Science.gov

Sample records for organic food production

  1. Is organic food production feasible?

    PubMed

    Leckie, J

    1999-01-01

    The problems of modern agriculture and whether organic methods of food production offer a practical solution in modern society are reviewed and discussed, with frank admission of drawbacks in organic methods.

  2. Virtual Nitrogen Losses from Organic Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell Noll, L.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A. M.; Seufert, V.; Atwell, B.; Shade, J.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is necessary for crop and animal production, but when it is lost to the environment, it creates a cascade of detrimental environmental impacts. The nitrogen challenge is to maximize the food production benefits of Nr, while minimizing losses to the environment. The first nitrogen footprint tool was created in 2012 to help consumers learn about the Nr losses to the environment that result from an individual's lifestyle choices. The nitrogen lost during food production was estimated with virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) that quantify the amount of nitrogen lost to the environment per unit nitrogen consumed. Alternative agricultural systems, such as USDA certified organic farms, utilize practices that diverge from conventional production. In order to evaluate the potential sustainability of these alternative agricultural systems, our team calculated VNFs that reflect organic production. Initial data indicate that VNFs for organic grains and organic starchy roots are comparable to, but slightly higher than conventional (+10% and +20% respectively). In contrast, the VNF for organic vegetables is significantly higher (+90%) and the VNF for organic legumes is significantly lower (-90%). Initial data on organic meat production shows that organic poultry and organic pigmeat are comparable to conventional production (both <5% difference), but that the organic beef VNF is significantly higher (+30%). These data show that in some cases organic and conventional production are comparable in terms of nitrogen efficiency. However, since conventional production relies heavily on the creation of new reactive nitrogen (Haber-Bosch, biological nitrogen fixation) and organic production primarily utilizes already existing reactive nitrogen (manure, crop residue, compost), the data also show that organic production contributes less new reactive nitrogen to the environment than conventional production (approximately 70% less). Therefore, we conclude that on a local

  3. Careers in Organic Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibler, Adam

    2010-01-01

    New technology developed over the past several decades have allowed farmers to grow more food using fewer resources. Compared with 60 years ago, today's farm can supply more than three times more corn per acre, and the average dairy cow produces almost four times more milk. Even as technology improves farm yields, however, many consumers are…

  4. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  5. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  6. Contaminants and microorganisms in Dutch organic food products: a comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Bokhorst, J G; Northolt, M D; van de Vijver, L P L; Broex, N J G; Mevius, D J; Meijs, J A C; Van der Roest, J

    2008-10-01

    Organic products were analysed for the presence of contaminants, microorganisms and antibiotic resistance and compared with those from conventional products. No differences were observed in the Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in organic and conventional wheat, during both a dry period and a very wet period which promoted the production of these toxins. Nitrate levels in head lettuce produced organically in the open field were much lower than those in conventional products. In iceberg lettuce and head lettuce from the greenhouse, no differences were detected. Organically produced carrots contained higher nitrate levels than conventional products. Both organic and conventional products contained no residues of non-polar pesticides above the legal limits, although some were detected in conventional lettuce. Organic products contained no elevated levels of heavy metals. Salmonella was detected in 30% of pig faeces samples obtained from 30 organic farms, similar to the incidence at conventional farms. At farms that switched to organic production more then 6 years ago no Salmonella was detected, with the exception of one stable with young pigs recently purchased from another farm. No Salmonella was detected in faeces at the nine farms with organic broilers, and at one out of ten farms with laying hens. This is comparable with conventional farms where the incidence for Salmonella lies around 10%. Campylobacter was detected in faeces at all organic broiler farms, being much higher than at conventional farms. One of the most remarkable results was the fact that faeces from organic pigs and broilers showed a much lower incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, except for Campylobacter in broilers. It is concluded that the organic products investigated scored as equally well as conventional products with regard to food safety and at the same time show some promising features with respect to antibiotic resistance.

  7. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  8. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed.

  9. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  10. Revolutionary advances in organic foods.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Drake, D B; Rodeheaver, G T; Kelley, A; Greene, J A; Gubler, K D; Long, W B; Britt, L D; Lin, K Y; Tafel, J A

    2007-10-01

    'Organic' is a labelling term that denotes products produced under the authority of the Organic Foods Production Act. Before a product can be labelled 'organic', a government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards. Companies that handle or process organic food before it gets to your local supermarket or restaurant must be certified, too. Along with the national organic standards, the USDA developed strict labelling rules to help consumers know the exact content of the food they buy. It is important to emphasise that the USDA has not made any health claims for organic foods. It is indeed fortunate that the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USDA and the Environmental Protection Agency are now expanding their research to explore the scientific basis for the health benefits of organic foods.

  11. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland.

  12. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  13. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  14. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

  15. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  16. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  17. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  18. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  19. 7 CFR 205.304 - Packaged products labeled “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...; or (ii) “Made with organic (specified food groups)”: Provided, That, the statement does not list more... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged products labeled âmade with...

  20. Effect on Ca(OH)2 pretreatment to enhance biogas production of organic food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junoh, H.; Yip, CH; Kumaran, P.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment in optimizing COD solubilisation and methane production through anaerobic digestion process. Two different parameters, chemical concentration (40-190 mEq/L) and pretreatment time (1-6 hours) were used to pretreat food waste. A central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in obtaining the optimized condition for COD solubilisation. Result showed COD solubilisation was optimized at 166.98 mEq/L (equivalent to 6.1 g Ca(OH)2/L) for 1 hour. These conditions were applied through biomethane potential test with methane production of 864.19 mL/g VSdestructed and an increase of 20.0% as compared to untreated food waste.

  1. [Supervision of foods containing components of genetically modified organisms and the problems of labeling this type of products].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2010-01-01

    Commercial production of genetically modified (GM) crops as food or feed is regarded as a promising social area in the development of modern biotechnology. The Russian Federation has set up a governmental system to regulate the use of biotechnology products, which is based on Russian and foreign experience and the most up-to-date scientific approaches. The system for evaluating the quality and safety of GM foodstuffs envisages the postregistration monitoring of their circulation as an obligatory stage. For these purposes, the world community applies two methods: enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. It should be noted that there are various approaches to GM food labeling in the world; this raises the question of whether the labeling of foods that are prepared from genetically modified organisms, but contain no protein or DNA is to be introduced in Russia, as in the European Union.

  2. Organic watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  3. Rapid production of organic fertilizer by dynamic high-temperature aerobic fermentation (DHAF) of food waste.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Ren, Qingbin; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Hou, Qidong; Liu, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Keep composting matrix in continuous collision and friction under a relatively high-temperature can significantly accelerate the progress of composting. A bioreactor was designed according to the novel process. Using this technology, organic fertilizer could be produced within 96h. The electric conductivity (EC) and pH value reached to a stable value of 2.35mS/cm and 7.7 after 96h of fermentation. The total carbon/total nitrogen (TC/TN) and dissolved carbon/dissolved nitrogen (DC/DN) ratio was decrease from 27.3 and 36.2 to 17.4 and 7.6 respectively. In contrast, it needed 24days to achieve the similar result in traditional static composting (TSC). Compost particles with different size were analyzed to explore the rapid degradation mechanism of food waste. The evidence of anaerobic fermentation was firstly discovered in aerobic composting.

  4. Organic and Other Environmentally Friendly Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... bioengineering hormones ionizing radiation Organic animal products — meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy foods — come from animals that ... Free or Free-Range: Seen on eggs or poultry products, these terms can be misleading or unreliable. " ...

  5. Organic foods for children: health or hype.

    PubMed

    Batra, Prerna; Sharma, Nisha; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-05-01

    Organic foods are promoted as superior and safer options for today's health-conscious consumer. Manufacturers of organic food claim it to be pesticide-free and better in terms of micronutrients. Consumers have to pay heavily for these products--and they are willing to--provided they are assured of the claimed advantages. Scientific data proving the health benefits of organic foods, especially in children, are lacking. Indian Government has developed strict guidelines and certification procedures to keep a check on manufacturers in this financially attractive market. American Academy of Pediatrics, in its recently issued guidelines, did not recommend organic foods over conventional food for children. Indian Academy of Pediatrics has not opined on this issue till date. In this perspective, we present a critical review of production and marketing of organic foods, and scientific evidence pertaining to their merits and demerits, with special reference to pediatric population.

  6. C.R.O.P. - Combined Regenerative Organic food Production: Employing the benefits of natural communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornemann, Gerhild; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Moeller, Ralf; Wasser, Kai; Tonat, Tim

    The reutilization of nutrients bound in organic wastes for food crop cultivation is a central topic of BLSS (Bioregenerative Life Support System) research. The conversion of organic wastes into inorganic compounds utilizable by plants proceeds stepwise and each step is carried out by specific microorganisms with varying environmental demands. In BLSS design different steps are often allocated to different treatment units. Each unit is inoculated with selected microbial cultures and provides optimal growth conditions for these. The compartmented set-up is also often used in public wastewater treatment. But as wastewaters usually carry their decomposers with them, specified inoculates are only applied in special cases. Due to the highly variable composition of wastewater, diverse communities of microorganisms are found in treatment plants enabling these to cope with the unpredictable substrate. Although in isolated space habitats, microorganisms necessary for degradation will also be present on wastes and in wastewaters, their diversity will be limited to those species introduced into the system until launch. Therefore, it is crucial to establish a stable microbial community in the waste processing system that is capable to degrade all kinds of wastes, including micropollutants like pharmaceutical residues, before launch. The C.R.O.P. project aims at combining the utilization of liquid and solid organic wastes with soilless plant cultivation. The envisioned waste processing system is a trickling filter designed to join all required functions in one compartment thus reducing size and weight. To achieve this, the filter medium provides habitats with differing conditions so that a diverse microbial community grows as biofilm on its surface. We assume that, once established, such a quasi-natural community makes the system multifunctional with regard to the substrates that can be degraded, and stable with regard to invasion of undesirable microorganisms. Our current

  7. Food production -- problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anifowoshe, T O

    1990-03-01

    Improvements are needed in balancing the problems associated with population growth and food production. A review of the problems of rapid population growth and declining food production and suggestions for resolution are given. World population has increased over the past 10 years by 760 million, which is equal to adding the combined population of Africa and South America. Future increases are expected to bring total population to 6.1 billion by the year 2000 and 8.2 billion in 2025 (exponential increases). Food production/capita has declined since 1971 in the world and in Nigeria, particularly in the recent past. The food production problem is technical, environmental, social, political, and economic. Various scientific and technological methods for increasing food production are identified: mechanization, irrigation, use of fertilizers, control of weeds and insects, new varieties of farm animals or high-yielding strains of grain, land reclamation, soil conservation, river basin development, adequate storage facilities, infrastructure development, and birth control. Economic and social approaches involve short-term and long-term strategies in social readjustment and institutional change. For instance, large scale farmers should become contract growers for certain firms. Bureaucratic red tape should be eliminated in institutions which provide agricultural services. Environmental problems need urgent attention. Some of these problems are soil erosion from mechanization, water salinization from irrigation, accumulation of DDT in food and water and animal life from pesticide use, and water pollution from chemical fertilizers. Food production can be increased with more ecologically sound practices. Information about weather and weather forecasting allows for more suitable land management. The influence of rainfall (the amount and distribution) in Nigeria is greater than any other climatic factor. Solar radiation is a significant feature in production of dry matter and

  8. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect.

  9. Organic Food in the Diet: Exposure and Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Ydersbond, Trond A; Hoppin, Jane A; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2017-03-20

    The market for organic food products is growing rapidly worldwide. Such foods meet certified organic standards for production, handling, processing, and marketing. Most notably, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic modification is not allowed. One major reason for the increased demand is the perception that organic food is more environmentally friendly and healthier than conventionally produced food. This review provides an update on market data and consumer preferences for organic food and summarizes the scientific evidence for compositional differences and health benefits of organic compared with conventionally produced food. Studies indicate some differences in favor of organic food, including indications of beneficial health effects. Organic foods convey lower pesticide residue exposure than do conventionally produced foods, but the impact of this on human health is not clear. Comparisons are complicated by organic food consumption being strongly correlated with several indicators of a healthy lifestyle and by conventional agriculture "best practices" often being quite close to those of organic.

  10. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of organic nitrogen by a modified Lassaigne method and its application to meat products and baby food.

    PubMed

    Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat; Afsar, Hüseyin; Tor, Izzet

    2002-01-01

    A modified Lassaigne method was developed for N determination based on fusion of the organic substance with metallic Na, conversion of the cyanide in the aqueous leachate to thiocyanate by ammonium polysulfide treatment, and colorimetric measurement of the thiocyanate formed by the addition of excessive ferric ions in acidic medium. The mean molar absorptivity of the Fe(NCS)2+ complex at 480 nm is 2.96 x 10(3) L/mol x cm, enabling quantitation of 0.25-7.72 ppm N (linear range) in the final solution. The relative amounts of Na, (NH4)2S2, and Fe(III) with respect to nitrogen in the analyte were optimized. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of N in various brands of baby food, and it was compared statistically with the conventional Kjeldahl and elemental analysis methods. Protein nitrogen in a number of meat products was also precisely determined by the developed method. Thus, the total digestion time of the conventional Kjeldahl method was reduced considerably (e.g., to approximately 15 min for a dried sample) with a relatively simple spectrophotometric method requiring no sophisticated instrumentation.

  12. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture.

  13. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    Background With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Methods In September–November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Results The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2–3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Conclusions Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people. PMID:28352693

  14. How important is local food to organic-minded consumers?

    PubMed

    Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications.

  15. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  16. Organic Food Market Segmentation in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tleis, Malak; Roma, Rocco; Callieris, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Organic farming in Lebanon is not a new concept. It started with the efforts of the private sector more than a decade ago and is still present even with the limited agricultural production. The local market is quite developed in comparison to neighboring countries, depending mainly on imports. Few studies were addressed to organic consumption in Lebanon, were none of them dealt with organic consumers analysis. Therefore, our objectives were to identify the profiles of Lebanese organic consumer and non organic consumer and to propose appropriate marketing strategies for each segment of consumer with the final aim of developing the Lebanese organic market. A survey, based on the use of closed-ended questionnaire, was addressed to 400 consumers in the capital, Beirut, from the end of February till the end of March 2014. Data underwent descriptive analyses, principal component analyses (PCA) and cluster analyses (k-means method) through the statistical software SPSS. Four cluster were obtained based on psychographic characteristics and willingness to pay (WTP) for the principal organic products purchased. "Localists" and "Health conscious" clusters constituted the largest proportion of the selected sample, thus were the most critical to be addressed by specific marketing strategies emphasizing the combination of local and organic food and the healthy properties of organic products. "Rational" and "Irregular" cluster were relatively small groups, addressed by pricing and promotional strategies. This study showed a positive attitude among Lebanese consumer towards organic food, where egoistic motives are prevailing over altruistic motives. High prices of organic commodities and low trust in organic farming, remain a constraint to levitating organic consumption. The combined efforts of the public and the private sector are required to spread the knowledge about positive environmental payback of organic agriculture and for the promotion of locally produced organic goods.

  17. Organic foods: do they have a role?

    PubMed

    Köpke, U

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional quality is defined as the value of the product for the consumer's physical health, growth, development, reproduction and psychological or emotional well-being. This extended definition of nutritional quality can be divided into two terms. One term is for the effects of food determined by its substance, i.e., the sum of all ingredients, beneficial and harmful compounds and their nutritional (or biological) aspects. As a function of inherent inconsistencies ranging from soil and climate differences to effects of cultivars, seasons and agricultural practices, differences in desirable ingredients are less pronounced compared with undesirable ingredients. Where differences are detected, the higher product quality is mostly found in organic produce. A potential advantage of organic agriculture in producing healthy foods is based on higher concentrations of beneficial secondary plant substances in organically grown crops compared to nonorganically grown crops. The second term of nutritional quality covers the feelings of well-being (or indisposition) that certain foods can induce in consumers. Organic agriculture has been confirmed as environmentally sound and more sustainable than mainstream agriculture. Related to this knowledge, the consumer's well-being is based on indulgence and the certainty that by purchasing, eating and enjoying organic food, one has contributed to a better future and an improved environment. These effects with their social implications along with improved animal welfare may, in the end, be more important than any measurable contribution of balanced Western diets to individual nutritional health.

  18. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added).

  20. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  1. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePlus

    ... of date you might find on a meat, poultry, or egg product label. Are dates required on ... is not required by Federal regulations. For meat, poultry, and egg products under the jurisdiction of the ...

  2. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact.

  3. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  4. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate.

  5. The Organic Foods System: Its Discursive Achievements and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowacek, David M.; Nowacek, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    Taking the emergence of the organic foods system as a case study, the authors aim to demonstrate both how the discursive richness of the organic foods system offers a challenge to the traditional operations of the market and how activity systems theory as understood in English studies can productively be tied to and enriched by theories of social…

  6. Food Production, Management, and Services: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumme, Debbie; Koukel, Sonja

    This curriculum guide provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of food production, management, and services. Contents include the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEAKS); sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized topically by chapters, each containing a…

  7. [Organic foods and human health: a study of controversies].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Anete Araújo de; Azevedo, Elaine de; Lima, Elinete Eliete de; Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira da

    2012-06-01

    The study of controversies is a methodological tool that generates knowledge about the social and political dimensions of science. This approach can be used to understand and explore the topic of organic foods. The present study aimed to analyze the controversies regarding the status of organic foods. We carried out a review of studies published since 1990 in three websites: International Foundation for Organic Agriculture, Soil Association, and Food and Agriculture Organization. The following controversies were identified: 1) effects on human health of the presence of chemical contaminants in organic foods; 2) the quality of organic foods as compared to conventionally grown foods; and 3) price of organic foods. Based on this review, it is possible to conclude that, even though organic foods stand out for their low toxicity, higher durability, and nutritional content of some items, more comparative studies are required to confirm the nutritional superiority of organic foods and to solve the controversies. The discussion must be contextualized within a broad spectrum of health promotion, in which organic farming appears associated with the support for small farming, biodiversity, and local sustainable development, so as to increase offer and demand for organic products at fair prices for individual and institutional consumers.

  8. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic…

  9. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  10. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  11. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  12. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  13. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  14. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  15. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  16. Quality criteria for micronutrient powder products: report of a meeting organized by the World Food Programme and Sprinkles Global Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; van den Briel, Tina; Boy, Erick; Grasset, Christopher; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Zlotkin, Stanley; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-09-01

    Distribution of micronutrient powder (MNP), also known as Sprinkles", is becoming a preferred strategy for addressing micronutrient deficiencies. In response, different formulations are being developed, different producers manufacture MNP and several organizations coordinate distribution. However, as yet, the supply of MNP as well as experience with large-scale MNP programs is limited. To facilitate expansion of MNP use such that acceptability and compliance are high and effectiveness maintained, product quality, of both powder and packaging, good advocacy among decision makers, and providing good information to the target population are crucial. A meeting was organized in Toronto by the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative and the World Food Programme to review and reach consensus on quality criteria for composition, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of MNP propose guidelines for wide-scale production, and discuss MNP program experience. It was recognized that the durability of some of the more sensitive micronutrients in their powdered form in the harsh climatic conditions of many countries has implications for formulation, packaging, storage, and handling of the MNP product. A question-and-answer manual would greatly facilitate program design and implementation. It was agreed to form an interim Technical Advisory Group to prepare for formation of a Technical Advisory Group with agreed-upon tasks and responsibilities. The MNP manufacturing manual of the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative can continue to be used, with reference to the recommendations from the Toronto Meeting outlined in this paper. Meanwhile, the Sprinkles Global Health Initiative will not place any encumbrances on production using its manual; however, the brand name Sprinkles" will stay protected under various trademark laws.

  17. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…

  18. Survey of residue levels of organic solvents in "existing food additives" and health food materials by head-space GC.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yoko; Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichirou; Ito, Koichi; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Organic solvent residue levels in "Existing Food Additives" (n=145), health food materials (n=23), and commercial health food products (n=19) were surveyed. Ethanol was the dominant solvent found in the samples, suggesting its use in the manufacturing process. Methanol, acetone, 2-propanol and ethyl acetate was also found. No residual solvent exceeded the limits set by the Food Sanitation Law.

  19. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  20. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are grown or processed without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Feeding your baby organic baby food might limit ... her exposure to these substances. Conventional growers use pesticides to protect their crops from molds, insects and ...

  1. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  2. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  3. [Genetically modified organisms: a new threat to food safety].

    PubMed

    Spendeler, Liliane

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes all of the food safety-related aspects related to the use of genetically modified organisms into agriculture and food. A discussion is provided as to the uncertainties related to the insertion of foreign genes into organisms, providing examples of unforeseen, undesirable effects and of instabilities of the organisms thus artificially fabricated. Data is then provided from both official agencies as well as existing literature questioning the accuracy and reliability of the risk analyses as to these organisms being harmless to health and discusses the almost total lack of scientific studies analyzing the health safety/dangerousness of transgenic foods. Given all these unknowns, other factors must be taken into account, particularly genetic contamination of the non-genetically modified crops, which is now starting to become widespread in some parts of the world. Not being able of reversing the situation in the even of problems is irresponsible. Other major aspects are the impacts on the environment (such as insects building up resistances, the loss of biodiversity, the increase in chemical products employed) with indirect repercussions on health and/or future food production. Lastly, thoughts for discussion are added concerning food safety in terms of food availability and food sovereignty, given that the transgenic seed and related agrochemicals market is currently cornered by five large-scale transnational companies. The conclusion entails an analysis of biotechnological agriculture's contribution to sustainability.

  4. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  5. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T

    2016-03-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput 'omics' technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety.

  6. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  7. World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their importance in human medicine: A critical step for developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter; Powers, John H; Chiller, Tom M; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-07-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important" for human medicine, is an important step toward preserving the benefits of antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization has developed and applied criteria to rank antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine. Clinicians, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and other stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed most urgently, such as fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins.

  8. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  9. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  10. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  11. Delivering Improved Nutrition: Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    PubMed

    Schlossman, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The United States has a long history of food assistance for humanitarian need. The Food for Peace Act of 1954 established the United States' permanent food assistance program which has fed over 3 billion people in 150 countries worldwide through thousands of partner organizations. In 60 years, the program has evolved and will continue to do so. Recently, the program has gone from a focus on quantity of food shipped to quality food assistance from improved products, programs, and processes to effectively meet the needs of different vulnerable groups. The current debate focuses on the appropriateness of using fortified blended foods to prevent and treat malnutrition during the first 1000 days of life. Dairy ingredients have been at the center of this debate; they were included initially in fortified blended, removed in the 1980s, and now reincorporated into fortified therapeutic and supplemental foods. Improved quality food baskets and effective nutrition programming to prevent and treat malnutrition were developed through multisectoral collaboration between government and nongovernment organizations. The US Agency for International Development has focused on improving nutrition through development programs often tied to health, education, and agriculture. The years since 2008 have been a particularly intense period for improvement. The Food Aid Quality Review was established to update current food aid programming products, program implementation, cost-effectiveness, and interagency processes. Trials are underway to harmonize the areas of multisectoral nutrition programming and gather more evidence on the effects of dairy ingredients in food aid products.

  12. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  13. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  14. Encapsulates for Food Bioconversions and Metabolite Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breguet, Véronique; Vojinovic, Vojislav; Marison, Ian W.

    The control of production costs in the food industry must be very strict as a result of the relatively low added value of food products. Since a wide variety of enzymes and/or cells are employed in the food industry for starch processing, cheese making, food preservation, lipid hydrolysis and other applications, immobilization of the cells and/or enzymes has been recognized as an attractive approach to improving food processes while minimizing costs. This is due to the fact that biocatalyst immobilization allows for easier separation/purification of the product and reutilization of the biocatalyst. The advantages of the use of immobilized systems are many, and they have a special relevance in the area of food technology, especially because industrial processes using immobilized biosystems are usually characterized by lower capital/energy costs and better logistics. The main applications of immobilization, related to the major processes of food bioconversions and metabolite production, will be described and discussed in this chapter.

  15. Food labels as boundary objects: how consumers make sense of organic and functional foods.

    PubMed

    Eden, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering products. I use the concept of "boundary objects" to demonstrate how such labels are intended to work between the worlds of food producers and food consumers and to show how information is not merely transferred as a "knowledge fix" to consumer ignorance. Rather, consumers drew on a binary of "raw" and "processed" food and familiarity with marketing in today's consumer culture to make sense of such labeling.

  16. Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of whole and processed organic food.

    PubMed

    Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David

    2017-03-23

    The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.

  17. [How to increase food production?].

    PubMed

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  18. The ecological background of food production.

    PubMed

    Rabbinge, R

    1993-01-01

    In the industrialized countries dramatic decreases in the number of people employed in agriculture have been made possible by a rise in soil and labour productivity. There is scope for these to improve further, particularly in developing countries. Potential yields are determined by the characteristics of the crop, local temperature and sunlight. Because the availability of nutrients and that of water are limiting for at least part of the growing season in most agricultural lands, attainable yields are lower than potential yields. Proper management of nutrient inputs, such that optimum use is made of each, can reduce this gap without causing negative environmental side-effects. Actual yields are lower than attainable yields because of growth-reducing factors, such as pests, diseases and weeds. For sustainable agriculture these should be controlled mainly by biological measures. There are many possibilities for this, thus biocides may be used as a last resort not as preventive insurance. Potential yields of rice and sugarcane can reach 30,000 kg ha-1 per year of consumable organic matter, sufficient to feed 120 people. Such yields cannot be achieved on all agricultural land, but it is estimated that world food production could support a population of 80 thousand million, if they were all vegetarian and required only 1500 m2 for non-food-related purposes. The green revolutions that occurred in the Western industrialized countries in the late 1940s and early 1950s and in Asia in the late 1960s and early 1970s need to be followed by a similar increase in agricultural productivity in Africa and West Asia to feed their rapidly growing populations. Better use of fertilizers and good water management require well-educated farmers with the financial means to implement long-term strategies. If these developments are managed properly, food production for the ever-increasing human population can be guaranteed and the burden on the environment and natural habitats reduced

  19. Preservation of food products by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGivney, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of irradiation to preserve food has the potential to significantly enhance our capacity to maximize the quality and quantity of the food we consume. In a world in which distribution of food occurs across continents and in which malnourished populations are in dire need of basic food products, any safe, effective, and efficient means of preserving food is more than welcome. Irradiation, as a method for food preservation, has been studied for more than 30 years. This discussion focuses on this most recent method for the preservation of food with particular emphasis on its effects on the safety, nutritive, and aesthetic values of the food preserved by irradiation. The use of ionizing radiation as a method to preserve foods is one that has been demonstrated to be effective for a variety of food classes. Irradiation offers a means to decontaminate, disinfest, and retard the spoilage of the food supply. At the same time, it appears that the wholesomeness of these food products is maintained. Nutritive value can be sustained by use of effective doses of radiation. Concerns over the safety of irradiated food are rooted in questions regarding the potential induction of radioactivity, harmful radiolytic products, and pathogenic radiation-resistant or mutant strains of microorganisms. Research findings have allayed concerns over safety. However, more research is necessary to conclusively resolve these safety issues. Food irradiation is a promising technology that has and will contribute to our ability to feed the people of this world. This technology is but one of many available ways to preserve our greatest natural resource, the food supply. Enhancement of the ability to preserve food by irradiation will facilitate the distribution of food from fertile developed regions to the malnourished peoples of underdeveloped countries. 21 references.

  20. The Spaces and Ethics of Organic Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Barnett, Clive; Malpass, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Initial assessments of the potential for organic food systems have offered an optimistic interpretation of the progressive political and ethical characteristics involved. This positive gloss has prompted a stream of critique emphasising the need to explore the ambiguities and disconnections inherent therein. In this paper, we consider the case of…

  1. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed. PMID:24288597

  2. Immobilization technologies in probiotic food production.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Nedovic, Viktor; Goyal, Arun; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  3. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  4. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    PubMed Central

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  5. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    PubMed

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  6. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr−1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr−1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. PMID:27445108

  7. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr(-1) in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr(-1) will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  8. Reducing human nitrogen use for food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junguo; Ma, Kun; Ciais, Philippe; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Reactive nitrogen (N) is created in order to sustain food production, but only a small fraction of this N ends up being consumed as food, the rest being lost to the environment. We calculated that the total N input (TN) of global food production was 171 Tg N yr‑1 in 2000. The production of animal products accounted for over 50% of the TN, against 17% for global calories production. Under current TN per unit of food production and assuming no change in agricultural practices and waste-to-food ratios, we estimate that an additional TN of 100 Tg N yr‑1 will be needed by 2030 for a baseline scenario that would meet hunger alleviation targets for over 9 billion people. Increased animal production will have the largest impact on increasing TN, which calls for new food production systems with better N-recycling, such as cooperation between crop and livestock producing farms. Increased N-use efficiency, healthier diet and decreased food waste could mitigate this increase and even reduce TN in 2030 by 8% relative to the 2000 level. Achieving a worldwide reduction of TN is a major challenge that requires sustained actions to improve nitrogen management practices and reduce nitrogen losses into the environment.

  9. Biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, Olena; Ding, Hong-Bo; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    A biotechnology for aerobic conversion of food waste into organic fertilizer under controlled aeration, stirring, pH and temperature at 55-65 degrees C, is proposed. To maintain neutral pH at the beginning of the bioconversion 5% CaCO3 was added to the total solids of the food waste. The addition of 20% horticultural waste compost as a bulking agent to the food wastes (w.w./w.w.), improved the bioconversion and increased the stability of the final product. No starter culture was needed for aerobic bioconversion of food waste into organic fertilizer for 10 days. The low contents of heavy metals in the raw materials used in the bioconversions ensured the safety of fertilizer from food waste for application in agriculture. The addition of 4% organic fertilizer to the subsoil increased the yield and growth of Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) by 1.5 to 2 times. The addition of phosphorus is required to enhance the positive effect of organic fertilizer on plant growth.

  10. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Organic Foods in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R Reid; Zakhour, Christine M; Gould, L Hannah

    2016-11-01

    Consumer demand for organically produced foods is increasing in the United States as well as globally. Consumer perception often credits organic foods as being safer than conventionally produced foods, although organic standards do not directly address safety issues such as microbial or chemical hazards. We reviewed outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System where the implicated food was reported to be organic. Information collected for each outbreak included the year, state, number of illnesses, pathogen, and implicated food. We identified 18 outbreaks caused by organic foods from 1992 to 2014, resulting in 779 illnesses, 258 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths; 56% of outbreaks occurred from 2010 to 2014. Nine outbreaks occurred in a single state, and nine outbreaks were multistate. Salmonella sp. (44% of outbreaks) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (33%) were the most commonly occurring pathogens. Eight of the outbreaks were attributed to produce items, four to unpasteurized dairy products, two to eggs, two to nut and seed products, and two to multi-ingredient foods. Fifteen (83%) outbreaks were associated with foods that were definitely or likely U.S. Department of Agriculture certified. More foodborne outbreaks associated with organic foods in the United States have been reported in recent years, in parallel with increases in organic food production and consumption. We are unable to assess risk of outbreaks due to organic foods compared with conventional foods because foodborne outbreak surveillance does not systematically collect food production method. Food safety requires focused attention by consumers, regardless of whether foods are produced organically or conventionally. Consumers should be aware of the risk of milk and produce consumed raw, including organic.

  11. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  12. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently.

  13. Climate change and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    One of the greatest challenges we face in the twenty-first century is to sustainably feed nine to ten billion people by 2050 while at the same time reducing environmental impact (e.g. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, biodiversity loss, land use change and loss of ecosystem services). To this end, food security must be delivered. According to the United Nations definition, 'food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life'. At the same time as delivering food security, we must also reduce the environmental impact of food production. Future climate change will make an impact upon food production. On the other hand, agriculture contributes up to about 30% of the anthropogenic GHG emissions that drive climate change. The aim of this review is to outline some of the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture, the mitigation measures available within agriculture to reduce GHG emissions and outlines the very significant challenge of feeding nine to ten billion people sustainably under a future climate, with reduced emissions of GHG. Each challenge is in itself enormous, requiring solutions that co-deliver on all aspects. We conclude that the status quo is not an option, and tinkering with the current production systems is unlikely to deliver the food and ecosystems services we need in the future; radical changes in production and consumption are likely to be required over the coming decades.

  14. Feeding trials in organic food quality and health research.

    PubMed

    Velimirov, Alberta; Huber, Machteld; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Seidel, Kathrin; Bügel, Susanne

    2010-01-30

    Feeding experiments comparing organically and conventionally produced food are performed to assess the overall impact on the animals' health as a model for the effects experienced by the human consumers. These experiments are based on systems research and characterized by their focus on production methods, whole food testing and procedures in accordance with the terms of organic farming. A short review of such experiments shows that the majority of these tests revealed effects of the organically produced feed on health parameters such as reproductive performance and immune responses. Systems research is not just about simple cause-effect chains, but rather about the pluralism of interactions in biological networks; therefore, the interpretation of the outcome of whole food experiments is difficult. Furthermore, the test diets of organic and conventional origin can be constituted in different ways, compensating for or maintaining existing differences in nutrient and energy contents. The science-based results suggest positive influences from organic feeds, but there is still a need for confirmation in animals and, finally, in humans. For this purpose animal feeding trials with feed from different production systems should be conducted, with the aims to define health indicators and to establish biomarkers as a basis for future dietary intervention studies in humans.

  15. Rice Breeding and World Food Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the relation of technology to the green revolution, the role of plant breeders in inducing change in stagnant agriculture and the tools required by production scientists to increase yields of basic food crops in developing countries. (BR)

  16. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  17. Determinants of consumer behavior related to organic foods.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Richard; Magnusson, Maria; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2005-06-01

    There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.

  18. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    PubMed

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  19. Methods for comparing data across differently designed agronomic studies: examples of different meta-analysis methods used to compare relative composition of plant foods grown using organic or conventional production methods and a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Kirsten; Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Sanderson, Roy; Leifert, Carlo; Seal, Chris

    2013-07-31

    Meta-analyses are methods to combine outcomes from different studies to investigate consistent effects of relatively small magnitude, which are difficult to distinguish from random variation within a single study. Several published meta-analyses addressed whether organic and conventional production methods affect the composition of plant foods differently. The meta-analyses were carried out using different options for the methodology and resulted in different conclusions. The types of designs of field trials and farm comparisons widely used in horticultural and agronomic research differ substantially from the clinical trials and epidemiological studies that most meta-analysis methodologies were developed for. Therefore, it is proposed that a systematic review and meta-analysis be carried out with the aim of developing a consolidated methodology. If successful, this methodology can then be used to determine effects of different production systems on plant food composition as well as other comparable factors with small but systematic effects across studies.

  20. Food product design: emerging evidence for food policy.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven

    2017-03-01

    The research on the impact of specific brand elements such as food descriptors and package colors is underexplored. We tested whether a "light" color and a "low-calorie" descriptor on food packages gain favorable consumer perception ratings as compared with regular packages. Our online experiment recruited 406 adults in a 3 (product type: Chips versus Juice versus Yoghurt) × 2 (descriptor type: regular versus low-calorie) × 2 (color type: regular versus light) mixed design. Dependent variables were sensory (evaluations of the product's nutritional value and quality), product-based (evaluations of the product's physical appeal), and consumer-based (evaluations of the potential consumers of the product) scales. "Low-calorie" descriptors were found to increase sensory ratings as compared with regular descriptors and light-colored packages received higher product-based ratings as compared with their regular-colored counterparts. Food package color and descriptors present a promising venue for understanding preventative measures against obesity.[Formula: see text].

  1. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW.

  2. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  3. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  4. Effect of volumetric organic loading rate (OLR) on H2 and CH4 production by two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and brown water.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sachin; Kang, Youngjun; Yoo, Yeong-Seok; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2017-03-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophillic conditions (37°C) were studied. The aim of this study is to determine optimum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of the two-stage anaerobic digester system for hydrogen and methane production. This paper also discusses the effect of OLR with change in HRT on the system. Four different HRTs of 48, 24, 12, 8h were monitored for acidogenic reactor, which provided OLR of 17.7, 34.8, 70.8, 106gVS/L·d respectively. Two HRTs of 15days and 20days were studied with OLR of 1.24 and 1.76gVS/L·d respectively in methanogenic reactor. Hydrogen production at higher OLR and shorter HRT seemed favorable 106gVS/L·d (8h) in acidogenic reactor system. In methanogenic reactor system HRT of 20day with OLR of 1.24gVS/L·d was found optimum in terms of methane production and organic removal. The result of this study illustrated the optimum HRT of 8h and 20days in acidogenic stage and methanogenic stage for maximum hydrogen and methane production.

  5. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, Th.

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10∗∗4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50°C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the iradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  6. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality.

  7. Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll

    MedlinePlus

    ... said GM foods are healthier, the researchers found. Genetically modified foods come from plants, animals or microorganisms in which ... re more pessimistic than men about the effect genetically modified foods may have on society. Broken down by age, ...

  8. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  9. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  10. Managed care organizations and products.

    PubMed

    Behnke, L M

    1997-12-01

    Managed care organizations and their products will continue to change in response to consumer demands, competitive pressures, and regulatory requirements. Providers who gain an understanding of the world managed care organizations live in can also expect to influence these organizations for mutual benefit. Just as managed care organizations differ in the sophistication of their functional elements, providers and their organizations differ in their ability to shift their focus from the physician-patient relationship to improving the health of a population. As the future of managed care evolves, there are opportunities for those physicians who strive for a greater understanding of the broad spectrum of forces shaping the health care industry.

  11. Soya--the medicine food product.

    PubMed

    Moţa, Maria; Gârgavu, Sigina; Popa, Simona; Schiopu, Simona; Panduru, N M; Moţa, E

    2007-01-01

    Soya, cultivated for more than 3000 years, is both a drug and a food product. It has numerous nutritional benefits, given by its content of isoflavones, essential amino acids, fibers, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The use of soy reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases: it has an antioxidant effect, reduces cholesterol levels and modulates the endothelial function; the soy foods, rich in isoflavones, reduce the risk of breast cancer; men with heredocolateral cancer antecedents or with minimal increase of prostate antigen must consider the consumption of soy and soy foods. Soy and soy foods play an important role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis and controlling the pre- and postmenopausal symptoms; the soy ingestion has benefic metabolic effects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and overweight. Taking into consideration the nutritional profile of soy, the nutritionists should encourage the population to consume more soy and soy foods. Nevertheless, long term studies are needed to discover a possible "dark side" of soy consumption. Among the most popular soy foods we mention: soymilk, soy cheese (tofu), soy meat (pie, salami, textured soy in granule form). Most of the products are soy flour derivatives, while tofu is obtained by curdling soymilk.

  12. Southern Nevada Food & Organics Recovery Workshop Final Report & Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary of Southern Nevada Food & Organics Recovery Workshop held in Las Vegas in September of 2015 to support improved food recovery through source reduction, donation, animal feeding, anaerobic digestion and composting.

  13. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  14. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  15. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  16. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  17. 7 CFR 205.201 - Organic production and handling system plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organic production and handling system plan. 205.201...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.201 Organic production and handling system plan. (a) The producer or handler of a...

  18. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label...

  19. Sustainable potato production and global food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato (Solanum spp.) is currently the leading non-grain commodity in the global food system with production exceeding 329 million metric tonnes in 2009. The extraordinary adaptive range of this species complex combined with ease of cultivation and high nutritional content have promoted steady i...

  20. Food Production, Management, and Services Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This food production, management, and services curriculum guide provides information needed by teachers. It begins with a list of the competencies and subcompetencies that are the essential elements and the sub-elements prescribed in the Texas Administrative Codes for Vocational Home Economics. Each chapter consists of teaching strategies. They…

  1. Food Production, Management, and Services. Production. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    This teacher's guide contains 20 units of instruction for a course in production in the food production, management, and services area. Units of instruction are designed for use in more than one lesson or class period of instruction. Introductory materials include the following: a competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic…

  2. Certified organic vegetable production for market

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelines provide general provisions and processes for obtaining and maintaining organic certification, but did not specify best management practices for crop...

  3. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  4. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  5. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  6. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  7. 27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...

  8. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  9. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  10. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  11. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  12. 9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881... Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver cheese, liver spread, liver mush, liver paste, and liver pudding shall contain not...

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced.

  14. The future of sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Pamela; Adamchak, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    By the year 2050, the number of people on Earth is expected to increase from the current 6.7 to 9.2 billion. What is the best way to produce enough food to feed all these people? If we continue with current farming practices, vast amounts of wilderness will be lost, millions of birds and billions of insects will die, farm workers will be at increased risk for disease, and the public will lose billions of dollars as a consequence of environmental degradation. Clearly, there must be a better way to resolve the need for increased food production with the desire to minimize its impact.

  15. Human health problems associated with current agricultural food production.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh V

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technological developments in the agricultural sectors in the recent past has resulted in increased food production and at the same time led to certain public health concerns. Unseasonal rains at the time of harvest and improper post harvest technology often results in agricultural commodities being contaminated with certain fungi and results in the production of mycotoxins. Consumption of such commodities has resulted in human disease outbreaks. Naturally occurring toxins, inherently present in foods and either consumed as such or mixed up with grains, had been responsible for disease outbreaks. Other possible causes of health concern include the application of various agrochemicals such as pesticides and the use of antibiotics in aquaculture and veterinary practices. Foodborne pathogens entering the food chain during both traditional and organic agriculture pose a challenge to public health. Modern biotechnology, producing genetically modified foods, if not regulated appropriately could pose dangers to human health. Use of various integrated food management systems like the Hazard Analysis and critical control system approach for risk prevention, monitoring and control of food hazards are being emphasized with globalization to minimise the danger posed to human health from improper agricultural practices.

  16. Organically grown food provides health benefits to Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.

  17. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  18. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  19. Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria (Clostridium botulinum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-25

    food bacteria such as ’Clostridium botulinum. and closely related > organisms. Results from these studies show that C. botulinum types C and D cease...S to produce their dominant toxins when -they are cured o’ftheir prophages.’. These i nontoxigenic derivatives then become sensitive to bacteriophages...of other. culture C.) which induce the production of different toxins . One cured-strain of type C was shown to be sensitive to bacteriophages from C

  20. Organic Nanoparticles in Foods: Fabrication, Characterization, and Utilization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    In the context of food systems, organic nanoparticles (ONPs) are fabricated from proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other organic compounds to a characteristic dimension, such as a radius smaller than 100 nm. ONPs can be fabricated with bottom-up and top-down approaches, or a combination of both, on the basis of the physicochemical properties of the source materials and the fundamental principles of physical chemistry, colloidal and polymer sciences, and materials science and engineering. ONPs are characterized for dimension, morphology, surface properties, internal structures, and biological properties to understand structure-function correlations and to explore their applications. These potential applications include modifying physical properties, improving sensory attributes and food quality, protecting labile compounds, and delivering encapsulated bioactive compounds for improved bioactivity and bioavailability. Because ONPs can have digestion and absorption properties different from conventional materials, the eventual applications of ONPs require in vitro and in vivo studies to guide the development of safe food products that utilize the unique functionalities of ONPs.

  1. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  2. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  3. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  4. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  5. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM... or food group(s))” must be made accessible by certified organic production or handling operations for... agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.” (a) All agricultural products that are to be...

  6. Food safety objective approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Larkin, J W; Cole, M B; Skinner, G E; Whiting, R C; Gorris, L G M; Rodriguez, A; Buchanan, R; Stewart, C M; Hanlin, J H; Keener, L; Hall, P A

    2011-11-01

    As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that designates the maximum level of a hazard (e.g., the pathogenic microorganism or toxin) tolerated in a food at the end of the food supply chain at the moment of consumption without specifying by which measures the hazard level is controlled. Using a risk-based approach, when the total outcome of controlling initial levels (H(0)), reducing levels (ΣR), and preventing an increase in levels (ΣI) is less than or equal to the target FSO, the product is considered safe. A cross-disciplinary international consortium of specialists from industry, academia, and government was organized with the objective of developing a document to illustrate the FSO approach for controlling Clostridium botulinum toxin in commercially sterile foods. This article outlines the general principles of an FSO risk management framework for controlling C. botulinum growth and toxin production in commercially sterile foods. Topics include historical approaches to establishing commercial sterility; a perspective on the establishment of an appropriate target FSO; a discussion of control of initial levels, reduction of levels, and prevention of an increase in levels of the hazard; and deterministic and stochastic examples that illustrate the impact that various control measure combinations have on the safety of well-established commercially sterile products and the ways in which variability all levels of control can heavily influence estimates in the FSO risk management framework. This risk-based framework should encourage development of innovative technologies that result in microbial safety levels equivalent to those achieved with traditional processing methods.

  7. Organic food quality: a framework for concept, definition and evaluation from the European perspective.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Baars, Ton; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Huber, Machteld; Kusche, Daniel; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Seidel, Kathrin; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Velimirov, Alberta; Załecka, Aneta

    2012-11-01

    Consumers buy organic food because they believe in the high quality of the product. Furthermore, the EU legal regulatory framework for organic food and farming defines high quality of the products as an important goal of production. A major challenge is the need to define food quality concepts and methods for determination. A background is described which allows embedding of the quality definitions as well as evaluation methods into a conceptual framework connected to the vision and mission of organic agriculture and food production. Organic food quality is defined through specific aspects and criteria. For evaluation each criterion has to be described by indicators. The determination of indicators should be through parameters, where parameters are described by methods. Conversely, the conceptual framework is described according to underlying principles and starting definitions are given, but further work has do be done on the detailed scientific description of the indicators. Furthermore, parameters have to be defined for the evaluation of suitability of these indicators for organic food production.

  8. Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Wan Chi; Pleissner, Daniel; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3 minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. PMID:24970186

  9. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  10. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide, part of a multi-volume dietetic support personnel training program, consists of materials (15 units) for use in training future food production workers. Covered in the first part of the guide are nutrition in food production and diet therapy. The second part of the guide deals with sanitation and safety in food production.…

  11. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos

    2017-03-14

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties including losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. Commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during last fifty years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. Latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the current review, we summarized most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role.

  12. [Transgenic products. A scientific-production evaluation of possible food (in)security].

    PubMed

    Camara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem L C; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2009-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic review, the article identifies and offers a critical analysis of scientific production by the public health field in Brazil on genetically modified organisms and food (in)security. Of the 716 articles found on the portals of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and the Coordinating Agency for the Development of Higher Education (Capes), only 8 address the food security of transgenic products, primarily in terms of risk exposure and the uncertainties about how these products impact health and the environment. The main conclusion involves the fact that the eight analyzed articles do not speak to the question of the security but rather the insecurity of genetically modified foods.

  13. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  14. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  15. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  16. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  17. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  18. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  19. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  20. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  1. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  2. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  3. 7 CFR 205.604 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic livestock production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic...

  4. Energy production from food industry wastewaters using bioelectrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Choo Yieng

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of waste and renewable resources to energy using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an upcoming technology for enabling a cleaner and sustainable environment. This paper assesses the energy production potential from the US food industry wastewater resource. It also reports on an experimental study investigating conversion of wastewater from a local milk dairy plant to electricity. An MFC anode biocatalyst enriched on model sugar and organic acid substrates was used as the inoculum for the dairy wastewater MFC. The tests were conducted using a two-chamber MFC with a porous three dimensional anode and a Pt/C air-cathode. Power densities up to 690 mW/m2 (54 W/m3) were obtained. Analysis of the food industry wastewater resource indicated that MFCs can potentially recover 2 to 260 kWh/ton of food processed from wastewaters generated during food processing, depending on the biological oxygen demand and volume of water used in the process. A total of 1960 MW of power can potentially be produced from US milk industry wastewaters alone. Hydrogen is an alternate form of energy that can be produced using bioelectrochemical cells. Approximately 2 to 270 m3 of hydrogen can be generated per ton of the food processed. Application of MFCs for treatment of food processing wastewaters requires further investigations into electrode design, materials, liquid flow management, proton transfer, organic loading and scale-up to enable high power densities at the larger scale. Potential for water recycle also exists, but requires careful consideration of the microbiological safety and regulatory aspects and the economic feasibility of the process.

  5. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  6. Food, fuel, and feed production with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Large-scale (>10 hectares) microalgae cultures are being used in several countries around the world for the production of human food supplements and specialty animal (mainly aquaculture) feeds. Microalgae cultures are also extensively used in wastewater treatment and being produced on a small scale for soil inoculants and diagnostic reagents. In addition, microalgae cultures are being investigated for their potential in fuel production and CO{sub 2} utilization, as a method for greenhouse gas mitigation. A pilot plant effort in New Mexico, under a US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Lab. subcontract, demonstrated the feasibility of cultivating a number of algal species in large outdoor ponds on brackish waters. Building on this experience, SeaAg, Inc. has developed a process for the mass culture of microalgae as a source of bivalve feeds. In this process, algae (diatoms) are cultured in large open ponds on seawater, and then fed to clams and oysters, which filter and convert the algal cells into high value protein. The SeaAg process is another application of a technology which promises to eventually result in large-scale commercial production of microalgae for a variety of useful products and processes.

  7. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  8. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  9. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  10. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  11. Improving the Potential for Increased World Food Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable world food production is completely dependent on the ability of people to grow, harvest, and utilize plants as a source of food. The United Nations estimates that in order to feed the world’s increasing population that by the year 2040 agriculture will have to increase food production by a...

  12. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  13. Foodomics: A new tool to differentiate between organic and conventional foods.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria

    2016-07-01

    The demand for organic food is increasing annually due to the growing consumer trend for more natural products that have simpler ingredient lists, involve less processing and are grown free of pesticides. However, there is still not enough nutritional evidence in favor of organic food consumption. Classical chemical analysis of macro- and micronutrients has demonstrated that organic crops are poorer in nitrogen, but clear evidence for other nutrients is lacking. Omics technologies forming part of the new discipline of foodomics have allowed the detection of possible nutritional differences between organic and conventional production, although many results remain controversial and contradictory. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the studies that use foodomics techniques as a tool to differentiate between organic and conventional production.

  14. USDA/ARS Organic Production Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For much of its history, USDA/ARS had little to do with research on organic agriculture, however research in organic systems has made considerable gains at the agency over the past decade. In the 1980's and 1990's, as the organic food industry was taking off, ARS researchers who wanted to serve orga...

  15. Quality and utilization of food co-products and residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, P.; Bao, G.; Broderick, C.; Fishman, M.; Liu, L.; Onwulata, C.

    2010-06-01

    Some agricultural industries generate large amounts of low value co-products/residues, including citrus peel, sugar beet pulp and whey protein from the production of orange juice, sugar and cheese commodities, respectively. National Program #306 of the USDA Agricultural Research Service aims to characterize and enhance quality and develop new processes and uses for value-added foods and bio-based products. In parallel projects, we applied scanning microscopies to examine the molecular organization of citrus pectin gels, covalent crosslinking to reduce debonding in sugar beet pulp-PLA composites and functional modification of whey protein through extrusion in order to evaluate new methods of processing and formulating new products. Also, qualitative attributes of fresh produce that could potentially guide germ line development and crop management were explored through fluorescence imaging: synthesis and accumulation of oleoresin in habanero peppers suggest a complicated mechanism of secretion that differs from the classical scheme. Integrated imaging appears to offer significant structural insights to help understand practical properties and features of important food co-products/residues.

  16. Antibacterial products of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din

    2015-05-01

    Marine organisms comprising microbes, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates elaborate an impressive array of structurally diverse antimicrobial products ranging from small cyclic compounds to macromolecules such as proteins. Some of these biomolecules originate directly from marine animals while others arise from microbes associated with the animals. It is noteworthy that some of the biomolecules referred to above are structurally unique while others belong to known classes of compounds, peptides, and proteins. Some of the antibacterial agents are more active against Gram-positive bacteria while others have higher effectiveness on Gram-negative bacteria. Some are efficacious against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against drug-resistant strains as well. The mechanism of antibacterial action of a large number of the chemically identified antibacterial agents, possible synergism with currently used antibiotics, and the issue of possible toxicity on mammalian cells and tissues await elucidation. The structural characteristics pivotal to antibacterial activity have been ascertained in only a few studies. Demonstration of efficacy of the antibacterial agents in animal models of bacterial infection is highly desirable. Structural characterization of the active principles present in aqueous and organic extracts of marine organisms with reportedly antibacterial activity would be desirable.

  17. New England Organizations Step Up for EPAs Food Recovery Challenge and Help to Reduce Food Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Thirteen New England organizations have backed a national effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to help cut down on the nearly 35 million tons of food wasted in the United States each year.

  18. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput, 'next-generation' sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems.

  19. A new perspective on microbial landscapes within food production

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Lewis, Zachery T; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput, ‘next-generation’ sequencing tools offer many exciting new possibilities for food research. From investigating microbial dynamics within food fermentations to the ecosystem of the food-processing built environment, amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and transcriptomics present novel applications for exploring microbial communities in, on, and around our foods. This review discusses the many uses of these tools for food-related and food facility-related research and highlights where they may yield nuanced insight into the microbial world of food production systems. PMID:26773388

  20. Food Choice Motives When Purchasing in Organic and Conventional Consumer Clusters: Focus on Sustainable Concerns (The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.

  1. A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Hasimu, Huliyeti; Marchesini, Sergio; Canavari, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a "technology advanced" product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps.

  2. Effect of organic fertilizers on maize production in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia; Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    Maize remains to be the most important cereal crop in Georgia. Total area of arable land under cereal crops production equals to 184 thousands hectares (FAO statistical yearbook, 2014), from which maize takes the biggest share. Leading position of maize among other cereal crops is caused by its dual purpose as food and feed product. In Spite of a relatively high production of maize to other cereals there is still a high demand on it, especially as feed for animal husbandry. The same tendency is seen in organic production, where producers of livestock and poultry products require organically grown maize, the average yield of which is much less than those produced conventionally. Therefore, it is important to increase productivity of maize in organic farms. Current study aimed to improve maize yield using locally produced organic fertilizers and to compare them to the effect of mineral fertilizers. The study was carried out in Eastern Georgia under dry subtropical climate conditions on local hybrid of maize. This is the first attempt to use hybrid maize (developed with organic plant breeding method) in organic field trials in Georgia. The results shown, that grain yield from two different types of organic fertilizers reached 70% of the yields achieved with industrial mineral fertilizers. As on farm level differences between organic and conventional maize production are much severe, the results from the field trials seems to be promising for future improvement of organic cereal crop production.

  3. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain.

  4. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

  5. Organic tomato transplant production and supplemental fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing healthy transplants for organic production systems is an essential step in the process of maximizing crop yields. All components entering into the organic crop production system must be approved for organic use, including the seed, soil media, and fertilizer used in transplant production....

  6. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the...

  7. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the...

  8. Targets to increase food production: One Health implications.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Barry J; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus; Fahey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The increasing world population means that there is a requirement to expand global food production. Looking at the Republic of Ireland as an example, the risks and opportunities associated with the expansion of food production are outlined, particularly in relation to zoonoses transmission. A One Health approach to sustainable food production is required to avert a potential public health problem associated with increased agricultural expansion.

  9. Food Production and Antimicrobial Resistance – The Next 100 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of food is complex and ensuring the safety of food for human consumption provides serious challenges. Since 1996 the U.S. has conducted surveillance on food borne and commensal antimicrobial resistance bacteria through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System - Enteric Bac...

  10. Food-Grade Organisms as Vaccine Biofactories and Oral Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Angulo, Carlos; Meza, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The use of food-grade organisms as recombinant vaccine expression hosts and delivery vehicles has been explored during the past 25 years, opening new avenues for vaccinology. Considering that oral immunization is a beneficial approach in terms of costs, patient comfort, and protection of mucosal tissues, the use of food-grade organisms can lead to highly advantageous vaccines in terms of costs, easy administration, and safety. The organisms currently used for this purpose are bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacillus), yeasts, algae, plants, and insect species. Herein, a comparative and updated scenario on the production of oral vaccines in food-grade organisms is provided and placed in perspective. The status of clinical evaluations and the adoption of this technology by the industry are highlighted.

  11. Exploring water and food security: the water footprint of domestic food production in the Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh

  12. Interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes in food sensitive atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Agata, H; Kondo, N; Fukutomi, O; Shinoda, S; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to food antigens in 22 patients with food sensitive atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than the responses of healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. Moreover, the activity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in supernatants of food antigen stimulated PBMC cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that in healthy children and food sensitive children with immediate symptoms. The activity of IL-2 in culture supernatants of separated cell populations stimulated with food antigens from patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy children was investigated. The activity of IL-2 in supernatants of food antigen stimulated T cell cultures could be detected in patients with atopic dermatitis but not in healthy children. These results suggest that the increased IL-2 production after food antigen stimulation is due to increased T cell activity in food sensitive atopic dermatitis. PMID:1575549

  13. [Nanotechnology in food production: advances and problems].

    PubMed

    Vernikov, V M; Arianova, E A; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutel'ian, V A

    2009-01-01

    Presented article is a review of the modern data on nanotechnology use in food manufacturing. There are discussed the basic scopes of nanotechnology application in food industry. One of the main problems arising in connection with introduction of nanotechnology in food, is an absence of reliable methods of identification and the control of nanoparticles is in structure of foodstuff including the control of their authenticity. Other problem is connected to necessity of an estimation of the risks connected to presence of potentially toxic nanoparticles in food. The analysis of foreign experience of researches in the given area allows to formulate methodological approaches to formation of domestic system of nanosafety.

  14. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  15. Effect of seeding rate on organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for organic rice (Oryza sativa L.) has incentivized producer conversion from conventional to organically-managed rice production in the U.S. Little is known on the impacts of seeding rate on organic rice production. A completely randomized factorial design with four replications was...

  16. Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria (Clostridium botulinum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    l~ V- 9;-iC -’.1,- r, 4. •, . . . . . MECHANISMS OF TOXIN PRODUCTION OF FOOD BACTERIA ( CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM) FINAL REPORT DR. H. U. EKLUND F. T...Mechanisms of Toxin Production of Food Bacteria Clostridium botulinum Final Y,’v/ ’ "D30 • ’q• 6, PERFORM G ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.) S...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If necessary and Identify by block number) Clostridium botulinum Bacteriophages Plasmids Food Poisoning Toxins

  17. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  18. Problems of toxicants in marine food products

    PubMed Central

    Bagnis, R.; Berglund, F.; Elias, P. S.; van Esch, G. J.; Halstead, B. W.; Kojima, Kohei

    1970-01-01

    The expansion of marine fisheries into tropical waters, which is now occurring, will increase the risks of widespread poisonings because of the abundance of biotoxins in warm-water organisms. However, toxic marine organisms are not only a health hazard but also a possible source of new pharmaceutical products. A classification of marine intoxicants is given in this paper with special reference to the oral biotoxins which will be of primary concern in the expansion of warm-water fisheries. The biotoxins are both invertebrate (e.g., molluscs, arthropods) and vertebrate (mostly fishes) in origin. Biotoxications of vertebrate origin may be caused by the muscles, the gonads or the blood of certain fishes or by special poison glands not equipped with traumagenic devices. (Venomous fishes, having poison glands and traumagenic spines, etc., are of no direct concern as oral intoxicants.) The ichthyosarcotoxic fishes, in which the flesh is poisonous, appear to constitute the most significant health hazard. A list of fishes reported as causing ciguatera poisoning (one of the most serious and widespread forms of ichthyosarcotoxism) is included in this paper. PMID:4908418

  19. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed Central

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health. PMID:28326003

  20. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed...

  2. Food Production and Services. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, EuDell H.; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a food production and services course, which is designed to provide students with an opportunity to express and practice a broad range of food production and service occupations. Major concepts covered include…

  3. Papago Food Production and Nutrition Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Cynthia

    The Project was begun in 1979 by the Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation to help bring about changes leading to improvements in the food and nutrition conditions, and overall health, of Papago people living on the reservation. Goals of the Project were to initiate a comprehensive and integrated approach to food and nutrition problems…

  4. Seafood Products: Food Service Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Anita H.; And Others

    The nine lessons and supplementary activities included in this seafood food service program guide are intended for use in secondary and postsecondary occupational home economics food service programs. Material covers nutrition, therapeutic diets, harvesting methods, quality assessment, fish cuts and forms, inspection, dressing, storage,…

  5. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  6. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  7. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  8. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  9. 7 CFR 205.303 - Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.303 Packaged products labeled “100 percent organic” or “organic.” (a) Agricultural products... product, the following: (1) The term, “100 percent organic” or “organic,” as applicable, to modify...

  10. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health.

  11. Diet modification and the development of new food products.

    PubMed

    Bursey, R G

    1983-05-01

    The development of new food products to meet the needs of the 20th century American consumer offers a greater challenge to the innovativeness of the food industry scientist than ever before. The sequence of activities that leads to the introduction of a successful new food product into today's highly competitive marketplace has its beginnings and foundation in extensive and ongoing market research. This research elicits and defines the changing consumer needs and wants. The relation of diet to health is but one of many factors that influence food purchase decisions and, thus, the stimulus for developing new food products. In addition, the extent to which existing food products may be modified or new foods developed to meet dietary goals is subject to technologic and regulatory constraints. A commitment to ethical and responsible marketing strategies is essential to the evolution of food products for special dietary needs. Despite these complex restraints, many food products with altered nutrient or ingredient composition are currently available to consumers and others enter the marketplace each year.

  12. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecosystem services along with its concomitant rural social organization has been sustained in the region for over 1000 years. However, the system has been gradually decreasing in extent since the 19th century and its rate of decline has accelerated since the 1980s. The causes of this decline have been traced in descending order of importance to land managment choices, spatial factors and environmental factors. In addition, past studies have shown that there is an optimum livestock support capacity for maintaining the health of the montado agroecosystem. In this study, we used the results of an emergy evaluation of a cattle farm as part of a montado agroecosystem to examine the effects of the European Union’s (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the viability of both cattle rearing and the long term regional sustainability of montado agroecosystems. We found that the CAP and its two pillars for providing subsidies, (1) Common Market Organization (CMO) and (2) Rural Development Policy (RDP) are complex and take into account many aspects of prices and markets for particular products, e.g., beef and veal (CMO) and sustainable rural development, e.g., silvopastoral agroecosystems (RDP). How

  13. Gender and food, a study of attitudes in the USA towards organic, local, U.S. grown, and GM-free foods.

    PubMed

    Bellows, Anne C; Alcaraz V, Gabriela; Hallman, William K

    2010-12-01

    Food choice is influenced by consumer attitudes towards food attributes. This U.S.-based study (n = 601) simultaneously compares attitudes towards selected food attributes of organic, locally grown, U.S. grown, and GM-free food in relation to other food attributes. Exploratory factor analysis identifies underlying constructs that determine, together and separately, female and male food choice decisions. Gendered analysis of the value of food in life and food behaviours (cooking and shopping) support the investigation of the highlighted food attributes. Respondents generally assigned greater importance to the U.S. grown, followed by GM-free, locally grown, and organically produced food attributes in deciding what to eat. Analysis of the female and male subsamples yielded similar factor results. All four main attributes were captured in a single factor, associated with respondents in both the female and male subsamples who are older, have lower incomes, and who are religiously observant. Additionally, among females, this factor was associated with higher education; and among males, living in households with children and/or with partners. Additional studies should further explore the interaction of food attributes now becoming increasingly important and prevalent in current food products.

  14. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  15. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  16. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  17. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  18. 7 CFR 205.305 - Multi-ingredient packaged products with less than 70 percent organically produced ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC... organically produced ingredients may only identify the organic content of the product by: (1) Identifying each organically produced ingredient in the ingredient statement with the word, “organic,” or with an asterisk...

  19. Food production and the energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D; Hurd, L E; Bellotti, A C; Forster, M J; Oka, I N; Sholes, O D; Whitman, R J

    1973-11-02

    The principal raw material of modern U.S. agriculture is fossil fuel, whereas the labor input is relatively small (about 9 hours per crop acre). As agriculture is dependent upon fossil energy, crop production costs will also soar when fuel costs increase two- to fivefold. A return of 2.8 kcal of corn per 1 kcal of fuel input may then be uneconomical. Green revolution agriculture also uses high energy crop production technology, especially with respect to fertilizers and pesticides. While one may not doubt the sincerity of the U.S. effort to share its agricultural technology so that the rest of the world can live and eat as it does, one must be realistic about the resources available to accomplish this mission. In the United States we are currently using an equivalent of 80 gallons of gasoline to produce an acre of corn. With fuel shortages and high prices to come, we wonder if many developing nations will be able to afford the technology of U.S. agriculture. Problems have already occurred with green revolution crops, particularly problems related to pests (57). More critical problems are expected when there is a world energy crisis. A careful assessment should be made of the benefits, costs, and risks of high energy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be certain that this program will not aggravate the already serious world food situation (58). To reduce energy inputs, green revolution and U.S. agriculture might employ such alternatives as rotations and green manures to reduce the high energy demand of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. U.S. agriculture might also reduce energy expenditures by substituting some manpower currently displaced by mechanization. While no one knows for certain what changes will have to be made, we can be sure that when conventional energy resources become scarce and expensive, the impact on agriculture as an industry and a way of life will be significant. This analysis is but a preliminary investigation of a significant

  20. Food and Agriculture Organization: A Clearinghouse for Agricultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joling, Carole

    1989-01-01

    Describes the functions of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which is an international clearinghouse for agricultural information. The discussion focuses on the information formats provided by the agency and the dissemination channels used for FAO information. Lists of finding aids for FAO materials and libraries…

  1. Historic and newer persistent organic pollutants in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the literature published over the past five years with regard to the concentrations of historic and newly-listed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods. The chemical classes selected for this review include historic POPs (dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and DDT) ...

  2. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  3. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  4. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (−)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (−)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1–5 (TH 1–5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the afore-mentioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The

  5. [Radiation screening test for commercial food products and foodstuffs for food services using NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masaru; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Kihara, Akiko; Tsutake, Toyoshige; Mitsui, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Screening tests were carried out for radioactive cesium in foods using a NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter. The screening level was set at 250 Bq/kg, and specimens exceeding this level were scheduled to be sent to an external testing organization, which would conduct further tests using a germanium semiconductor detector. Some specimens that did not reach the screening level were also sent to the same organization. Foodstuffs used in commercial food products circulated in Chiba city were targeted, along with food services provided to schools and day care centers. In all, 495 specimens were tested; however, no specimens exceeded the screening level. The results of verification tests confirmed that no specimen exceeded the tentative regulatory limit.

  6. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  7. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    PubMed Central

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    PubMed

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products.

  9. Food Security Through the Eyes of AVHRR: Changes and Variability of African Food Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrieling, A.; de Beurs, K. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Food security is defined by FAO as a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Despite globalization and food trade, access to food remains a major problem for an important part of Africa's population. As a contribution to the food security analysis we identify at a coarse scale where trends and high interannual variability of food production occur within Africa. We use the 8-km resolution AVHRR NDVI 15-day composites of the GIMMS group (1981-2006). Two methods were applied to extract phenology indicators from the dataset. The indicators are start of season, length of season, time of maximum NDVI, maximum NDVI, and cumulated NDVI over the season. To focus the analysis on food production we spatially aggregate the annual indicators at sub-national level using a general crop mask. Persistent changes during the 26-year period were assessed using trend analysis on the yearly aggregated indicators. These trends may indicate changes in production, and consequent potential increases of food insecurity. We evaluate then where strong interannual variability of phenology indicators occurs. This relates to regular shortages of food availability. For Africa, field information on phenology or accurate time series of production figures at the sub-national scale are scarce. Validating the outcome of the AVHRR analysis is consequently difficult. We propose to use crop-specific national FAOSTAT yield statistics. For this purpose, we aggregate phenology outputs per country using specific masks for the major staple food crops. Although data quality and scale issues influence results, for several countries and crops significant positive correlations between indicators and crop production exist. We conclude that AVHRR-derived phenology information can provide useful inputs to food security analysis.

  10. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    PubMed

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  11. Global harmonization of food safety regulation from the perspective of Korea and a novel fast automatic product recall system.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Mun-Gi; Oh, Sangsuk

    2014-08-01

    Efforts have been made for global harmonization of food safety regulations among countries through international organizations such as WTO and WHO/FAO. Global harmonization of food safety regulations is becoming increasingly important for Korean consumers because more than half of food and agricultural products are imported and consumed. Through recent reorganization of the Korean government, a consolidated national food safety authority-the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS)-has been established for more efficient food safety control and better communication with consumers. The Automatic Sales Blocking System (ASBS), which blocks the sales of the recalled food products at the point of sale, has been implemented at over 40,000 retail food stores around the nation using state-of-the art information and communication technology (ICT) for faster recall of adulterated food products, and the e-Food Safety Control System has been developed for more efficient monitoring of national food safety surveillance situations. The National Food Safety Information Service was also established for monitoring and collecting food safety information and incidents worldwide, and shares relevant information with all stakeholders. The new approaches adopted by the Korean Food Safety Authority are expected to enhance public trust with regard to food safety issues and expedite the recall process of adulterated products from the market.

  12. Control of Listeria species food safety at a poultry food production facility.

    PubMed

    Fox, Edward M; Wall, Patrick G; Fanning, Séamus

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance and control of food-borne human pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, is a critical aspect of modern food safety programs at food production facilities. This study evaluated contamination patterns of Listeria species at a poultry food production facility, and evaluated the efficacy of procedures to control the contamination and transfer of the bacteria throughout the plant. The presence of Listeria species was studied along the production chain, including raw ingredients, food-contact, non-food-contact surfaces, and finished product. All isolates were sub-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify possible entry points for Listeria species into the production chain, as well as identifying possible transfer routes through the facility. The efficacy of selected in-house sanitizers against a sub-set of the isolates was evaluated. Of the 77 different PFGE-types identified, 10 were found among two or more of the five categories/areas (ingredients, food preparation, cooking and packing, bulk packing, and product), indicating potential transfer routes at the facility. One of the six sanitizers used was identified as unsuitable for control of Listeria species. Combining PFGE data, together with information on isolate location and timeframe, facilitated identification of a persistent Listeria species contamination that had colonized the facility, along with others that were transient.

  13. Insect biomass to enhance food production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have established that insects are as good source of protein as conventional animal food (between 15 and 67% dry weight content). Insects are a good source of essential amino acids and essential fatty acids. Insect fat has a higher content of polyunsaturated (essential) fatty acids and a lowe...

  14. Food Production, Management, and Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This curriculum guide is one of a set of four components covering the food service occupational cluster, developed for use in occupational home economics courses. Teaching strategies, teaching aids, laboratory management plans, and test questions are coordinated with the chapters in the related reference book. A variety of teaching strategies is…

  15. Common DNA sequences with potential for detection of genetically manipulated organisms in food.

    PubMed

    MacCormick, C A; Griffin, H G; Underwood, H M; Gasson, M J

    1998-06-01

    Foods produced by genetic engineering technology are now appearing on the market and many more are likely to emerge in the future. The safety aspects, regulation, and labelling of these foods are still contentious issues in most countries and recent surveys highlight consumer concerns about the safety and labelling of genetically modified food. In most countries it is necessary to have approval for the use of genetically manipulated organisms (GMOs) in the production of food. In order to police regulations, a technology to detect such foods is desirable. In addition, a requirement to label approved genetically modified food would necessitate a monitoring system. One solution is to 'tag' approved GMOs with some form of biological or genetic marker, permitting the surveillance of foods for the presence of approved products of genetic engineering. While non-approved GMOs would not be detected by such a surveillance, they might be detected by a screen for DNA sequences common to all or most GMOs. This review focuses on the potential of using common DNA sequences as detection probes for GMOs. The identification of vector sequences, plant transcription terminators, and marker genes by PCR and hybridization techniques is discussed.

  16. Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alber, Jens; Kohler, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    How widespread is the production of food in old and new member states of the European Union and what is the social meaning or logic of such activities? We show that growing food is (a) more widespread in former communist countries than in traditional market economies and (b) is predominantly a hobby or recreational activity in affluent countries,…

  17. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases.

  18. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  19. Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Arvaniti, Fotini; Zampelas, Antonis

    2006-01-01

    Consumer concern over the quality and safety of conventional food has intensified in recent years, and primarily drives the increasing demand for organically grown food, which is perceived as healthier and safer. Relevant scientific evidence, however, is scarce, while anecdotal reports abound. Although there is an urgent need for information related to health benefits and/or hazards of food products of both origins, generalized conclusions remain tentative in the absence of adequate comparative data. Organic fruits and vegetables can be expected to contain fewer agrochemical residues than conventionally grown alternatives; yet, the significance of this difference is questionable, inasmuch as actual levels of contamination in both types of food are generally well below acceptable limits. Also, some leafy, root, and tuber organic vegetables appear to have lower nitrate content compared with conventional ones, but whether or not dietary nitrate indeed constitutes a threat to human health is a matter of debate. On the other hand, no differences can be identified for environmental contaminants (e.g. cadmium and other heavy metals), which are likely to be present in food from both origins. With respect to other food hazards, such as endogenous plant toxins, biological pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms, available evidence is extremely limited preventing generalized statements. Also, results for mycotoxin contamination in cereal crops are variable and inconclusive; hence, no clear picture emerges. It is difficult, therefore, to weigh the risks, but what should be made clear is that 'organic' does not automatically equal 'safe.' Additional studies in this area of research are warranted. At our present state of knowledge, other factors rather than safety aspects seem to speak in favor of organic food.

  20. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  1. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  2. A new food ingredient for adding soluble oat beta-glucan health benefits to food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new oat food ingredient, containing 20% to 30% soluble beta-glucan, was obtained from oat bran by using natural treatments of heat and shear processing. The product is useful for reducing calories in foods while simultaneously adding health promoting benefits from its beta-glucan. It was evaluat...

  3. Food Production, Management, and Services. Fast Foods. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are designed for a course in food production, management, and services for fast foods. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 15 references; and a…

  4. Volatile organic compounds in foods: a five year study.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Jones, Mary Ellen; Smith, Robert E

    2003-12-31

    A purge and trap procedure was used with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination to analyze 70 foods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results from analyses over a 5 year period (1996-2000) are reported. VOCs were found in at least one sample of all foods tested, although no single compound was found in each of the foods. The total amount of VOCs found in a single food item over the 5 year period ranged from 24 to 5328 ppb, with creamed corn (canned) the lowest and cheddar cheese the highest. Benzene was found in all foods except American cheese and vanilla ice cream. Benzene levels ranged from 1 to 190 ppb, with the highest level found in fully cooked ground beef. Benzene was found in 12 samples of cooked ground beef, with an average of 40 ppb. Benzene levels above 100 ppb were also seen in at least one sample each of a cola (138 ppb), raw bananas (132 ppb), and cole slaw (102 ppb). This compares to a maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb set by the U.S. EPA for drinking water.

  5. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  6. Food Gardeners’ Productivity in Laramie, Wyoming: More Than a Hobby

    PubMed Central

    Conk, Shannon J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the productivity of food gardens in Laramie, Wyoming, over 3 growing seasons. Methods. From 2012 to 2014, 33 participating gardening households weighed and recorded each harvest. Academic partners measured plot sizes and converted reported harvest weights to volume in cups. Results. The yield of the average 253-square-foot plot was enough to supply an adult with the daily US Department of Agriculture–recommended amount of vegetables for 9 months. Conclusions. Gardeners produced nutritionally meaningful quantities of food; thus, food gardening offers promise as an effective public health intervention for improving food security and nutritional health. PMID:26985621

  7. Organic farming: Impacts on soil, food, and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...

  8. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  9. Min Bei Irradiation Center Food and Agriculture Organization project experience Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Bruce John; Dan, Xu; Jingzhang, Ren

    1993-07-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), a Unitede Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center(MBIC) Located in Fujian Province, China. FAO inconjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute(SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent comissioning of one of China's nesest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991 FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purposes of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC.

  10. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  11. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  12. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  13. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sold or labeled as â100 percent organic,â âorganic,â or âmade with organic (specified ingredients or... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative... products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic...

  14. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sold or labeled as â100 percent organic,â âorganic,â or âmade with organic (specified ingredients or... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative... products to be sold or labeled as “100 percent organic,” “organic,” or “made with organic...

  15. Biological production of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  16. Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies: Branded Food Products Database for Public Health Proof of Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Prototype Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (Prototype FNDDS) Branded Food Products Database for Public Health is a proof of concept database. The database contains a small selection of food products which is being used to exhibit the approach for incorporation of the Branded Food ...

  17. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  18. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    PubMed

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  19. FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

  20. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    EPA Science Inventory

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  1. Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Shoichi

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

  2. [Climate change, food production and human health].

    PubMed

    Faergeman, Ole; Østergaard, Lars

    2009-10-26

    Production of livestock accounts for 18% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Although livestock products can alleviate malnutrition in poor countries, they are associated with diseases of affluence in wealthy countries. Red meat (pork, beef, sheep and goat), especially, is associated with higher rates of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A policy of reducing consumption of red meat in wealthy countries and encouraging a limited consumption increase in poor countries would benefit the climate as well as human health.

  3. Potential and attainable food production and food security in different regions

    PubMed Central

    Vries, F. W. T. Penning de; Rabbinge, R.; Groot, J. J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Growing prosperity in the South is accompanied by human diets that will claim more natural resources per capita. This reality, combined with growing populations, may raise the global demand for food crops two- to four-fold within two generations. Considering the large volume of natural resources and potential crop yields, it seems that this demand can be met smoothly. However, this is a fallacy for the following reasons. (i) Geographic regions differ widely in their potential food security: policy choices for agricultural use of natural resources are limited in Asia. For example, to ensure national self-sufficiency and food security, most of the suitable land (China) and nearly all of the surface water (India) are needed. Degradation restricts options further. (ii) The attainable level of agricultural production depends also on socio-economic conditions. Extensive poverty keeps the attainable food production too low to achieve food security, even when the yield gap is wide, as in Africa. (iii) Bio-energy, non-food crops and nature compete with food crops for natural resources. Global and regional food security are attainable, but only with major efforts. Strategies to achieve alternative aims will be discussed.

  4. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.

  5. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  6. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  7. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  8. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here.

  9. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  10. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  11. Regulating food products without impeding innovation.

    PubMed

    Mathioudakis, B; Przyrembel, H; Hermus, R

    1999-12-01

    Industry and regulatory bodies share a common goal of making beneficial products available to consumers, but the relationship between industry and regulators can become adversarial if it is not handled properly. When industry views the regulatory process as an obstacle to product development and marketing, and regulators view petitioners as having only a profit motive, the opportunity to work together efficiently to get products to market is lost. While it is difficult to codify how industry and regulators should interact, it is worthwhile to look at some of the most provocative issues and see how they might be addressed. The discussion that follows will examine the functioning of regulatory bodies in the European Union, consider how more flexibility might be added to the regulatory process, and raise the issue of how regulatory bodies can function to serve the consumer while promoting innovation.

  12. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  13. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives.

  14. Past, Present and Future of Sensors in Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Adley, Catherine C.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination management is a crucial task in the food industry. Undesirable microbial spoilage in a modern food processing plant poses a risk to consumers’ health, causing severe economic losses to the manufacturers and retailers, contributing to wastage of food and a concern to the world’s food supply. The main goal of the quality management is to reduce the time interval between the filling and the detection of a microorganism before release, from several days, to minutes or, at most, hours. This would allow the food company to stop the production, limiting the damage to just a part of the entire batch, with considerable savings in terms of product value, thereby avoiding the utilization of raw materials, packaging and strongly reducing food waste. Sensor systems offer major advantages over current systems as they are versatile and affordable but need to be integrated in the existing processing systems as a process analytical control (PAT) tool. The desire for good selectivity, low cost, portable and usable at working sites, sufficiently rapid to be used at-line or on-line, and no sample preparation devices are required. The application of biosensors in the food industry still has to compete with the standard analytical techniques in terms of cost, performance and reliability. PMID:28234333

  15. Intra-oral lactic acid production during clearance of different foods containing various carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A; Moss, S J; Arav, L; Chiu, P M

    1997-06-01

    Oral carbohydrate clearance and acid production were monitored over a two hour time period following the ingestion of six foods (chocolate bar, potato chip, oreo cookie, sugar cube, raisin and jelly bean). Each food was evaluated intra-orally in eight volunteers. Oral fluid samples were obtained from each volunteer at 30 min intervals at five different tooth sites using absorbent paper points. The oral fluid samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for carbohydrates and organic acids using high performance liquid chromatography. Data obtained for each food were averaged and subjected to statistical analysis. The quantity of lactic acid produced 30 min after ingestion was found to be in the following order: (highest) raisin > chocolate bar > sugar cube > jelly bean > oreo cookie > potato chip (least). Two hours after food intake the order had changed significantly: potato chip > jelly bean > sugar cube > chocolate bar > oreo cookie > raisin. A direct linear relationship existed between lactic acid production and the presence of glucose. In foods containing cooked starch prolonged clearance occurs via the intermediate metabolites maltotriose, maltose and glucose. Results indicated that the term 'stickiness', when used to label certain foods such as jelly bean and chocolate bar, should be used cautiously. Foods containing only cooked starch or cooked starch and sugars can be considered as 'sticky', since glucose arising from their intra-oral degradation contributed to acid production over prolonged periods of time.

  16. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention.

  17. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.105 Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of...

  18. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.105 Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of...

  19. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.105 Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of...

  20. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.105 Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of...

  1. 7 CFR 205.105 - Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic production and handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Applicability § 205.105 Allowed and prohibited substances, methods, and ingredients in organic... ingredients in organic production and handling. 205.105 Section 205.105 Agriculture Regulations of...

  2. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  3. Nutrition and health in relation to food production and processing.

    PubMed

    Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A

    1994-01-01

    Intensive animal rearing, manipulation of crop production and food processing have altered the qualitative and quantitative balance of nutrients of foods consumed by Western society. This change, to which the physiology and biochemistry of man may not be presently adapted to, is thought to be responsible for the chronic diseases that are rampant in the Industrialised Western Countries. Agriculture production and food processing practices, dietary habits and lifestyle of the West is being fostered without any appraisal of the health implications by most developing countries. Consequently, a rising trend in the incidences of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, dental decay and appendicitis is apparent. Mediterranean countries are adopting the agriculture and food practices of northern Europe as the result of the harmonisation of European food and agriculture policy. It is predicted that the low incidence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and breast and colon cancer of the Mediterranean countries would rise to the high northern European level in the foreseeable future. Most of these chronic diseases are lifestyle related and are preventable. This can be realised by tackling the root problem which is food production and processing practices and not by dispensing designer drugs or opening more hospital beds.

  4. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    PubMed

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  5. Bacterial cinnamoyl esterase activity screening for the production of a novel functional food product.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Caracciolo, Federica; Molinari, Francesco; Parini, Carlo; Mora, Diego

    2008-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 was selected for its strong cinnamoyl esterase activity on chlorogenic acid and employed for the preparation of a food product containing a high concentration of free caffeic acid. The novel food product was demonstrated to display high total antioxidant power and potential probiotic properties.

  6. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  7. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the most important tools in modern agriculture, and agri-food nanotechnology is anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Agri-food themes focus on sustainability and protection of agriculturally produced foods, including crops for human consumption and animal feeding. Nanotechnology provides new agrochemical agents and new delivery mechanisms to improve crop productivity, and it promises to reduce pesticide use. Nanotechnology can boost agricultural production, and its applications include: 1) nanoformulations of agrochemicals for applying pesticides and fertilizers for crop improvement; 2) the application of nanosensors/nanobiosensors in crop protection for the identification of diseases and residues of agrochemicals; 3) nanodevices for the genetic manipulation of plants; 4) plant disease diagnostics; 5) animal health, animal breeding, poultry production; and 6) postharvest management. Precision farming techniques could be used to further improve crop yields but not damage soil and water, reduce nitrogen loss due to leaching and emissions, as well as enhance nutrients long-term incorporation by soil microorganisms. Nanotechnology uses include nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect-resistant varieties, food processing and storage, nanofeed additives, and increased product shelf life. Nanotechnology promises to accelerate the development of biomass-to-fuels production technologies. Experts feel that the potential benefits of nanotechnology for agriculture, food, fisheries, and aquaculture need to be balanced against concerns for the soil, water, and environment and the occupational health of workers. Raising awareness of nanotechnology in the agri-food sector, including feed and food ingredients, intelligent packaging and quick-detection systems, is one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have

  8. Role of complex organic arsenicals in food in aggregate exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J; Bradham, Karen

    2016-11-01

    For much of the world's population, food is the major source of exposure to arsenic. Exposure to this non-essential metalloid at relatively low levels may be linked to a wide range of adverse health effects. Thus, evaluating foods as sources of exposure to arsenic is important in assessing risk and developing strategies that protect public health. Although most emphasis has been placed on inorganic arsenic as human carcinogen and toxicant, an array of arsenic-containing species are found in plants and animals used as foods. Here, we 2evaluate the contribution of complex organic arsenicals (arsenosugars, arsenolipids, and trimethylarsonium compounds) that are found in foods and consider their origins, metabolism, and potential toxicity. Commonalities in the metabolism of arsenosugars and arsenolipids lead to the production of di-methylated arsenicals which are known to exert many toxic effects. Evaluating foods as sources of exposure to these complex organic arsenicals and understanding the formation of reactive metabolites may be critical in assessing their contribution to aggregate exposure to arsenic.

  9. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  10. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  11. Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaito, Chanantita; Judprasong, Kunchit; Puwastien, Prapasri

    2016-02-15

    This study examined inulin content in 266 samples. They were 126 dried, 105 liquid and 27 semi-solid of twelve commercial inulin fortified food products and 8 samples of natural dried sunchoke. For dried food products, inulin content ranged from 3.0 ±0.8g/100g fresh weight (FW) in milk powder to 83.7± 17.8g/100g FW in inulin powder. The levels in a descending order are the powder of inulin, weight control diet, coffee mixed, instant beverage, supplemented food products for pregnant and milk. For liquid fortified foods, inulin at the level of 0.3± 0.1g/100mL FW was found in UHT milk, and up to 13.5± 4.1g/100mL FW in weight control diet beverage. The level of 2.0-2.3g/100g FW of inulin was found in beverage with different flavours, soybean milk and fruit juice. For semi-solid food, cream yoghurt, inulin at 3.9± 1.1g/100g FW was found. A serving of most products contributes inulin at 11-33% of the recommended daily intake of dietary fibre.

  12. Determination of methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose food gums in food and food products: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Robert G; Deshmukh, Balasaheb K; Conklin, Jerry; Turowski, Maciej; Lynch, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative study was performed to determine the reproducibility of a method for the determination of methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in food. These widely used food gums possess unusual solubility characteristics and cannot accurately be determined by existing dietary fiber methods. The new method uses the enzyme-digestion procedure of AOAC Official Method 991.43. Digestate solutions must be refrigerated to fully hydrate MC or HPMC. The chilled solutions are filtered and analyzed by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. Collaborating laboratories received 28 samples containing MC or HPMC in the range of 0-100%. The sample set included blind duplicates of 5 food matrixes (bread, milk, fish, potato, and powdered juice drink). Cochran and Grubbs tests were used to eliminate outliers. For food samples containing MC, values for within-laboratory precision, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), ranged from 4.2 to 16%, and values for among-laboratories precision, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR), ranged from 11 to 20%. For HPMC samples, RSDr values ranged from 6.4 to 27%, and RSDR values ranged from 17 to 39%. Recoveries of MC and HPMC from the food matrixes ranged from 78 to 101%. These results show acceptable precision and reproducibility for the determination of MC and HPMC, for which no Official AOAC Methods exist. It is recommended that this method be adopted as AOAC Official First Action.

  13. Typology of eaters based on conventional and organic food consumption: results from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Touvier, Mathilde; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on large-scale populations regarding the socio-demographic and nutrient profiles and eating behaviour of consumers, taking into account both organic and conventional foods. The aims of this study were to draw up a typology of consumers according to their eating habits, based both on their dietary patterns and the mode of food production, and to outline their socio-demographic, behavioural and nutritional characteristics. Data were collected from 28 245 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary information was obtained using a 264-item, semi-quantitative, organic FFQ. To identify clusters of consumers, principal component analysis was applied on sixteen conventional and sixteen organic food groups followed by a clustering procedure. The following five clusters of consumers were identified: (1) a cluster characterised by low energy intake, low consumption of organic food and high prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes; (2) a cluster of big eaters of conventional foods with high intakes of SFA and cholesterol; (3) a cluster with high consumption of organic food and relatively adequate nutritional diet quality; (4) a group with a high percentage of organic food consumers, 14 % of which were either vegetarians or vegans, who exhibited a high nutritional diet quality and a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of most vitamins except B12; and (5) a group of moderate organic food consumers with a particularly high intake of proteins and alcohol and a poor nutritional diet quality. These findings may have implications for future aetiological studies investigating the potential impact of organic food consumption.

  14. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut.

  15. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-10-31

    The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare.

  16. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. PMID:26506372

  17. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-21

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  18. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  19. The use of physicochemical methods to detect organic food soils on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, K A; Benson, P; Smith, L A; Verran, J

    2009-11-01

    Food processing surfaces fouled with organic material pose problems ranging from aesthetic appearance, equipment malfunction and product contamination. Despite the importance of organic soiling for subsequent product quality, little is known about the interaction between surfaces and organic soil components. A range of complex and defined food soils was applied to 304 stainless steel (SS) surfaces to determine the effect of type and concentration of soil on surface physicochemical parameters, viz surface hydrophobicity (DeltaG(iwi)), surface free energy (gamma(s)), Lifshitz van der Waals (gamma_LW(s)), Lewis acid base (gamma_AB(s)), electron acceptor (gamma_+(s) ) and electron donor (gamma_-(s) ) measurements. When compared to the control surface, changes in gamma_AB(s), gamma_+(s) and gamma_-(s) were indicative of surface soiling. However, soil composition and surface coverage were heterogeneous, resulting in complex data being generated from which trends could not be discerned. These results demonstrate that the retention of food soil produces changes in the physicochemical parameters of the surface that could be used to indicate the hygienic status of a surface.

  20. Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekkers, Susan; Noordam, Maryvon Y; Hagens, Werner I; Bulder, Astrid S; de Heer, Cees; ten Voorde, Sandra E C G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Marvin, Hans J P; Sips, Adriënne J A M

    2009-02-01

    Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products. Set a definition for NPs to facilitate regulatory discussions, prioritization of research and exchange of study results. Develop analytical tools for the characterization of nanoparticles in complex biological matrices like food. Establish relevant dose metrics for nanoparticles used for both interpretation of scientific studies as well as regulatory frameworks. Search for deviant behavior (kinetics) and novel effects (toxicity) of nanoparticles and assess the validity of currently used test systems following oral exposure. Estimate the consumer exposure to nanoparticles.

  1. Food, livestock production, energy, climate change, and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Powles, John W; Butler, Colin D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-10-06

    Food provides energy and nutrients, but its acquisition requires energy expenditure. In post-hunter-gatherer societies, extra-somatic energy has greatly expanded and intensified the catching, gathering, and production of food. Modern relations between energy, food, and health are very complex, raising serious, high-level policy challenges. Together with persistent widespread under-nutrition, over-nutrition (and sedentarism) is causing obesity and associated serious health consequences. Worldwide, agricultural activity, especially livestock production, accounts for about a fifth of total greenhouse-gas emissions, thus contributing to climate change and its adverse health consequences, including the threat to food yields in many regions. Particular policy attention should be paid to the health risks posed by the rapid worldwide growth in meat consumption, both by exacerbating climate change and by directly contributing to certain diseases. To prevent increased greenhouse-gas emissions from this production sector, both the average worldwide consumption level of animal products and the intensity of emissions from livestock production must be reduced. An international contraction and convergence strategy offers a feasible route to such a goal. The current global average meat consumption is 100 g per person per day, with about a ten-fold variation between high-consuming and low-consuming populations. 90 g per day is proposed as a working global target, shared more evenly, with not more than 50 g per day coming from red meat from ruminants (ie, cattle, sheep, goats, and other digastric grazers).

  2. Biological control and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Bale, J S; van Lenteren, J C; Bigler, F

    2008-02-27

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of open-field and greenhouse pests, and conservation biological control schemes have been developed with indigenous predators and parasitoids. The cost-benefit ratio for classical biological control is highly favourable (1:250) and for augmentative control is similar to that of insecticides (1:2-1:5), with much lower development costs. Over the past 120 years, more than 5000 introductions of approximately 2000 non-native control agents have been made against arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands with remarkably few environmental problems. Biological control is a key component of a 'systems approach' to integrated pest management, to counteract insecticide-resistant pests, withdrawal of chemicals and minimize the usage of pesticides. Current studies indicate that genetically modified insect-resistant Bt crops may have no adverse effects on the activity or function of predators or parasitoids used in biological control. The introduction of rational approaches for the environmental risk assessment of non-native control agents is an essential step in the wider application of biological control, but future success is strongly dependent on a greater level of investment in research and development by governments and related organizations that are committed to a reduced reliance on chemical control.

  3. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  4. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  5. China's success in increasing per capita food production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-07-01

    China has to feed 20% of the global population with only about 5% of the planet's water resources and 7% of its arable land. With such limited natural conditions, however, China's grain production has increased from about 200 kg per capita in 1949 to about 400 kg in the early 1990s. Hunger as a social problem has largely disappeared after being prevalent in China for several thousand years with the rise and decline of dynasties. This achievement has been accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in the population and a 4.5-fold increase in total grain production. Although total cropped land has increased slightly in some areas, land used for cropping has decreased from 0.18 hectare per capita in the 1950s to less than 0.1 hectare per capita today. Apparently, yield increase or improved land productivity is the major contributor to the increase of food production per capita. What are the major reasons for the unprecedented achievement in China's food production? Political decisions, good or bad, on land distribution and ownership changes, have caused unusual fluctuation in grain production. Technical progress, however, has maintained a long-term increasing trend. The semi-dwarf cultivars of rice and wheat, the use of heterosis in rice and maize, and the alleviation of salinized soil stress in the major grain-producing areas have all played significant roles in increasing China's food production capability.

  6. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  7. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  8. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  9. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  10. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  11. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    PubMed

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy.

  12. Instant food products as a source of silicon.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Hojka, Anna; Grajeta, Halina

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is a trace element for humans, and is absorbed from food in the form of orthosilicic acid. Instant food products are part of a constantly growing market of convenience foods, which have not been evaluated yet as sources of silicon. In this study the total and soluble silicon contents in different instant food products were determined by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). A selection of instant products commercially available in Wroclaw were analyzed: soups, main courses, coffee drinks, jellies and puddings. Total silicon contents in soups, main courses and coffee drinks ranged widely and reached the values: 0.10-30.20, 0.63-37.91 and 0.21-13.37mg/serving, respectively. These products contained 0.05-1.26mg of soluble silicon per serving. The total silicon content in jellies and puddings did not exceed 0.36mg and 2.42mg/serving, respectively. Among the analyzed desserts the highest level of soluble silicon was found in chocolate puddings: 0.36-0.41mg/serving. The silicon level in servings of the studied instant products when prepared with the appropriate amount of water was also estimated. The mean content of silicon determined in samples of drinking water from Wrocław and the vicinity, which was used for the estimation, amounted to 7.09mg/l. The total silicon content in ready-to-eat products ranged from 1.32 to 39.21mg/serving. In conclusion, some of the analyzed instant foods contained very high amounts of silicon, however the content of the soluble, and hence available, form of this element was low.

  13. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a valuable tool for understanding food contamination and for directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods mus...

  14. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be s...

  15. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  16. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    PubMed

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  17. [New fungal contaminants of food products in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Comerio, Ricardo M; Pildain, M Belén; Romero, Andrea I

    2005-03-01

    Five fungal species were isolated and identified in food products: Ascotricha chartarum, Leptosphaerulina argentinensis, Veronaea coprophila, Scolecobasidium constrictum and Coremiella cubispora. A. chartarum was isolated from paper bag containing sugar and the other four from tomato sauce. Except for L. argentinensis, the other four were new reports and the five species were isolated for the first time in Argentina.

  18. Food Production, Management, and Services. Baking. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, LeRoy

    These instructional materials are intended for a course on food production, management, and services involved in baking. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; 13 references; and a…

  19. Food Production in Africa: The Ignored Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otieno, Tabitha N.

    Whereas women carry the primary responsibility for food production in Africa, development agencies have devoted minimal resources to researching the impact of their policies and new techniques on the well-being of Africa's women farmers. C. K. Eicher (1995) and M. Smale (1995) call this the invisible factor because the gender-related constraints…

  20. Microwave sensing of quality attributes of agricultural and food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensors for real-time characterization of agricultural and food products have become viable solutions with recent advances in the development of calibration methods and the availability of inexpensive microwave components. The examples shown here for grain, seed, and in-shell peanuts indic...

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Food Production, Management and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: food production, management, and services I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA); (2) sanitation; (3) safety; (4) front of the house operations; (5) beverages; (6) food…

  2. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance for productivity and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production losses in agriculture during extended or severe drought episodes can be significant. Among a number of important food crops in the U.S. and many regions of the world, peanut is an important legume that is a rich source for oil, proteins, and vitamins. Drought can negatively affect yield...

  3. Food Management, Production, and Service. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Food Management, Production, and Service Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  4. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  5. Food Production, Management and Services: Service. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains nine units: (1) orientation; (2) types of service; (3) table settings; (4) dining room personnel; (5) dining room procedures; (6) side work; (7) guest/employee relationships; (8) sales techniques; and (9) safety and sanitation. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement…

  6. Food Production, Management and Services: Management. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Barrera, Janet

    This food production, management, and services teacher guide contains eight units: (1) orientation; (2) tools and functions of management; (3) cost controls; (4) keeping records; (5) purchasing and receiving; (6) storing and issuing; (7) personnel management; and (8) human relations. Suggestions are included to increase reinforcement of the…

  7. Food Production, Management and Services. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for food production, management, and service occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits),…

  8. Food Production, Management, and Services: Introduction. Second Edition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palan, Earl; Feasley, Sue, Ed.

    This document contains seven units of instruction on food production, management, and services: (1) orientation; (2) applying for a job; (3) human relations; (4) communication; (5) sanitation; (6) safety; and (7) nutrition. Each instructional unit contains some or all of the following basic components: (1) unit and specific objectives; (2)…

  9. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional.

  11. Microbial diversity associated with tetrodotoxin production in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Pratheepa, V; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-11-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin found in genetically diversed organisms. Many TTX producing microorganism have also been isolated from TTX bearing animals. The TTX producing microbes found in four different phylum (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes), the Proteobacteria are the dominating one. In most of the cases, TTX producing microbes are found in the intestine of the TTX producing vector indicating the origin of TTX through food chain. This paper reviews the TTX and its analogs and the geographic distribution of TTX in symbiotic microorganism and its production.

  12. Using the SPEI to Estimate Food Production in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Hobbins, M.; Verdin, J. P.; Peterson, P.; Funk, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) monitors critical environmental variables that impact food production in developing countries. Due to a sparse network of observations in the developing world, many of these variables are estimated using remotely sensed data. As scientists develop new techniques to leverage available observations and remotely sensed information there are opportunities to create products that identify the environmental conditions that stress agriculture and reduce food production. FEWS NET pioneered the development of the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with stations (CHIRPS) dataset, to estimate precipitation and monitor growing conditions throughout the world. These data are used to drive land surface models, hydrologic models and basic crop models among others. A new dataset estimating the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) has been developed using inputs from the ERA-Interim GCM. This ET0 dataset stretches back to 1981, allowing for a long-term record, stretching many seasons and drought events. Combining the CHIRPS data to estimate water availability and the ET0 data to estimate evaporative demand, one can estimate the approximate water gap (surplus or deficit) over a specific time period. Normalizing this difference creates the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which presents these gaps in comparison to the historical record for a specific location and accumulation period. In this study we evaluate the SPEI as a tool to estimate crop yields for different regions of Kenya. Identifying the critical time of analysis for the SPEI is the first step in building a relationship between the water gap and food production. Once this critical period is identified, we look at the predictability of food production using the SPEI, and assess the utility of it for monitoring food security, with the goal of incorporating the SPEI in the standard monitoring suite of FEWS NET tools.

  13. ISS as testbed towards food production on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebler, Ulrich; Thallemer, Axel; Kern, Peter; Schwarzwaelder, Achim

    Almost all major space faring nations are presently investigating concepts for the exploration of extra terrestrial planetary bodies, including Earth's Moon and Mars. One major objective to sustain any human exploration plans will be the provision of fresh food. Even if a delivery from Earth to Moon is still possible with regular preservation techniques as for the international space station, there will be a big psychological impact from the ability to grow fresh food on a Moon Basis. Various architectural and agricultural concepts have been proposed. A comprehensive summary of the related requirements and constraints shall be presented as a baseline for further studies. One presently unknown constraint is the question of the gravity threshold for the genetic stability of plants or more specifically the level of gravity which is needed for normal growth and reproduction of plants. This paper shall focus on a roadmap towards a food production facility a planetary surface using the International Space Station as a test bed. Presented will be 1.) The concept of a Food Research Rotor for the artificial gravity facility EMCS. This Rotor shall allow the investigation into the gravity dependence of growth and reproduction of nutritionally relevant plants like radishes, tomatoes, bell peppers or lettuce. An important answer from this research could be if the Moon Gravity of 1/6g is sufficient for a vegetative food production or if additional artificial gravity is needed for a Moon Greenhouse. 2.) An inflatable demonstrator for ATV as scaled down version of a proposed planetary greenhouse

  14. Climatic Extremes and Food Grain Production in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to affect food and water security in India. India has witnessed tremendous growth in its food production after the green revolution. However, during the recent decades the food grain yields were significantly affected by the extreme climate and weather events. Air temperature and associated extreme events (number of hot days and hot nights, heat waves) increased significantly during the last 50 years in the majority of India. More remarkably, a substantial increase in mean and extreme temperatures was observed during the winter season in India. On the other hand, India witnessed extreme flood and drought events that have become frequent during the past few decades. Extreme rainfall during the non-monsoon season adversely affected the food grain yields and results in tremendous losses in several parts of the country. Here we evaluate the changes in hydroclimatic extremes and its linkage with the food grain production in India. We use observed food grain yield data for the period of 1980-2012 at district level. We understand the linkages between food grain yield and crop phenology obtained from the high resolution leaf area index and NDVI datasets from satellites. We used long-term observed data of daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures to evaluate changes in the extreme events. We use statistical models to develop relationships between crop yields, mean and extreme temperatures for various crops to understand the sensitivity of these crops towards changing climatic conditions. We find that some of the major crop types and predominant crop growing areas have shown a significant sensitivity towards changes in extreme climatic conditions in India.

  15. Final Report and Analysis of the 2015 Southern Nevada Food and Organics Recovery Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary of Southern Nevada Food & Organics Recovery Workshop held in Las Vegas in September of 2015 to support improved food recovery through source reduction, donation, animal feeding, anaerobic digestion and composting.

  16. Potential impact on food safety and food security from persistent organic pollutants in top soil improvers on Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Abate, V; Battacone, G; De Filippis, S P; Esposito, M; Esposito, V; Miniero, R

    2016-02-01

    The organic carbon of biosolids from civil wastewater treatment plants binds persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorodibenzo -dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin and non-dioxin -like polychlorobiphenyls (DL and NDL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). The use of such biosolids, derived digestates and composts as top soil improvers (TSIs) may transfer POPs into the food chain. We evaluated the potential carry-over of main bioavailable congeners from amended soil-to-milk of extensive farmed sheep. Such estimates were compared with regulatory limits (food security) and human intakes (food safety). The prediction model was based on farming practices, flocks soil intake, POPs toxicokinetics, and dairy products intake in children, of the Mediterranean area. TSI contamination ranged between 0.20-113 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (N = 56), 3.40-616 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs (N = 38), 0.06-17.2 and 0.12-22.3 μg/kg for BDE no. 47 and no. 99, 0.872-89.50 μg/kg for PFOS (N = 27). For a 360 g/head/day soil intake of a sheep with an average milk yield of 2.0 kg at 6.5% of fat percentage, estimated soil quality standards supporting milk safety and security were 0.75 and 4.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, and 3.75 and 29.2 μg/kg for ∑6 NDL-PCBs, respectively. The possibility to use low-contaminated TSIs to maximize agriculture benefits and if the case, to progressively mitigate highly contaminated soils is discussed.

  17. Production of apple-based baby food: changes in pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Kovacova, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Kohoutkova, Jana; Lansky, Miroslav; Hajslova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Apples represent the main component of most fruit-based baby food products. Since not only fruit from organic farming, but also conventionally grown fruit is used for baby food production, the occurrence of pesticide residues in the final product is of high concern. To learn more about the fate of these hazardous compounds during processing of contaminated raw material, apples containing altogether 21 pesticide residues were used for preparation of a baby food purée both in the household and at industrial scale (in the baby food production facility). Within both studies, pesticide residues were determined in raw apples as well as in final products. Intermediate product and by-product were also analysed during the industrial process. Determination of residues was performed by a sensitive multi-detection analytical method based on liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The household procedure involved mainly the cooking of unpeeled apples, and the decrease of residues was not extensive enough for most of the studied pesticides; only residues of captan, dithianon and thiram dropped significantly (processing factors less than 0.04). On the other hand, changes in pesticide levels were substantial for all tested pesticides during apple processing in the industrial baby food production facility. The most important operation affecting the reduction of residues was removal of the by-products after pulping (rest of the peel, stem, pips etc.), while subsequent sterilisation has an insignificant effect. Also in this case, captan, dithianon and thiram were identified as pesticides with the most evident decrease of residues.

  18. 9 CFR 354.142 - Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food product inspection certificates; issuance and disposition. 354.142 Section 354.142 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.142 Food product inspection certificates; issuance...

  19. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  20. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  1. Composition of Plant Sterols and Stanols in Supplemented Food Products.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    All fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant materials contain small amounts of plant sterols, which are essential for the function of the biological membranes in living cells. The average human consumption of plant sterols has been estimated to be about 150-350 mg/day and trace amounts of stanols (which are defined as saturated sterols such as sitostanol), but this number varies regionally and is higher for vegetarians. When consumed in the diet, plant sterols reduce the levels of serum cholesterol. In 1995 the first functional food product, Benecol spread (enriched in plant stanol fatty acid esters), was developed by Raisio and marketed, first in Finland and then globally. Since then many other functional food products have been developed and are now available globally. In addition to stanol esters, other functional food products contain plant sterol esters and/or free (unesterified) plant sterols and stanols. In essentially all of the current functional foods that are enriched in sterols and stanols, the feedstock from which the sterols and stanols are obtained is either tall oil (a byproduct/coproduct of the pulping of pine wood) or vegetable oil deodorizer distillate (a byproduct/coproduct of the refining of vegetable oils).

  2. Factors influencing the dielectric properties of agricultural and food products.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O; Trabelsi, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric properties of materials are defined, and the major factors that influence these properties of agricultural and food materials, namely, frequency of the applied radiofrequency or microwave electric fields, and water content, temperature, and density of the materials, are discussed on the basis of fundamental concepts. The dependence of measured dielectric properties on these factors is illustrated graphically and discussed for a number of agricultural and food products, including examples of grain, peanuts, fruit, eggs, fresh chicken meat, whey protein gel, and a macaroni and cheese preparation. General observations are provided on the nature of the variation of the dielectric properties with the major variables.

  3. Dairy food products: good or bad for cardiometabolic disease?

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2016-12-01

    Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasingly and is a key risk for CVD development, now recognised as the leading cause of death globally. Dietary strategies to reduce CVD development include reduction of saturated fat intake. Milk and dairy products are the largest contributors to dietary saturated fats in the UK and reduced consumption is often recommended as a strategy for risk reduction. However, overall evidence from prospective cohort studies does not confirm a detrimental association between dairy product consumption and CVD risk. The present review critically evaluates the current evidence on the association between milk and dairy products and risk of CVD, T2DM and the metabolic syndrome (collectively, cardiometabolic disease). The effects of total and individual dairy foods on cardiometabolic risk factors and new information on the effects of the food matrix on reducing fat digestion are also reviewed. It is concluded that a policy to lower SFA intake by reducing dairy food consumption to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk is likely to have limited or possibly negative effects. There remain many uncertainties, including differential effects of different dairy products and those of differing fat content. Focused and suitably designed and powered studies are needed to provide clearer evidence not only of the mechanisms involved, but how they may be beneficially influenced during milk production and processing.

  4. Quality control throughout the production process of infant food.

    PubMed

    Hamrin, Pia; Hoeft, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of infant food is a highly complex process and needs an effective quality control beyond classical in-process parameters and a final microbiological analysis. To ensure a safe end -product, various tools, such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), have been developed to facilitate the management of food safety. Every single infant formula ingredient must have an excellent quality and safety approach because even if an ingredient is used in very small quantities in a single product, serious consequences may arise if the quality and product safety are not taken seriously by the ingredient manufacturer. The purpose of this article was twofold: firstly, to briefly describe existing Quality Management Systems and, secondly, to highlight the consequences of non-quality.

  5. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  6. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  7. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  8. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  9. 76 FR 55928 - Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Organizations Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The... Professional Organizations. Dr. Margaret Hamburg, Commissioner of the Food and Drugs, and Dr. Janet Woodcock... organization, address, and telephone number. There is no registration fee for this conference....

  10. Pilot projects for improving product tracing along the food supply system.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tejas; Hickey, Caitlin; McEntire, Jennifer C

    2013-12-01

    In September 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) asked the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) to execute product tracing pilot projects as described in Section 204 of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). IFT collaborated with representatives from more than 100 organizations-including the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, state departments of agriculture and public health, industry, and consumer groups, as well as not-for-profit organizations-to implement the pilots. The objectives of the pilot projects were 1) to identify and gather information on methods to improve product tracing of foods in the supply chain and 2) to explore and evaluate methods to rapidly and effectively identify the recipient of food to prevent or mitigate a foodborne illness outbreak and to address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals as a result of such food being adulterated or misbranded. IFT conducted evaluations to determine the impact of currently available technologies, types of data and formats, and the data acquisition process, as well as the use of technology on the ability to follow product movement through the supply chain. Results from the pilots found inconsistencies in the terminology, numbering systems, formatting, legibility, and occasionally the language that sometimes required IFT to contact the submitting firm to gain clarity, thus increasing the time required to capture data before any meaningful analysis could begin. However, the pilot participants appeared to have many of the tools and processes in place which are required to allow the capture and communication of critical track and trace information (such as, key data elements) at critical points of product transfer and transformation (such as, critical tracking events). IFT determined that costs associated with implementing a product tracing system can vary widely as determined by numerous factors: the size of the firm/facility, the method of product

  11. Biomass energy crop production versus food crop production in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sammuels, G.

    1983-12-01

    The Caribbean countries have traditionally grown sugar cane, coffee and bananas as major agriculture export crops. Food crop production was sufficient in most cases for domestic consumption. In recent years powerful social and economic changes of increasing population, industrial development and higher living standards have placed pressure on local governments to provide food, clothing, shelter and energy. Energy that is mainly supplied by imported oil. Biomass, primarily as sugar cane, can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the problem. Unfortunately, the arable land area for the majority of the countries is limited. Food crop production is needed for local consumption and export. Possible energy crop production to provide local needs will place an increasing demand on arable land. The objective of this paper is to present the scope of food versus energy crop production and a suggested renewable energy crop program to help achieve a balance within the limited land resources of the Caribbean.

  12. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  13. Evidence for the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon in a proglacial stream food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellman, Jason; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Hudson, J.H.; Bozeman, Maura; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.

    2015-01-01

    We used natural abundance δ13C, δ15N, and Δ14C to compare trophic linkages between potential carbon sources (leaf litter, epilithic biofilm, and particulate organic matter) and consumers (aquatic macroinvertebrates and fish) in a nonglacial stream and two reaches of the heavily glaciated Herbert River. We tested the hypothesis that proglacial stream food webs are sustained by organic carbon released from glacial ecosystems. Carbon sources and consumers in the nonglacial stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -30‰ to -25‰ for δ13C and from -14‰ to 53‰ for Δ14C reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial stream sites was highly Δ14C-depleted (-215‰ to 175‰) relative to the nonglacial stream consistent with the assimilation of ancient glacier organic carbon. IsoSource modeling showed that in upper Herbert River, macroinvertebrates (Δ14C = -171‰ to 22‰) and juvenile salmonids (Δ14C = −102‰ to 17‰) reflected a feeding history of both biofilm (~ 56%) and leaf litter (~ 40%). We estimate that in upper Herbert River on average 36% of the carbon incorporated into consumer biomass is derived from the glacier ecosystem. Thus, 14C-depleted glacial organic carbon was likely transferred to higher trophic levels through a feeding history of bacterial uptake of dissolved organic carbon and subsequent consumption of 14C-depleted biofilm by invertebrates and ultimately fish. Our findings show that the metazoan food web is sustained in part by glacial organic carbon such that future changes in glacial runoff could influence the stability and trophic structure of proglacial aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Assimilation of aged organic carbon in a glacial river food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.; Raymond, P. A.; Bozeman, M.; Hudson, J.; Arimitsu, M.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying the key sources of organic carbon supporting fish and invertebrate consumers is fundamental to our understanding of stream ecosystems. Recent laboratory bioassays highlight that aged organic carbon from glacier environments is highly bioavailable to stream bacteria relative to carbon originating from ice-free areas. However, there is little evidence suggesting that this aged, bioavailable organic carbon is also a key basal carbon source for stream metazoa. We used natural abundance of Δ14C, δ13C, and δ15N to determine if fish and invertebrate consumers are subsidized by aged organic carbon in a glacial river in southeast Alaska. We collected biofilm, leaf litter, three different species of macroinvertebrates, and resident juvenile salmonids from a reference stream and two sites (one site is directly downstream of the glacial outflow and one site is upstream of the tidal estuary) on the heavily glaciated Herbert River. Key producers, fish, and invertebrate consumers in the reference stream had carbon isotope values that ranged from -26 to -30‰ for δ13C and from -12 to 53‰ for Δ14C, reflecting a food web sustained mainly on contemporary primary production. In contrast, biofilm in the two glacial sites was highly Δ14C depleted (-203 to -215‰) relative to the reference site. Although biofilm may consist of both bacteria and benthic algae utilizing carbon depleted in Δ14C, δ13C values for biofilm (-24.1‰), dissolved inorganic carbon (-5.9‰), and dissolved organic carbon (-24.0‰) suggest that biofilm consist of bacteria sustained in part by glacier-derived, aged organic carbon. Invertebrate consumers (mean Δ14C of -80.5, mean δ13C of -26.5) and fish (mean Δ14C of -63.3, mean δ13C of -25.7) in the two glacial sites had carbon isotope values similar to biofilm. These results similarly show that aged organic carbon is incorporated into the metazoan food web. Overall, our findings indicate that continued watershed deglaciation and

  15. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:26962391

  16. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Julie C.; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug. PMID:28367259

  17. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  18. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  19. United States Food and Drug Administration Product Label Changes.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Sung, Julie C; Stein-Gold, Linda; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Once a drug has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and is on the market, the Food and Drug Administration communicates new safety information through product label changes. Most of these label changes occur after a spontaneous report to either the drug manufacturing companies or the Food and Drug Administration MedWatch program. As a result, 400 to 500 label changes occur every year. Actinic keratosis treatments exemplify the commonality of label changes throughout the postmarket course of a drug. Diclofenac gel, 5-fluorouracil cream, imiquimod, and ingenol mebutate are examples of actinic keratosis treatments that have all undergone at least one label revision. With the current system of spontaneous reports leading to numerous label changes, each occurrence does not necessarily signify a radical change in the safety of a drug.

  20. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%.

  1. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  2. An overview of food safety issues relative to animal products.

    PubMed

    Baile, C A

    1990-06-01

    Presently, strategies for discovering new factors for enhancing animal productivity allow for greater assurance of food safety. A high degree of assurance of food safety is provided by the use of natural growth factors. This is especially true when these factors are proteins which, when ingested, are digested to inactive peptides and amino acids and are, in addition, inactive in human tissues. Knowing the mechanisms of activity of such factors also allows for the assurance that known mediators of the growth factors can also be shown to be inactivated by intestinal barriers. The design of nonpeptide molecules with highly selective activity will be possible with the large amount of progress expected in understanding the structure of the active components of natural molecules and the availability of specific receptor systems. Food safety concerns may be met by the demonstration that these molecules are inactive in comparable human receptor systems. These drug discovery strategies can ensure with a high degree of confidence the development of new productivity enhancers that meet food safety requirements.

  3. Impacts of elevated terrestrial nutrient loads and temperature on pelagic food-web efficiency and fish production.

    PubMed

    Lefébure, R; Degerman, R; Andersson, A; Larsson, S; Eriksson, L-O; Båmstedt, U; Byström, P

    2013-05-01

    Both temperature and terrestrial organic matter have strong impacts on aquatic food-web dynamics and production. Temperature affects vital rates of all organisms, and terrestrial organic matter can act both as an energy source for lower trophic levels, while simultaneously reducing light availability for autotrophic production. As climate change predictions for the Baltic Sea and elsewhere suggest increases in both terrestrial matter runoff and increases in temperature, we studied the effects on pelagic food-web dynamics and food-web efficiency in a plausible future scenario with respect to these abiotic variables in a large-scale mesocosm experiment. Total basal (phytoplankton plus bacterial) production was slightly reduced when only increasing temperatures, but was otherwise similar across all other treatments. Separate increases in nutrient loads and temperature decreased the ratio of autotrophic:heterotrophic production, but the combined treatment of elevated temperature and terrestrial nutrient loads increased both fish production and food-web efficiency. CDOM: Chl a ratios strongly indicated that terrestrial and not autotrophic carbon was the main energy source in these food webs and our results also showed that zooplankton biomass was positively correlated with increased bacterial production. Concomitantly, biomass of the dominant calanoid copepod Acartia sp. increased as an effect of increased temperature. As the combined effects of increased temperature and terrestrial organic nutrient loads were required to increase zooplankton abundance and fish production, conclusions about effects of climate change on food-web dynamics and fish production must be based on realistic combinations of several abiotic factors. Moreover, our results question established notions on the net inefficiency of heterotrophic carbon transfer to the top of the food web.

  4. Productivity Measurement in Aircraft Maintenance Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    more production, machines, workers, and more capital to finance expansion. All these changes demanded new management practices and larger organizations...Productivity a Labor + Materials + Capital + Energy Management’s task is to bridge the gap from physical measures of operational control to the "big...Material 88.3 97.9 90.3 (3,099) (478) (2,621) Energy 87.8 113.6 77.3 (460) 367 (827) Capital 106.4 100.7 107.7 2,196 261 1,935 Total 95.5 104.2 91.7 $(4,670

  5. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  6. Food and disturbance effects on Arctic benthic biomass and production size spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górska, Barbara; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Body size is a fundamental biological unit that is closely coupled to key ecological properties and processes. At the community level, changes in size distributions may influence energy transfer pathways in benthic food webs and ecosystem carbon cycling; nevertheless they remain poorly explored in benthic systems, particularly in the polar regions. Here, we present the first assessment of the patterns of benthic biomass size spectra in Arctic coastal sediments and explore the effects of glacial disturbance and food availability on the partitioning of biomass and secondary productivity among size-defined components of benthic communities. The samples were collected in two Arctic fjords off west Spitsbergen (76 and 79°N), at 6 stations that represent three regimes of varying food availability (indicated by chlorophyll a concentration in the sediments) and glacial sedimentation disturbance intensity (indicated by sediment accumulation rates). The organisms were measured using image analysis to assess the biovolume, biomass and the annual production of each individual. The shape of benthic biomass size spectra at most stations was bimodal, with the location of a trough and peaks similar to those previously reported in lower latitudes. In undisturbed sediments macrofauna comprised 89% of the total benthic biomass and 56% of the total production. The lower availability of food resources seemed to suppress the biomass and secondary production across the whole size spectra (a 6-fold decrease in biomass and a 4-fold decrease in production in total) rather than reshape the spectrum. At locations where poor nutritional conditions were coupled with disturbance, the biomass was strongly reduced in selected macrofaunal size classes (class 10 and 11), while meiofaunal biomass and production were much higher, most likely due to a release from macrofaunal predation and competition pressure. As a result, the partitioning of benthic biomass and production shifted towards meiofauna

  7. [Biological food contamination by allergic organisms occurring in the human environment].

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Tadeusz; Solarz, Krzysztof; Rudy, Maria; Król, Wojciech; Czuba, Zenon; Staniek-Sadowska, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the paper was the examination of allergic organisms presence, particularly of arthropods in dry food in rooms of their storage, as a factor of the environment sanitary and hygienic state. We examined 258 samples of swipes and alimentary products (i.e., eggs, flour, cereals, pea, bean, sugar, macaroni, and other) to identify arthropods within. Randomly taken samples were investigated for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and toxic moulds. "Arthropod's stroke" in 33% of 258 samples was found with significant differences connected with year of investigation. We found positive correlation between arthropod's stroke and bacteria presence.

  8. Effectiveness of domestic antibacterial products in decontaminating food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    DeVere, Elizabeth; Purchase, Diane

    2007-06-01

    Four commercially available antibacterial products (two wipes and two sprays) were tested under laboratory conditions on a range of food contact surfaces (wood, glass, plastic, Microban incorporated plastic). The products' effectiveness at preventing cross-contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the influence of surface type and drying time were assessed. Survival of the bacterial culture (approximately 400 colonies per 8 cm(2)) on the above preparation surfaces was determined using an in situ nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. In the absence of any antibacterial products, both bacteria survived up to 120 min on all test surfaces with glass and plastic showing no reduction in bacterial number. The order of survival is: glass>plastic>Microban incorporated plastic>wood (<8%). The length of drying time did not affect the survival of either bacterium on glass and plastic surfaces. On wood and Microban incorporated plastic, E. coli appeared to be more sensitive to drying time than S. aureus. Only plastic appeared to affect the effectiveness of the antibacterial products, where the reduction in bacterial number was significantly lower than the other test surfaces (p<0.05). The overall results suggest the antibacterial products are effective in disinfecting food preparing surfaces, provided products instructions are carefully followed.

  9. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Törrönen, A Riitta; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2009-09-09

    The contents of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins were determined in a large number of commercial food products of plant origin available in Finland. Proanthocyanidins were extracted with aqueous acetone-methanol and quantified by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to their degree of polymerization. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were analyzed from the extraction residue by reversed phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as free flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (extension units). Proanthocyanidins were detected in 49 of 99 selected food items. The highest contents per fresh weight were determined in chokeberries, rose hips, and cocoa products. Berries and fruits were generally the best sources of proanthocyanidins, whereas most of the vegetables, roots, and cereals lacked them completely. Many of the samples contained a significant proportion of insoluble proanthocyanidins, which need to be quantified as well if total proanthocyanidins are studied. Considerable variation was observed in proanthocyanidin contents in berries, which requires further research.

  10. Predicting and preventing mold spoilage of food products.

    PubMed

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This article is a review of how to quantify mold spoilage and consequently shelf life of a food product. Mold spoilage results from having a product contaminated with fungal spores that germinate and form a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. The spoilage can be then expressed as the combination of the probability of having a product contaminated and the probability of mold growth (germination and proliferation) up to a visible mycelium before the end of the shelf life. For products packed before being distributed to the retailers, the probability of having a product contaminated is a function of factors strictly linked to the factory design, process, and environment. The in-factory fungal contamination of a product might be controlled by good manufacturing hygiene practices and reduced by particular processing practices such as an adequate air-renewal system. To determine the probability of mold growth, both germination and mycelium proliferation can be mathematically described by primary models. When mold contamination on the product is scarce, the spores are spread on the product and more than a few spores are unlikely to be found at the same spot. In such a case, models applicable for a single spore should be used. Secondary models can be used to describe the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on either the germination or proliferation of molds. Several polynomial models and gamma-type models quantifying the effect of water activity and temperature on mold growth are available. To a lesser extent, the effect of pH, ethanol, heat treatment, addition of preservatives, and modified atmospheres on mold growth also have been quantified. However, mold species variability has not yet been properly addressed, and only a few secondary models have been validated for food products. Once the probability of having mold spoilage is calculated for various shelf lives and product formulations, the model can be implemented as part of a risk management

  11. Food Production, Management, and Services Programs. Food Service Worker. Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    To assist instructors in implementing Missouri's Vocational Instructional Management System into the Food Production, Management, and Services Programs, this guide sets forth the competencies identified and validated by occupational food service instructors and personnel from the food service industry. A minimum of two performance objectives per…

  12. Enumeration of micro-organisms in food: a comparative study of five methods.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J. M.; Gilbert, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Five methods for the enumeration of micro-organisms in food (pour plate, surface spread plate, surface drop, agar droplet, and microdilution) were used in parallel to examine 100 samples selected from a wide range of food products. Statistical analyses of the results showed that the regression and correlation coefficients between the methods were highly significant; the lowest correlation coefficient derived for any pair of methods was 0.979. A variation in count between the methods of less than 0.5 log10 cycles was given by 98% of the samples. Analysis of the operation times and material requirements of each method showed that substantial savings in cost, time, space and support labour were achieved with the microdilution and agar droplet techniques as compared with the conventional pour plate and spread plate methods. PMID:690422

  13. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  14. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  15. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V.; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-01-01

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land. PMID:23636397

  16. Using membrane transporters to improve crops for sustainable food production.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Julian I; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Frommer, Wolf B; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Harrison, Maria J; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Horie, Tomoaki; Kochian, Leon V; Munns, Rana; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Sanders, Dale

    2013-05-02

    With the global population predicted to grow by at least 25 per cent by 2050, the need for sustainable production of nutritious foods is critical for human and environmental health. Recent advances show that specialized plant membrane transporters can be used to enhance yields of staple crops, increase nutrient content and increase resistance to key stresses, including salinity, pathogens and aluminium toxicity, which in turn could expand available arable land.

  17. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  18. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars; Hristovski, Kiril; von Goetz, Natalie

    2012-02-21

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system and, subsequently, enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO(2), and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO(2) entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO(2) included candies, sweets, and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO(2) (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that, while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO(2) through foods

  19. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Fabricius, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide is a common additive in many food, personal care, and other consumer products used by people, which after use can enter the sewage system, and subsequently enter the environment as treated effluent discharged to surface waters or biosolids applied to agricultural land, incinerated wastes, or landfill solids. This study quantifies the amount of titanium in common food products, derives estimates of human exposure to dietary (nano-) TiO2, and discusses the impact of the nanoscale fraction of TiO2 entering the environment. The foods with the highest content of TiO2 included candies, sweets and chewing gums. Among personal care products, toothpastes and select sunscreens contained 1% to >10% titanium by weight. While some other crèmes contained titanium, despite being colored white, most shampoos, deodorants, and shaving creams contained the lowest levels of titanium (<0.01 μg/mg). For several high-consumption pharmaceuticals, the titanium content ranged from below the instrument detection limit (0.0001 μg Ti/mg) to a high of 0.014 μg Ti/mg. Electron microscopy and stability testing of food-grade TiO2 (E171) suggests that approximately 36% of the particles are less than 100 nm in at least one dimension and that it readily disperses in water as fairly stable colloids. However, filtration of water solubilized consumer products and personal care products indicated that less than 5% of the titanium was able to pass through 0.45 or 0.7 μm pores. Two white paints contained 110 μg Ti/mg while three sealants (i.e., prime coat paint) contained less titanium (25 to 40 μg Ti/mg). This research showed that while many white-colored products contained titanium, it was not a prerequisite. Although several of these product classes contained low amounts of titanium, their widespread use and disposal down the drain and eventually to WWTPs deserves attention. A Monte Carlo human exposure analysis to TiO2 through foods identified children as having the highest

  20. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  1. Genetically modified and organic crops in developing countries: a review of options for food security.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Hossein; Ho, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Since two decades ago, when the first GM crops were introduced, there have increasingly been hot debates on the applications of gene manipulation. Currently, the development of GM crop varieties has raised a wide range of new legal, ethical and economic questions in agriculture. There is a growing body of literature reflecting the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM crops which aims to criticize their value for farming systems. While organic crops are promoted as environmentally-friendly products in developed countries, they have provoked great controversy in developing countries facing food security and a low agricultural productivity. Discussion has been especially vigorous when organic farming was introduced as an alternative method. There are in fact, a few tradeoffs in developing countries. On the one hand, farmers are encouraged to accept and implement GM crops because of their higher productivity, while on the other hand, organic farming is encouraged because of socio-economic and environmental considerations. A crucial question facing such countries is therefore, whether GM crops can co-exist with organic farming. This paper aims to review the main considerations and tradeoffs.

  2. The safety and regulation of natural products used as foods and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Anyangwe, Njwen; Carlacci, Louis; Casper, Steve; Danam, Rebecca P; Enongene, Evaristus; Erives, Gladys; Fabricant, Daniel; Gudi, Ramadevi; Hilmas, Corey J; Hines, Fred; Howard, Paul; Levy, Dan; Lin, Ying; Moore, Robert J; Pfeiler, Erika; Thurmond, T Scott; Turujman, Saleh; Walker, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    The use of botanicals and dietary supplements derived from natural substances as an adjunct to an improved quality of life or for their purported medical benefits has become increasingly common in the United States. This review addresses the safety assessment and regulation of food products containing these substances by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The issue of safety is particularly critical given how little information is available on the toxicity of some of these products. The first section uses case studies for stevia and green tea extracts as examples of how FDA evaluates the safety of botanical and herbal products submitted for consideration as Generally Recognized as Safe under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) created a regulatory framework for dietary supplements. The article also discusses the regulation of this class of dietary supplements under DSHEA and addresses the FDA experience in analyzing the safety of natural ingredients described in pre-market safety submissions. Lastly, we discuss an ongoing interagency collaboration to conduct safety testing of nominated dietary supplements.

  3. Product reformulation in the food system to improve food safety. Evaluation of policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Giuseppe; Simeone, Mariarosaria; Nazzaro, Concetta

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the level of attention that the consumer awards to a balanced diet and to product ingredients, with a twofold purpose: to understand whether food product reformulation can generate a competitive advantage for companies that practice it and to evaluate the most appropriate policy interventions to promote a healthy diet. Reformulation strategy, in the absence of binding rules, could be generated by consumers. Results from qualitative research and from empirical analysis have shown that the question of health is a latent demand influenced by two main factors: a general lack of information, and the marketing strategies adopted by companies which bring about an increase in the information asymmetry between producers and consumers. In the absence of binding rules, it is therefore necessary that the government implement information campaigns (food education) aimed at increasing knowledge regarding the effects of unhealthy ingredients, in order to inform and improve consumer choice. It is only by means of widespread information campaigns that food product reformulation can become a strategic variable and allow companies to gain a competitive advantage. This may lead to virtuous results in terms of reducing the social costs related to an unhealthy diet.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    PubMed

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  5. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... organizations that provide assistance to food-insecure people in the United States. (c) Costs. (1) The... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Promoting excess food... tier, who will perform, under this contract, the provision, service, or sale of food in the...

  6. [Organic food and educational actions in schools: diagnosis for health and nutrition education].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Elisângela; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa

    2010-01-01

    This research involved a diagnosis of the educational actions and organic food of the Taste and Awareness Project (Projeto Sabor e Saber, PSS) in a state school in Florianopolis, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, a semi-structured interview, documentation analysis and focal groups were used for data collection. The participants were managers of School Meals; a school head and a group of students and teachers representing the school. The results indicated that the PSS has advanced in its objectives, combining the introduction of organic foods with educational actions involving food, health, nutrition and the environment but with no evaluations of this process; organic food is present in school meals, although there is no record of educational actions; food is a subject on the Science course; the themes of food, health and nutrition in the school environment come up without planning; the evaluation of students regarding the food is positive, but no reference was made to organic foods. It was concluded that the use of organic food, is still not an element of the pedagogical project. However, the research contributed to the teachers, on the need to develop educational actions in health, organic foods and nutrition, within the school community.

  7. [Gluten content in special dietary use gluten-free products and other food products].

    PubMed

    Daniewski, Wojciech; Wojtasik, Anna; Kunachowicz, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Gluten content of 22 special dietary use gluten-free products and 19 naturally gluten-free products was analysed by ELISA method. Gluten content in dietetic foods ranged from 5.19 to 57.16 mg/kg. Within the group of foods "gluten-free" by nature--gluten was not detected in rice and buckwheat groats samples, however in rice flakes and pearl millet gluten content ranged from 7.05 mg/kg- 27.51 mg/kg. Particularly high contamination with gluten (> 100 mg/kg) was detected in oat products what puts in doubt their usefulness in gluten-free diet.

  8. Nutrition recommendations and the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's 2014 approved food and beverage product list.

    PubMed

    Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Powell, Lisa M

    2015-04-23

    We compare the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative's (CFBAI's) April 2014 list of food and beverage products approved to be advertised on children's television programs with the federal Interagency Working Group's nutrition recommendations for such advertised products. Products were assessed by using the nutrients to limit (saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium) component of the Interagency Working Group's recommendations. Fifty-three percent of the listed products did not meet the nutrition recommendations and, therefore, were ineligible to be advertised. We recommend continued monitoring of food and beverage products marketed to children.

  9. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  10. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  11. Are gluten-free foods healthier than non-gluten-free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Trevena, Helen; Crino, Michelle; Stuart-Smith, Wendy; Faulkner-Hogg, Kim; Yu Louie, Jimmy Chun; Dunford, Elizabeth

    2015-08-14

    Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study evaluated the nutritional quality of GF and non-GF foods in core food groups, and a wide range of discretionary products in Australian supermarkets. Nutritional information on the Nutrition Information Panel was systematically obtained from all packaged foods at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia in 2013. Food products were classified as GF if a GF declaration appeared anywhere on the product packaging, or non-GF if they contained gluten, wheat, rye, triticale, barley, oats or spelt. The primary outcome was the 'Health Star Rating' (HSR: lowest score 0.5; optimal score 5), a nutrient profiling scheme endorsed by the Australian Government. Differences in the content of individual nutrients were explored in secondary analyses. A total of 3213 food products across ten food categories were included. On average, GF plain dry pasta scored nearly 0.5 stars less (P< 0.001) compared with non-GF products; however, there were no significant differences in the mean HSR for breads or ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (P≥ 0.42 for both). Relative to non-GF foods, GF products had consistently lower average protein content across all the three core food groups, in particular for pasta and breads (52 and 32% less, P< 0.001 for both). A substantial proportion of foods in discretionary categories carried GF labels (e.g., 87% of processed meats), and the average HSR of GF discretionary foods were not systematically superior to those of non-GF products. The consumption of GF products is unlikely to confer health benefits, unless there is clear evidence of gluten intolerance.

  12. Simultaneous determination of red and yellow artificial food colourants and carotenoid pigments in food products.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-08-15

    A method for simultaneously determining four artificial food colourants [Red Nos. 2 (R2) and 40 (R40), Yellow Nos. 5 (Y5) and 6 (Y6)] and three carotenoids [lycopene, lutein, and β-carotene] was developed. They were successfully separated by the developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with a photo diode array detector. The detection limit (at signal to noise>4) was from the lowest of 0.2 ng/mL for lutein to the highest of 50.0 ng/mL for R40. With a two-phase solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction, the recoveries of the artificial and natural pigments in fifteen different types of food products were between 80.5-97.2% and 80.1-98.4%, respectively. This HPLC method with the ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol could be used as a sensitive and reliable analysis technique in simultaneously identifying and quantifying the reddish and yellowish pigments in different foods regardless of they are artificial food colourants or/and natural carotenoids.

  13. [TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIFIC FOOD PRODUCTS FOR PATIENTS WITH DYSPHAGIA].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly and also in some pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases or tumors. Making an adequate diet for this disease may present some difficulties. The aim of this document is to make a detailed technical report about the characteristics of the products that are available in Spain to hydrate and to feed patients with dysphagia. Food and pharmaceutical industries have developed a range of products designed to ensure homogeneous texture and a suitable viscosity to guaranty an adequate hydration. An adequate nutritional status is also achieved with these products for patients with dysphagia, without compromising their safety. The ingredients used to achieve a suitable viscosity are different types of starches, gums and other substances. It has been developed thickeners and gellified water for hydratation, and in case of food there are purees (dehydrated, lyophilized, pasteurized and sterilized), fruit purees, fruit pudding, and dehydrated cereal. Patients who do not meet their nutritional needs have also oral supplements with different viscosities. The industry offers extensive information about the technical characteristics of the products, except for viscosity. It would be recommended for the manufacturers to include in detail the technical specifications of the used methodology and the measurement and the results obtained in the analysis of viscosity that can be consulted by professionals of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units who treat these patients.

  14. Corn ethanol production, food exports, and indirect land use change.

    PubMed

    Wallington, T J; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Kolinski Morris, E; Winkler, S L; Ginder, J M; Nielsen, O J

    2012-06-05

    The approximately 100 million tonne per year increase in the use of corn to produce ethanol in the U.S. over the past 10 years, and projections of greater future use, have raised concerns that reduced exports of corn (and other agricultural products) and higher commodity prices would lead to land-use changes and, consequently, negative environmental impacts in other countries. The concerns have been driven by agricultural and trade models, which project that large-scale corn ethanol production leads to substantial decreases in food exports, increases in food prices, and greater deforestation globally. Over the past decade, the increased use of corn for ethanol has been largely matched by the increased corn harvest attributable mainly to increased yields. U.S. exports of corn, wheat, soybeans, pork, chicken, and beef either increased or remained unchanged. Exports of distillers' dry grains (DDG, a coproduct of ethanol production and a valuable animal feed) increased by more than an order of magnitude to 9 million tonnes in 2010. Increased biofuel production may lead to intensification (higher yields) and extensification (more land) of agricultural activities. Intensification and extensification have opposite impacts on land use change. We highlight the lack of information concerning the magnitude of intensification effects and the associated large uncertainties in assessments of the indirect land use change associated with corn ethanol.

  15. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  16. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  17. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  18. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  19. 40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other... § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web. (a) Aquatic organisms in the food web include, but are not limited to, finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, insects,...

  20. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  1. Organic farming in the Nordic countries--animal health and production.

    PubMed

    Thamsborg, S M

    2001-01-01

    Organic farming (or ecological agriculture) is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1-10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.

  2. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    PubMed

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons.

  3. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  4. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-04-06

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet.

  5. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality.

  6. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and non-processed foods (i.e., alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (e.g., consumption of fruit, vegetables, fast food, etc.) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a two-year community college and a four-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. Chi-square tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 greater servings of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fewer added sugars (p<0.001) and less fat (p=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast about one more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (p<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  7. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  8. Does food supplementation really enhance productivity of breeding birds?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Timothy J E; Smith, Jennifer A; Martin, Graham R; Chamberlain, Dan E; Bearhop, Stuart; Robb, Gillian N; Reynolds, S James

    2010-10-01

    Food availability influences multiple stages of the breeding cycle of birds, and supplementary feeding has helped in its understanding. Most supplementation studies have reported advancements of laying, whilst others, albeit less numerous, have also demonstrated fitness benefits such as larger clutches, shorter incubation periods, and greater hatching success. Relatively few studies, however, have investigated the effects of supplementary feeding for protracted periods across multiple stages of the breeding cycle. These effects are important to understand since long-term food supplementation of birds is recommended in urban habitats and is used as a tool to increase reproductive output in endangered species. Here, we compare the breeding phenology and productivity of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus and great tits Parus major breeding in food-supplemented and non-supplemented blocks in a broadleaf woodland in central England over three seasons (2006-2008). Supplementation was provided continuously from several weeks pre-laying until hatching, and had multiple significant effects. Most notably, supplementation reduced brood size significantly in both species, by half a chick or more at hatching (after controlling for year and hatching date). Reduced brood sizes in supplemented pairs were driven by significantly smaller clutches in both species and, in blue tits, significantly lower hatching success. These are novel and concerning findings of food supplementation. As expected, supplementary feeding advanced laying and shortened incubation periods significantly in both species. We discuss the striking parallels between our findings and patterns in blue and great tit reproduction in urban habitats, and conclude that supplementary feeding may not always enhance the breeding productivity of birds.

  9. Fertilizers for food production vs energy needs and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Olson, R A

    1977-12-01

    The world is experiencing an energy crisis that is restrictive to agricultural requisites production at the same time that food is becoming increasingly short on a global basis. Fertilizers are the most energy demanding of these inputs and have become very expensive and intermittently short in supply with the reduced availability of fossil fuels. They have been indicted, furthermore, as environmental pollutants due to their presumed role in eutrophication and in being a source of excessive NO3-N that may accumulate in some leaf crops and in drinking waters. Exponential growth in fossil fuel consumption cannot continue. Economies can be made in the agricultural sector, which does indeed consume substantial quantities of energy. The energy consumed in this very essential food-producing process, however, is almost insignificant compared with that involved in transport and processing of food beyond the farm and with other energy expenditures in modern society. A shift in priorities will certainly be required in adapting to the real world of the 1970s if man's first need is to be met. Economies in fertilizer use can be made by adherence to known agronomic principles. Savings in fossil fuel energy can probably be effected also in the production of N fertilizer, by far the most fossil-energy-demanding process in the realm of agriculture. Considerable research remains to be done, however, under varied climatic conditions for understanding and controlling processes by which residuals from fertilizers may become environmental pollutants. The various issues in this paper must be resolved promptly in consideration of the now-existing energy crisis and the imminent world food crisis.

  10. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health.

  11. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which... No: 2012-12592] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the...

  12. 77 FR 71750 - DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 DSM Nutritional Products; Filing of Food.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that DSM Nutritional Products has filed a... petition (FAP 2273) has been filed by DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd., Parsippany, NJ...

  13. Peering into the Secrets of Food and Agricultural Co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for directing product development and is equally important for developing products from food crops and co-products from the agricultural waste after harvest. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to ...

  14. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  15. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  16. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... other than human food. Condemned carcasses of animals affected with one or more of the...

  17. World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1977-86. Statistical Bulletin Number 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    World food production reached a record high in 1986, exceeding 1985's record by about 1 percent, despite declining food output in Latin America, the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania. World food production generally increased faster than population from 1977 to 1986. Production of agricultural commodities increased at an annual compound…

  18. Organization of risk analysis in the EU and the new EU food regulation.

    PubMed

    Pina, M C; Ferrer, C; Rodrigo, M; Klein, G; Martínez, A

    2006-11-01

    Given the scope and magnitude of the food supply in modern societies, there is no way to ensure that all foods are kept free from potential sources of contamination. Instead, food safety is enhanced by systematically concentrating upon minimizing opportunities for contamination at every point from food production and processing to distribution, preparation, and consumption. Although previous advances, such as pasteurization and refrigeration, and contemporary improvements in hazard analysis and control have significantly improved the safety of the food supply, foodborne disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, the food policy of the European Union and member states must reach the highest food safety standards in order to reduce the incidence of the illness produced by consumption of foods. To reach this goal, the new food regulation is in force since 2002 with the amendment through the hygiene package, which is in force since 2006. Risk Analysis forms the foundation on which food safety policy is based and an important part is aimed at microbiolgogical contamination. Additionally a European Food Safety Authority was established to carry out risk assessment and communication of food safety issues. At the same time, member states have created their own Food Safety Agencies working closely with the European Food Safety Authority. In this work, a description of the structure and work of the European Food Safety Authority and as an example the Spanish Food Safety Agency as well as key elements of the new regulation with special respect to the hygiene package is given.

  19. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  20. Analysis for organic residues from aids to polymerization used to make plastics intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Fordham, P J; Gramshaw, J W; Castle, L

    2001-05-01

    Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR) and GC-MS. NMR detected the presence of cyanoisopropyl radical residues in the plastic at 470-3400 mg/kg whereas GC-MS detected TMSN at only 65-540 mg/kg in the samples. It is concluded that the bulk of cyanoisopropyl residues detected by NMR were either polymer-bound or were the products of side-reactions of the initiator radical. The migration of TMSN itself into the food simulants 3% aqueous acetic acid, 15% aqueous ethanol, and olive oil, at 40 degrees C for 10 days, was measured using GC-MS. Migration was very low with < 1 microg/kg released from a finished article (a drinking straw) and < 5 microg/kg from resin pellets. The overall conclusions from this work are that organic residues from aids to polymerization are generally found at reassuringly low levels in plastics intended for food contact and their potential for migration to foods is correspondingly low.

  1. Fatty acid and stable isotope characteristics of sea ice and pelagic particulate organic matter in the Bering Sea: tools for estimating sea ice algal contribution to Arctic food web production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiway W; Budge, Suzanne M; Gradinger, Rolf R; Iken, Katrin; Wooller, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    We determined fatty acid (FA) profiles and carbon stable isotopic composition of individual FAs (δ(13)CFA values) from sea ice particulate organic matter (i-POM) and pelagic POM (p-POM) in the Bering Sea during maximum ice extent, ice melt, and ice-free conditions in 2010. Based on FA biomarkers, differences in relative composition of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and bacteria were inferred for i-POM versus p-POM and for seasonal succession stages in p-POM. Proportions of diatom markers were higher in i-POM (16:4n-1, 6.6-8.7%; 20:5n-3, 19.6-25.9%) than in p-POM (16:4n-1, 1.2-4.0%; 20:5n-3, 5.5-14.0%). The dinoflagellate marker 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 was highest in p-POM. Bacterial FA concentration was higher in the bottom 1 cm of sea ice (14-245 μg L(-1)) than in the water column (0.6-1.7 μg L(-1)). Many i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values were higher (up to ~10‰) than those of p-POM, and i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values increased with day length. The higher i-POM δ(13)C(FA) values are most likely related to the reduced dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability within the semi-closed sea ice brine channel system. Based on a modified Rayleigh equation, the fraction of sea ice DIC fixed in i-POM ranged from 12 to 73%, implying that carbon was not limiting for primary productivity in the sympagic habitat. These differences in FA composition and δ(13)C(FA) values between i-POM and p-POM will aid efforts to track the proportional contribution of sea ice algal carbon to higher trophic levels in the Bering Sea and likely other Arctic seas.

  2. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from ready-to-eat food products.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W J; Asmundson, R V; Huang, C M

    1996-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a range of foods sold in ready-to-eat form were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing cultures were isolated from 14 of the 41 foods sampled. Bacteriocin-producing isolates from meat, fish and dairy products were Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species typically found associated with these products. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum although two showed activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Fruit and vegetable products gave a broader range of organisms but most of the bacteriocin-producing cultures were found to be strains of Lactococcus. Several lactococci produced a nisin-like activity, and showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested. The ease with which bacteriocin-producing strains could be isolated implies that they are already being safely consumed in food, and highlights the potential for using bacteriocin-producing cultures for biopreservation, especially in association with minimally processed products.

  3. Production of ethanol from infant food formulas by common yeasts.

    PubMed

    Bivin, W S; Heinen, B N

    1985-04-01

    Four common yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Torulopsis glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were combined with five infant food formulas and/or supplements (Isomil, Nutramigen, 5% glucose, Coca Cola and Similac) and incubated at 37 degrees C. Gas chromatography was used to measure ethanol production after 24 and 48 h incubation. The quantities of ethanol produced suggest a possible explanation for patients exhibiting the 'Auto-Brewery Syndrome' and raises interest in the role auto-produced ethanol could have in explaining the etiology of Sudden Infant Death.

  4. 9 CFR 314.11 - Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of certain condemned products for purposes other than human food. 314.11 Section 314.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... INEDIBLE PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.11 Handling of certain condemned products for...

  5. Soil food web changes during spontaneous succession at post mining sites: a possible ecosystem engineering effect on food web organization?

    PubMed

    Frouz, Jan; Thébault, Elisa; Pižl, Václav; Adl, Sina; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrián, Petr; Háněl, Ladislav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel; Materna, Jan; Nováková, Alena; de Ruiter, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Parameters characterizing the structure of the decomposer food web, biomass of the soil microflora (bacteria and fungi) and soil micro-, meso- and macrofauna were studied at 14 non-reclaimed 1- 41-year-old post-mining sites near the town of Sokolov (Czech Republic). These observations on the decomposer food webs were compared with knowledge of vegetation and soil microstructure development from previous studies. The amount of carbon entering the food web increased with succession age in a similar way as the total amount of C in food web biomass and the number of functional groups in the food web. Connectance did not show any significant changes with succession age, however. In early stages of the succession, the bacterial channel dominated the food web. Later on, in shrub-dominated stands, the fungal channel took over. Even later, in the forest stage, the bacterial channel prevailed again. The best predictor of fungal bacterial ratio is thickness of fermentation layer. We argue that these changes correspond with changes in topsoil microstructure driven by a combination of plant organic matter input and engineering effects of earthworms. In early stages, soil is alkaline, and a discontinuous litter layer on the soil surface promotes bacterial biomass growth, so the bacterial food web channel can dominate. Litter accumulation on the soil surface supports the development of the fungal channel. In older stages, earthworms arrive, mix litter into the mineral soil and form an organo-mineral topsoil, which is beneficial for bacteria and enhances the bacterial food web channel.

  6. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  7. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  8. Antihypertensive peptides from animal products, marine organisms, and plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jun

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive peptides from food proteins exert beneficial effects on human health, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Several studies have reported that ACE-inhibitory peptides can come from animal products, marine organisms, and plants-derived by hydrolyzing enzymes such as pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin-and microbial enzymes such as alcalase, thermolysin, flavourzyme, and proteinase K. Different ACE-inhibitory effects are closely related with different peptide sequences and molecular weights. Sequences of ACE-inhibitory peptides are composed of hydrophobic (proline) and aliphatic amino acids (isoleucine and leucine) at the N-terminus. As result of this review, we assume that low molecular weight peptides have a greater ACE inhibition because lower molecular weight peptides have a higher absorbency in the body. Therefore, the ACE-inhibitory effect is closely related with the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and the composition of the peptide sequence.

  9. Predicted growth of world urban food waste and methane production.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José

    2006-10-01

    Landfill gas emissions are one of the largest anthropogenic sources of methane especially because of food waste (FW). To prevent these emissions growing with world population, future FW best management practices need to be evaluated. The objective of this paper was therefore to predict FW production for 2025 if present management practices are maintained, and then, to compare the impact of scenario 1: encouraging people to stay in rural areas and composting 75% of their FW, and; of scenario 2, where in addition to scenario 1, composting or anaerobically digesting 75% of urban FW (UFW). A relationship was established between per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and the population percentage living in urban areas (%UP), as well as production of municipal solid waste (MSW) and UFW. With estimated GDP and population growth per country, %UP and production of MSW and UFW could be predicted for 2025. A relatively accurate (R(2) > 0.85) correlation was found between GDP and %UP, and between GDP and mass of MSW and FW produced. On a global scale, MSW and UFW productions were predicted to increase by 51 and 44%, respectively, from 2005 to 2025. During the same period, and because of its expected economic development, Asia was predicted to experience the largest increase in UFW production, of 278 to 416 Gkg. If present MSW management trends are maintained, landfilled UFW was predicted to increase world CH4 emissions from 34 to 48 Gkg and the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions from 8 to 10%. In comparison with maintaining present FW management practices, scenario 1 can lower UFW production by 30% and maintain the landfill share of the global anthropogenic emissions at 8%. With scenario 2, the landfill share of global anthropogenic emissions could be further reduced from 8 to 6% and leachate production could be reduced by 40%.

  10. Risk analysis of tyramine concentration in food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudová, L.; Buňka, F.; Michálek, J.; Sedlačík, M.; Buňková, L.

    2013-10-01

    The contribution is focused on risk analysis in food microbiology. This paper evaluates the effect of selected factors on tyramine production in bacterial strains of Lactococcus genus which were assigned as tyramine producers. Tyramine is a biogenic amine sythesized from an amino acid called tyrosine. It can be found in certain foodstuffs (often in cheese), and can cause a pseudo-response in sensitive individuals. The above-mentioned bacteria are commonly used in the biotechnological process of cheese production as starter cultures. The levels of factors were chosen with respect to the conditions which can occur in this technological process. To describe and compare tyramine production in chosen microorganisms, generalized regression models were applied. Tyramine production was modelled by Gompertz curves according to the selected factors (the lactose concentration of 0-1% w/v, NaCl 0-2% w/v and aero/anaerobiosis) for 3 different types of bacterial cultivation. Moreover, estimates of model parameters were calculated and tested; multiple comparisons were discussed as well. The aim of this paper is to find a combination of factors leading to a similar tyramine production level.

  11. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  12. Effects of social sustainability signaling on neural valuation signals and taste-experience of food products.

    PubMed

    Enax, Laura; Krapp, Vanessa; Piehl, Alexandra; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Value-based decision making occurs when individuals choose between different alternatives and place a value on each alternative and its attributes. Marketing actions frequently manipulate product attributes, by adding, e.g., health claims on the packaging. A previous imaging study found that an emblem for organic products increased willingness to pay (WTP) and activity in the ventral striatum (VS). The current study investigated neural and behavioral processes underlying the influence of Fair Trade (FT) labeling on food valuation and choice. Sustainability is an important product attribute for many consumers, with FT signals being one way to highlight ethically sustainable production. Forty participants valuated products in combination with an FT emblem or no emblem and stated their WTP in a bidding task while in an MRI scanner. After that, participants tasted-objectively identical-chocolates, presented either as "FT" or as "conventionally produced". In the fMRI task, WTP was significantly higher for FT products. FT labeling increased activity in regions important for reward-processing and salience, that is, in the VS, anterior and posterior cingulate, as well as superior frontal gyrus. Subjective value, that is, WTP was correlated with activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We find that the anterior cingulate, VS and superior frontal gyrus exhibit task-related increases in functional connectivity to the vmPFC when an FT product was evaluated. Effective connectivity analyses revealed a highly probable directed modulation of the vmPFC by those three regions, suggesting a network which alters valuation processes. We also found a significant taste-placebo effect, with higher experienced taste pleasantness and intensity for FT labeled chocolates. Our results reveal a possible neural mechanism underlying valuation processes of certified food products. The results are important in light of understanding current marketing trends as well as designing

  13. Effects of social sustainability signaling on neural valuation signals and taste-experience of food products

    PubMed Central

    Enax, Laura; Krapp, Vanessa; Piehl, Alexandra; Weber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Value-based decision making occurs when individuals choose between different alternatives and place a value on each alternative and its attributes. Marketing actions frequently manipulate product attributes, by adding, e.g., health claims on the packaging. A previous imaging study found that an emblem for organic products increased willingness to pay (WTP) and activity in the ventral striatum (VS). The current study investigated neural and behavioral processes underlying the influence of Fair Trade (FT) labeling on food valuation and choice. Sustainability is an important product attribute for many consumers, with FT signals being one way to highlight ethically sustainable production. Forty participants valuated products in combination with an FT emblem or no emblem and stated their WTP in a bidding task while in an MRI scanner. After that, participants tasted—objectively identical—chocolates, presented either as “FT” or as “conventionally produced”. In the fMRI task, WTP was significantly higher for FT products. FT labeling increased activity in regions important for reward-processing and salience, that is, in the VS, anterior and posterior cingulate, as well as superior frontal gyrus. Subjective value, that is, WTP was correlated with activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We find that the anterior cingulate, VS and superior frontal gyrus exhibit task-related increases in functional connectivity to the vmPFC when an FT product was evaluated. Effective connectivity analyses revealed a highly probable directed modulation of the vmPFC by those three regions, suggesting a network which alters valuation processes. We also found a significant taste-placebo effect, with higher experienced taste pleasantness and intensity for FT labeled chocolates. Our results reveal a possible neural mechanism underlying valuation processes of certified food products. The results are important in light of understanding current marketing trends as well as

  14. Canned rice products as Philippine military food ration.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2003-05-01

    Canned prototypes of rice (CR) and rice meal with pork sausage (CRM) were developed as military food ration models for evaluation by personnel in the Bonifacio Naval Station, Fort Bonifacio, Makati, Philippines. The prototypes were produced based on the assumption that a serving size equivalent to 400 g cooked rice and a meat-based viand using a 1:4 (wt/wt) viand to rice ratio was adequate as a single-serve meal for a typical Philippine military personnel. The CR and CRM prototypes were low acid products with pH values of 4.9 and 5.5, respectively. The processed rice portions of the prototypes showed about 200% volume and weight increases, moderate clumpiness and low percentage breakage. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that CR and CRM were suitable military food rations. Majority of the panelists indicated preference for meat-based and poultry-based viands. Bulk and weight portativity problems, however, were raised with the 400 g serving size of cooked products in cans.

  15. Effect of copper contaminated food on the life cycle and secondary production of Daphnia laevis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Giseli S; Tonietto, Alessandra E; Lombardi, Ana T; Melão, Maria da G G

    2016-11-01

    In aquatic environments, copper (Cu) plays important physiological roles in planktonic food chain, such as electron transfer in photosynthesis and constituting proteins that transport oxygen in some arthropods, while at higher concentrations it is toxic on these organisms and higher trophic levels. The combined effects of natural (e.g. volcanic activity) and anthropogenic sources (e.g. mining waste) contribute to the increase in copper pollution in different ecosystems and regions around the world. In the present study, we evaluated the bioaccumulation and effect of Cu on Raphidocelis subcapitata (freshwater algae), and the influence of Cu-contaminated food (algae) on Daphnia laevis (tropical cladoceran). The amount of copper accumulated in microalgae and cladoceran was quantified, and life-history parameters of D. laevis such as growth, reproduction and longevity were measured. The cell density of Cu exposed R. subcapitata declined, and cladoceran fed with contaminated food had lower longevity, production of eggs and neonates, and reduced secondary production. A concentration dependent increase in Cu accumulation was observed in the microalgae, while the opposite occurred in the animal, indicating a cellular metal regulatory mechanism in the latter. However, this regulation seems not to be sufficient to avoid metal induced damages in the cladoceran such as decreased longevity and reproduction. We conclude that diet is an important metal exposure route to this cladoceran, and the assessment of chronic contamination during the complete life cycle of cladoceran provides results that are similar to those observed in natural environments, especially when native organisms are investigated.

  16. [Mercury pollution in selected food products in Poland in the context of their health safety].

    PubMed

    Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Tarasiuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Danuta; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    Mercury is a silvery-white chemically active transition metal without known physiological role. It is also a toxin accumulated in living organisms--especially in the aquatic creatures (fish and shellfish). Mercury compounds are involved in biogeochemical cycles (especially atmospheric and hydrobiologic), and thus they become contaminants of food. Such process is facilitated by the increasing environmental chemization. Toxic effects of mercury compounds result from their high affinity to sulfur (sulfhydryl groups of amino acids), accumulation in parenchymal organs, metallic mercury lipophilicity as well as long biological half-life period. In Poland the major sources of mercury exposure in diet are fish products and mushrooms. The role of mercury in human toxicology was presented in the work, along with a review of the literature concerning mercury content in selected food products in Poland. In general, most of foods do not pose a threat to consumers' health. Some restrictions in the amount of predatory fish and mushrooms consumed by pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as small children should be however recommended.

  17. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities.

  18. 77 FR 71803 - Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance on Food and Drug Administration Oversight of Positron Emission Tomography Drug Products--Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  19. Occurrence of patulin in organic and conventional apple-based food marketed in Catalonia and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Piqué, Ester; Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Lapuente, Joaquin de; Llobet, Joan Maria

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, consumption of organic foods has become increasingly popular. Nevertheless, safety of organic foods is still unclear, and needs to be thoroughly evaluated. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly present in rotten apples and apple-based products. The aim of this study is to analyse the content of patulin in apple juices and purees derived from organic and conventional production systems, in order to assess the risk to consumers, particularly in children. A total of 93 apple-based products marketed in Catalonia were analysed, 49 of which were derived from conventional and 44 from organic farming. The results showed higher incidence of positive samples and higher concentration of patulin in organic apple purees when comparing with conventional ones. In the case of juices, significant differences were found between conventional and organic samples, but applying a multivariate analysis the type of agriculture did not seem to have a relevant contribution to patulin occurrence, being cloudiness the main factor involved. The estimated daily intake of patulin for infants and young children (0-3 years old), children (4-18 years old) and adults (19-66 years old), were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 μg/kg bw in all scenarios considered.

  20. Co-digestion of press water and food waste in a biowaste digester for improvement of biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nayono, Satoto E; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef

    2010-09-01

    Co-digestion of press water from organic municipal wastes and of homogenized food residues with defibered kitchen wastes (food waste) as the main substrate was examined to improve biogas production. Although the biowaste digester was operated already at high organic loading (OLR) of 12.3 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) during the week, addition of co-substrates not only increased biogas production rates but also improved total biogas production. By feeding the two co-substrates up to 20 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) gas production followed the increasing OLR linearly. When the OLR was further increased with food waste, not more gas than for 20 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) OLR was obtained, indicating the maximum metabolic capabilities of the microbes. During weekends (no biowaste available) food waste could substitute for biowaste to maintain biogas production. Addition of press water or food waste to biowaste co-digestion resulted in more buffer capacity, allowing very high loadings without pH control.

  1. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 1-17. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 17 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are food service careers, math skills, reading and converting recipes, work simplification, self-development,…

  2. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as...-purpose subzone at the garlic products manufacturing facility of Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., located in... to the manufacture of garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located...

  3. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    PubMed

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  4. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    PubMed Central

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products. PMID:26257724

  5. Quantifying the linkages among soil health, organic farming, and food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic farming systems utilize organic amendments, diverse crop rotations and cover crops to promote soil fertility and enhance soil health. These practices increase biologically available forms of soil organic matter, and increase the activities of beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Physi...

  6. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  7. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  8. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (ρ) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ρ from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ρ also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (ρ) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ρ. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ρ using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ρ was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ρ and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and

  9. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world's largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework.

  10. The Hotspot for (Global) One Health in Primary Food Production: Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Gherardi, Paola; Saxena, Navneet; Belluzzi, Giancarlo; Mantovani, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    One Health involves the multifaceted environment-animal-human web: nevertheless, the role of toxicological issues has yet to be fully explored in this context. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of feeds is a risk for the health of several farm animals, including fishes; milk is the only food of animal origin where a significant feed-food carry over may occur. The main AFB1-related compound present in milk is the hydroxy-metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Besides contamination of raw milk, AFM1 is of concern for the whole dairy chain; AFM1 may also contaminate the milk of several other ruminants used for milk/dairy production. In a One Health perspective, milk represents a sentinel matrix for AFB1 vulnerability of the agro-food system, that is crucial in a phase when food/nutritional security becomes a global issue and climatic changes may affect agricultural productions. In the global setting, food chain exposure to long-term toxicants, such as AFM1, is a growing concern for economically developing countries, whereas global trade and climatic change makes AFM1 an emerging hot issue in economically developed countries as well. We critically review the state of the art on AFM1 risk assessment and risk management using two scenarios as case studies: a European Union country where the health system aims at ensuring a high-level protection of food chain (Italy) and the world’s largest (and economically developing) producer of dairy products by volume (India). The case studies are used to provide building blocks for a global One Health framework. PMID:28210616

  11. Institutional obstacles to expansion of world food production.

    PubMed

    Crosson, P R

    1975-05-09

    It was argued that over the near-to-medium term-roughly to the mid-1980's-there is enough potential for growth in existing Green Revolution technology and in technical capacity of farmers that institutions affecting these two sources of increased food production probably will not be seriously constraining. The principal bottlenecks likely will be found among those institutions affecting farmers' incentives to innovate. There is impressive evidence that when other conditions for innovation are favorable the supply of marketing services, for both inputs and outputs, is quite elastic. This seems to include the supply of funds from rural saving and informal credit sources, although the evidence is less clear in this respect. The situation concerning price relations and availability of inputs appears mixed. If national income growth targets are achieved, then the growth in total demand for food in the LDC's should be fast enough to support incentive prices for farmers. This advantage could be lost, however, if governments adopt policies to suppress food prices to keep down the cost of living. The price of fertilizers is expected to fall from the high levels of 1974, the amount of the fall depending in good measure on the success of the LDC's in increasing fertilizer production. Historically, their efforts to expand capacity have been relatively inefficient. Moreover, many countries still lack adequate capacity to produce the HYV's and pesticides. Even with good progress in expanding domestic production of inputs, imports will continue to be an important source of supply. Maintenance of present high prices of petroleum products could be a major obstacle to financing these imports on the necessary scale because of the drain it would place on available foreign exchange. I conclude, on balance, that prices and availability of fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds could have important negative effects on farmers' incentives to adopt Green Revolution technology. Rigidities in

  12. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  13. Effect of parity on productivity and sustainability of Lotka-Volterra food chains: bounded orbits in food chains.

    PubMed

    Massarelli, Nicole; Hoffman, Kathleen; Previte, Joseph P

    2014-12-01

    Hairston, Slobodkin, and Smith conjectured that top down forces act on food chains, which opposed the previously accepted theory that bottom up forces exclusively dictate the dynamics of populations. We model food chains using the Lotka-Volterra predation model and derive sustainability constants which determine which species will persist or go extinct. Further, we show that the productivity of a sustainable food chain with even trophic levels is predator regulated, or top down, while a sustainable food chain with odd trophic levels is resource limited, which is bottom up, which is consistent with current ecological theory.

  14. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... day care homes. 226.13 Section 226.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... CARE FOOD PROGRAM Payment Provisions § 226.13 Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day... children and eligible enrolled children of day care home providers, at approved day care homes. (b)...

  15. 7 CFR 226.13 - Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day care homes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... day care homes. 226.13 Section 226.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... CARE FOOD PROGRAM Payment Provisions § 226.13 Food service payments to sponsoring organizations for day... children and eligible enrolled children of day care home providers, at approved day care homes. (b)...

  16. Intention to purchase organic food among young consumers: Evidences from a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food.

  17. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  18. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.

  19. Screening for anti-nutritional compounds in complementary foods and food aid products for infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Roos, Nanna; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer; Rasmussen, Søren Kjaersgaard; Briend, André; Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    A range of compounds with negative nutritional impact - 'anti-nutrients' - are found in most plant foods. The contents of anti-nutrients in processed foods depend on the ingredients and processing. Anti-nutrients in complementary foods for children can have a negative impact on nutritional status. The aim of this study was to screen complementary foods from developing countries for the anti-nutritional compounds, phytate, polyphenols, inhibitors of trypsin and chymotrypsin, and lectins. Commercial products based on whole grain cereals were included as a 'worst-case' scenario for anti-nutrient exposure in Europe. Contents of minerals (iron, zinc and calcium), in which absorption or utilisation is affected by anti-nutrients, were analysed. Thirty-six products representing foods used in food aid programmes, local blended foods, fortified instant porridges and 'baby foods' were analysed. The content of minerals indicated that the fortification of a number of products did not meet the declared levels of iron, zinc and calcium. The phytate content ranged from 68 to 1536 mg/100 g, confirming a persistent problem of high levels of phytate in processed cereal- and legume-based products. The phytate : Fe molar ratio exceeded the recommended level of <1.0 in 32 of the 36 products. The total polyphenols varied from 1.3 to 9.3 mg gentisic acid equivalents g(-1) . Screening low-molecular weight soluble polyphenols may be more relevant in complementary foods than total polyphenolic compounds. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins were found in residual amounts in most products, indicating efficient degradation by heat processing. However, young infants and malnourished children may have reduced pancreatic function, and upper limits for residual trypsin inhibitors are needed.

  20. Peering into the secrets of food and agricultural co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Glenn, Gregory; Pan, Zhongli; Orts, William; McHugh, Tara

    2010-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for understanding food contamination and directing product development of food and industrial products. The current trend in food research is to produce foods that are fast to prepare and/or ready to eat. At the same time, these processed foods must be safe, high quality and maintain all or most of the nutritional value of the original whole foods. Minimally processed foods, is the phrase used to characterize these "new" foods. New techniques are needed which take advantage of minimal processing or processing which enhances the fresh properties and characteristics of whole foods while spending less time on food preparation. The added benefit coupled to less cooking time in an individual kitchen translates to an overall energy savings and reduces the carbon emissions to the environment. Food processing changes the microstructure, and therefore, the quality, texture and flavor, of the resulting food product. Additionally, there is the need to reduce waste, transportation costs and product loss during transportation and storage. Unlike food processing, structural changes are desirable in co-products as function follows form for food packaging films and boxes as well as for building materials and other industrial products. Thus, the standard materials testing procedures are coupled with SEM to provide direction in the development of products from agricultural residues or what would otherwise be considered waste materials. The use of agricultural residues reduces waste and adds value to a currently underutilized or unutilized product. The product might be biodegradable or compostable, thus reducing landfill requirements. Manufacturing industrial and packaging products from biological materials also reduces the amount of petroleum products currently standard in the industry.

  1. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  2. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production

    PubMed Central

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world. PMID:26061704

  3. Feasibility of producing a range of food products from a limited range of undifferenitiated major food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current knowledge associated with producing safe, nutritious, and acceptable foods from a limited number of source independent macronutrients. The advantages, and disadvantages, of such an approach for use by space crews are discussed. The production of macronutrients from a variety of sources is covered in detail. The sources analyzed are: wheat, soybeans, algae (3 genera), glycerol, and digested cellulose. Fabrication of food from the above macronutrient sources is discussed and particular attention is addressed to nutrition, acceptability and reliability. The processes and concepts involved in food fabrication and macronutrient production are also considered for utilization in a space environment.

  4. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  5. Developing Natural Solutions to Reducing Food Safety Pathogens in Organically Raised Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic poultry production is one of the fastest growing segments of organic agriculture with a 20% increase/yr since the establishment of the National Organic Program (NOP). Restrictions on prophylactic antibiotics used for conventional poultry production raise unique challenges for organic produce...

  6. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    PubMed

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

  7. Accelerator-based trace element analysis of foods and agriculture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C.; Piña U, Cecilia; Solís, Corina; Mireles, Alibech

    2008-05-01

    An accelerator-based analytical method for measuring trace elements in foods and agricultural products was developed, optimized, validated and compared using reference standards. The method's initial phase is a new, rapid and effective digestion process of a small mass analyte in an aqueous media containing H2O2. Digestion is initiated by radicals formed in water with pulsed UV (PUV) induced (laser) photolysis, which rapidly react with organic matter. After digestion, trace metals are pre-concentrated as carbamates and deposited as thin targets onto Teflon filters. Conventional particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods are then used to analyze elements in the sample. When foods and other agricultural commodities (i.e., soils, feeds) are analyzed, the combined method named pulsed UV (PUV)/PIXE results in enhanced detection of trace elements such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb at ∼1 mg/kg (1 ppm) levels, without lengthy, acid-based digestions. It provides improvements in digestion kinetics and processing time enhancing analytical sensitivity and element recovery. Precision and recovery yields were confirmed with food reference standards. The analysis of edible foods from contaminated agricultural areas is also reported.

  8. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  9. Aerobic methane production from organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigano, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methane, together with H2O, CO2 and N2O, is an important greenhouse gas in th e Earth’s atmosphere playing a key role in the radiative budget. It has be en known for decades that the production of the reduced compound CH4 is possible almost exclusively in anoxic environments per opera of one of the most importan t class of microorganisms which form the Archaea reign. Methane can be produced also from incomplete combustion of organic material. The generation of CH4 in an oxygenated environment under near-ambient conditions is a new discovery made in 2006 by Keppler et. al where surprisingly they measured emissions of this green house gas from plants incubated in chambers with air containing 20% of oxygen. A lthough the estimates on a global scale are still object of an intensive debate, the results presented in this thesis clearly show the existence of methane prod uction under oxic conditions for non living plant material. Temperature and UV l ight are key factors that drive the generation of CH4 from plant matter in a wel l oxygenated environment.

  10. The Interstellar Production of Biologically Important Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Dworkin, Jason; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary tasks of the Astrochemistry Laboratory at Ames Research Center is to use laboratory simulations to study the chemical processes that occur in dense interstellar clouds. Since new stars are formed in these clouds, their materials may be responsible for the delivery of organics to new habitable planets and may play important roles in the origin of life. These clouds are extremely cold (less than 50 kelvin), and most of the volatiles in these clouds are condensed onto dust grains as thin ice mantles. These ices are exposed to cosmic rays and ultraviolet (UV) photons that break chemical bonds and result in the production of complex molecules when the ices are warmed (as they would be when incorporated into a star-forming region). Using cryovacuum systems and UV lamps, this study simulates the conditions of these clouds and studies the resulting chemistry. Some of the areas of progress made in 1999 are described below. It shows some of the types of molecules that may be formed in the interstellar medium. Laboratory simulations have already confirmed that many of these compounds are made under these conditions.

  11. Sources and transfer of organic matter in food webs of a Mediterranean coastal environment: Evidence for spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2006-02-01

    The spatial variability in the food web structure of a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal environment (Stagnone di Marsala, Italy) was investigated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Organic matter sources and consumers were sampled in two locations with different environmental features (e.g. hydrodynamic regime, open-sea influence, vegetal coverage). Overall more 13C-enriched and 15N-depleted values were found in the central location than in the southern for organic matter sources and consumers. Pelagic consumers (zooplankton and juveniles of transient fish) showed slight spatial differences and in both locations seemed to depend on phytoplankton as the ultimate energy source. In contrast, benthic consumers (epifauna and resident fish) exhibited remarkable differences between locations. Spatial differences in organic matter sources were smaller than in benthic consumers and thus consumers presumably exploited different ultimate organic matter sources in the two locations. Sedimentary organic matter and epiphytes appeared to be the main primary producers transferred within the food web in both locations, and seagrasses seemed to play a non-negligible trophic role in the central location. The results of this paper corroborate the finding food webs are characterised by high spatial variability even on a small spatial scale and environmental heterogeneity more than primary production that seems to influence the trophic role of autotrophs.

  12. Practice paper of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: principles of productivity in food and nutrition services: applications in the 21st century health care reform era.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, Mary B; Theis, Monica L

    2015-07-01

    Food and nutrition services, along with the health care organizations they serve, are becoming increasingly complex. These complexities are driven by sometimes conflicting (if not polarizing) human, department, organization, and environment factors and will require that managers shift how they think about and approach productivity in the context of the greater good of the organization and, perhaps, even society. Traditional, single-factor approaches to productivity measurements, while still valuable in the context of departmental trend analysis, are of limited value when assessing departmental performance in the context of an organization's goals and values. As health care continues to change and new models of care are introduced, food and nutrition services managers will need to consider innovative approaches to improve productivity that are consistent with their individual health care organization's vision and mission. Use of process improvement tools such as Lean and Six Sigma as strategies for evaluating and improving food and nutrition services efficiency should be considered.

  13. Knowledge and technologies for sustainable intensification of food production.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Richard

    2010-11-30

    Knowledge and technologies will always continue to be developed, as they have always, to bring new efficiencies to plant breeding and crop production, which suffer from many constraints and inefficiencies. These constraints need to be overcome throughout the world to help increase the rate of improvements in food production and intensify production on less land. The recent discoveries and technical innovations that are revealing the full complement of genes in crops, the ability to define genetic variation and use DNA markers to follow chromosome segments with known functions through breeding programmes are leading to new efficiencies in breeding. The ability to isolate and redesign genes and transfer them into different plants also offers the breeder solutions to several key limitations. These benefits are described together with some of the current issues associated with the use of transgenes. Generation after generation can look forward to new knowledge and technologies, many of which we cannot know at present, and thus there is no reason to be despondent about meeting future goals, if the right decisions and investments are made globally and locally. These decisions include putting optimal use of land at the top of the world agenda to sustain both the planet and an adequate quality of life for mankind. As always has been the case, more investments are urgently required into the dissemination of successful technologies in crop breeding and production, into teaching and training as well as into innovative research. Failure to invest adequately in innovative technologies will leave future decision-makers and citizens with fewer options and greatly enhance the risks for mankind and a healthy planet.

  14. Carotenoids and retinoids in Finnish foods: dairy products and eggs.

    PubMed

    Ollilainen, V; Heinonen, M; Linkola, E; Varo, P; Koivistoinen, P

    1989-09-01

    As part of an overall composition study of Finnish foods, the carotenoid and retinoid content of 20 dairy product samples and eggs were determined by HPLC. The total beta-carotene (all-trans beta-carotene plus 15-cis beta-carotene) was quantitated for dairy products. For egg and egg yolk, lutein content was also determined. Only traces of lycopene, cryptoxanthin, and alpha-carotene were present. All-trans retinol and 13-cis retinol were the major retinoids in dairy products. Small amounts of 9-cis, 11-cis, and 9,11-cis retinols were found. High values of both retinol and beta-carotene were found in full fat cheeses and whipping cream: from 179.0 (cheese, Edam-type) to 318.7 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) and from 86.7 (cheese, Edam-type) to 186.5 micrograms/100 g (whipping cream) for all-trans retinol and total beta-carotene, respectively. The retinol content averaged 16.3, 32.6, and 52.2 and that of beta-carotene 9.6, 16.7, and 3.0 micrograms/100 g in milk (1.9% fat), milk (3.9% fat), and human milk, respectively. The major pigment in eggs and egg yolk was lutein, 619.5 micrograms/100 g in eggs and 1575.8 micrograms/100 g in egg yolk. According to this study, at the present level of consumption in Finland, milk, milk products (excluding butter), and eggs result in a daily intake of about 350 retinol equivalents, and consequently, are a major source of vitamin A.

  15. Food safety for the solid organ transplant patient: preventing foodborne illness while on chronic immunosuppressive drugs.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Patricia A C

    2012-12-01

    Issues regarding food safety are seen increasingly in the news; outbreaks of foodborne illness have been associated with public health concerns ranging from mild illness to death. For the solid organ transplant patient, immunosuppressive and antibacterial drugs, which maintain transplant organ function, can expose the transplant patient to increased risk of foodborne illness from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This review article describes the clinical consequences, sources of foodborne illness, and food safety practices needed to minimize risks to the solid organ transplant patient who must take lifelong immunosuppressive drugs. All members of the transplant team share responsibility for education of the solid organ transplant patient in preventing infections. The registered dietitian, as part of the transplant team, is the recognized expert in providing food safety education in the context of medical nutrition therapy to solid organ transplant patients, the patients' caregivers, and other healthcare providers.

  16. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations.

  17. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  18. Potential of selected infant food formulas for production of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Ranad; Andersson, Maria A; Apetroaie, Camelia; Schulz, Anja; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Ollilainen, Veli-Matti; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2006-04-01

    Cereulide producing Bacillus cereus was isolated from randomly chosen commercial infant foods. The cereulide production in infant food formulas was investigated. When the reconstituted foods were inoculated with >10(5) cfu ml(-1) of cereulide producing B. cereus, 2 to 200 microg of cereulide per 100 ml of food accumulated during 24 h of non-refrigerated storage. The amount of cereulide measured in the foods by the accurate chemical assay (LC-MS) matched with that found by sperm micro assay, proving the cereulide was the sole heat stable toxin in the foods and present in its toxic form. The infant formulas containing both cereal and dairy ingredients were the most supportive for cereulide production. Cereulide accumulation was affected by the infant food composition as well as by the handling of the food. Diluting the reconstituted food with water resulted in increased toxin production expressed as mug per volume. More cereulide was accumulated when the food was incubated stationary compared with moderate shaking. The amount of cereulide accumulated within 24 h at room temperature per 100 ml of cereal and dairy or in rice-nondairy reconstituted infant formulas, inoculated with >or=10(5) cfu ml(-1) of B. cereus strain F4810/72, was higher or similar to the amounts reported for foods implicated in emetic type of food poisonings. Thus mishandling and temperature abuse of infant foods may cause food poisoning when emetic B. cereus is present.

  19. Organic acid blend with pure botanical product treatment reduces Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in pure culture and in in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of food animals and can be transmitted to humans via food or indirectly through animal or fecal contact. Organic acid blend products have been used as non-antibiotic modifiers of the gastrointestinal fermentation of food animals to impr...

  20. [Residual chemicals in silicone rubber products for food contact use].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Y; Nakajima, A; Mutsuga, M; Yamada, T; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    The residues of additives and other chemicals in 23 kinds of silicone rubber products for food contact use, including nipples, packing and spatulas, were investigated by GC/MS. The packing and spatulas contained 80-480 micrograms/g of BHT, 60-5,830 micrograms/g of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 60-80 micrograms/g of dibutyl phthalate, while the nipples contained no additives. All of the samples contained 15 to 20 peaks of polydimethylcyclosiloxanes. Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) to tetratriacomethylcycloheptadecasiloxane (D17) were confirmed, and other larger siloxanes up to pentacontamethylcyclopentacosasiloxane (D25) were estimated. A rough estimate of the total cyclosiloxane content was 3,310-14,690 micrograms/g. They might be mainly unreacted materials or by-products, and some of them might be additives. Based on the migration test, no chemicals were released into 20% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 30 min, though DEHP and the polydimethylcyclosiloxanes were released into n-heptane at 25 degrees C for 60 min.

  1. The Irish organic food market: shortfalls, opportunities and the need for research.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Rachel; Larkin, Tracey; Moane, Siobhan

    2011-09-01

    In 2009 the Irish organic food market was forecasted to grow from €120 m to €239 m by 2013; however, recent figures set its value at just €90 m. An estimated 70% of this market is imported. Surveys of Irish consumers reveal that 66% of consumers prefer to buy local produce and most organic consumers are buying organic at supermarkets. This evidence reveals that Irish producers must trade at supermarkets, and promote 'local produce' to ensure their produce reach the majority of buyers. Seventy-eight % of organic rejecters state price and 21% state unawareness of the benefits as reasons for not buying organic. Many Irish consumers are buying organic food on the perceived belief that it is healthier, safer and tastes better; however, a review of studies on organic versus conventional foods in terms of health benefits, safety and sensory quality has shown that existing data is limited in scope and fails to show a clear trend. The review concludes with the need for a comprehensive study of a range of organic and conventional foods available to the Irish consumer in order to determine if differences in organic cultivation result in statistically significant differences in health linked compounds and sensory quality.

  2. Product Quality Assurance Project for Teaching of Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the challenges in teaching Food Analysis are bringing relevance to the various chemical and physical analyses discussed and exposing students to the realities of quality assurance in the food industry. In a project to help meet those objectives, each student, with the assistance of a "resource person" from the food industry, completes the…

  3. Vitamins A and C, calcium, fruit, and dairy products are limited in food pantries.

    PubMed

    Akobundu, Ucheoma O; Cohen, Nancy L; Laus, Mary J; Schulte, Marsha J; Soussloff, Margaret N

    2004-05-01

    Food pantries serve over 19 million Americans, yet little is known about the nutritional quality of foods distributed in pantry bags. Foods in bags from 133 clients from 19 pantry sites were itemized, and a mean site value for nutrient and food group content was calculated. If an individual consumed the pantry foods according to the Food Guide Pyramid, the bag would contain sufficient bread group foods to last approximately 7 days; vegetable and meat/protein group foods would last about 5 days, and fruit and milk group foods would last only approximately 3 days. Foods distributed were of adequate or high nutrient density for protein, fiber, iron, and folate, but were of low nutrient density for calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Creative efforts are needed for pantries to procure, store, and distribute additional fruit, dairy products, and other sources of vitamins A and C and calcium.

  4. Safety assessment and public concern for genetically modified food products: the European view.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Bevan E B

    2002-01-01

    The safety assessment for marketing purposes of genetically modified (GM) foods in the 15 Member States of the European Union (EU) is based on the Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulation adopted in May 1997. Before a GM food can be approved under the Regulation, it must satisfy three criteria: Gm food must be safe, it must not mislead the consumer and it must be nutritionally adequate. The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published a set of guidelines describing the type of information expected from a company in support of an application for approval of a GM food or food ingredient. Despite this rigorous procedure and there being no evidence of harm resulting from the consumption of GM foods worldwide, there is essentially no market in the EU for such products at present. Possible reasons for this are discussed and the view put forward that the market for GM foods will change only when there are more clearly perceived consumer benefits.

  5. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities. PMID:27832118

  6. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing a specific food product weighted on their fitness). Our results show that, on average, countries with high fitness produce both low and high specializion food commodities, whereas nations with low fitness tend to produce a small basket of diverse food products, typically comprised of low specializion food commodities.

  7. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  8. Consumers' perception of organic product characteristics. A review.

    PubMed

    Schleenbecker, Rosa; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Consumer interest in organic products is growing alongside a diversification of the supply. In order to serve consumers actual needs and wants regarding organic products, those involved in the market need to be informed about consumers' perception of organic products. Therefore, the state of research as regards consumers' perception of organic product characteristics, including basic and additional characteristics, product labelling, product innovations and the range of products on the market is displayed in this contribution. A comprehensive literature analysis was performed uncovering not only the state of the art in the field including employed methodology, but also research needs. Most studies are published on consumers' perception of organic products' design and labelling. A trend towards the so called 'organic-plus' positioning can be perceived, with many consumers expecting an extensive orientation towards sustainability. The diversity of product labels features prominently in related studies. The demand for reliable information, as well as the low degree of awareness of many labels amongst consumers becomes clear in these studies. To date, few results are available on consumers' perception of packaging and design of organic products, and even fewer for consumers' perception of range design. Both consumers' perception of organic product innovation and valued added services are untouched so far.

  9. Molecular comparisons for identification of food spoilage yeasts and prediction of species that may develop in different food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spoilage of foods and beverages by yeasts is often characterized by objectionable odors, appearance, taste, texture or build-up of gas in packaging containers, resulting in loss of the product. Seldom is human health compromised by products spoiled by yeasts even though some spoilage is caused by sp...

  10. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 18-34. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 17 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are hand cutlery, breakfast items, grain products, vegetables, salad dressing, meats, stock, soups, sauces, garnishes,…

  11. Food Service Worker. Instructional Modules for Food Management, Production and Services. Modules 35-52. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    These 18 teacher modules are part of a curriculum dealing with food management, production, and services that was developed for use in secondary and postsecondary vocational programs in Tennessee. Covered in the individual modules are quickbreads, pies, icings and toppings, specialty cakes, specialty desserts, yeast products, cream puff and puff…

  12. Water and its role in food and health security--the importance of water to food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    Water is vital to food production: every calorie of plant food requires at least one litre of water, while one calorie of meat or dairy product can require up to 10 litres of water. Water is supplied either through rainfall or through irrigation. Irrigated agriculture uses 18 per cent of agricultural land, and produces 40 per cent of agricultural products. But urbanisation, agricultural land degradation, the mandating of biofuels, drought and climate change are reducing the amount of water available to agriculture. The green revolution of last century doubled cereal production with only a very small increase in land. This century we need a blue revolution, a dramatic increase in the amount of food produced from irrigation or blue water. The blue revolution must be based on knowledge, with that knowledge accessible, and useful, to farmers in both the developed and developing world.

  13. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2011-11-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, because of the land specialisation of agriculture made possible by the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, the Seine watershed, although it exports 80% of its huge cereal production, still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration. The meat and milk supply originate, however, mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  14. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  15. [Methods of identification and assessment of safety of genetically modified microorganisms in manufacture food production].

    PubMed

    Khovaev, A A; Nesterenko, L N; Naroditskiĭ, B S

    2011-01-01

    Methods of identification of genetically modified microorganisms (GMM), used in manufacture food on control probes are presented. Results of microbiological and molecular and genetic analyses of food products and their components important in microbiological and genetic expert examination of GMM in foods are considered. Examination of biosafety of GMM are indicated.

  16. Appropriate Technology, Energy and Food Production in an Industrial Arts Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytlik, Edward; Scanlin, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    With modern agriculture, the growing, processing, packaging, and distribution of food fit well into an industrial arts curriculum. Many areas of this system need closer attention: the high cost of energy in food production, the problems of land preparation, fertilizers, irrigation, food processing, and agriculture in an industrial arts curriculum.…

  17. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... facility may: (1) Use its VISN QPL; and (2) Test food of its choice, provided that the facility submits... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and...

  18. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys.

  19. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed.

  20. [Evaluation of the inclusion of organic food from family-based agriculture in school food in municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fernanda; Fernandes, Patrícia Fogaça; Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Organic food enables the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety (FNS) and sustainable regional development. In this context, the National School Food Program (NSFD) seeks to comply with the requirements of FNS. This study evaluated the inclusion of organic food in school food in the municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul by means of interviews with local managers. Eight territories were visited, albeit of its 153 municipalities only 102 comprised the sample for this study. Of these, 20.58% said they buy organic produce from family farms. The Center South Territory revealed the highest percentage of purchase, in which 40% of the municipalities visited purchased organic produce, followed by the Center Mountain Territory with 33.3%, while the lowest percentage was 7.1% in the Countryside Territory. The study identified the need for intersectoral action to develop organic production, as well as stimulate the consumption of these foods in the school environment, in order to meet the requirements of FNS.