C = −102‰ to 17‰) reflected a feeding history of both biofilm (~ 56%) and leaf litter (~ 40%). We estimate that in upper Herbert River on average 36% of the carbon incorporated into consumer biomass is derived from the glacier ecosystem. Thus, 14C-depleted glacial organic carbon was likely transferred to higher trophic levels through a feeding history of bacterial uptake of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent consumption of 14C-depleted biofilm by invertebrates and ultimately fish. Our findings show that the metazoan food web is sustained in part by glacial organic carbon such that future changes in glacial runoff could influence the stability and trophic structure of proglacial aquatic ecosystems.

  13. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Els M; Angelini, Christine; Govers, Laura L; Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Altieri, Andrew H; van der Reijden, Karin J; Silliman, Brian R; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Geest, Matthijs; van Gils, Jan A; van der Veer, Henk W; Piersma, Theunis; de Ruiter, Peter C; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-03-16

    The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity. PMID:26962135

  14. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Els M; Angelini, Christine; Govers, Laura L; Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Altieri, Andrew H; van der Reijden, Karin J; Silliman, Brian R; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Geest, Matthijs; van Gils, Jan A; van der Veer, Henk W; Piersma, Theunis; de Ruiter, Peter C; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-03-16

    The diversity and structure of ecosystems has been found to depend both on trophic interactions in food webs and on other species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualism that form non-trophic interaction networks. However, quantification of the dependencies between these two main interaction networks has remained elusive. In this study, we assessed how habitat-modifying organisms affect basic food web properties by conducting in-depth empirical investigations of two ecosystems: North American temperate fringing marshes and West African tropical seagrass meadows. Results reveal that habitat-modifying species, through non-trophic facilitation rather than their trophic role, enhance species richness across multiple trophic levels, increase the number of interactions per species (link density), but decrease the realized fraction of all possible links within the food web (connectance). Compared to the trophic role of the most highly connected species, we found this non-trophic effects to be more important for species richness and of more or similar importance for link density and connectance. Our findings demonstrate that food webs can be fundamentally shaped by interactions outside the trophic network, yet intrinsic to the species participating in it. Better integration of non-trophic interactions in food web analyses may therefore strongly contribute to their explanatory and predictive capacity.

  15. Cognitive and behavioral assessment in dogs and pet food market applications.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C

    2005-03-01

    A multi-disciplinary program was developed to assess the efficacy of antioxidant inclusion in a canine pet food on cognitive decline in aged beagles. A systematic approach to development of the food was used prior to beginning the cognitive studies. Comprehensive evaluation of antioxidant ingredients included assessments of commodities with naturally occurring antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants not commonly utilized, or at different concentrations than what was commonly utilized, in commercial pet foods. Studies were conducted to insure stability through processing, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, safety, and tests for potential antioxidant biological benefit by ex vivo tests. Testing of the antioxidant-fortified food in aged beagles slowed the rate of cognitive decline in aged dogs. In addition, environmental enrichment also slowed the rate of cognitive decline. Importantly, the combination of dietary antioxidants and environmental enrichment was synergistic and resulted in the least amount of cognitive decline over the 30-month study period. Finally, a clinical study showed that antioxidant fortified food improved age-related behavioral changes in older pet dogs at in-home situations.

  16. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'.

  17. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. PMID:22036836

  18. Production of high-quality marketing applications: strategies for biotechnology companies working with contract research organizations.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Sandra J; Preston, Christopher; Foote, MaryAnn

    2003-01-01

    Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies use clinical research organizations (CROs) to assist in the writing and preparation of clinical documents intended for submission to health authorities. Start-up companies often require the expertise of a CRO to prepare their first regulatory documents. Larger or more experienced companies often require CRO staff to assist at times of multiple simultaneous submissions. The timely production of high-quality new drug marketing applications requires close collaborations between the drug company and the CRO. The views of both CRO and industry in ensuring best practices are discussed.

  19. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  20. Gnathostoma spinigerum in Live Asian Swamp Eels (Monopterus spp.) from Food Markets and Wild Populations, United States

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States. PMID:24661441

  1. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  2. Precursors to overnutrition: the effects of household market food expenditures on measures of body composition among Tsimane' adults in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Rosinger, Asher; Tanner, Susan; Leonard, William R

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition transitions are characterized by shifts in diet and activity levels that lead to changes in weight and body fatness over a relatively short time. Research has linked these nutritional shifts to socio-economic factors, including wealth and income. However, few studies have examined household spending patterns on market foods among subsistence populations, which may reveal food access, choice, and indicate household nutritional environment. This paper examines the relation between household monetary expenditures on "market" foods and measures of body composition among Tsimane', a forager-horticulturalist indigenous group in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic and anthropometric surveys were conducted for adults (n = 1199) 16 years or older in 563 households in 40 Tsimane' villages in 2008. Results indicate that overweight status (19% of men and 24% of women) is more common than obesity (1% of men and 4% of women). Sixty-one percent (61%) of households reported purchasing market foods during the previous week. Multiple linear and logistic regressions suggest that men living in households in the top third of monetary expenditures on market foods had significantly higher BMI (0.69 kg/m(2); p = 0.027), weight (1.80 kg; p = 0.048), percent body fat (1.06%; p = 0.025), and probability of being overweight/obese (Odds ratio = 1.83; p = 0.042) than men in households that reported not spending money on market foods in the previous week. We discuss the possibility that the division of labor may help explain the differences between men and women in this sample. This research suggests household expenditures on market foods may mediate the relation between wealth and body composition.

  3. Occurrence and infant exposure assessment of nitrates in baby foods marketed in the region of Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Elsa Reis; Alvito, Paula Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Commercial baby food labelled as from organic or conventional origin, including vegetable-based baby foods, fruit purees and fruit juices (n = 80), were analysed for nitrate content by an in-house validated HPLC method. Nitrate contents ranged from 5 to 230 mg kg(-1) with a mean concentration of 102 mg kg(-1) for vegetable-based baby foods, and a median of 5 mg kg(-1) for both fruit purees and juices. One sample of vegetable-based baby food was higher than the legislated value (200 mg kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between average nitrate levels in analysed samples regarding both farming systems. The estimated nitrate intake through baby foods for a mean nitrate concentration of 47 mg kg(-1) ranged between 0.5 (15% of ADI) and 1.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (35% of ADI). The ADI level was exceeded (107-146% of ADI) only for the 95th and 99th percentiles of nitrate concentration.

  4. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  5. Contrasting time trends of organic contaminants in Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Nico W; Riddle, Martin J; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine; van Franeker, Jan Andries

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that pelagic Antarctic seabirds show significant decreases in concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants. Trends in Adélie penguins and Southern fulmars fit in a general pattern revealed by a broad literature review. Downward trends are also visible in pelagic fish, contrasting sharply with steady or increasing concentrations in Antarctic benthic organisms. Transfer of contaminants between Antarctic pelagic and benthic food webs is associated with seasonal sea-ice dynamics which may influence the balance between the final receptors of contaminants under different climatic conditions. This complicates the predictability of future trends of emerging compounds in the Antarctic ecosystem, such as of the brominated compounds that we detected in Antarctic petrels. The discrepancy in trends between pelagic and benthic organisms shows that Antarctic biota are still final receptors of globally released organic contaminants and it remains questionable whether the total environmental burden of contaminants in the Antarctic ecosystem is declining.

  6. The use of physicochemical methods to detect organic food soils on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, K A; Benson, P; Smith, L A; Verran, J

    2009-11-01

    Food processing surfaces fouled with organic material pose problems ranging from aesthetic appearance, equipment malfunction and product contamination. Despite the importance of organic soiling for subsequent product quality, little is known about the interaction between surfaces and organic soil components. A range of complex and defined food soils was applied to 304 stainless steel (SS) surfaces to determine the effect of type and concentration of soil on surface physicochemical parameters, viz surface hydrophobicity (DeltaG(iwi)), surface free energy (gamma(s)), Lifshitz van der Waals (gamma_LW(s)), Lewis acid base (gamma_AB(s)), electron acceptor (gamma_+(s) ) and electron donor (gamma_-(s) ) measurements. When compared to the control surface, changes in gamma_AB(s), gamma_+(s) and gamma_-(s) were indicative of surface soiling. However, soil composition and surface coverage were heterogeneous, resulting in complex data being generated from which trends could not be discerned. These results demonstrate that the retention of food soil produces changes in the physicochemical parameters of the surface that could be used to indicate the hygienic status of a surface. PMID:20183133

  7. Occurrence of toxigenic fungi and determination of mycotoxins by HPLC-FLD in functional foods and spices in China markets.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weijun; Wei, Riwei; Logrieco, Antonio F; Wei, Jianhe; Wen, Jing; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yang, Meihua

    2014-03-01

    Twenty-four samples including 14 functional foods and 10 spices obtained from Chinese markets were examined for their mould profile. The mycotoxin contamination levels were also determined by an optimized HPLC-FLD method. 124 fungal isolates belonging to four different genera were recovered with Aspergillus and Penicillium as predominant fungi, with an incidence of 66.1% and 15.3%, respectively. In functional foods Aspergillus niger section (57.1%) was isolated more frequently, followed by Aspergillus flavi section (50.0%) and Aspergillus ochraceus section (21.4%), with the most contaminated samples being Coix seeds. Similar fungal presence and frequency were encountered in spice with A. niger section group (60.0%) and A. flavi section (40.0%) as main fungi. Cumin and Pricklyash peel samples showed the highest fungal contamination. Four functional foods and three spices were found to be positive at low levels for mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (up to 0.26μg/kg) and ochratoxin A (OTA) (5.0μg/kg). The more frequently detected mycotoxin was AFB1 (16.7%).

  8. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance.

  9. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children

  10. Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

    2013-11-01

    Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mgṡkg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

  11. 7 CFR 205.270 - Organic handling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT..., fermenting, eviscerating, preserving, dehydrating, freezing, chilling, or otherwise manufacturing, and the packaging, canning, jarring, or otherwise enclosing food in a container may be used to process...

  12. [Animal health in organic agriculture: new guidelines and perspectives for food animal practitioners].

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Walkenhorst, M; Klocke, P

    2003-11-01

    In the last decade, the organic agriculture in Switzerland has been substantially increased due to the interest of consumer and financial incentives of the federation. Ruminants take directly or indirectly the largest part from grassland used within the organic managed surfaces. As the contacts between veterinary practice and organic agriculture has increased, the potential for veterinary activity in this area has developed considerably. The organic agriculture guidelines stipulate that all the preventive measures should be taken in feeding, keeping and breeding to insure animal health safety. This requires veterinary services for herd management. The organic status of a farm affects veterinary practice also in the form of alternative therapy/drugs administration and measures like dehorning and tail-docking. An important point in organic managed herds requests that treatment of animals should depend on alternative medical preparations or procedures based on veterinarian's experience and also on the therapeutic effect on the animal species concerned as well as on the disease. However, there are no restrictions on the veterinarian to use registered drugs as long as no alternative therapy, according to experience and possible success, is available to treat the animals. The prophylactic administration of allopathic veterinary drugs is not permissible. Further features in organic farms regarding the use of drugs are the keeping of withholding/withdrawal time, the documentation and the treatment frequency tolerated by organic marketing. Despite the above measures, the animal health has a priority regardless of its organic status. Although management of organic farms represent a unique responsibility, there are still obvious deficits in the education of veterinary practitioners for this new situation. However, in the future the extension of veterinary activity to include the alternative medical therapy should be regarded for the practitioner as a challenge and an

  13. Thraustochytrids, a neglected component of organic matter decomposition and food webs in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter in marine sediments is a critical step influencing oxygen and carbon fluxes. In addition to heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, osmoheterotrophic protists may contribute to this process, but the extent of their role as decomposers is still unknown. Among saprophytic protists, the thraustochytrids have been isolated from different habitats and substrates. Recently, they have been reported to be particularly abundant in marine sediments characterized by the presence of recalcitrant organic matter such as seagrass and mangrove detritus where they can reach biomass comparable to those of other protists and bacteria. In addition, their capacity to produce a wide spectrum of enzymes suggests a substantial role of thraustochytrids in sedimentary organic decomposition. Moreover, thraustochytrids may represent a food source for several benthic microorganisms and animals and may be involved in the upgrading of nutrient-poor organic detritus. This chapter presents an overview on studies of thraustochytrids in benthic ecosystems and discusses future prospectives and possible methods to quantify their role in benthic food webs.

  14. 75 FR 64379 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule... month shall be waived. (b) No change. (c) No change. (d) No change. * * * * * II....

  15. 75 FR 41258 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... forth in subsection (b)(2)-(4) above. (4) No change. * * * * * II. Self-Regulatory...

  16. 78 FR 50465 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the... the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II....

  17. 76 FR 52727 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition NASDAQ does not believe that the proposed rule change will... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Regarding Clerical Changes to Its Rules August 17, 2011. Pursuant...

  18. 77 FR 42073 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...), 73 FR 18587 (April 4, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2008-026 (notice of filing and immediate...

  19. Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to children of market women in Nigeria: implications for control of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Iroegbu, C U; Ene-Obong, H N; Uwaegbute, A C; Amazigo, U V

    2000-12-01

    Bacteriological quality of weaning food and drinking water given to 2 groups of children aged < or = years was evaluated by estimating bacterial cell count. One group consisted of those taken to market and the other of those left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. Bacterial counts (geometric mean) ranged from 5.02 +/- 1.82 to 8.70 +/- 1.0 log10 cfu per g or mL of food, and from 1.15 +/- 1.67 to 6.53 +/- 0.81 log10 cfu per g or 100 mL of water. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference in counts between types of food and between meals (breakfast and lunch). Bacterial contamination increased significantly with storage time, and was, in all circumstances except the water samples, significantly higher in foods given to children left at home. Reheated leftover foods also had significantly higher bacterial load than the freshly-cooked food. Coliform count varied significantly with source of drinking water. Poor hygiene standard (inferred from bacterial contamination) was generally observed among mothers weaning < or = 2-year-old children, while they were engaged in trading activities in the market, thus exposing their children to high risk of diarrhoea. Hygiene was significantly poorer in weaning of children left at home in the care of older siblings or house-helps. This implies that, in spite of their trading activities in the market, mothers still take better care of their babies than the older siblings or house-helps who may be inexperienced. These mothers may need education on childcare and food hygiene to suit to their trading activities, for example, during their monthly meetings. There is also a need to establish ORT (oral rehydration therapy) corners in the markets as part of the municipal services. This can be used not only for efficient and quick management of diarrhoea in the market but also for reinforcing hygiene education.

  20. Assimilation of aged organic carbon in a glacial river food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Bozeman, M.; Hudson, J.; Arimitsu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying the key sources of organic carbon supporting fish and invertebrate consumers is fundamental to our understanding of stream ecosystems. Recent laboratory bioassays highlight that aged organic carbon from glacier environments is highly bioavailable to stream bacteria relative to carbon originating from ice-free areas. However, there is little evidence suggesting that this aged, bioavailable organic carbon is also a key basal carbon source for stream metazoa. We used natural abundance of Δ14C, δ13C, and δ15N to determine if fish and invertebrate consumers are subsidized by aged organic carbon in a glacial river in southeast Alaska. We collected biofilm, leaf litter, three different species of macroinvertebrates, and resident juvenile salmonids from a reference stream and two sites (one site is directly downstream of the glacial outflow and one site is upstream of the tidal estuary) on the heavily glaciated Herbert River. Key producers, fish, and invertebrate consumers in the reference stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -26 to -30‰ for δ13C and from -12 to 53‰ for Δ14C, reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial sites was highly Δ14C depleted (-203 to -215‰) relative to the reference site. Although biofilm may consist of both bacteria and benthic algae utilizing carbon depleted in Δ14C, δ13C values for biofilm (-24.1‰), dissolved inorganic carbon (-5.9‰), and dissolved organic carbon (-24.0‰) suggest that biofilm consist of bacteria sustained in part by glacier-derived, aged organic carbon. Invertebrate consumers (mean Δ14C of -80.5, mean δ13C of -26.5) and fish (mean Δ14C of -63.3, mean δ13C of -25.7) in the two glacial sites had carbon isotope values similar to biofilm. These results similarly show that aged organic carbon is incorporated into the metazoan food web. Overall, our findings indicate that continued watershed deglaciation and