Science.gov

Sample records for organic medium passivation

  1. Sampling medium side resistance to uptake of semivolatile organic compounds in passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Nakano, Takeshi; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

    2011-12-15

    Current theory of the uptake of semivolatile organic compounds in passive air samplers (PAS) assumes uniform chemical distribution and no kinetic resistance within the passive sampling media (PSM) such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD) and polyurethane foam (PUF). However, these assumptions have not been tested experimentally and are challenged by some recently reported observations. To test the assumptions, we performed kinetic uptake experiments indoors using cylindrical PSM that had been concentrically segmented into three layers. Both XAD and PUF were positioned in the same type of sampler housing to eliminate the variation caused by the different housing designs, which enabled us to quantify differences in uptake caused by the properties of the PSM. Duplicated XAD (PUF) samples were retrieved after being deployed for 0, 1 (0.5), 2 (1), 4 (2), 8 (4), 12 (8), and 24 (12) weeks. Upon retrieval, the PSM layers were separated and analyzed individually for PCBs. Passive sampling rates (R) were lower for heavier PCB homologues. Within a homologue group, R for XAD was higher than that for PUF, from which we infer that the design of the "cylindrical can" housing typically used for XAD PAS lowers the R compared to the "double bowl" shelter commonly used for PUF-disk PAS. Outer layers of the PSM sequestered much higher levels of PCBs than inner layers, indicative of a kinetic resistance to chemical transfer within the PSM. The effective diffusivities for chemical transfer within PSM were derived and were found negatively correlated with the partition coefficients between the PSM and air. Based on the results, we conclude that the PSM-side kinetic resistance should be considered when investigating factors influencing R and when deriving R based on the loss of depuration compounds.

  2. Determining Passive Sampler Partition Coefficients for Dissolved-phase Organic Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are used for environmental and analytical purposes to measure dissolved nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) by absorption from a contaminated medium into a clean phase, usually in the form of a synthetic organic film. Recently developed passive sampler techniqu...

  3. Determining Passive Sampler Partition Coefficients for Dissolved-phase Organic Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are used for environmental and analytical purposes to measure dissolved nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) by absorption from a contaminated medium into a clean phase, usually in the form of a synthetic organic film. Recently developed passive sampler techniqu...

  4. The passive-aggressive organization.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  5. Phase Segregation of Passive Advective Particles in an Active Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Amit; Polley, Anirban; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-01

    Localized contractile configurations or asters spontaneously appear and disappear as emergent structures in the collective stochastic dynamics of active polar actomyosin filaments. Passive particles which (un)bind to the active filaments get advected into the asters, forming transient clusters. We study the phase segregation of such passive advective scalars in a medium of dynamic asters, as a function of the aster density and the ratio of the rates of aster remodeling to particle diffusion. The dynamics of coarsening shows a violation of Porod behavior; the growing domains have diffuse interfaces and low interfacial tension. The phase-segregated steady state shows strong macroscopic fluctuations characterized by multiscaling and intermittency, signifying rapid reorganization of macroscopic structures. We expect these unique nonequilibrium features to manifest in the actin-dependent molecular clustering at the cell surface.

  6. Passive imaging with cross correlations in a discrete random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso, M.; Papanicolaou, G.; Sun, R.-H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the potential and limitations of cross-correlation techniques using numerical simulations, and in particular, we intend to show (i) an estimate of the Green's function in different configurations and (ii) results for passive imaging. This problem seems especially interesting in seismology, nondestructive testing, structure health monitoring, and wireless sensor networks. To compute cross correlations of the impulse signals collected by the receivers, we consider scattering by discrete scatterers to generate impluse responses with targets and without targets. We compute the difference of the cross correlations with targets and the cross correlations without targets to estimate the backpropagator (Green's function) in the Kirchhoff migration functional. The migration functional is essential to compute images of targets. We run numerical simulations for different configurations to explore the limitations of this cross correlation methodology from the results of passive imaging.

  7. Passive Multipath Target Tracking in an Inhomogeneous Acoustic Medium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    107 (1) Time Delay ...... .................. .. 106 (2) Lack of Closed Form Solution - the Eigenray Problem...D: DELAY ESTIMATION ERRORS ............. .201 APPENDIX E: DETAILED DATA DEFINITION AND SELECTION 208 APPENDIX F: THE EIGENRAY ACOUSTIC MODEL...3.5 Ideal TDOA surface (Ullll) ..... ............... .. 116 Fig. 3.6 Modified TDOA surface, homogeneous medium (S1111) . . . 118 Fig. 3.7 Modified

  8. GABA interaction with lipids in organic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Beltramo, D.; Kivatinitz, S.; Lassaga, E.; Arce, A.

    1987-08-10

    The interaction of TH-GABA and UC-glutamate with lipids in an aqueous organic partition system was studied. With this partition system TH-GABA and UC-glutamate were able to interact with sphingomyelin, sulfatide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid but not with cholesterol or ceramide. In an homogeneous aqueous medium the authors could not demonstrate any interaction between TH-GABA-lipids. The apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) for TH-GABA-lipids or UC-glutamate-lipids interactions inorganic medium were in the millimolar range and maximal charge between 3 and 7 moles of GABA or glutamate by mole of lipid. Amino acids such as glutamic acid, US -alanine and glycine displaced TH-GABA with the same potency as GABA itself; thus these results show that the interaction lacks pharmacological specificity. To detect this interaction lipid concentrations higher than 2 M were required and in the partition system TH-GABA and lipid phosphorus were both concentrated at the interface. Therefore, lipids tested with a biphasic partition system do not fulfill the classical criteria for a neurotransmitter receptor at least not for GABA and glutamate. 15 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  9. Scaling laws of passive-scalar diffusion in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbrook, Matthew J.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Squire, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Passive-scalar mixing (metals, molecules, etc.) in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) is critical for abundance patterns of stars and clusters, galaxy and star formation, and cooling from the circumgalactic medium. However, the fundamental scaling laws remain poorly understood in the highly supersonic, magnetized, shearing regime relevant for the ISM. We therefore study the full scaling laws governing passive-scalar transport in idealized simulations of supersonic turbulence. Using simple phenomenological arguments for the variation of diffusivity with scale based on Richardson diffusion, we propose a simple fractional diffusion equation to describe the turbulent advection of an initial passive scalar distribution. These predictions agree well with the measurements from simulations, and vary with turbulent Mach number in the expected manner, remaining valid even in the presence of a large-scale shear flow (e.g. rotation in a galactic disc). The evolution of the scalar distribution is not the same as obtained using simple, constant 'effective diffusivity' as in Smagorinsky models, because the scale dependence of turbulent transport means an initially Gaussian distribution quickly develops highly non-Gaussian tails. We also emphasize that these are mean scalings that apply only to ensemble behaviours (assuming many different, random scalar injection sites): individual Lagrangian 'patches' remain coherent (poorly mixed) and simply advect for a large number of turbulent flow-crossing times.

  10. Fluid-particle dynamics for passive tracers advected by a thermally fluctuating viscoelastic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Christel; McKinley, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    Many biological fluids, like mucus and cytoplasm, have prominent viscoelastic properties. As a consequence, immersed particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior, which is to say, the variance of the particle displacement grows sublinearly with time. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic generalization of the Landau-Lifschitz Navier-Stokes fluid model and investigate the properties of particles that are passively advected by such a medium. We exploit certain exact formulations that arise from the Gaussian nature of the fluid model and introduce analysis of memory in the fluid statistics, marking an important step toward capturing fluctuating hydrodynamics among subdiffusive particles. The proposed method is spectral, meshless and is based on the numerical evaluation of the covariance matrix associated with individual fluid modes. With this method, we probe a central hypothesis of passive microrheology, a field premised on the idea that the statistics of particle trajectories can reveal fundamental information about their surrounding fluid environment.

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation..

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation wer...

  12. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulat...

  13. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulat...

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation..

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation wer...

  15. Slow passive diffusion of NAD+ between intact isolated plant mitochondria and suspending medium.

    PubMed

    Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1983-11-15

    Isolated potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria purified by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of Percoll were found to be highly intact, to be devoid of extramitochondrial contaminations and to retain a high rate of O2 consumption. When suspended in a medium that avoided rupture of the outer membrane, intact purified mitochondria progressively lost their NAD+ content by passive diffusion. This led to a slow decrease of oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by isolated mitochondria. Addition of NAD+ to the medium restored the initial State-3 rate of oxoglutarate oxidation. The rate of NAD+ accumulation in the matrix space was concentration-dependent, exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was strongly inhibited by the analogue N-4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-4-aminobutyryl-NAD+.

  16. Slow passive diffusion of NAD+ between intact isolated plant mitochondria and suspending medium.

    PubMed Central

    Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1983-01-01

    Isolated potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria purified by isopycnic centrifugation in density gradients of Percoll were found to be highly intact, to be devoid of extramitochondrial contaminations and to retain a high rate of O2 consumption. When suspended in a medium that avoided rupture of the outer membrane, intact purified mitochondria progressively lost their NAD+ content by passive diffusion. This led to a slow decrease of oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by isolated mitochondria. Addition of NAD+ to the medium restored the initial State-3 rate of oxoglutarate oxidation. The rate of NAD+ accumulation in the matrix space was concentration-dependent, exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was strongly inhibited by the analogue N-4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-4-aminobutyryl-NAD+. PMID:6661207

  17. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  18. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  19. a Thermally Desorbable Miniature Passive Dosimeter for Organic Vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Jesus Antonio

    A thermally desorbable miniature passive dosimeter (MPD) for organic vapors has been developed in conformity with theoretical and practical aspects of passive dosimeter design. The device was optimized for low sample loadings resulting from short-term and/or low concentration level exposure. This was accomplished by the use of thermal desorption rather than solvent elution, which provided the GC method with significantly higher sensitivity. Laboratory evaluation of this device for factors critical to the performance of passive dosimeters using benzene as the test vapor included: desorption efficiency (97.2%), capacity (1400 ppm-min), sensitivity (7ng/sample or 0.06 ppmv for 15 minutes sampling) accuracy and precision, concentration level, environmental conditions (i.e., air face velocity, relative humidity) and sample stability during short (15 minutes) and long periods of time (15 days). This device has demonstrated that its overall accuracy meets NIOSH and OSHA requirements for a sampling and analytical method for the exposure concentration range of 0.1 to 50 ppm (v/v) and 15 minutes exposures. It was demonstrated that the MPD operates in accordance with theoretically predicted performance and should be adequate for short-term and/or low concentration exposure monitoring of organic vapors in the workplace. In addition a dynamic vapor exposure evaluation system for passive dosimeters have been validated using benzene as the test vapor. The system is capable of generating well defined short-square wave concentration profiles suitable for the evaluation of passive dosimeters for ceiling exposure monitoring.

  20. Characterization and comparison of three passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-10-01

    The accumulation of persistent organic pollutants by three passive sampling media--semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), polyurethane foam (PUF) disks, and an organic-rich soil--was investigated. The media were exposed to contaminated indoor air over a period of 450 days, and concentrations in the air and in the media were monitored for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and polychlorinated naphthalene homologue groups. Uptake was initially linear and governed by the surface area of the sampler and the boundary layer airside mass transfer coefficient (MTC). Mean values of the MTC were 0.13, 0.11, and 0.26 cm s-1 for SPMD, PUF, and soil, respectively. As the study progressed, equilibrium was established between ambient air and the passive sampling media for the lower molecular weight PCB congeners. This information was used to calculate passive sampler-air partition coefficients, KPSM-A. These were correlated to the octanol-air partition coefficient, and the resulting regressions were used to predict KPSM-A for the full suite of PCBs. Information on MTC, KPSM-A, surface area, and effective thickness of each sampler was used to estimate times to equilibrium for each medium. These ranged from tens of days for the lower molecular weight congeners to tens of years for the higher molecular weight PCBs. Expressions were also developed to relate the amount of chemical accumulated by the passive sampling media to average ambient air concentrations over the integration period of the sample.

  1. Performance bounds for passive sensor arrays operating in a turbulent medium: Spherical-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S. L.; Wilson, D. K.

    2004-08-01

    The Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the angle-of-arrival estimates for a spherical wave incident on a passive acoustic array are investigated for propagation through a turbulent medium with fluctuations described by a von Kármán spectrum. A single monochromatic source and a line-of-sight propagation path are assumed. The propagation distance, turbulence parameters (characteristic length scale and index-of-refraction variance), phase of the source, and signal-to-noise ratio are also included in the unknown parameter set. The Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the angle-of-arrival estimates are affected by the addition of the propagation distance and source phase as unknowns, and are not affected by the addition of the turbulence parameters and signal-to-noise ratio as unknowns.

  2. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  3. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  4. Dynamic exposure of organisms and passive samplers to hydrophobic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Buffle, Jacques; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-04-01

    An insight into the dynamic aspects of the accumulation process is essential for understanding bioaccumulation as well as effect studies of hydrophobic organic chemicals. This review presents an overview of kinetic studies with organisms (fish, bivalve, crustacean, insect, worm, algae, and protozoan) as well as passive samplers (solid and liquid phase microextraction, semipermeable membrane device, polymer sheet, solid-phase extraction, Chemcatcher, etc.) for the uptake of neutral nonpolar chemicals from the aqueous phase. Information about uptake rates, elimination rates, and 95% equilibration times was collected and analyzed with diffusion based models. The present literature review suggests that the surface to volume ratio appears to be a critical parameter for the uptake rate of the more hydrophobic chemicals both for samplers and organisms. In addition, as a very first approximation, the combination of the first-order kinetic model with the assumption that diffusion through the aqueous boundary layers is rate limiting, gives a reasonable description of the experimental kinetic data. In this way, the presented model might be used to estimate uptake and elimination rate constants of chemicals by organisms or passive samplers.

  5. Performance bounds for passive sensor arrays operating in a turbulent medium: Plane-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, S. L.; Wilson, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    The performance bounds of a passive acoustic array operating in a turbulent medium with fluctuations described by a von Kármán spectrum are investigated. This treatment considers a single, monochromatic, plane-wave source at near-normal incidence. A line-of-sight propagation path is assumed. The primary interests are in calculating the Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the azimuthal and elevational angles of arrival and in observing how these bounds change with the introduction of additional unknowns, such as the propagation distance, turbulence parameters, and signal-to-noise ratio. In both two and three dimensions, it is found that for large values of the index-of-refraction variance, the Cramer-Rao lower bounds of the angles of arrival increase significantly at large values of the normalized propagation distance. For small values of the index-of-refraction variance and normalized propagation distance, the signal-to-noise ratio is found to be the limiting factor. In the two-dimensional treatment, it is found that the estimate of the angle of arrival will decouple from the estimates of the other parameters with the appropriate choice of array geometry. In three dimensions, again with an appropriate choice of array geometry, the estimates of the azimuth and elevation will decouple from the estimates of the other parameters, but due to the constraints of the model, will remain coupled to one another.

  6. Cost effective passive sampling device for volatile organic compounds monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thammakhet, Chongdee; Muneesawang, Vilailuk; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    A laboratory-built passive sampler was developed as a simple and cost effective device for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX). Common glass bottles (screw cap, 10 ml, 67.6×10.6 mm ID), packed with 75 mg of activated Tenax TA, were used as passive samplers. After exposed to real sample, the adsorbent was desorbed using a laboratory-built thermal desorption device. The analytes were purged to fill a sampling loop and then injected by a gas sampling valve to a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (FID). All parameters, i.e. , desorption time, purge flow rate, gas chromatograph conditions were optimized to obtain high sensitivity, resolution and short analysis time. The system was calibrated by BTX standard gas and the linear regression coefficient of greater than 0.99 was obtained with detection limits 0.3, 0.2 and 0.7 μg m -3 for benzene, toluene and xylene, respectively. The proposed method was implemented for the monitoring of BTX at 10 gasoline stations in Hat Yai, Thailand. The concentrations were found in the range of N.D.-19, 12-200 and 23-200 μg m -3 for benzene, toluene and xylene, respectively.

  7. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  8. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation (IPSW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) as it relates to organism bioaccumulation in the water column and interstitial water. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive samplers and organism bioaccumulation were used to measur...

  9. The Interstellar Medium and Feedback in the Progenitors of the Compact Passive Galaxies at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Pentericci, Laura; Bell, Eric F.; Castellano, Marco; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Grogin, Norman; Kocevski, Dale; Koo, David C.; Lucas, Ray A.; Ravindranath, Swara; Santini, Paola; Vanzella, Eros; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2015-02-01

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ~ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ~ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high ΣSFR. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ~ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  10. Passive dosing versus solvent spiking for controlling and maintaining hydrophobic organic compound exposure in the Microtox® assay.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kilian E C; Jeong, Yoonah; Kim, Jongwoon

    2015-11-01

    Microbial toxicity bioassays such as the Microtox® test are ubiquitously applied to measure the toxicity of chemicals and environmental samples. In many ways their operation is conducive to the testing of organic chemicals. They are of short duration, use glass cuvettes and take place at reduced temperatures in medium lacking sorbing components. All of these are expected to reduce sorptive and volatile losses, but particularly for hydrophobic organics the role of such losses in determining the bioassay response remains unclear. This study determined the response of the Microtox® test when using solvent spiking compared to passive dosing for introducing the model hydrophobic compounds acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. Compared to solvent spiking, the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test with passive dosing was 3.4 and 12.4 times higher for acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively. Furthermore, fluoranthene only gave a consistent response with passive dosing. Benzo(a)pyrene did not result in a response with either spiking or passive dosing even at aqueous solubility. Such differences in the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test can be traced back to the precise definition of the dissolved exposure concentrations and the buffering of losses with passive dosing. This highlights the importance of exposure control even in simple and short-term microbial bioassays such as the Microtox® test.

  11. Actively Shaken In Situ Passive Sampler Platform for Methylmercury and Organics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    FINAL REPORT Actively Shaken In-Situ Passive Sampler Platform for Methylmercury and Organics SERDP Project ER-2540 FEBRUARY 2016 Upal Ghosh...dioxins and furans. 4) Field testing of the sampler platform along with traditional deployment of passive samplers. 4 This research also laid...passive equilibrium samplers for methylmercury. The ultimate goal is to develop an in situ, actively shaken deployment platform that can accommodate

  12. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Abigail S; Portis, Lisa M; Parks, Ashley N; Burgess, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in log-log predictive relationships, most of which were within one to 2 orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r(2)) for LDPE, PDMS, and POM were 0.68, 0.76, and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw, untransformed data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Using passive sampling as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation is viable when biomonitoring organisms are not available. Passive sampling based estimates of bioaccumulation provide useful information for making informed decisions about the bioavailability of HOCs.

  13. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity-Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing an intracavity dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noiselimited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantumnoise- limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of noninteracting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  14. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOEpatents

    Vermeulen, Theodore; Grens, II, Edward A.; Holten, Ronald R.

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  15. Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This talk will review the various types of organic materials observed in different environments in the interstellar medium, discuss the processes by which these materials may have formed and been modified, and present the evidence supporting the contention that at least a fraction of this material survived incorporation, substantially unaltered, into our Solar System during its formation. The nature of this organic material is of direct interest to issues associated with the origin of life, both because this material represents a large fraction of the Solar System inventory of the biogenically-important elements, and because many of the compounds in this inventory have biogenic implications. Several specific examples of such molecules will be briefly discussed.

  16. Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This talk will review the various types of organic materials observed in different environments in the interstellar medium, discuss the processes by which these materials may have formed and been modified, and present the evidence supporting the contention that at least a fraction of this material survived incorporation, substantially unaltered, into our Solar System during its formation. The nature of this organic material is of direct interest to issues associated with the origin of life, both because this material represents a large fraction of the Solar System inventory of the biogenically-important elements, and because many of the compounds in this inventory have biogenic implications. Several specific examples of such molecules will be briefly discussed.

  17. Self Organization in the Solar Corona and Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Self-organization can be defined as the process by which a physical system, in the course of its evolution, changes its spatial structure, the form of its equations of motions, or key coefficients in those equations. Paradigmatic examples are chemical reactions of the reaction-diffusion type, and biological systems. I discuss astrophysical processes where similar sorts of dynamics may be occurring. The first example is Joule heating of the solar corona. A major problem in astrophysics is the physical mechanism or mechanisms responsible for heating the solar corona to 1-2 million K. Coronal heating by turbulent current sheets is negligible if a standard expression for the resistivity of a plasma is used, but as the current sheets evolve, they develop progressively higher current densities. These high current densities can enhance the resistivity via plasma instabilities, and make Joule heating a more effective process. The second example is from the interstellar medium. The formation of massive stars leads to processes which compress the nearby interstellar medium, making star formation a more efficient process. Similarities and differences with better studied systems exhibiting self organization will be discussed.

  18. Inverse Problem Optimization Method to Design Passive Samplers for Volatile Organic Compounds: Principle and Application.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Du, Zhengjian; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Xinxiao; Xu, Qiujian; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-12-20

    Passive sampling is an alternative to active sampling for measuring concentrations of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the uncertainty or relative error of the measurements have not been minimized due to the limitations of existing design methods. In this paper, we have developed a novel method, the inverse problem optimization method, to address the problems associated with designing accurate passive samplers. The principle is to determine the most appropriate physical properties of the materials, and the optimal geometry of a passive sampler, by minimizing the relative sampling error based on the mass transfer model of VOCs for a passive sampler. As an example application, we used our proposed method to optimize radial passive samplers for the sampling of benzene and formaldehyde in a normal indoor environment. A new passive sampler, which we have called the Tsinghua Passive Diffusive Sampler (THPDS), for indoor benzene measurement was developed according to the optimized results. Silica zeolite was selected as the sorbent for the THPDS. The measured overall uncertainty of THPDS (22% for benzene) is lower than that of most commercially available passive samplers but is quite a bit larger than the modeled uncertainty (4.8% for benzene, the optimized result), suggesting that further research is required.

  19. Quantum-Noise-Limited Sensitivity Enhancement of a Passive Optical Cavity by a Fast-Light Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Luckay, H. A.; Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for a passive optical cavity containing a dispersive atomic medium, the increase in scale factor near the critical anomalous dispersion is not cancelled by mode broadening or attenuation, resulting in an overall increase in the predicted quantum-noise-limited sensitivity. Enhancements of over two orders of magnitude are measured in the scale factor, which translates to greater than an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the predicted quantum-noise-limited measurement precision, by temperature tuning a low-pressure vapor of non-interacting atoms in a low-finesse cavity close to the critical anomalous dispersion condition. The predicted enhancement in sensitivity is confirmed through Monte-Carlo numerical simulations.

  20. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M; Mayer, Philipp; Roberts, Cindy A; Ahrens, Lutz; Allan, Ian J; Brant, Jan; Jones, Lisa; Kraus, Uta R; Larsen, Martin M; Lepom, Peter; Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Roose, Patrick; Schäfer, Sabine; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Vorkamp, Katrin; Whitehouse, Paul

    2016-01-05

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.

  1. Passivity and breakdown of carbon steel in organic solvent mixtures of propylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane

    SciTech Connect

    Shifler, D.A.; Kruger, J.; Moran, P.J.

    1998-07-01

    The passivity and breakdown of passivity of 1018 carbon steel in propylene carbonate (PC) and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) mixtures with 0.5 molar lithium hexafluoroarsenate supporting electrolyte were examined via several electrochemical and surface analytical methods. The PC-DME/0.5 M LiAsF{sub 6} mixtures ranged from 10 to 90 mol % PC. The results from the PC/DME mixtures were compared to passivating mechanisms found in pure PC and DME solutions. In PC-rich mixtures, the breakdown of passivity occurred near the oxidation potentials of either organic solvent. Premature breakdown of the carbon steel in PC-DME mixtures occurred at sulfide inclusions as was observed earlier in PC/0.5 M LiAsF{sub 6} solutions although passive films attempted to form at these inclusion sites in mixtures containing at least 10 mol % DME. As the DME content increased in the PC-DME mixtures, the passive films formed on bare steel surfaces possessed an increasing polymer film character. In 50 and 70 mol % DME solutions nonprotective polymer films were formed. The nonprotective nature of these films indicated that PC passivation mechanisms competed and interfered with the DME mechanism of electropolymerized film formation. Only in 10 mol % PC-90 mol % DME mixtures were protective electropolymerized films formed on 1018 carbon steel.

  2. The effects of water on the passive behavior of 1018 carbon steel in organic solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shifler, D.A.; Kruger, J. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Moran, P.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The passivation and breakdown behavior of 1018 carbon steel in propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethoxyethane (DME) mixtures with water and containing 0.5M LiAsF[sub 6] were studied. The behavior of the steel in the organic solvent/water mixtures was highly dependent on the organic solvent. The anodic polarization of carbon steel displayed active-passive behavior in 10--90 mole percent (m/o) PC/H[sub 2]O mixtures and a tenuous degree of stability within the passive range. The anodic polarization of carbon steel displayed no active-passive behavior in 50--90 m/o DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures and displayed active-passive behavior in 10--30 m/o DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures. The steel was stable within the passive range of these DME/H[sub 2]O solutions. The breakdown potential of the steel in DME/H[sub 2]O mixtures is more electropositive than the oxidation potential of the DME solvent at all molar ratios.

  3. Identification of the Permeability Field of Porous Medium from the Injection of Passive Tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Lang; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1999-10-18

    In this paper, a method was proposed which focused on the question, namely on how to invert data on arrival times at various (and numerous) points in the porous medium to map the permeability field. The method, elements of which were briefly described in (9), is based on a direct inversion of the data, as will be described below , rather than on the optimization of initial random (or partly constrained) guesses of the permeability field, to match the available data, as typically done in the analogous problem of pressure transients. The direct inversion is based on two conditions, that Darcy's law for single-phase flow in porous media is valid, and that dispersion of the concentration of the injected tracer is negligible. While the former is a well-accepted premise, the latter depends on injection and field conditions, and may not necessarily apply in all cases. Based on these conditions, we formulate a nonlinear boundary value problem, the coefficients of which depend on the experimental arrival time data.

  4. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  5. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

  6. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

  7. Spatial analysis of volatile organic compounds in South Philadelphia using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery and related operations in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, using passive air sampling and laboratory analysis methods. Two-week, time-integrated samplers were deployed at 17 sites...

  8. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  9. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  10. Spatial analysis of volatile organic compounds in South Philadelphia using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery and related operations in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, using passive air sampling and laboratory analysis methods. Two-week, time-integrated samplers were deployed at 17 sites...

  11. A passive satellite deorbiting strategy for medium earth orbit using solar radiation pressure and the J2 effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücking, Charlotte; Colombo, Camilla; McInnes, Colin R.

    2012-08-01

    The growing population of space debris poses a serious risk to the future of space flight. To effectively manage the increase of debris in orbit, end-of life disposal has become a key requirement for future missions. This poses a challenge for Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) spacecraft which require a large Δv to re-enter the atmosphere or reach the geostationary graveyard orbit. This paper further explores a passive strategy based on the joint effects of solar radiation pressure and the Earth's oblateness acting on a high area-to-mass-ratio object. The concept was previously presented as an analytical planar model. This paper uses a full 3D model to validate the analytical results numerically for equatorial circular orbits first, then investigating higher inclinations. It is shown that for higher inclinations the initial position of the Sun and right ascension of the ascending node become increasingly important. A region of very low required area-to-mass-ratio is identified in the parameter space of semi-major axis and inclination which occurs for altitudes below 10,000 km.

  12. Passive drift or active swimming in marine organisms?

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkin, Rick; Sacco, Alexander E.; Mansfield, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of organismal movements in a fluid require knowing the fluid's velocity and potential contributions of the organism's behaviour (e.g. swimming or flying). While theoretical aspects of this work are reasonably well-developed, field-based validation is challenging. A much-needed study recently published by Briscoe and colleagues in Proceedings of the Royal Society B compared movements and distribution of satellite-tracked juvenile sea turtles to virtual particles released in a data-assimilating hindcast ocean circulation model. Substantial differences observed between turtles and particles were considered evidence for an important role of active swimming by turtles. However, the experimental design implicitly assumed that transport predictions were insensitive to (i) start location, (ii) tracking duration, (iii) depth, and (iv) physical processes not depicted in the model. Here, we show that the magnitude of variation in physical parameters between turtles and virtual particles can profoundly alter transport predictions, potentially sufficient to explain the reported differences without evoking swimming behaviour. We present a more robust method to derive the environmental contributions to individual movements, but caution that resolving the ocean velocities experienced by individual organisms remains a problem for assessing the role of behaviour in organismal movements and population distributions. PMID:27974518

  13. Passive drift or active swimming in marine organisms?

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Lumpkin, Rick; Sacco, Alexander E; Mansfield, Katherine L

    2016-12-14

    Predictions of organismal movements in a fluid require knowing the fluid's velocity and potential contributions of the organism's behaviour (e.g. swimming or flying). While theoretical aspects of this work are reasonably well-developed, field-based validation is challenging. A much-needed study recently published by Briscoe and colleagues in Proceedings of the Royal Society B compared movements and distribution of satellite-tracked juvenile sea turtles to virtual particles released in a data-assimilating hindcast ocean circulation model. Substantial differences observed between turtles and particles were considered evidence for an important role of active swimming by turtles. However, the experimental design implicitly assumed that transport predictions were insensitive to (i) start location, (ii) tracking duration, (iii) depth, and (iv) physical processes not depicted in the model. Here, we show that the magnitude of variation in physical parameters between turtles and virtual particles can profoundly alter transport predictions, potentially sufficient to explain the reported differences without evoking swimming behaviour. We present a more robust method to derive the environmental contributions to individual movements, but caution that resolving the ocean velocities experienced by individual organisms remains a problem for assessing the role of behaviour in organismal movements and population distributions. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Passive micromixers and organic electrochemical transistors for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakamedala, Senaka Krishna

    Fluid handling at the microscale has greatly affected different fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, biochemical engineering and environmental monitoring due to its reduced reagent consumption, portability, high throughput, lower hardware cost and shorter analysis time compared to large devices. The challenges associated with mixing of fluids in microscale enabled us in designing, simulating, fabricating and characterizing various micromixers on silicon and flexible polyester substrates. The mixing efficiency was evaluated by injecting the fluids through the two inlets and collecting the sample at outlet. The images collected from the microscope were analyzed, and the absorbance of the color product at the outlet was measured to quantify the mixing efficacy. A mixing efficiency of 96% was achieved using a flexible disposable micromixer. The potential for low-cost processing and the device response tuning using chemical doping or synthesis opened doorways to use organic semiconductor devices as transducers in chemical and biological sensor applications. A simple, inexpensive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based on conducting polymer poly(3,4- ethyelenedioxythiphene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was fabricated using a novel one step fabrication method. The developed transistor was used as a biosensor to detect glucose and glutamate. The developed glucose sensor showed a linear response for the glucose levels ranging from 1 muM-10 mM and showed a decent response for the glucose levels similar to those found in human saliva and to detect glutamate released from brain tumor cells. The developed glutamate sensor was used to detect the glutamate released from astrocytes and glioma cells after stimulation, and the results are compared with fluorescent spectrophotometer. The developed sensors employ simple fabrication, operate at low potentials, utilize lower enzyme concentrations, do not employ enzyme immobilization techniques, require only 5 muL of

  15. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive samplers of hydrophobic organic chemicals reach equilibrium faster in the laboratory than in the field.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Tucca, Felipe

    2015-09-15

    The use of passive sampling methods for monitoring hydrophobic organic chemicals frequently requires the determination of equilibration times and partition coefficients in the laboratory. These experiments are often carried out by exposing passive samplers in a finite water volume, and errors are easily made when the obtained results are applied to the field, where water volumes are essentially infinite. The effect of water volume on the equilibration rate constant is discussed, using a mechanistic model. Application of this model to two literature reports illustrates that aqueous concentrations in the field may be underestimated by a factor of 10 or more, when the water volume effect is neglected. Finally, it is shown that the concept of "sorption capacity" (sampler mass times partition coefficient) allows for a more intuitive understanding of the passive sampling process in small and large water volumes, which may reduce the risk of laboratory-field extrapolation errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Looney, B.B.; Dilek, C.A.E.; Riha, B.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone` The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS).

  18. [Influence of Natural Dissolved Organic Matter on the Passive Sampling Technique and its Application].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shang-yun; Zhou, Yan-mei

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of different concentrations of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the passive sampling technique. The results showed that the presence of DOM affected the organic pollutant adsorption ability of the membrane. For lgK(OW), 3-5, DOM had less impact on the adsorption of organic matter by the membrane; for lgK(OW), > 5.5, DOM significantly increased the adsorption capacity of the membrane. Meanwhile, LDPE passive sampling technique was applied to monitor PAHs and PAEs in pore water of three surface sediments in Taizi River. All of the target pollutants were detected in varying degrees at each sampling point. Finally, the quotient method was used to assess the ecological risks of PAHs and PAEs. The results showed that fluoranthene exceeded the reference value of the aquatic ecosystem, meaning there was a big ecological risk.

  19. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM AND FEEDBACK IN THE PROGENITORS OF THE COMPACT PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Bomee; Tundo, Elena; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; Trump, Jonathan R.; Cassata, Paolo; Dekel, Avishai; Guo, Yicheng; Pentericci, Laura; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Bell, Eric F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; and others

    2015-02-10

    Quenched galaxies at z > 2 are nearly all very compact relative to z ∼ 0, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z ∼ 2 based on their compact rest-frame-optical sizes and high Σ{sub SFR}. We compare their UV properties to those of more extended LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster bulk interstellar medium (ISM) gas velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyα and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyα emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral H I fraction is patchy, such that Lyα photons can escape. We detect stronger C IV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and He II emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster bulk motions, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyα properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z ∼ 2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.

  20. Passive absorption in a classical photonic crystal-based organic solar cell.

    PubMed

    Peres, L; Baron, A; Fasquel, S

    2015-07-01

    We study the light trapping efficiency of a bidimensional photonic crystal (PC) integrated in a classical organic multilayer solar cell. The role of the PC is to enhance light absorption in the active layer by leveraging resonant mode excitation. However the light trapping efficiency is drastically inhibited by the overall absorption of the entire multilayer, which includes absorption by the passive layers that do not contribute to the photocurrent. This study focuses on the impact of passive absorption in ITO and PEDOT, which is often neglected in the study of light trapping organic solar cell systems, despite the significant role it plays in highly absorbing devices. Indeed, we show here that the absorption enhancement in the active layer can vary between 23% and 46% depending on the optical properties of the passive layers, which are dependent on fabrication conditions. We also detail how the PC behaves with coupled parameters such as the optical indices of the passive layers, as well as the period and the air filling fraction of the PC.

  1. Self-organized, effective medium Black Silicon for infrared antireflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Schrempel, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Statistical Black Silicon antireflection structures for the mid-infrared spectral region, fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching, are investigated. Upon variation of etch duration scaling of the structure morphologies is observed and related to the optical losses in specular transmittance. By means of statistical morphology analysis, an effective medium criterion for the examined structures is derived that can be used as a design rule for maximizing sample transmittance at a given wavelength. To obtain Black Silicon antireflection structures with elevated bandwidth, an additional deep-etch step is proposed and demonstrated.

  2. MICROWAVE EFFECTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: MECHANISTIC AND REACTION MEDIUM CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The scope of applications of microwave irradiation relates to a wide spectrum of organic syntheses with numerous benefits (reduction in reaction times, improved purity of products and better yields) encompassing advantages of both thermal and (or) specific non-purely thermal effe...

  3. Growth of Bacteria in Inorganic Medium at Different Levels of Airborne Organic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Annette

    1983-01-01

    Invasion rates of airborne organic substances into sterile mineral medium were compared by using flasks closed with cotton stoppers, silicone stoppers, and screw caps with Teflon gaskets. The resulting increases of dissolved organic carbon were 0.5, 0.2, and 0 mg/liter per week, respectively. The compounds supported the growth of lake water bacteria and a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Growth rates were correlated to the permeability of the stoppers used. The measured input of organic carbon in the sterile mineral medium is considered to be a minimum value for the actual contribution of organic compounds by the air. Multiplication rates of the bacteria suggest that the organisms prevent the escape of volatile organic substances from the medium by rapid utilization. The steady nutrient supply through the air should be considered in growth experiments with bacteria at low concentrations of nutrients. PMID:16346438

  4. Oxidative stress gradient in a medium during human corneal organ culture

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen-Soriano, Siv; Haug, Kristiane; Arnal, Emma; Peris-Martinez, Cristina; Moe, Morten C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Lipid peroxidation content was measured in an organ culture medium after one-week storage of human donor corneas. Moreover, the effects of the medium on oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and the proliferation of cultured human corneal cells were studied. Methods The medium was sampled from the upper and lower halves of storage vials and from controls (n=42). Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cultured human corneal epithelium (CRL-11515) was exposed to different medium samples and monitored for changes in MDA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), total antioxidant capacity (antioxidant assay kit), and proliferation (Ki-67). Results A significant increase in MDA was observed in the organ culture medium in the lower level of storage vials. The addition of this fraction to cultured cells increased MDA significantly after 3 days, and the medium from both levels significantly increased MDA after 7 days. The medium from both levels significantly decreased the total antioxidant capacity of the cells but did not affect proliferative activity. Conclusions An oxidative gradient with an evident biologic effect is established in the medium in vials during organ culture of human donor corneas. Donor tissue stored at the bottom or in lower levels of such vials is exposed to a significant amount of oxidative stress. PMID:22736949

  5. Understanding the rates of nonpolar organic chemical accumulation into passive samplers deployed in the environment: Guidance for passive sampler deployments.

    PubMed

    Apell, Jennifer N; Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric passive samplers have become a common method for estimating freely dissolved concentrations in environmental media. However, this approach has not yet been adopted by investigators conducting remedial investigations of contaminated environmental sites. Successful adoption of this sampling methodology relies on an understanding of how passive samplers accumulate chemical mass as well as developing guidance for the design and deployment of passive samplers. Herein, we outline the development of a simple mathematical relationship of the environmental, polymer, and chemical properties that control the uptake rate. This relationship, called a timescale, is then used to illustrate how each property controls the rate of equilibration in samplers deployed in the water or in the sediment. Guidance is also given on how to use the timescales to select an appropriate polymer, deployment time, and suite of performance reference compounds. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:486-492. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Effect of the length of ligands passivating quantum dots on the electrooptical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, N. S.; Vashchenko, A. A. Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Tananaev, P. N.

    2015-07-15

    The electrooptical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with quantum dots passivated with organic ligands of different lengths as emitting centers are investigated. It is established that the thickness of the ligand coating covering the quantum dots has little effect on the Förster energy transfer in the diodes, but significantly affects the direct injection of charge carriers into the quantum-dot layer. It is shown that the thickness of the passivation coating covering the quantum dots in a close-packed nanoparticle layer is deter- mined both by the length of passivating ligands and the degree of quantum-dot coverage with ligands.

  7. Quantification of the passive and active biaxial mechanical behaviour and microstructural organization of rat thoracic ducts.

    PubMed

    Caulk, Alexander W; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V; Shaw, Ryan; Dixon, J Brandon; Gleason, Rudolph L

    2015-07-06

    Mechanical loading conditions are likely to play a key role in passive and active (contractile) behaviour of lymphatic vessels. The development of a microstructurally motivated model of lymphatic tissue is necessary for quantification of mechanically mediated maladaptive remodelling in the lymphatic vasculature. Towards this end, we performed cylindrical biaxial testing of Sprague-Dawley rat thoracic ducts (n = 6) and constitutive modelling to characterize their mechanical behaviour. Spontaneous contraction was quantified at transmural pressures of 3, 6 and 9 cmH2O. Cyclic inflation in calcium-free saline was performed at fixed axial stretches between 1.30 and 1.60, while recording pressure, outer diameter and axial force. A microstructurally motivated four-fibre family constitutive model originally proposed by Holzapfel et al. (Holzapfel et al. 2000 J. Elast. 61, 1-48. (doi:10.1023/A:1010835316564)) was used to quantify the passive mechanical response, and the model of Rachev and Hayashi was used to quantify the active (contractile) mechanical response. The average error between data and theory was 8.9 ± 0.8% for passive data and 6.6 ± 2.6% and 6.8 ± 3.4% for the systolic and basal conditions, respectively, for active data. Multi-photon microscopy was performed to quantify vessel wall thickness (32.2 ± 1.60 µm) and elastin and collagen organization for three loading conditions. Elastin exhibited structural 'fibre families' oriented nearly circumferentially and axially. Sample-to-sample variation was observed in collagen fibre distributions, which were often non-axisymmetric, suggesting material asymmetry. In closure, this paper presents a microstructurally motivated model that accurately captures the biaxial active and passive mechanical behaviour in lymphatics and offers potential for future research to identify parameters contributing to mechanically mediated disease development. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantification of the passive and active biaxial mechanical behaviour and microstructural organization of rat thoracic ducts

    PubMed Central

    Caulk, Alexander W.; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V.; Shaw, Ryan; Dixon, J. Brandon; Gleason, Rudolph L.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical loading conditions are likely to play a key role in passive and active (contractile) behaviour of lymphatic vessels. The development of a microstructurally motivated model of lymphatic tissue is necessary for quantification of mechanically mediated maladaptive remodelling in the lymphatic vasculature. Towards this end, we performed cylindrical biaxial testing of Sprague–Dawley rat thoracic ducts (n = 6) and constitutive modelling to characterize their mechanical behaviour. Spontaneous contraction was quantified at transmural pressures of 3, 6 and 9 cmH2O. Cyclic inflation in calcium-free saline was performed at fixed axial stretches between 1.30 and 1.60, while recording pressure, outer diameter and axial force. A microstructurally motivated four-fibre family constitutive model originally proposed by Holzapfel et al. (Holzapfel et al. 2000 J. Elast. 61, 1–48. (doi:10.1023/A:1010835316564)) was used to quantify the passive mechanical response, and the model of Rachev and Hayashi was used to quantify the active (contractile) mechanical response. The average error between data and theory was 8.9 ± 0.8% for passive data and 6.6 ± 2.6% and 6.8 ± 3.4% for the systolic and basal conditions, respectively, for active data. Multi-photon microscopy was performed to quantify vessel wall thickness (32.2 ± 1.60 µm) and elastin and collagen organization for three loading conditions. Elastin exhibited structural ‘fibre families’ oriented nearly circumferentially and axially. Sample-to-sample variation was observed in collagen fibre distributions, which were often non-axisymmetric, suggesting material asymmetry. In closure, this paper presents a microstructurally motivated model that accurately captures the biaxial active and passive mechanical behaviour in lymphatics and offers potential for future research to identify parameters contributing to mechanically mediated disease development. PMID:26040600

  9. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green determination of the presence of volatile organic compounds in vehicle repair shops through passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán-Herráez, Daniel; Lliso, Isabel; Pastor, Agustín; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2012-08-30

    A simple, fast and green direct analytical methodology has been developed to evaluate the concentration level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor areas of vehicle repair shops using membrane devices as passive samplers. VOCs retained in the samplers were directly determined without any sample pre-treatment and avoiding the use of solvents by head space (HS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in only 20 min. Benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene were found at concentration levels from 0.1 to 11.2 mg m(-3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic Signature of Dust from the Interstellar Medium (ISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Freund, Minoru; Staple, Aaron; Scoville, John

    2001-01-01

    Dust in the ISM carries an "organic" signature in form of a distinct group of C-H stretching bands, both in emission and absorption, around 3.4 micrometers. These bands agree with the symmetrical and asymmetrical C-H stretching vibrations of aliphatic -CH2- entities and are thought to be associated with organic molecules on the surface of dust grains. We show that this interpretation is inconsistent with laboratory experiments. Synthetic MgO and natural olivine single crystals, grown from a CO/CO2/H2O-saturated melt, exhibit the same C-H stretching bands but those bands are clearly associated with C-H entities inside the dense mineral matrix. The multitude of C-H stretching bands suggests that the C-H bonds arise from polyatomic C(sub n) entities. We heated the MgO and olivine crystals to temperatures between 550-1000 K to pyrolyze the C-H bonds and to cause the C-H stretching bands to disappear. Upon annealing at moderate temperatures between 300-390 K the C-H stretching bands reappear within a few days to weeks. The C-H stretching band intensity increases linearly with the square root of time. Thus, while the pyrolysis broke the C-H bonds and caused the H to disperse in the mineral matrix, the H atoms (or H2 molecules) are sufficiently mobile to return during annealing and reestablish the C-H bonds. Dust grains that condense in a gas-laden environment (outflow of late-stage stars or in dense molecular clouds) probably incorporate the same type of Cn-H entities. Imbedded in and in part bonded to the surrounding mineral matrix, the Cn-H entities display C-H stretching bands in the 3.4 micrometer region, but their lower frequency librational modes are so strongly coupled to the lattice modes that they broaden excessively and thus become unobservable.

  12. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Robert M; Lohmann, Rainer; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P; Reitsma, Pamela; Perron, Monique M; Lefkovitz, Lisa; Cantwell, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is an effort under way to encourage remedial project managers at contaminated sites to use passive sampling to collect freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree ) of hydrophobic organic contaminants to improve site assessments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of passive sampling for measuring water column Cfree for several hydrophobic organic contaminants at 3 US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites. Sites investigated included New Bedford Harbor (New Bedford, MA, USA), Palos Verdes Shelf (Los Angeles, CA, USA), and Naval Station Newport (Newport, RI, USA); and the passive samplers evaluated were polyethylene, polydimethylsiloxane-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers, semipermeable membrane devices, and polyoxymethylene. In general, the different passive samplers demonstrated good agreement, with Cfree values varying by a factor of 2 to 3. Further, at New Bedford Harbor, where conventional water sample concentrations were also measured (i.e., grab samples), passive sampler-based Cfree values agreed within a factor of 2. These findings suggest that all of the samplers were experiencing and measuring similar Cfree during their respective deployments. Also, at New Bedford Harbor, a strong log-linear, correlative, and predictive relationship was found between polyethylene passive sampler accumulation and lipid-normalized blue mussel bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (r(2)  = 0.92, p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the utility of passive sampling for generating scientifically accurate water column Cfree values, which is critical for making informed environmental management decisions at contaminated sediment sites.

  13. High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells with Improved Junction Quality and Interface Passivation.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Ling, Zhaoheng; Ding, Li; Yang, Zhenhai; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-27

    Silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on conjugated polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and n-type silicon (n-Si) have attracted wide attention due to their potential advantages of high efficiency and low cost. However, the state-of-the-art efficiencies are still far from satisfactory due to the inferior junction quality. Here, facile treatments were applied by pretreating the n-Si wafer in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution and using a capping copper iodide (CuI) layer on the PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve a high-quality Schottky junction. Detailed photoelectric characteristics indicated that the surface recombination was greatly suppressed after TMAH pretreatment, which increased the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer. Furthermore, the CuI capping layer induced a strong inversion layer near the n-Si surface, resulting in an excellent field effect passivation. With the collaborative improvements in the interface chemical and electrical passivation, a competitive open-circuit voltage of 0.656 V and a high fill factor of 78.1% were achieved, leading to a stable efficiency of over 14.3% for the planar n-Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs. Our findings suggest promising strategies to further exploit the full voltage as well as efficiency potentials for Si/organic solar cells.

  14. Enhancement of Barrier Properties Using Ultrathin Hybrid Passivation Layer for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sung Jin; Lee, Joo Won; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Dong Young; Hwang, Sung Woo; Kim, Jai‑Kyeong; Ju, Byeong‑Kwon

    2006-07-01

    The hybrid thin-film (HTF) passivation layer composed of the UV curable acrylate layer and MS-31 (MgO:SiO2=3:1 wt %) layer was adopted in organic light emitting diode (OLED) to protect organic light emitting materials from penetrations of oxygen and water vapors. The moisture resistance of the deposited HTF layer was measured by the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The results showed that the HTF layer possessed a very low WVTR value of lower than 0.007 g/(m2 \\cdot day) at 37.8 °C and 100% RH. Therefore, the HTF on the OLED was found to be very effective in protect what from the penetrations of oxygen and moisture.

  15. Comparison of lichen, conifer needles, passive air sampling devices, and snowpack as passive sampling media to measure semi-volatile organic compounds in remote atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Schrlau, Jill E; Geiser, Linda; Hageman, Kimberly J; Landers, Dixon H; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-12-15

    A wide range of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, whereas PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log K(OA) values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log K(OA) > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs.

  16. Comparison of Lichen, Conifer Needles, Passive Air Sampling Devices, and Snowpack as Passive Sampling Media to Measure Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Remote Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    SCHRLAU, JILL E.; GEISER, LINDA; HAGEMAN, KIMBERLY J.; LANDERS, DIXON H.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were measured in lichen, conifer needles, snowpack and XAD-based passive air sampling devices (PASDs) collected from 19 different U.S. national parks in order to compare the magnitude and mechanism of SOC accumulation in the different passive sampling media. Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long (and unknown) exposure period, while PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. However, only the PASD SOC concentrations can be used to calculate an average atmospheric gas-phase SOC concentration because the sampling rates are known and the media is uniform. Only the lichen and snowpack SOC accumulation profiles were statistically significantly correlated (r = 0.552, p-value <0.0001) because they both accumulate SOCs present in the atmospheric particle-phase. This suggests that needles and PASDs represent a different composition of the atmosphere than lichen and snowpack and that the interpretation of atmospheric SOC composition is dependent on the type of passive sampling media used. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log KOA values compared to the other media. Lichen accumulated more SOCs with log KOA > 10 relative to needles and showed a greater accumulation of particle-phase PAHs. PMID:22087860

  17. Competing effects of particle and medium inertia on particle diffusion in viscoelastic materials, and their ramifications for passive microrheology.

    PubMed

    Indei, Tsutomu; Schieber, Jay D; Córdoba, Andrés

    2012-04-01

    We analyze the appropriate form for the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) for viscoelastic solids and fluids when bead inertia and medium inertia are taken into account, which we call the inertial GSER. It was previously shown for Maxwell fluids that the Basset (or Boussinesq) force arising from medium inertia can act purely dissipatively at high frequencies, where elasticity of the medium is dominant. In order to elucidate the cause of this counterintuitive result, we consider Brownian motion in a purely elastic solid where ordinary Stokes-type dissipation is not possible. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem requires the presence of a dissipative mechanism for the particle to experience fluctuating Brownian forces in a purely elastic solid. We show that the mechanism for such dissipation arises from the radiation of elastic waves toward the system boundaries. The frictional force associated with this mechanism is the Basset force, and it exists only when medium inertia is taken into consideration in the analysis of such a system. We consider first a one-dimensional harmonic lattice where all terms in the generalized Langevin equation--i.e., the elastic term, the memory kernel, and Brownian forces-can be found analytically from projection-operator methods. We show that the dissipation is purely from radiation of elastic waves. A similar analysis is made on a particle in a continuum, three-dimensional purely elastic solid, where the memory kernel is determined from continuum mechanics. Again, dissipation arises only from radiation of elastic shear waves toward infinite boundaries when medium inertia is taken into account. If the medium is a viscoelastic solid, Stokes-type dissipation is possible in addition to radiational dissipation so that the wave decays at the penetration depth. Inertial motion of the bead couples with the elasticity of the viscoelastic material, resulting in a possible resonant oscillation of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the

  18. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  19. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  20. Passivation of organic light emitting diode anode grid lines by pulsed Joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, M.; Gierth, R.; Rubingh, J.-E.; Abendroth, M.; Eggert, M.; Moet, D. J. D.; Lupo, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report the self-aligned passivation of a current distribution grid for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) anode using a pulsed Joule heating method to align the passivation layer accurately on the metal grid. This method involves passing an electric current through the grid to cure a polymer dielectric. Uncured polymer is then rinsed away, leaving a patterned dielectric layer that conforms to the shape of the grid lines. To enhance the accuracy of the alignment, heat conduction into the substrate and the transparent electrode is limited by using short current pulses instead of a constant current. Excellent alignment accuracy of the dielectric layer on printed metal grid lines has been achieved, with a typical 4-μm dielectric overhang. In addition to good accuracy, pulsed Joule heating significantly cuts down process time and energy consumption compared to heating with a constant current. The feasibility of using a printed current distribution grid and Joule heating was demonstrated in an OLED device.

  1. Atypical language organization in temporal lobe epilepsy revealed by a passive semantic paradigm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in adults and can be successfully cured by surgery. One of the main complications of this surgery however is a decline in language abilities. The magnitude of this decline is related to the degree of language lateralization to the left hemisphere. Most fMRI paradigms used to determine language dominance in epileptic populations have used active language tasks. Sometimes, these paradigms are too complex and may result in patient underperformance. Only a few studies have used purely passive tasks, such as listening to standard speech. Methods In the present study we characterized language lateralization in patients with MTLE using a rapid and passive semantic language task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 23 patients [12 with Left (LMTLE), 11 with Right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (RMTLE)] and 19 healthy right-handed controls using a 6 minute long semantic task in which subjects passively listened to groups of sentences (SEN) and pseudo sentences (PSEN). A lateralization index (LI) was computed using a priori regions of interest of the temporal lobe. Results The LI for the significant contrasts produced activations for all participants in both temporal lobes. 81.8% of RMTLE patients and 79% of healthy individuals had a bilateral language representation for this particular task. However, 50% of LMTLE patients presented an atypical right hemispheric dominance in the LI. More importantly, the degree of right lateralization in LMTLE patients was correlated with the age of epilepsy onset. Conclusions The simple, rapid, non-collaboration dependent, passive task described in this study, produces a robust activation in the temporal lobe in both patients and controls and is capable of illustrating a pattern of atypical language organization for LMTLE patients. Furthermore, we observed that the atypical right-lateralization patterns in LMTLE patients was

  2. Organizing an NGO-Sponsored English-Medium School in South India: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Gordon S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes lessons learned from the first-year education efforts of Rising Star Outreach of India, a U.S.-based nongovernmental charitable organization (NGO) working with leprosy colonies in Tamil Nadu, India. In 2008, Rising Star Outreach established a residential school to provide English-medium schooling for 180 colony children in…

  3. Development of a passive, in situ, integrative sampler for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David A; Petty, Jimmie D; Huckins, James N; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Getting, Dominic T; Goddard, Jon P; Manahan, Stanley E

    2004-07-01

    Increasingly it is being realized that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants including new generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and many chemicals associated with household, industrial, and agricultural wastes. To address this issue, we developed a passive in situ sampling device (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler [POCIS]) that integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations, and provides a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler, linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals with log K(ow)s < 4.0 was observed for up to 56 d. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS sampling rates for appropriate exposure conditions. Use of POCIS in field validation studies targeting the herbicide diuron in the United Kingdom resulted in the detection of the chemical at estimated concentrations of 190 to 600 ng/L. These values are in agreement with reported levels found in traditional grab samples taken concurrently.

  4. Development of a passive, in situ, integrative sampler for hydrophilic organic contaminants in aquatic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Getting, D.T.; Goddard, J.P.; Manahan, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly it is being realized that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants including new generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and many chemicals associated with household, industrial, and agricultural wastes. To address this issue, we developed a passive in situ sampling device (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler [POCIS]) that integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations, and provides a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler, linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals with log KowS < 4.0 was observed for up to 56 d. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS sampling rates for appropriate exposure conditions. Use of POCIS in field validation studies targeting the herbicide diuron in the United Kingdom resulted in the detection of the chemical at estimated concentrations of 190 to 600 ng/L. These values are in agreement with reported levels found in traditional grab samples taken concurrently.

  5. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  6. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Eganhouse, Robert P

    2010-09-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (K(f)). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), K(f) values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable K(f) values. The range in reported K(f) is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported K(f), such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of K(f), an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured K(f) values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured K(f) for HOCs at conditions other than at 20° or 25 °C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in K(f) at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log K(f) in distilled water at 25 °C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between measured and predicted log K(f) values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log K(f) for HOCs whose experimental log K(f) values are presently

  7. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: State of the science for organic contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Lydy, Michael J; Landrum, Peter F; Oen, Amy MP; Allinson, Mayumi; Smedes, Foppe; Harwood, Amanda D; Li, Huizhen; Maruya, Keith A; Liu, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript surveys the literature on passive sampler methods (PSMs) used in contaminated sediments to assess the chemical activity of organic contaminants. The chemical activity in turn dictates the reactivity and bioavailability of contaminants in sediment. Approaches to measure specific binding of compounds to sediment components, for example, amorphous carbon or specific types of reduced carbon, and the associated partition coefficients are difficult to determine, particularly for native sediment. Thus, the development of PSMs that represent the chemical activity of complex compound–sediment interactions, expressed as the freely dissolved contaminant concentration in porewater (Cfree), offer a better proxy for endpoints of concern, such as reactivity, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Passive sampling methods have estimated Cfree using both kinetic and equilibrium operating modes and used various polymers as the sorbing phase, for example, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, and polyoxymethylene in various configurations, such as sheets, coated fibers, or vials containing thin films. These PSMs have been applied in laboratory exposures and field deployments covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A wide range of calibration conditions exist in the literature to estimate Cfree, but consensus values have not been established. The most critical criteria are the partition coefficient between water and the polymer phase and the equilibrium status of the sampler. In addition, the PSM must not appreciably deplete Cfree in the porewater. Some of the future challenges include establishing a standard approach for PSM measurements, correcting for nonequilibrium conditions, establishing guidance for selection and implementation of PSMs, and translating and applying data collected by PSMs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:167–178. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  8. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: state of the science for organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lydy, Michael J; Landrum, Peter F; Oen, Amy Mp; Allinson, Mayumi; Smedes, Foppe; Harwood, Amanda D; Li, Huizhen; Maruya, Keith A; Liu, Jingfu

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript surveys the literature on passive sampler methods (PSMs) used in contaminated sediments to assess the chemical activity of organic contaminants. The chemical activity in turn dictates the reactivity and bioavailability of contaminants in sediment. Approaches to measure specific binding of compounds to sediment components, for example, amorphous carbon or specific types of reduced carbon, and the associated partition coefficients are difficult to determine, particularly for native sediment. Thus, the development of PSMs that represent the chemical activity of complex compound-sediment interactions, expressed as the freely dissolved contaminant concentration in porewater (Cfree ), offer a better proxy for endpoints of concern, such as reactivity, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Passive sampling methods have estimated Cfree using both kinetic and equilibrium operating modes and used various polymers as the sorbing phase, for example, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, and polyoxymethylene in various configurations, such as sheets, coated fibers, or vials containing thin films. These PSMs have been applied in laboratory exposures and field deployments covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales. A wide range of calibration conditions exist in the literature to estimate Cfree , but consensus values have not been established. The most critical criteria are the partition coefficient between water and the polymer phase and the equilibrium status of the sampler. In addition, the PSM must not appreciably deplete Cfree in the porewater. Some of the future challenges include establishing a standard approach for PSM measurements, correcting for nonequilibrium conditions, establishing guidance for selection and implementation of PSMs, and translating and applying data collected by PSMs. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Field performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler for monitoring hydrophobic organic pollutants in surface water.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Branislav; Mills, Graham A; Leonards, Pim E G; Kotterman, Michiel; Weideborg, Mona; Hajslová, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimír; Tomaniová, Monika; Pulkrabová, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hájková, Katerina; Herve, Sirpa; Ahkola, Heidi; Greenwood, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Six field trials were carried out to assess the performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler alongside spot sampling for monitoring priority hydrophobic organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides) in a wide range of conditions in surface water. The trials were performed in three European rivers: Elbe (Czech Republic), Alna (Norway) and Meuse (Netherlands), in two seasons (April-June 2004, and September-October 2004). Samplers spiked with performance reference compounds (PRCs) were deployed for either 14 or 28 days. Ten spot samples of water were collected over the course of the trial and filtered through a 0.7 microm glass fibre filter. Concentrations of pollutants measured using the Chemcatcher were compared with the average concentrations found in spot samples. This study describes the operational performance of Chemcatcher for measuring hydrophobic (log K(OW) 3.7-6.8) chemicals in surface water. Site specific Chemcatcher sampling rates up to 0.5 L d(-1) were found using the PRC approach that reduced the uncertainty in estimates of sampling kinetics where temperature, local flow conditions and biofouling potential varied between sites and seasons, and with time during sampler exposure. The limits of quantification of sampled analytes ranged from one to tens ng L(-1). Highest sensitivity was achieved for compounds with a favourable combination of low instrument quantification limits and high sampling rates including dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, pentachlorobenzene, and PAHs with less than five aromatic rings. The direct comparison of time weighted average (TWA) concentrations (mostly close to method limits of detection) obtained using passive and spot sampling was possible for lindane, hexachlorobenzene, and PAHs < 4 rings. Implications of using the Chemcatcher in regulatory monitoring programmes such as the European Union Water Framework Directive are discussed.

  10. Passive strain-induced matrix synthesis and organization in shape-specific, cartilaginous neotissues.

    PubMed

    MacBarb, Regina F; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Abeug, Reedge; Makris, Eleftherios A; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2014-12-01

    Tissue-engineered musculoskeletal soft tissues typically lack the appropriate mechanical robustness of their native counterparts, hindering their clinical applicability. With structure and function being intimately linked, efforts to capture the anatomical shape and matrix organization of native tissues are imperative to engineer functionally robust and anisotropic tissues capable of withstanding the biomechanically complex in vivo joint environment. The present study sought to tailor the use of passive axial compressive loading to drive matrix synthesis and reorganization within self-assembled, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous constructs, with the goal of developing functionally anisotropic neotissues. Specifically, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous neotissues were subjected to 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 N axial loads early during tissue culture. Results found the 0.1-N load to significantly increase both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by 27% and 67%, respectively, and to concurrently reorganize the matrix by promoting greater matrix alignment, compaction, and collagen crosslinking compared with all other loading levels. These structural enhancements translated into improved functional properties, with the 0.1-N load significantly increasing both the relaxation modulus and Young's modulus by 96% and 255%, respectively, over controls. Finite element analysis further revealed the 0.1-N uniaxial load to induce multiaxial tensile and compressive strain gradients within the shape-specific neotissues, with maxima of 10.1%, 18.3%, and -21.8% in the XX-, YY-, and ZZ-directions, respectively. This indicates that strains created in different directions in response to a single axis load drove the observed anisotropic functional properties. Together, results of this study suggest that strain thresholds exist within each axis to promote matrix synthesis, alignment, and compaction within the shape-specific neotissues. Tailoring of passive axial loading, thus, presents

  11. Passive Strain-Induced Matrix Synthesis and Organization in Shape-Specific, Cartilaginous Neotissues

    PubMed Central

    MacBarb, Regina F.; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Abeug, Reedge; Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered musculoskeletal soft tissues typically lack the appropriate mechanical robustness of their native counterparts, hindering their clinical applicability. With structure and function being intimately linked, efforts to capture the anatomical shape and matrix organization of native tissues are imperative to engineer functionally robust and anisotropic tissues capable of withstanding the biomechanically complex in vivo joint environment. The present study sought to tailor the use of passive axial compressive loading to drive matrix synthesis and reorganization within self-assembled, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous constructs, with the goal of developing functionally anisotropic neotissues. Specifically, shape-specific fibrocartilaginous neotissues were subjected to 0, 0.01, 0.05, or 0.1 N axial loads early during tissue culture. Results found the 0.1-N load to significantly increase both collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by 27% and 67%, respectively, and to concurrently reorganize the matrix by promoting greater matrix alignment, compaction, and collagen crosslinking compared with all other loading levels. These structural enhancements translated into improved functional properties, with the 0.1-N load significantly increasing both the relaxation modulus and Young's modulus by 96% and 255%, respectively, over controls. Finite element analysis further revealed the 0.1-N uniaxial load to induce multiaxial tensile and compressive strain gradients within the shape-specific neotissues, with maxima of 10.1%, 18.3%, and −21.8% in the XX-, YY-, and ZZ-directions, respectively. This indicates that strains created in different directions in response to a single axis load drove the observed anisotropic functional properties. Together, results of this study suggest that strain thresholds exist within each axis to promote matrix synthesis, alignment, and compaction within the shape-specific neotissues. Tailoring of passive axial loading, thus, presents

  12. Hurdles to organic quinone flow cells. Electrode passivation by quinone reduction in acetonitrile Li electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-García, D.; Dubal, D. P.; Huguenin, F.; Gómez-Romero, P.

    2017-05-01

    The uses of quinones in Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) has been mainly circumscribed to aqueous solutions (of derivatives with polar groups) despite a larger solubility and wider electrochemical window provided by organic media. The redox mechanism of quinones in protic media is simpler and better known than in aprotic media, where radical species are involved. This paper reports the behaviour of methyl-p-benzoquinone (MBQ) under electrochemical reduction conditions in a LiClO4sbnd CH3CN electrolyte and various working electrodes. We detected the reversible generation of a bright green coating on the working electrode and the subsequent formation of a polymer (the nature of which depends on the presence or absence of oxygen). These coatings prevent the regular redox process of methyl-p-benzoquinone from taking place on the surface of the electrode and is generated regardless of the electrode material used or the presence of O2 in solution. In addition to MBQ, the green passivating layer was also found for less sterically hindered quinones such as p-benzoquinone or 1,4-naphthoquinone, but not for anthraquinone. We have also shown the central role of Li+ in the formation of this green layer. This work provides important guidelines for the final use of quinones in RFBs with organic electrolytes.

  13. Graphene-passivated cobalt as a spin-polarized electrode: growth and application to organic spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Tang, Guoqiang; Li, Tian; Pan, Guoxing; Deng, Zanhong; Zhang, Fapei

    2017-03-01

    The ferromagnetic electrode on which a clean high-quality electrode/interlayer interface is formed, is critical to achieve efficient injection of spin-dependent electrons in spintronic devices. In this work, we report on the preparation of graphene-passivated cobalt electrodes for application in vertical spin valves (SVs). In this strategy, high-quality monolayer and bi-layer graphene sheets have been grown directly on the crystal Co film substrates in a controllable process by chemical vapor deposition. The electrode is oxidation resistant and ensures a clean crystalline graphene/Co interface. The AlO x -based magnetic junction devices using such bottom electrodes, exhibit a negative tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) of ca. 1.0% in the range of 5 K–300 K. Furthermore, we have also fabricated organic-based SVs employing a thin layer of fullerene C60 or an N-type polymeric semiconductor as the interlayer. The devices of both materials show a tunneling behavior of spin-polarized electron transport as well as appreciable TMR effect, demonstrating the high potential of such graphene-coated Co electrodes for organic-based spintronics.

  14. Fluidized bed ash and passive treatment reduce the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Porter, Clint M; Nairn, Robert W

    2010-10-15

    Elevated concentrations of acidity and metals in acid mine drainage (AMD) may be effectively addressed by active and passive treatment technologies. However, typical evaluations consider only chemical water quality with little if any regard for biological metrics. Robust evaluations including both chemical and biological indicators of water quality improvement are needed. In this study, injection of alkaline fluidized bed ash (FBA) into a flooded underground coal mine was coupled with a five-cell passive treatment system to ameliorate an abandoned AMD discharge in eastern Oklahoma. The passive system included process units promoting both aerobic and anaerobic treatment mechanisms. Resulting water quality changes and biological responses were evaluated. Organisms of two distinct functional groups (the filter-feeding mollusk Corbicula fluminea and the wide-spectrum feeding fish Lepomis macrochirus) were exposed to mine waters in several treatment cells. The combination of treatment technologies was hypothesized to limit potential negative effects on these aquatic organisms. Tissues were harvested and analyzed for concentrations of several metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Ni, Cu and Zn) of interest. Organismal responses, such as hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and condition index, did not vary significantly among organisms exposed within different treatment cells when compared to non-AMD impaired waters. Metal tissue accumulation trends, compared to aqueous concentrations, were observed for Fe, Ni and Zn. Exposure experiments with these two organisms indicated that FBA introductions coupled with passive treatment decreased the potential adverse effects of AMD to biological systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of bacterial strains on low organic carbon medium from soils fertilized with different organic amendments.

    PubMed

    Senechkin, Ilya V; Speksnijder, Adrianus G C L; Semenov, Alexander M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C; van Overbeek, Leonard S

    2010-11-01

    A total of 720 bacterial strains were isolated from soils with four different organic amendment regimes on a low organic carbon (low-C) agar medium (10 µg C ml(-1)) traditionally used for isolation of oligotrophs. Organic amendments in combination with field history resulted in differences in dissolved organic carbon contents in these soils. There were negative correlations between total and dissolved organic carbon content and the number of isolates on low-C agar medium, whereas these correlations were absent for bacterial strains isolated from the same soil on high-C agar medium (1,000 µg C ml(-1)). Repeated transfers (up to ten times) of the isolates from low-C agar medium to fresh low- and high-C agar media were done to test for exclusive growth under oligotrophic conditions. The number of isolates exclusively growing under oligotrophic conditions dropped after each subsequent transfer from 241 after the first to 98 after the third transfer step. Identification on the basis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most of the 241 isolates (as well as the subset of 98 isolates) belong to widespread genera such as Streptomyces, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Mesorhizobium, and the taxonomic composition of dominant genera changed from the first transfer step to the third. A selected subset of 17 isolates were further identified and characterized for exclusive growth on low-C agar medium. Two isolates continued to grow only on low-C agar medium up to the tenth transfer step and matched most closely with Rhizobium sullae and an uncultured bacterium on the basis of the almost full-length 16S rRNA gene. It was concluded that the vast majority of strains which are isolated on low-C agar media belong to the trophic group of microorganisms adapted to a "broad range" of carbon concentrations, including well-known and widespread bacterial genera. Oligotrophy is a physiological, not a taxonomic property, and can only be identified by cultural means so far. We

  16. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Passivation in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Sánchez, Rafael S; González-Pedro, Victoria; Boix, Pablo P; Mhaisalkar, S G; Rincón, Marina E; Bisquert, Juan; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2013-05-02

    The effect of semiconductor passivation on quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) has been systematically characterized for CdS and CdS/ZnS. We have found that passivation strongly depends on the passivation agent, obtaining an enhancement of the solar cell efficiency for compounds containing amine and thiol groups and, in contrast, a decrease in performance for passivating agents with acid groups. Passivation can induce a change in the position of TiO2 conduction band and also in the recombination rate and nature, reflected in a change in the β parameter. Especially interesting is the finding that β, and consequently the fill factor can be increased with the passivation treatment. Applying this strategy, record cells of 4.65% efficiency for PbS-based QDSCs have been produced.

  17. Passivation of Black Phosphorus via Self-Assembled Organic Monolayers by van der Waals Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinghe; Zhou, Qionghua; Li, Qiang; Yao, Xiaojing; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-02-01

    An effective passivation approach to protect black phosphorus (BP) from degradation based on multi-scale simulations is proposed. The self-assembly of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride monolayers via van der Waals epitaxy on BP does not break the original electronic properties of BP. The passivation layer thickness is only 2 nm. This study opens up a new pathway toward fine passivation of BP.

  18. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  19. Organic and inorganic selenium: IV. passive transfer of immunoglobulin from ewe to lamb.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C; Bobe, G; Vorachek, W R; Stang, B V; Pirelli, G J; Mosher, W D; Hall, J A

    2013-04-01

    Newborn lambs depend on their dams for passive transfer of immunoglobulins, primarily IgG, for protection from harmful pathogens until their own immunological defenses have developed. Previous studies have suggested that supplementation with Se results in a modest increase in IgG concentration in serum of newborn calves and lambs. To evaluate the effect of the Se source and supplementation rate in ewes during pregnancy on passive transfer of IgG to their lambs, 210 Polypay, Suffolk, or Suffolk × Polypay cross ewes were divided into 7 treatment groups (n = 30 each) and drenched weekly with no Se, at the maximum FDA-allowed concentration with inorganic Na-selenite or organic Se-yeast (4.9 mg Se/wk), or with inorganic Na-selenite and organic Se-yeast at supranutritional concentrations (14.7 and 24.5 mg Se/wk). Ewe serum IgG concentrations were measured within 30 d of parturition, ewe colostrum and lamb serum IgG concentrations were measured at parturition before suckling, and lamb serum IgG concentrations were measured again at 48 h postnatal. Ewes receiving 24.5 mg Se/wk tended to have or had, independent of Se source, greater colostral IgG concentrations than ewes receiving 4.9 mg Se/wk overall (81.3 vs. 66.2 mg/mL; P = 0.08) and for Polypay ewes only (90.1 vs. 60.7 mg/mL; P = 0.03). Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 24.5 mg Se/wk transferred a greater calculated total IgG amount to their lambs than Polypay ewes receiving Se-yeast at 4.9 mg Se/wk (15.5 vs. 11.6 g; P = 0.02), whereas the converse was true (interaction between Se source and dose concentration; P = 0.03) for Polypay ewes receiving inorganic Na-selenite at 24.5 mg Se/wk vs. Na-selenite at 4.9 mg/wk (11.6 vs. 15.7 g; P = 0.08). Our results suggest that supranutritional Se supplementation of Polypay ewes during pregnancy increases colostral IgG concentrations but that the optimal supplementation rate for IgG transfer from ewe to lamb may differ for Na-selenite and Se-yeast.

  20. Hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes of tungsten oxide: coupled exfoliation and fracture in a nonpolar organic medium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masashi; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-21

    Coupled exfoliation and fracture induced formation of hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes in a nonpolar organic medium. The hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes 5-20 nm in lateral size consisted of a tungstate layer with surface modification by stearylammonium ions (C18H37NH3)0.397 H0.603Cs3W11O35·xH2O (x < 0.625).

  1. In situ passivation of InP surface using H2S during metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong-Liang; Terada, Yuki; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2009-10-01

    An in situ surface passivation of InP(100) using H2S during metal organic vapor phase epitaxy has been characterized by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and photoluminescence. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the H2S-treated InP at 300 °C is free of P and In oxides even after exposure to air. The enhancement of photoluminescence intensity confirms that H2S passivation of an InP epilayer can reduce the surface defects. It is shown that H2S treatment results in In-S bonds, which dominate the sulfur-passivated InP surface, effectively suppressing interface oxidation during the subsequent ultrathin Al2O3 dielectric film growth.

  2. Guidelines for Using Passive Samplers to Monitor Organic Contaminants at Superfund Sediment Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are monitoring tools that can provide faster, cheaper, and scientifically-sound information about the water column and interstitial water concentrations of contaminants of concern (COC) at Superfund sites. Often, the use of passive samplers is more effective tha...

  3. Guidelines for Using Passive Samplers to Monitor Organic Contaminants at Superfund Sediment Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are monitoring tools that can provide faster, cheaper, and scientifically-sound information about the water column and interstitial water concentrations of contaminants of concern (COC) at Superfund sites. Often, the use of passive samplers is more effective tha...

  4. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  5. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  6. Three-input gate logic circuits on chemically assembled single-electron transistors with organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

    PubMed

    Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlO[Formula: see text]), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.

  7. Three-input gate logic circuits on chemically assembled single-electron transistors with organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers

    PubMed Central

    Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlOx), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers. PMID:28634499

  8. Role of passive body dynamics in micro-organism swimming in complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the role of passive body dynamics in the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids. Asymptotic analysis and linear theory are used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. The analysis is compared with a computational model of a finite length swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid. Simulations and theory agree quantitatively for small amplitude motions with low fluid elasticity (Deborah number). This may not be surprising as the theory is expected hold in these two regimes. What is more remarkable is that the predicted shape changes match the computational shape changes quantitatively for large amplitudes, even for large Deborah numbers. Shape changes only tell part of the story. Swimming speed depends on other effects as well. We see that shape changes can predict swimming speed well when either the amplitude is small (including large Deborah number) or when the Deborah number is small (including large amplitudes). It is only in the large De AND large amplitude regime where the theory breaks down and swimming speed can no longer be inferred from shape changes alone.

  9. Cluster analysis of passive air sampling data based on the relative composition of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiande; Wania, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The development of passive air samplers has allowed the measurement of time-integrated concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within spatial networks on a variety of scales. Cluster analysis of POP composition may enhance the interpretation of such spatial data. Several methodological aspects of the application of cluster analysis are discussed, including the influence of a dominant pollutant, the role of PAS duplication, and comparison of regional studies. Relying on data from six regional studies in North and South America, Africa, and Asia, we illustrate here how cluster analysis can be used to extract information and gain insights into POP sources and atmospheric transport contributions. Cluster analysis allows classification of PAS samples into those with significant local source contributions and those that represent regional fingerprints. Local emissions, atmospheric transport, and seasonal cycles are identified as being among the major factors determining the variation in POP composition at many sites. By complementing cluster analysis with meteorological data such as air mass back-trajectories, terrain, as well as geographical and socio-economic aspects, a comprehensive picture of the atmospheric contamination of a region by POPs emerges.

  10. Use of Passive Diffusion Samplers for Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Brayton, Michael J.; Ives, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Passive diffusion samplers have been tested at a number of sites where volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are the principal contaminants in ground water. Test results generally show good agreement between concentrations of VOC's in samples collected with diffusion samplers and concentrations in samples collected by purging the water from a well. Diffusion samplers offer several advantages over conventional and low-flow ground-water sampling procedures: * Elimination of the need to purge a well before collecting a sample and to dispose of contaminated water. * Elimination of cross-contamination of samples associated with sampling with non-dedicated pumps or sample delivery tubes. * Reduction in sampling time by as much as 80 percent of that required for 'purge type' sampling methods. * An increase in the frequency and spatial coverage of monitoring at a site because of the associated savings in time and money. The successful use of diffusion samplers depends on the following three primary factors: (1) understanding site conditions and contaminants of interest (defining sample objectives), (2) validating of results of diffusion samplers against more widely acknowledged sampling methods, and (3) applying diffusion samplers in the field.

  11. Blue/white organic light-emitting diodes and passive matrix display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Shao-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The blue organic light emitting diodes (OLED) based on anthracene derivatives (ADN) doped with distryrylarylene derivatives (BCzVB and DSA-ph) were presented. The device of ADN doped with BCzVb shows high color purity (x=0.146, y=0.162) with maximum luminance 11600 cd/m2 (15V), current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, while the device of ADN doped with DSA-ph exhibits a sky blue with as high as efficiency 8.29 cd/A, both have a flat efficiency vs current density responses. A typical blue device of ADN doped with TBPe is used for comparison, which gives greenish blue and a stronger current-induced flyorescence quenching. Three kinds of White organic light emitting devices (WOLED) with different dopants and doping sites were constructed. The cell with a single-doped red dye in the light emitting layer (EML)(single-doped) and the cell with both red and blue dyes doped in a single EML (double-doped as well as the cell with red and blue dyes doped in EML and a green dye in another layer (triple-doped). The triple-doped cell shows much higher performance than other two cells: maximum luminance 21200cd/m2, 1026 cd/m2 at driving current 20mA/cm2, efficiency 6cd/A and a half lifetime over 22245h were reached. A passive display features 102x64 pixels with pixel size of 0.25x0.25mm2 pixel pitch 0.08mm, luminance 100 cd/m2 at driving duty 1/64, and power consumption of 0.6W was constructed.

  12. Further studies on the uptake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Barber, Jonathan L.; Kim, Kyoung-Sim; Harner, Tom; Jones, Kevin C.

    Passive air samplers (PAS) can be used to monitor semi-volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks are a popular sampling medium because they have a high retention capacity for such compounds. This paper reports a highly time-resolved uptake study, to derive uptake rate data under field conditions, and investigate the effects of using different foam densities on the uptake rate. PUF disks were deployed alongside an active sampler, for periods of up to 12 weeks. The uptake rates were measured for a range of gas- and particle-bound persistent organic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), of different properties, to explore whether gas-particle partitioning affected uptake rate. Uptake rates for two different densities of foam (0.021 and 0.035 g cm -3) were not statistically significantly different from each other. Uptake rates of light PCBs averaged ˜6.5 m 3 day -1, somewhat higher than in previous studies; higher wind speeds and lower temperatures in this study are the likely reason for this difference. The study showed: i) the uptake rate of the compound with lowest KOA considered in this study (PCB-28/31) declined in the later weeks, indicating an approach to equilibrium; ii) uptake rates of lighter BDEs and heavier PCBs (compounds of intermediate KOA in this study) remain similar throughout the study period, indicating that they are not approaching equilibrium during the 12-week-study; iii) uptake rates were typically: ˜8 m 3 day -1 for PCB-52; ˜9.5 m 3 day -1 for PCB-95; ˜11 m 3 day -1 for BDE-28 and ˜2 m 3 day -1 BDE-99. The latter compound has an important particle-bound component and this lowers the sampling rate compared to predicted uptake rates for compounds which are in the gas phase only. It is shown that knowledge of gas-particle partitioning is needed to correct for this effect, and to improve predicted uptake rates.

  13. Effective medium analysis of absorption enhancement in short-pitch metal grating incorporated organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yanxia; Wang, Wenyan; Fung, Kin Hung; Ji, Ting; Hao, Yuying; Zhu, Furong

    2016-10-31

    The effective medium theory is applied to analyze the absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with a short-pitch metal grating. A 37% improvement in the absorption of the active layer is achieved with respect to that of a planar control cell. It is inspired that the propagating surface plasmon modes are excited at the interface between the effective medium layer and the flat metal plate, resulting in a reduction of light reflection. In real structure, the electric field redistributes with its intensity in the region with active materials infiltrated in the grooves increases significantly, exhibiting like hot spots to assist in achieving broadband absorption enhancement. Moreover, the localized surface plasmon resonances excited at the top of the metal ridges also contribute to the absorption enhancement in the cells.

  14. Ion exchange membranes as novel passive sampling material for organic ions: application for the determination of freely dissolved concentrations.

    PubMed

    Oemisch, Luise; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-11-28

    Many studies in pharmacology, toxicology and environmental science require a method for determining the freely dissolved concentration of a target substance. A recently developed tool for this purpose is equilibrium passive sampling with polymeric materials. However, this method has rarely been applied to ionic organic substances, primarily due to limited availability of convenient sorption materials. This study introduces ion exchange membranes (IEMs) as a novel passive sampling material for organic ions. The partitioning of 4-ethylbenzene-1-sulfonate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and pentachlorophenol to one anion exchange membrane (FAS) and of difenzoquat, nicotine and verapamil to one cation exchange membrane (FKS) was investigated. All test substances exhibited a sufficiently high affinity for the respective IEM with logarithmic IEM-water partition coefficients >2.3. Sorption equilibrium was established quickly, within several hours for the FAS membrane and within 1-3 days for the FKS membrane. For permanently charged substances the partitioning to the IEMs was independent of pH, but was influenced by the salt composition of the test solution. For all test substances sorption to IEM was dependent on the substance concentration. Bovine serum albumin-water partition coefficients determined by passive sampling with IEMs agree well with those determined by the conventional dialysis method. The results of this study indicate that IEMs exhibit the potential to measure freely dissolved concentrations of organic ions in a simple and time-saving manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  16. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    PubMed

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments.

  17. Effective medium analysis of thermally evaporated Ag nanoparticle films for plasmonic enhancement in organic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidari, Gholamhosain; Hajimahmoodzadeh, Morteza; Fallah, Hamid Reza; Varnamkhasti, Mohsen Ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Films of silver nanoparticles have optical properties that are useful for applications such as plasmonic light trapping in solar cells. We report on the simple fabrication of Ag nanoparticle films via thermal evaporation, with and without subsequent annealing. These films result in a random array of particles of various shapes and sizes. The modeling of such a vast collection of particles is still beyond reach of the modern computers. We show that it is possible to represent the silver island films by the Bergman effective mediums with the same optical properties. The effective medium method provides us with deep insight about the shape, the size and the distribution of nanoparticles. The far field simulations of solar cells, in which the silver island film is replaced with an effective medium layer, show a reduction in the absorption of active layer. Besides, the near field simulations based on finite-difference time-domain technique demonstrate that the near field effects on active layer absorption are negligible and this method highlights the importance of nanoparticles shapes. The PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with embedded silver island films are fabricated, and it is found that their performances show the similar trend. This insight can be used for the optical analysis of thermally evaporated Ag nanoparticle films for the improvement of organic solar cells.

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

  19. Assessment of SPME Partitioning Coefficients: Implications for Passive Environmental Sampling of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, E. L.; Eganhouse, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive sampling technique in aqueous environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partitioning coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf) for the compounds of interest. Kf values for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and water spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). However, most of the published data (86%) do not pass the criterion for negligible depletion (Vw > 100KfVf , where Vw is the sample volume [μl] and Vf is the fiber coating volume [μl]), resulting in erroneous Kf values. The range in reported Kf values is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these erroneous values are removed. We conducted a two-tailed t-test comparing Kf values for the same compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCBs) measured with different fiber coating thicknesses and fiber manufacturers; the majority (85%) of these Kf values are not statistically different (p = 0.10). In addition to an accurate measurement of Kf, the impact of environmental factors on partitioning, such as temperature and ionic strength, are essential in applying laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf at conditions other than at 25° C in distilled water. While the available data indicate slight differences in Kf at different temperatures and ionic strength, the data are too limited to make an accurate assessment of the impact of these factors on the accuracy of in situ concentration measurements. Because of the challenges in measuring Kf for HOCs, it may be useful to develop predictive models for calculating Kf using known or measured physico-chemical properties. A multi-parameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate Kf in distilled water at 25° C for HOCs based on published physico

  20. Field Comparison of Passive Air Samplers with Reference Monitors for Ambient Volatile Organic Compounds and Nitrogen Dioxide Under Week-Long Integrals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates performance of nitrogen dioxide NO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOC) passive samplers with corresponding reference monitors at two sites in the Detroit, Michigan area during the summer of 2005.

  1. The diffuse interstellar bands: a tracer for organics in the diffuse interstellar medium?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.

    1998-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption bands seen in the spectra of stars obscured by interstellar dust. DIBs are recognized as a tracer for free, organic molecules in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). The potential molecular carriers for the DIBs are discussed with an emphasis on neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for which the most focused effort has been made to date. From the combined astronomical, laboratory and theoretical study, it is concluded that a distribution of free neutral and ionized complex organics (PAHs, fullerenes, unsaturated hydrocarbons) represents the most promising class of candidates to account for the DIBs. The case for aromatic hydrocarbons appears particularly strong. The implied widespread distribution of complex organics in the diffuse ISM bears profound implications for our understanding of the chemical complexity of the ISM, the evolution of prebiotic molecules and its impact on the origin and the evolution of life on early Earth through the exogenous delivery (cometary encounters and metoritic bombardments) of prebiotic organics.

  2. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  3. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union (EU), the United States(USA), and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR), and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpola...

  4. Passive and Active Vibrations Allow Self-Organization in Large-Scale Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Carlo Famoso Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the role of passive and active vibrations for the control of nonlinear large-scale electromechanical systems is investigated. The mathematical model of the system is discussed and detailed experimental results are shown in order to prove that coupling the effects of feedback and vibrations elicited by proper control signals makes possible to regularize imperfect uncertain large-scale systems.

  5. Preservation of Preloaded DMEK Lenticules in Dextran and Non-Dextran-Based Organ Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the optimum preservation conditions for preloading DMEK lenticules using organ culture system. Methods. 8.5 mm DMEK lenticules were stripped and preserved with endothelium flap-in for 4 days at RT in an IOL cartridge that was blocked with rubber stoppers from each end. In C1, tissues were collected from tissue culture medium (TCM) and preserved in TCM. In C2, tissues were collected from transport medium (TCM + 6% dextran T500) (TM) and preserved in TM. In C3, tissues were collected from TCM and preserved in TM. Mortality, glucose uptake, histological staining, tight junctions and cell apoptosis were studied post-preservation. Results. Mortality in C1, C2, and C3 were 49.40%, 8.53%, and 27.74%, with 40.7%, 13%, and 41.8% uncovered areas. Glucose uptake (mg/mL) was 0.32, 0.43, and 0.56 in C1, C2, and C3. PAS staining showed presence of DM and endothelium in C2 but not in C1 and with fewer cells in C3. ZO-1 was expressed in all the conditions. Polymorphism was higher in C1 and C3. Mild apoptosis was observed in C3. Conclusions. Dextran may play an important role in preserving the endothelial cells before and after stripping for trifolded (endothelium-in) preloaded DMEK lenticules. PMID:27994884

  6. Networked Virtual Organizations: A Chance for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises on Global Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellary, Wojciech

    Networked Virtual Organizations (NVOs) are a right answer to challenges of globalized, diversified, and dynamic contemporary economy. NVOs need more than e-trade and outsourcing, namely, they need out-tasking and e-collaboration. To out-task, but retain control on the way a task is performed by an external partner, two integrations are required: (1) integration of computer management systems of enterprises cooperating within an NVO; and (2) integration of cooperating representatives of NVO member enterprises into a virtual team. NVOs provide a particular chance to Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) to find their place on global markets and to play a significant role on them. Requirements for SMEs to be able to successfully join an NVO are analyzed in the paper.

  7. Fluorous oxime palladacycle: a precatalyst for carbon-carbon coupling reactions in aqueous and organic medium.

    PubMed

    Susanto, Woen; Chu, Chi-Yuan; Ang, Wei Jie; Chou, Tzyy-Chao; Lo, Lee-Chiang; Lam, Yulin

    2012-03-16

    To facilitate precatalyst recovery and reuse, we have developed a fluorous, oxime-based palladacycle 1 and demonstrated that it is a very efficient and versatile precatalyst for a wide range of carbon-carbon bond formation reactions (Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, Stille, Heck, Glaser-type, and Kumada) in either aqueous or organic medium under microwave irradiation. Palladacycle 1 could be recovered through F-SPE in various coupling reactions with recovery ranging from 84 to 95% for the first cycle. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analyses of the Pd content in the crude product from each class of transformation indicated extremely low levels of leaching and the palladacycle could be reused four to five times without significant loss of activity.

  8. Organic transistors making use of room temperature ionic liquids as gating medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Jonathan Javier Sayago

    The ability to couple ionic and electronic transport in organic transistors, based on pi conjugated organic materials for the transistor channel, can be particularly interesting to achieve low voltage transistor operation, i.e. below 1 V. The operation voltage in typical organic transistors based on conventional dielectrics (200 nm thick SiO2) is commonly higher than 10 V. Electrolyte-gated (EG) transistors, i.e. employing an electrolyte as the gating medium, permit current modulations of several orders of magnitude at relatively low gate voltages thanks to the exceptionally high capacitance at the electrolyte/transistor channel interface, in turn due to the low thickness (ca. 3 nm) of the electrical double layers forming at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface. Electrolytes based on room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are promising in EG transistor applications for their high electrochemical stability and good ionic conductivity. The main motivation behind this work is to achieve low voltage operation in organic transistors by making use of RTILs as gating medium. First we demonstrate the importance of the gate electrode material in the EG transistor performance. The use of high surface area carbon gate electrodes limits undesirable electrochemical processes and renders unnecessary the presence of a reference electrode to monitor the channel potential. This was demonstrated using activated carbon as gate electrode, the electronic conducting polymer MEH-PPV, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] channel material, and the ionic liquid [EMIM][TFSI] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), as gating medium. Using high surface area gate electrodes resulted in sub-1 V operation and charge carrier mobilities of (1.0 +/- 0.5) x 10-2 cm2V -1s-1. A challenge in the field of EG transistors is to decrease their response time, a consequence of the slow ion redistribution in the transistor channel upon application of electric

  9. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 {micro}g/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods.

  10. Fugacity gradients of hydrophobic organics across the air-water interface measured with a novel passive sampler.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Yao, Yao; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Wong, Charles S; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-01

    Mass transfer of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) across the air-water interface is an important geochemical process controlling the fate and transport of HOCs at the regional and global scales. However, few studies have characterized concentration or fugacity profiles of HOCs near both sides of the air-water interface, which is the driving force for the inter-compartmental mass transfer of HOCs. Herein, we introduce a novel passive sampling device which is capable of measuring concentration (and therefore fugacity) gradients of HOCs across the air-water interface. Laboratory studies indicated that the escaping fugacity values of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to air were negatively correlated to their volatilization half-lives. Results for field deployment were consistent between the passive sampler and an active method, i.e., a combination of grab sampling and liquid-liquid extraction. In general, the fugacity profiles of detected PAHs were indicative of an accumulation mechanism in the surface microlayer of the study regions (Haizhu Lake and Hailing Bay of Guangdong Province, China), while p,p'-DDD tended to volatilize from water to the atmosphere in Hailing Bay. Furthermore, the fugacity profiles of the target analytes increased towards the air-water interface, reflecting the complexity of environmental behavior of the target analytes near the air-water interface. Overall, the passive sampling device provides a novel means to better characterize the air-water diffusive transfer of HOCs, facilitating the understanding of the global cycling of HOCs.

  11. Passive sampling of selected pesticides in aquatic environment using polar organic chemical integrative samplers.

    PubMed

    Thomatou, Alphanna-Akrivi; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Hela, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    Polar chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were examined for their sampling efficiency of 12 pesticides and one metabolite commonly detected in surface waters. Laboratory-based calibration experiments of POCISs were conducted. The determined passive sampling rates were applied for the monitoring of pesticides levels in Lake Amvrakia, Western Greece. Spot sampling was also performed for comparison purposes. Calibration experiments were performed on the basis of static renewal exposure of POCIS under stirred conditions for different time periods of up to 28 days. The analytical procedures were based on the coupling of POCIS and solid phase extraction by Oasis HLB cartridges with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The recovery of the target pesticides from the POCIS was generally >79% with relative standard deviation (RSD) <16%. The calibration results revealed an integrative uptake of all pesticides for 28 days and the calculated sampling rates ranged from 0.025 to 0.388 L day(-1) with RSD <29%. Low nanogram/liter levels of pesticides such as diazinon, alachlor, and s-metolachlor were detected during the monitoring campaign using both passive and spot sampling whereas higher concentrations were measured by spot sampling in most cases. Passive sampling by POCIS provides a useful tool for the monitoring of pesticides in aquatic systems since integrative sampling at rates sufficient for analytical quantitation of ambient levels was observed. Calibration data are in demand for a greater number of compounds in order to extend the use in environmental monitoring.

  12. Volatile organic compounds at two oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Adam P; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Smith, Luther A; Thoma, Eben D; Whitaker, Donald A; Oliver, Karen D; Wu, Tai; Colon, Maribel; Alston, Lillian; Cousett, Tamira A; Miller, Michael C; Smith, Donald M; Stallings, Casson

    2016-04-01

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB), along with a traffic-dominated site in downtown Denver, CO. As indicated in the EPA method, VOC concentrations were measured for 14-day sampling periods using passive-diffusive tube samplers with Carbopack X sorbent at fenceline perimeter and other locations. VOCs were significantly higher at the DJB well pad versus the Barnett well pad and were likely due to higher production levels at the DJB well pad during the study. Benzene and toluene were significantly higher at the DJB well pad versus downtown Denver. Except for perchloroethylene, VOCs measured at passive sampler locations (PSs) along the perimeter of the Barnett well pad were significantly higher than PSs farther away. At the DJB well pad, most VOC concentrations, except perchloroethylene, were significantly higher prior to operational changes than after these changes were made. Though limited, the results suggest passive samplers are precise (duplicate precision usually ≤10%) and that they can be useful to assess spatial gradients and operational conditions at well pad locations over time-integrated periods. Recently enacted EPA Methods 325A/B use passive-diffusive tube samplers to measure benzene at multiple fenceline locations at petrochemical refineries. This pilot study presents initial data demonstrating the utility of Methods 325A/B for monitoring at ONG facilities. Measurements revealed elevated concentrations reflective of production levels and spatial gradients of VOCs relative to source proximity at the Barnett well pad, as well as operational changes at the DJB well pad. Though limited, these findings indicate that Methods 325A/B can be useful in application to characterize VOCs at well pad

  13. Soil organic carbon as a factor in passive microwave retrievals of soil water content over agricultural croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Hida R.; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing has the potential to deliver global soil water content (SWC) on vast scales with frequent revisit times for progress in the fields of climate, weather forecasting, agriculture and hydrology. Although surface roughness, vegetation and soil texture have been established as sources of variability in passive microwave interpretation, soil organic carbon (SOC) has not typically been considered as a factor that affects SWC estimation during field sampling campaigns. SOC was observed along with soil texture and bulk density during the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment in 2012 (SMAPVEX12), the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite algorithm development field sampling campaign held June 6 to July 19 in Southern Manitoba, Canada. Aerial measurements from the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument were recorded over agricultural fields and forest areas from aircraft while SWC was measured simultaneously on the ground with resistance probes on 17 sampling dates. Additionally, fields were sampled for surface roughness, vegetation growth and water content, soil and vegetation temperature and soil physical characteristics. A soil core was collected on each field each sampling time to assess bulk density, soil particle size and SOC. SOC accounted for more variability in the anomalies between PALS and ground sampled SWC than sand, clay or bulk density, although all soil variables explained significant variability. With analysis by partial least squares multiple regression over 11 sampling dates and 39 fields where both ground and PALS data were well represented, only SOC contributed significantly to the regression of SWC beyond the variance all soil variables had in common. The significance of SOC in the relative SWC anomalies was highest in very wet and very dry conditions and in loam soil over all sampling dates, while bulk density was more significant in sand soils. This analysis suggests SOC is a simple variable that incorporates

  14. Nature of the Organic Signature in Dust from the Interstellar Medium: Laboratory Analog Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, M. M.; Freund, F. T.; Staple, A.; Scoville, J.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the infrared (IR) nu(sub CH) absorption bands around 3.4 microns (2800 - 3000 cm(sup -1) in large laboratory-grown magnesium oxide (MgO) and natural olivine single crystals that crystallized from CO/CO2/H2O saturated melts. These bands are very similar to those from many astronomical sources, such as from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), from the outflow of evolved stars, etc., and they are characteristic of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 entities. In our laboratory single crystals the VCH bands arise from C-H entities that were introduced by a solid solution process, and that are imbedded in the mineral matrix in form of polyatomic C(sub n) entities with C atoms bonded to O and to H. Heating breaks the C-H bonds, causing hydrogen to disperse in the mineral matrix. C-H bonds are re-established rapidly during annealing. We propose that dust grains probably contain the same type of internal C(sub n)-H entities in solid matrix rather than an external organic layer covering the grain surfaces. Thermodynamical arguments show that the concentration of organics in solid solution in small grains can be comparable to that found in astronomical environments.

  15. Assessing organic contaminants in fish: comparison of a nonlethal tissue sampling technique to mobile and stationary passive sampling devices.

    PubMed

    Heltsley, Rebecca M; Cope, W Gregory; Shea, Damian; Bringolf, Robert B; Kwak, Thomas J; Malindzak, Edward G

    2005-10-01

    As concerns mount over the human health risks associated with consumption of fish contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, there exists a need to better evaluate fish body burdens without lethally sampling many of the important commercial and sport species of interest. The aim of this study was to investigate two novel methods for estimating organic contaminants in fish that are a concern for both fish and human health. The removal of fish adipose fins, commonly done in mark-recapture studies with salmonid species, was evaluated as a nonlethal sampling technique to estimate concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), relative to those found in muscle fillets of the same fish. We also assessed the efficacy of using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a mobile passive sampling device (PSD) attached directly to wild flathead catfish for assessing location-specific exposure of the fish to waterborne contaminants. The results of this study have demonstrated for the first time that organic contaminant concentrations in adipose fin were highly correlated (R2 = 0.87) with muscle fillet concentrations, indicating that the adipose fin of certain fishes may be used to accurately estimate tissue concentrations without the need for lethal sampling. Moreover, mobile PSDs attached directly to fish and used here for the first time accurately estimated ultratrace concentrations of waterborne PCBs and OCPs without any apparent harm to the fish, indicating that there are no practical or physical barriers to the use of mobile passive samplers attached to aquatic organisms. Among the many practical implications of this research, two potential priority items include the analysis of organic contaminants in farm-raised and sport fish intended for human consumption, without the economic and population losses associated with lethally sampling fish to obtain tissues, and identifying specific areas

  16. MoO3 surface passivation of the transparent anode in organic solar cells using ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattin, L.; Dahou, F.; Lare, Y.; Morsli, M.; Tricot, R.; Houari, S.; Mokrani, A.; Jondo, K.; Khelil, A.; Napo, K.; Bernède, J. C.

    2009-02-01

    An original surface passivation technique of indium tin oxide (ITO) used as anode in organic solar cells is proposed. We demonstrate that a thin MoO3 film (3.5±1 nm) at the interface ITO/organic donor allows improving significantly the devices' performances. The devices are based on the multiheterojunction structure copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3). The deposition of MoO3 onto ITO improves the charge transfer from CuPc to ITO. The enhancement in the hole collection efficiency in the presence of an oxide layer can be explained in terms of the reduction in the effective barrier against hole transfer from CuPc into the ITO anode. The contact ITO/MoO3/CuPc behaves like a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, which allows reducing the energy barrier due to the difference between the work function of ITO and the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc. It is shown that the optimum MoO3 thickness corresponds to a compromise between an optimum ITO coverage and a sufficient transparency of the trapezoidal barrier for the tunneling of the charge carriers. The MoO3 thin films are discontinuous, and the passivation effect is improved when the oxide thin film is covered by an ultrathin gold film. Such behavior is discussed in the light of band scheme structures after contact and of geometrical considerations.

  17. Non-equilibrium sediment-water partitioning and its effect on passive and active bioaccumulation of organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors measured the bioaccumulation of non-polar organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs) in the deposit feeding soft-shell clam, M. arenaria, and in the passive accumulator, the semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD) in sediments of Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. They also modeled the partitioning of these contaminants by measuring both the total and AEP (available for equilibrium partitioning) fraction of contaminants in the sediment and the sediment porewater, along with measurements of sediment and colloidal organic carbon. They found the sediment AEP fraction of pyrogenic PAH ranged from 15% to 85% depending on location and time of the sediment collection and the porewater AEP fraction ranged from < 1% to 50% depending on the octanol-water partition coefficient. Using lipid normalized concentrations, they found that the deposit feeding clams were in equilibrium with the sediment AEP fraction, the passive SPMDs were in equilibrium with the porewater AEP fraction, but the sediment and porewater were in non-equilibrium, steady state. Implications of these results to benthic bioaccumulation processes and to sediment quality management will be discussed.

  18. Mass spectra deconvolution of low, medium, and high volatility biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Kostenidou, Evangelia; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Engelhart, Gabriella J; Pierce, Jeffrey R; Pandis, Spyros N

    2009-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) consists of compounds with a wide range of volatilities and its ambient concentration is sensitive to this volatility distribution. Recent field studies have shown that the typical mass spectrum of ambient oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) as measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) is quite different from the SOA mass spectra reported in smog chamber experiments. Part of this discrepancy is due to the dependence of SOA composition on the organic aerosol concentration. High precursor concentrations lead to higher concentrations of the more volatile species in the produced SOA while at lower concentrations the less volatile compounds dominate the SOA composition. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, and beta-caryophyllene ozonolysis experiments were performed at moderate concentration levels. Using a thermodenuder the more volatile SOA species were removed achieving even lower SOA concentration. The less volatile fraction was then chemically characterized by an AMS. The signal fraction of m/z44, and thus the concentration of C02+, is significantly higher for the less volatile SOA. High NO(x) conditions result in less oxidized SOA than low NO(x) conditions, while increasing relative humidity levels results in more oxidized products for limonene but has little effect on alpha-and beta-pinene SOA. Combining a smog chamber with a thermodenuder model employing the volatility basis-set framework, the AMS SOA mass spectrum for each experiment and for each precursor is deconvoluted into low, medium, and high volatility component mass spectra. The spectrum of the surrogate component with the lower volatility is quite similar to that of ambient OOA.

  19. The risk of radiation-induced second cancers in the high to medium dose region: a comparison between passive and scanned proton therapy, IMRT and VMAT for pediatric patients with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Yock, Torunn I; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-06-21

    The incidence of second malignant tumors is a clinically observed adverse late effect of radiation therapy, especially in organs close to the treatment site, receiving medium to high doses (>2.5 Gy). For pediatric patients, choosing the least toxic radiation modality is of utmost importance, due to their high radiosensitivity and small size. This study aims to evaluate the risk of second cancer incidence in the vicinity of the primary radiation field, for pediatric patients with brain/head and neck tumors and compare four treatment modalities: passive scattering and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PPT and PBS), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). For a cohort of six pediatric patients originally treated with PPT, additional PBS, IMRT and VMAT plans were created. Dose distributions from these plans were used to calculate the excess absolute risk (EAR) and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for developing a second tumor in soft tissue and skull. A widely used risk assessment formalism was employed and compared with a linear model based on recent clinical findings. In general, LAR was found to range between 0.01%-2.8% for PPT/PBS and 0.04%-4.9% for IMRT/VMAT. PBS was associated with the lowest risk for most patients using carcinoma and sarcoma models, whereas IMRT and VMAT risks were comparable and the highest among all modalities. The LAR for IMRT/VMAT relative to PPT ranged from 1.3-4.6 for soft tissue and from 3.5-9.5 for skull. Larger absolute LAR was observed for younger patients and using linear risk models. The number of fields used in proton therapy and IMRT had minimal effect on the risk. When planning treatments and deciding on the treatment modality, the probability of second cancer incidence should be carefully examined and weighed against the possibility of developing acute side effects for each patient individually.

  20. The risk of radiation-induced second cancers in the high to medium dose region: a comparison between passive and scanned proton therapy, IMRT and VMAT for pediatric patients with brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Yock, Torunn I.; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of second malignant tumors is a clinically observed adverse late effect of radiation therapy, especially in organs close to the treatment site, receiving medium to high doses (>2.5 Gy). For pediatric patients, choosing the least toxic radiation modality is of utmost importance, due to their high radiosensitivity and small size. This study aims to evaluate the risk of second cancer incidence in the vicinity of the primary radiation field, for pediatric patients with brain/head and neck tumors and compare four treatment modalities: passive scattering and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PPT and PBS), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). For a cohort of six pediatric patients originally treated with PPT, additional PBS, IMRT and VMAT plans were created. Dose distributions from these plans were used to calculate the excess absolute risk (EAR) and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for developing a second tumor in soft tissue and skull. A widely used risk assessment formalism was employed and compared with a linear model based on recent clinical findings. In general, LAR was found to range between 0.01%-2.8% for PPT/PBS and 0.04%-4.9% for IMRT/VMAT. PBS was associated with the lowest risk for most patients using carcinoma and sarcoma models, whereas IMRT and VMAT risks were comparable and the highest among all modalities. The LAR for IMRT/VMAT relative to PPT ranged from 1.3-4.6 for soft tissue and from 3.5-9.5 for skull. Larger absolute LAR was observed for younger patients and using linear risk models. The number of fields used in proton therapy and IMRT had minimal effect on the risk. When planning treatments and deciding on the treatment modality, the probability of second cancer incidence should be carefully examined and weighed against the possibility of developing acute side effects for each patient individually.

  1. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, biomonitoring organisms have been used to assess the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) at contaminated sediment Superfund sites across the country. Specific applications include evaluating remedy effectiveness and pre- and post-remediation l...

  2. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades, biomonitoring organisms have been used to assess the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) at contaminated sediment Superfund sites across the country. Specific applications include evaluating remedy effectiveness and pre- and post-remediation l...

  3. Organic Fluids and Passive Cooling in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Power Generation from Low Grade Heat Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidhi, Rachana

    Low grade heat sources have a large amount of thermal energy content. Due to low temperature, the conventional power generation technologies result in lower efficiency and hence cannot be used. In order to efficiently generate power, alternate methods need to be used. In this study, a supercritical organic Rankine cycle was used for heat source temperatures varying from 125°C to 200°C. Organic refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential and their mixtures were selected as working fluid for this study while the cooling water temperature was changed from 10-25°C. Operating pressure of the cycle has been optimized for each fluid at every heat source temperature to obtain the highest thermal efficiency. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the thermodynamic cycle have been obtained as a function of heat source temperature. Efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle depends significantly on the sink temperature. At areas where water cooling is not available and ambient air temperature is high, efficient power generation from low grade heat sources may be a challenge. Use of passive cooling systems coupled with the condenser was studied, so that lower sink temperatures could be obtained. Underground tunnels, buried at a depth of few meters, were used as earth-air-heat-exchanger (EAHE) through which hot ambient air was passed. It was observed that the air temperature could be lowered by 5-10°C in the EAHE. Vertical pipes were used to lower the temperature of water by 5°C by passing it underground. Nocturnal cooling of stored water has been studied that can be used to cool the working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. It was observed that the water temperature can be lowered by 10-20°C during the night when it is allowed to cool. The amount of water lost was calculated and was found to be approximately 0.1% over 10 days. The different passive cooling systems were studied separately and their effects on the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle were investigated. They were

  4. Compositional analysis of passivating surface film formed on carbon electrode in organic electrolytic solution using in-situ spectroelectrochemical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyun, Su-Il

    1999-02-01

    In-situ spectroelectrochemical technique has been applied to investigate passivating surface film on porous carbon electrode and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) carbon film electrode in organic electrolytic solution consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) solvent, and 1 M LiPF6 and LiAsF6. Water impurity with the concentration of 0 M, 0.02 M, 0.05 M, and 0.1 M H20 was added to 1 M LiPF6-EC/DEC solution. In-situ Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra of the surface film on both electrodes with the constituents of ROCO2Li, Li2CO3, and LixPFy suggested that the reduction of EC to ROCO2Li runs via a one-electron transfer pathway as a result of diffusion of water through the surface film, and then Li2CO3 formation proceeds simultaneously by the chemical reaction of ROCO2Li with water. From the measured potential dependence of the amount of the salt reduction products, it is suggested that the surface film formed in 1 M LiPF6EC/DEC solution gives a poorer passivity as compared with that formed in 1 M LiAsF6-EC/DEC solution, which is due to the considerable interference of LiPE6 salt reduction with the compact sedimentation of ROCO2Li on the electrode. In-situ FFIR spectra of the surface film showed that all the peak intensities of the three constituents significantly increase with increasing water content under application of the negative potentials with respect to open circuit potential (OCP). From these experimental results, the dependence of the passivity of the surface film on the carbon electrode on the water concentration of the electrolyte, as well as on the lithium salt type, was discussed in view of the salt and solvent reactivities.

  5. Selecting Locations for Medium Intensity Sampling of Soil Organic Carbon in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, N. B.; Maursetter, J.

    2004-12-01

    A warming climate may lead to the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane from Arctic soils, resulting in a positive feedback. Quantifying soil carbon stocks is necessary for calibrating models of carbon flux. The total stocks of soil carbon in high latitudes are poorly quantified because there are few soil samples. As a guide to additional sampling, such as the new 3rd Tier Medium-Intensity Sampling planned in the North American Carbon Program, we have investigated methods of using existing soil databases to map the intensities and calculate the total quantities of soil carbon in Alaska. We have related the laboratory data on soil physical and chemical properties for specific locations (the pedon data) to the soil components of the digital maps in the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database. Both data sources are from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service. We evaluated 523 pedons for Alaska, selected those for which soil organic carbon could be calculated, and investigated several methods of matching them to the digital soil maps. The soil taxonomic classification (usually at the suborder, great group, or subgroup level), slope, and location were used in multiple combinations for linking the detailed profile descriptions to the general soil maps. We illustrate the uncertainty of estimations of carbon stocks by using alternative methods of performing the data selection and matching. Each matching method allows a many-to-many relation between the pedon point observations and the components of the soil maps. Once extrapolated to the map, a large measure of carbon stock attributed to a given sample point indicates an area in which additional sampling would efficiently reduce the uncertainty of the soil organic carbon estimates.

  6. Medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akihiro; Doi, Yuko; Imai, Norio; Nakashima, Hironao; Ono, Takahiro; Kawabe, Mayumi; Furukawa, Fumio; Tamano, Seiko; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-11-18

    The modifying potential of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) on tumor development was investigated in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay using male F344 rats. Animals were sequentially given 5 carcinogens with different target sites in the first 4 weeks for multi-organ initiation. After one week they received ETBE by gavage at dose levels of 0 (control), 300 or 1000mg/kg/day until experimental week 28. Further groups were also given ETBE at doses of 0 or 1000mg/kg/day without prior carcinogen application. Incidences and multiplicities of follicular cell hyperplasias and neoplasms in the thyroid were significantly increased at dose levels of more than 300mg/kg/day. Combined incidences of squamous cell hyperplasias and papillomas of the forestomach were also significantly increased at 300 and 1000mg/kg/day. Incidences and multiplicities of adenocarcinomas in the colon were increased at 1000mg/kg/day. The numbers and areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci per unit area of the liver sections, and the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas were also significantly increased at 1000mg/kg/day, along with multiplicities of atypical hyperplasias of renal tubules of the kidney and the incidence of papillomatosis of the urinary bladder. This latter lesion was also seen at low incidence at 1000mg/kg/day without initiation. Thus, the current results indicate that ETBE has tumor promoting potential for the thyroid and forestomach at dose levels of 300mg/kg/day and more, and for the colon, liver, kidney and urinary bladder at 1000mg/kg/day, under the present experimental conditions.

  7. Assessing seasonal and spatial trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Indian agricultural regions using PUF disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Harner, Tom; Lee, Sum Chi; Sinha, Ravindra K; Sengupta, B; Loewen, Mark; Geethalakshmi, V; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Volpi, Valerio

    2011-02-01

    The first survey of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in air across several Indian agricultural regions was conducted in 2006-2007. Passive samplers comprising polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed on a quarterly basis at seven stations in agricultural regions, one urban site and one background site. The project was conducted as a sub-project of the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. In addition to revealing new information on air concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the study has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting regional-scale monitoring for POPs in India using PUF disk samplers. The following analytes were detected with relatively high concentrations in air (mean for 2006 and 2007, pg/m(3)): α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (292 and 812, respectively); endosulfan I and II (2770 and 902, respectively); p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT (247 and 931, respectively); and for the sum of 48 PCBs, 12,100 (including a site with extremely high air concentrations in 2007) and 972 (when excluding data for this site).

  8. Enhanced photoluminescence and solar cell performance via Lewis base passivation of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites.

    PubMed

    Noel, Nakita K; Abate, Antonio; Stranks, Samuel D; Parrott, Elizabeth S; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-10-28

    Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have recently emerged as a top contender to be used as an absorber material in highly efficient, low-cost photovoltaic devices. Solution-processed semiconductors tend to have a high density of defect states and exhibit a large degree of electronic disorder. Perovskites appear to go against this trend, and despite relatively little knowledge of the impact of electronic defects, certified solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies of up to 17.9% have been achieved. Here, through treatment of the crystal surfaces with the Lewis bases thiophene and pyridine, we demonstrate significantly reduced nonradiative electron-hole recombination within the CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite, achieving photoluminescence lifetimes which are enhanced by nearly an order of magnitude, up to 2 μs. We propose that this is due to the electronic passivation of under-coordinated Pb atoms within the crystal. Through this method of Lewis base passivation, we achieve power conversion efficiencies for solution-processed planar heterojunction solar cells enhanced from 13% for the untreated solar cells to 15.3% and 16.5% for the thiophene and pyridine-treated solar cells, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of a passive optical based end of service life indicator (ESLI) for organic vapor respirator cartridges

    PubMed Central

    Checky, Melissa; Frankel, Kevin; Goddard, Denise; Johnson, Erik; Thomas, J. Christopher; Zelinsky, Maria; Javner, Cassidy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A passive visual end of service life indicator (ESLI) for certain organic vapors has been attached to the inside wall of an organic vapor respirator cartridge. The opposite side of the ESLI touches activated carbon inside the cartridge. During use, organic vapors moving through the cartridge adsorb into both the carbon and the ESLI. The cartridge body is clear so that when vapor concentrations meet a certain threshold, the user may observe the progressive development of an indicator bar down the side of the ESLI. The cartridge is deemed ready to change when any part of the indicator bar touches a marked end line. The performance of the ESLI was observed when the cartridge was tested against a variety of organic vapors, exposure concentrations above the minimum indication level, humidities, temperatures, flow rates, and mixtures. In all cases, the ESLI indicated end of service life with more than 10% cartridge service life remaining (which is a NIOSH test criteria). The results were also compared to mathematical predictions of cartridge service life. PMID:26418577

  10. Low-Temperature Process for Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition of an Al2O3 Passivation Layer for Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Jihye; Sohn, Sunyoung; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells have drawn extensive attention due to their light weight, cost efficiency, portability, and so on. However, OPV cells degrade quickly due to organic damage by water vapor or oxygen penetration when the devices are driven in the atmosphere without a passivation layer. In order to prevent damage due to water vapor or oxygen permeation into the devices, passivation layers have been introduced through methods such as sputtering, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD). In this work, the structural and chemical properties of Al2O3 films, deposited via ALCVD at relatively low temperatures of 109 degrees C, 200 degrees C, and 300 degrees C, are analyzed. In our experiment, trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O were used as precursors for Al2O3 film deposition via ALCVD. All of the Al2O3 films showed very smooth, featureless surfaces without notable defects. However, we found that the plastic flexible substrate of an OPV device passivated with 300 degrees C deposition temperature was partially bended and melted, indicating that passivation layers for OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates need to be formed at temperatures lower than 300 degrees C. The OPV cells on plastic flexible substrates were passivated by the Al2O3 film deposited at the temperature of 109 degrees C. Thereafter, the photovoltaic properties of passivated OPV cells were investigated as a function of exposure time under the atmosphere.

  11. A passive sampling-based analytical strategy for the determination of volatile organic compounds in the air of working areas.

    PubMed

    Ly-Verdú, Saray; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Pastor, Agustín; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2010-09-16

    An analytical methodology based on the use of a polyethylene layflat tube filled with activated carbon and Florisil (ACFL-VERAM) was employed for the passive sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of working areas of packing industries. VOCs amount in the ACFL-VERAM sampler was directly determined through head-space-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) allowing a direct determination in only 20 min without the need of any previous treatment. Uptake parameters, like sampling rate (R(S)) and sampler-air partition coefficient (K(SA)), were determined for every studied VOC from adsorption isotherm data. Additionally, experimental equations have been proposed to predict R(S) and K(SA) from the octanol-air partition coefficients reported in the literature. The proposed methodology reaches method detection levels from 0.007 to 0.2 mg m(-3) for the studied VOCs.

  12. The Efficacy of Passive Ultrasonic Activation of Organic Solvents on Dissolving Two Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Letícia; Huerta, Isadora Razzera; Michelon, Carina; Bello, Mariana De Carlo; Pillar, Rafael; Souza Bier, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dissolving efficacy of eucalyptol and orange oil solvents associated with passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) based and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. Methods and Materials: Seventy samples of each sealer were prepared and then randomized according to the solvent and the time of the ultrasonic activation (n=5). The mean amount of weight loss of sealers was calculated in percentages and was analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. Results: The greatest values of weight loss were obtained with the ZOE sealer groups (P<0.05), regardless of the solvent that was used. An application of PUA for 3 min, with a renewal of orange oil solvent each min, showed the greatest percentage of weight loss in ZOE sealer compared to the others templates (P<0.05). Neither the solvent nor the different times had any influence on the weight loss of the resin sealer (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of PUA with essential oils can be an effective method in dissolving ZOE based sealers. PMID:28179919

  13. Towards an improved soil moisture retrieval for organic-rich soils from SMOS passive microwave L-band observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Simone; Richaume, Philippe; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Demontoux, François; Jonard, François; Weihermüller, Lutz; Andreasen, Mie; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Ikonen, Jaakko; Schwank, Mike; Drusch, Mattias; Kerr, Yann H.

    2017-04-01

    From the passive L-band microwave radiometer onboard the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) space mission global surface soil moisture data is retrieved every 2 - 3 days. Thus far, the empirical L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) radiative transfer model applied in the SMOS soil moisture retrieval algorithm is exclusively calibrated over test sites in dry and temperate climate zones. Furthermore, the included dielectric mixing model relating soil moisture to relative permittivity accounts only for mineral soils. However, soil moisture monitoring over the higher Northern latitudes is crucial since these regions are especially sensitive to climate change. A considerable positive feedback is expected if thawing of these extremely organic soils supports carbon decomposition and release to the atmosphere. Due to differing structural characteristics and thus varying bound water fractions, the relative permittivity of organic material is lower than that of the most mineral soils at a given water content. This assumption was verified by means of L-band relative permittivity laboratory measurements of organic and mineral substrates from various sites in Denmark, Finland, Scotland and Siberia using a resonant cavity. Based on these data, a simple empirical dielectric model for organic soils was derived and implemented in the SMOS Soil Moisture Level 2 Prototype Processor (SML2PP). Unfortunately, the current SMOS retrieved soil moisture product seems to show unrealistically low values compared to in situ soil moisture data collected from organic surface layers in North America, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau so that the impact of the dielectric model for organic soils cannot really be tested. A simplified SMOS processing scheme yielding higher soil moisture levels has recently been proposed and is presently under investigation. Furthermore, recalibration of the model parameters accounting for vegetation and roughness effects that were thus far only

  14. Identification of selected organic contaminants in streams associated with agricultural activities and comparison between autosampling and silicone rubber passive sampling.

    PubMed

    Emelogu, Emmanuel S; Pollard, Pat; Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; McKenzie, Craig; Napier, Fiona; Steven, Lucy; Moffat, Colin F

    2013-02-15

    This study evaluates the potential of silicone rubber passive sampling devices (SR-PSDs) as a suitable alternative to automatic water samplers (autosamplers) for the preliminary identification of a wide range of organic contaminants in freshwater systems. The field performance of SR-PSDs deployed at three sites on two streams of an agricultural catchment area in North East (NE) Scotland, United Kingdom (UK) was assessed concurrently with composite water samples collected from two of the sites using autosamplers. The analytical suite consisted of selected plant protection products (PPPs; commonly referred to collectively as 'pesticides'), including 47 pesticides and a separate sub-category of 22 acid/urea herbicides. Of these, a total of 54 substances, comprising 46 pesticides and 8 urea herbicides were detected in at least one of the SR samplers. All but 6 of these SR-PSD detected substances were quantifiable. By comparison, a total of 25 substances comprising 3 pesticides and 22 acid/urea herbicides were detected in the composite water samples, of which only 8 acid/urea herbicides were quantifiable. The larger number and chemical classes of compounds detected and quantified via passive sampling reflect the lower limits of detection achieved by this device when compared to autosamplers. The determination of dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) added to the information on contaminant pressures at each site, allowing assessment of the reliability of SR-PSDs in freshwater systems and the identification of possible contaminant sources. The study demonstrated the utility of SR-PSDs for detecting and semi-quantifying low concentrations of analytes, including those which hitherto have not been measured in the catchment area and also some pesticides that are no longer approved for agricultural use in the UK and EU. The SR-PSD approach can thus provide a better understanding and clearer picture of the use

  15. Characteristics of plasma in culture medium generated by positive pulse voltage and effects of organic compounds on its characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Sato, T.; Yoshino, D.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a positive pulse voltage method for generating plasma in culture medium with a composition similar to biological fluids. We also describe the plasma’s characteristics, liquid quality, and the effect of organic compounds in the culture medium on the plasma characteristics through comparisons to a solution containing inorganic salts at the same concentrations as in the culture medium. Light emission with Na and OH spectra was observed within a vapor bubble produced by Joule heating at the tip of the electrode. A downward thermal flow and shock wave were caused by the behavior of the vapor bubble. The culture medium pH gradually increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the discharge time of 300 s. H2O2 was generated 1.1 mg l‑1 in the culture medium after discharge for 300 s, and this value was 0.5 mg l‑1 lower than the inorganic salts solution which does not contain organic compounds. This study provides important data that will help facilitate more widespread application of plasma medicine.

  16. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE, IN SITU, INTEGRATIVE SAMPLER FOR HYDROPHILLIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, hydrophobic, bioconcentratable compounds have been the primary focus of most environmental organic contaminant investigations, There is an increasing realization that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the c...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE, IN SITU, INTEGRATIVE SAMPLER FOR HYDROPHILLIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, hydrophobic, bioconcentratable compounds have been the primary focus of most environmental organic contaminant investigations, There is an increasing realization that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the c...

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Passive Sampling as a Surrogate for Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and the subsequent evaluation of their ecological and human health risks are common endpoints in aquatic environmental monitoring. Due to their hydrophobicity, many anthropogenic HOCs will partition from the water into organi...

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Passive Sampling as a Surrogate for Organism Bioaccumulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and the subsequent evaluation of their ecological and human health risks are common endpoints in aquatic environmental monitoring. Due to their hydrophobicity, many anthropogenic HOCs will partition from the water into organi...

  1. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  2. Use of Passive Samplers to Measure Dissolved Organic Contaminants in a Temperate Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants can be challenging given their low solubilities and high particle association. However, to perform accurate risk assessments of these chemicals, knowing the dissolved concentration is critical since it is considered to b...

  3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Passive Sampling as a Surrogate for Organism Bioaccumulation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and the subsequent evaluation of their ecological and human health risks are common endpoints in aquatic environmental monitoring. Due to their hydrophobicity, many anthropogenic HOCs will partition from the water into organi...

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Passive Sampling as a Surrogate for Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and the subsequent evaluation of their ecological and human health risks are common endpoints in aquatic environmental monitoring. Due to their hydrophobicity, many anthropogenic HOCs will partition from the water into organi...

  5. Use of Passive Samplers to Measure Dissolved Organic Contaminants in a Temperate Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants can be challenging given their low solubilities and high particle association. However, to perform accurate risk assessments of these chemicals, knowing the dissolved concentration is critical since it is considered to b...

  6. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Espallergues, Julie; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; El Mestikawy, Salah; Gerfen, Charles R; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP) or the Cre-recombinase (Cre) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist), quinpirole (a D2 receptors (D2R)-like agonist), apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist), raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist), and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  7. Oxidation of organic contaminants by manganese oxide geomedia for passive urban stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Grebel, Janel E; Charbonnet, Joseph A; Sedlak, David L

    2016-01-01

    To advance cost-effective strategies for removing trace organic contaminants from urban runoff, the feasibility of using manganese oxides as a geomedia amendment in engineered stormwater infiltration systems to oxidize organic contaminants was evaluated. Ten representative organic chemicals that have previously been detected in urban stormwater were evaluated for reactivity in batch experiments with birnessite. With respect to reactivity, contaminants could be classified as: highly reactive (e.g., bisphenol A), moderately reactive (e.g., diuron) and unreactive (e.g., tris(2-chloro-1-propyl)phosphate). Bisphenol A and diuron reacted with birnessite to produce a suite of products, including ring-cleavage products for bisphenol A and partially dechlorinated products for diuron. Columns packed with manganese oxide-coated sand were used evaluate design parameters for an engineered infiltration system, including necessary contact times for effective treatment, as well as the impacts of stormwater matrix variables, such as solution pH, concentration of natural organic matter and major anions and cations. The manganese oxide geomedia exhibited decreased reactivity when organic contaminants were oxidized, especially in the presence of divalent cations, bicarbonate, and natural organic matter. Under typical conditions, the manganese oxides are expected to retain their reactivity for 25 years.

  8. DNA-based small molecules for hole charge injection and channel passivation in organic heptazole field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Lee, Junyeong; Lim, June Yeong; Yu, Sanghyuck; Yi, Yeonjin; Im, Seongil

    2017-02-01

    DNA-based small molecules of guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine are adopted for the charge injection layer between the Au electrodes and organic semiconductor, heptazole (C26H16N2). The heptazole-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a DNA-based small molecule charge injection layer showed higher hole mobility (maximum 0.12 cm2 V-1 s-1) than that of a pristine device (0.09 cm2 V-1 s-1). We characterized the contact resistance of each device by a transfer length method (TLM) and found that the guanine layer among all DNA-based materials performs best as a hole injection layer leading to the lowest contact resistance. Since the guanine layer is also known to be a proper channel passivation layer coupled with a thin conformal Al2O3 layer protecting the channel from bias stress and ambient molecules, we could realize ultra-stable OFETs utilizing guanine/Au contact and guanine/Al2O3 bilayer on the organic channel.

  9. Review of polyoxymethylene passive sampling methods for quantifying freely dissolved porewater concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist Kruså, Marie; Cornelissen, Gerard; Grabanski, Carol B; Miller, David J; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2015-04-01

    Meth ods involving polyoxymethylene (POM) as a passive sampler are increasing in popularity to assess contaminant freely dissolved porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. These methods require contaminant-specific POM-water partition coefficients, KPOM . Certain methods for determining KPOM perform reproducibly (within 0.2 log units). However, other methods can give highly varying KPOM values (up to 2 log units), especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To account for this variation, the authors tested the influence of key methodological components in KPOM determinations, including POM thickness, extraction procedures, and environmental temperature and salinity, as well as uptake kinetics in mixed and static systems. All inconsistencies in the peer-reviewed literature can be accounted for by the likelihood that thick POM materials (500 μm or thicker) do not achieve equilibrium (causing negative biases up to 1 log unit), or that certain POM extraction procedures do not ensure quantitative extraction (causing negative biases up to 2 log units). Temperature can also influence KPOM , although all previous literature studies were carried out at room temperature. The present study found that KPOM values at room temperature are independent (within 0.2 log units) of POM manufacture method, of thickness between 17 μm and 80 μm, and of salinity between 0% and 10%. Regarding kinetics, monochloro- to hexachloro-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were within 0.2 log units of equilibrium after 28 d in the mixed system, but only dichloro-PCBs achieved near equilibrium after 126 d in the static system. Based on these insights, recommended methods and KPOM values to facilitate interlaboratory reproducibility are presented. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of three Chilean cities using passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Oyola, Germán; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Rudolph, Anny; Prybilova, Petra; Kukucka, Petr; Audi, Ondrej; Klánová, Jana; Metzdorff, America; Focardi, Silvano

    2017-05-15

    In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A sampling rate (R) typical of urban sites (4m(3)/day) was used to estimate the atmospheric concentrations of individual compounds. PCB concentrations in the air (pg/m(3)) ranged from ~1-10 (TEM), ~1-40 (STG) and 4-30 (CON). Higher molecular weight PCBs (PCB-153, -180) were detected at industrial sites (in Concepción). The HCHs showed a prevalence of γ-HCH across all sites, indicative of inputs from the use of lindane but a limited use of technical HCHs in Chile. DDTs were detected with a prevalence of p,p'-DDE accounting for ~50% of the total DDTs. PBDE concentrations in air (pg/m(3)) ranged from 1 to 55 (STG), 0.5 to 20 (CON) and from 0.4 to 10 (TEM), and were generally similar to those reported for many other urban areas globally. The pattern of PBDEs was different among the three cities; however, PBDE-209 was dominant at most of the sites. These results represent one of the few assessments of air concentrations of POPs across different urban areas within the same country. These data will support Chilean commitments as a signatory to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and for reporting as a member country of the Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Organic Metal/Silver Nanoparticle Finish on Copper for Efficient Passivation and Solderability Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, Bernhard; Thun, Marco; Arribas-Sanchez, Carmen; Gleeson, Sussane; Posdorfer, Joerg; Rischka, Melanie; Zeysing, Bjoern

    2007-09-01

    For the first time, a complex formed by polyaniline (in its organic metal form) and silver has been deposited on copper in nanoparticulate form. When depositing on Cu pads of printed circuit boards it efficiently protects against oxidation and preserves its solderability. The deposited layer has a thickness of only nominally 50 nm, containing the Organic Metal (conductive polymer), polyaniline, and silver. With >90% (by volume), polyaniline (PAni) is the major component of the deposited layer, Ag is present equivalent to a 4 nm thickness. The Pani Ag complex is deposited on Cu in form of about 100 nm small particles. Morphology, electrochemical characteristics, anti-oxidation and solderability results are reported.

  12. The use of passive membrane samplers to assess organic contaminant inputs at five coastal sites in west Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Pamela L.; Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt; D'antonio, Nicole

    2017-07-26

    Five passive membrane samplers were deployed for 28 continuous days at select sites along and near the west Maui coastline to assess organic compounds and contaminant inputs to diverse, shallow coral reef ecosystems. Daily and weekly fluctuations in such inputs were captured on the membranes using integrative sampling. The distribution of organic compounds observed at these five coastal sites showed considerable variation; with high concentrations of terrestrially sourced organic compounds such as C29 sterols and high molecular weight n-alkanes at the strongly groundwater-influenced Kahekili vent site. In comparison, the coastal sites were presumably influenced more by seasonal surface and stream water runoff and therefore had marine-sourced organic compounds and fewer pharmaceuticals and personal care products. The direct correlation to upstream land-use practices was not obvious and may require additional wet-season sampling. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products as well as flame retardants were detected at all sites, and the Kahekili vent site had the highest number of detections. Planned future work must also determine the organic compound and contaminant concentrations adsorbed onto water column particulate matter, because it may also be an important vector for contaminant transport to coral reef ecosystems. The impact of contaminants per individual (such as fecundity and metabolism) as well as per community (such as species abundance and diversity) is necessary for an accurate assessment of environmental stress. Results presented herein provide current contaminant inputs to select nearshore environments along the west Maui coastline captured during the dry season, and they can be useful to aid potential future evaluations and (or) comparisons.

  13. Monitoring Organic Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal Utilizing Passive Sampler Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of riverine habitats and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., USEPA, NOAA, USDA), as well as non-profit conservation organizations (e.g., American Rivers). Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credi...

  14. Monitoring Organic Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal Utilizing Passive Sampler Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of riverine habitats and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., USEPA, NOAA, USDA), as well as non-profit conservation organizations (e.g., American Rivers). Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credi...

  15. Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2009-01-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured by means of passive sampling at 40 sampling points in a medium-size city in Northern Spain, from June 2006 to June 2007. VOC and NO2 samplers were analysed by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass-selective detector and by visible spectrophotometry, respectively. Mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, propylbenzene, trimethylbenzenes, and NO(2) were 2.84, 13.26, 2.15, 6.01, 0.59, 1.32 and 23.17 microg m(-3) respectively, and found to be highly correlated. Their spatial distribution showed high differences in small distances and pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. The lowest levels of VOC and NO2 occurred during summer, owing to the increase in solar radiation and to lower traffic densities. Mean concentrations of benzene and NO2 exceeded the European limits at some of the monitored points.

  16. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  17. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  18. Calculating the Diffusive Flux of Persistent Organic Pollutants between Sediments and the Water Column on the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site using Polymeric Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers were used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Measured concentrations in the porewater and water column at...

  19. Passive Sampling to Measure Baseline Dissolved Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentrations in the Water Column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Pre-calibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were...

  20. Stable Organic Monolayers on Oxide-Free Silicon/Germanium in a Supercritical Medium: A New Route to Molecular Electronics.

    PubMed

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yeong, Sai Hooi; Troadec, Cedric; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-05-02

    Oxide-free Si and Ge surfaces have been passivated and modified with organic molecules by forming covalent bonds between the surfaces and reactive end groups of linear alkanes and aromatic species using single-step deposition in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). The process is suitable for large-scale manufacturing due to short processing times, simplicity, and high resistance to oxidation. It also allows the formation of monolayers with varying reactive terminal groups, thus enabling formation of nanostructures engineered at the molecular level. Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) spectra performed on the organic monolayer on oxide-free silicon capped by a thin gold layer reveals for the first time an increase in transmission of the ballistic current through the interface of up to three times compared to a control device, in contrast to similar studies reported in the literature suggestive of oxide-free passivation in SCCO2. The SCCO2 process combined with the preliminary BEEM results opens up new avenues for interface engineering, leading to molecular electronic devices.

  1. Passive Measurement of Organic-Scintillator Neutron Signatures for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jennfier L. Dolan; Eric C. Miller; Alexis C. Kaplan; Andreas Enqvist; Marek Flaska; Alice Tomanin; Paolo Peerani; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

    2012-10-01

    At nuclear facilities, domestically and internationally, most measurement systems used for nuclear materials’ control and accountability rely on He-3 detectors. Due to resource shortages, alternatives to He-3 systems are needed. This paper presents preliminary simulation and experimental efforts to develop a fast-neutron-multiplicity counter based on liquid organic scintillators. This mission also provides the opportunity to broaden the capabilities of such safeguards measurement systems to improve current neutron-multiplicity techniques and expand the scope to encompass advanced nuclear fuels.

  2. Use of mixed-mode ion exchange sorbent for the passive sampling of organic acids by polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS).

    PubMed

    Fauvelle, Vincent; Mazzella, Nicolas; Delmas, François; Madarassou, Karine; Eon, Mélissa; Budzinski, Hélène

    2012-12-18

    Acidic herbicides are increasingly monitored in freshwater, since their high solubility favors their rapid transfer to the water phase. Therefore, contaminant levels in the water can vary rapidly and passive sampling would be preferred over spot sampling to integrate all pollution events over a given exposure time. In this work, we propose to compare the conventional pharmaceutical polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) with modified POCISs containing two different receiving phases: a standard polystyrene divinylbenzene polymer with a higher specific surface area (Chromabond HR-X) and a mixed-mode anion exchange sorbent providing additional strong anion exchange interaction sites (Oasis MAX). Due to its hydrophobic character, Chromabond HR-X had little interaction with water (no sampling of acidic herbicides); whereas Oasis MAX provided acceptable sampling parameters (longer kinetic regime together with higher sampling rates). Additional experiments with POCIS-MAX showed no influence of nitrates on analyte uptakes, and linear isotherms reaching 10 μg L⁻¹, supporting the applicability of this device for the sampling of organic acids in continental water. The performance and reference compound (PRC) approach would be then applicable for POCIS-MAX if no competition is observed with other anions, especially organic acids (e.g., humic acids).

  3. Chemistry by Nanocatalysis: First example of a solid-supported RAPTA complex for organic reactions in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    García-Garrido, Sergio E; Francos, Javier; Cadierno, Victorio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-01-17

    A ruthenium-arene-PTA (RAPTA) complex has been supported for the first time on an inorganic solid, that is, silica-coated ferrite nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic material proved to be a general, very efficient and easily reusable catalyst for three synthetically useful organic transformations; selective nitrile hydration, redox isomerization of allylic alcohols, and heteroannulation of (Z)-enynols. The use of low metal concentration, environmentally friendly water as a reaction medium, with no use at all of organic solvent during or after the reactions, and microwaves as an alternative energy source renders the synthetic processes reported herein "truly" green and sustainable.

  4. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  5. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  6. Field testing of passive diffusion bag samplers for volatile organic compound concentrations in ground water, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota, November 1999 and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2000-01-01

    Volatile organic compound concentrations from passive diffusion bag samplers were compared with concentrations from conventional purge (three or more casing volumes) sampling and low-flow purge sampling in side-by-side tests in 17 wells at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, in Fridley, Minnesota. An initial comparison of 1,2-dichloroethene and trichloroethene concentrations obtained by using passive diffusion bag samplers and the conventional purge method in wells where one passive diffusion bag sampler was deployed showed good agreement at several wells but poor agreement at others. Collection of data from multiple diffusion samplers during the conventional purge sampling and during the low-flow sampling, however, suggests that the volatile organic compound concentrations from the passive diffusion bag samplers accurately reflect the volatile organic compound distribution in the screened interval, whereas the conventional purge and low-flow purge samples reflect mixing during pumping. The data also show that contaminant stratification was present in some wells. In one well, trichloroethene concentrations ranged from 470 to 1,600 micrograms per liter over a vertical distance of approximately 6 feet.

  7. Global pilot study for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using PUF disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Harner, Tom; Pozo, Karla; Gouin, Todd; Macdonald, Anne-Marie; Hung, Hayley; Cainey, Jill; Peters, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed at global background sites, to test logistical issues associated with a global monitoring network for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). alpha-HCH, exhibited relatively high and uniform concentrations (17-150 pg/m3) at temperate and arctic sites with elevated concentrations associated with trans-Pacific inflow. Concentrations were much lower (<5 pg/m3) in Bermuda, Chile and Cape Grim. Concentrations for gamma-HCH, the main component of lindane, were spatially similar to the alpha-HCH pattern but lower in magnitude (typically, <10 pg/m3). Chlordane concentrations (sum of cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) were also low (<10 pg/m3). Dieldrin concentrations were in the range 2-25 pg/m3 at most sites but elevated in Bermuda. Back trajectories suggest that advection from Africa and the US may contribute. Endosulfan, a popular current-use pesticide, exhibited highest concentrations ranging from tens to hundreds of pg/m3. There was good agreement between duplicate samplers at each site and PUF disk-derived air concentrations agreed with high volume data. Few logistical/analytical problems were encountered in this pilot study.

  8. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J

    2015-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy; Parra, Amanda; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2013-05-01

    Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick’s Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

  10. Field deployment of thin film passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants: a study in the urban atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Farrar, N J; Harner, T; Shoeib, M; Sweetman, A; Jones, K C

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first field deployment of rapidly equilibrating thin-film passive air samplers under ambient conditions. The POlymer-coated Glass (POG) samplers have a coating of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) less than 1 microm thick applied to a glass surface. This can be dissolved off after exposure and prepared for the quantification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have partitioned into the film during field exposure. In this study, POGs were deployed at various heights on the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, to investigate the vertical distribution of selected compounds (PCBs, PAHs, organochlorine pesticides) in the atmospheric boundary layer of an urban area. The feasibility of the method to detect POPs from a few cubic meters of air was demonstrated, indicating the potential for rapid, low-volume sampling of air for ambient levels of POPs. PAH levels declined sharply with height, confirming ground-level emissions in urban areas as sources of these compounds; PCBs did the same, although less strongly. Different sampling events detected different vertical distributions of OC pesticides which could be related to local or distantsources, and variations in POPs on the samplers in these different events/heights demonstrate the dynamic nature of sources and atmospheric mixing of POPs.

  11. Predicting Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Resident Aquatic Organisms Using Passive Samplers and Partial Least-Squares Calibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current work sought to develop predictive models between time-weighted average polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the freely dissolved phase and those present in resident aquatic organisms. We deployed semipermeable membrane passive sampling devices (SPMDs) and collected resident crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) at nine locations within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Mega-site in Portland, OR. Study results show that crayfish and aqueous phase samples collected within the Mega-site had PAH profiles enriched in high molecular weight PAHs and that freely dissolved PAH profiles tended to be more populated by low molecular weight PAHs compared to crayfish tissues. Results also show that of several modeling approaches, a two-factor partial least-squares (PLS) calibration model using detection limit substitution provided the best predictive power for estimating PAH concentrations in crayfish, where the model explained ≥72% of the variation in the data set and provided predictions within ∼3× of measured values. Importantly, PLS calibration provided a means to estimate PAH concentrations in tissues when concentrations were below detection in the freely dissolved phase. The impact of measurements below detection limits is discussed. PMID:24800862

  12. Rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuko; Furukawa, Fumio; Suguro, Mayuko; Ito, Hikaru; Imai, Norio; Nabae, Kyoko; Toda, Yosuke; Inatomi, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Satomi; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The modifying potential of Agaricus blazei Murrill fruit-body extract (ABFE) on tumor development was investigated in a medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay. Male 6-week-old F344 rats were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), N-butyl-N-(hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN), and diisopropanolnitrosamine (DHPN) for initiation (DMBDD treatment). After a 1-week withdrawal period, the animals received distilled water (vehicle control) or ABFE A, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) at 0.8 mg/kg, ABFE B (GABA level of 3.0mg/kg) or ABFE C (GABA level of 12.0mg/kg) by gavage for 24 weeks. There were no effects of ABFE on survival rate, general condition, body weight, food and water consumption, and organ weights. The multiplicity of large intestinal nodules, smaller than 2mm was significantly increased in the ABFE C group with DMBDD treatment. However, there were no significantly inter-group differences in incidences of hyperplastic or neoplastic lesions in colon or other organs, or in immunohistochemically identified preneoplastic lesions in the liver. In conclusion, A. blazei Murrill fruit-body extract, even at a GABA level up to 12 mg/kg, did not exert modifying potential in the present medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay in male F344 rats (DMBDD method).

  13. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  15. Open Source Software in Medium Size Organizations: Key Factors for Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jerry T.

    2010-01-01

    For-profit organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies to gain competitive advantage. One such technology, application software, has changed significantly over the past 25 years with the introduction of Open Source Software (OSS). In contrast to commercial software that is developed by private companies and sold to organizations, OSS…

  16. Open Source Software in Medium Size Organizations: Key Factors for Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Jerry T.

    2010-01-01

    For-profit organizations are constantly evaluating new technologies to gain competitive advantage. One such technology, application software, has changed significantly over the past 25 years with the introduction of Open Source Software (OSS). In contrast to commercial software that is developed by private companies and sold to organizations, OSS…

  17. Cell viability studies and operation in cellular culture medium of n-type organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, M.; Viggiano, D.; Di Capua, R.; Di Girolamo, F.; Santoro, F.; Taglialatela, M.; Cassinese, A.

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of the fabrication of organic devices suitable to be applied in bio-sensing fields depends largely on the availability of organic compounds displaying robust electrical properties even in aqueous solutions and effective biocompatibility features. In this paper, we report about the good cellular biocompatibility and the electrical response stability in an ionic medium of n-type organic transistors based on the recently developed PDI-8CN2 oligomer. The biocompatibility has been tested by analyzing the adhesion and viability of two different cell lines, human epithelial HeLa cells and murine neuronal F11 cells, on PDI-8CN2 films grown by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) on SiO2 substrates. The effect of film thickness on cell attachment was also tested. Uncoated SiO2 substrates were used as control surfaces and sexithiophene (T6) as device testing control. Moreover, the possible toxicity of -CN groups of PDI-8CN2 was tested on HeLa cell cultures, using PDI-8 and T6 molecules as controls. Results showed that, although at high concentration these organic compounds are toxic in solution, if they are presented in form of film, cell lines can attach and grow on them. The electrical response stability of PDI-8CN2 transistors in a cellular culture medium characterized by high concentrations of ionic species has been also investigated. For this purpose, low-voltage operation devices with VGS ranging from -5 V to 5 V, able to strongly reduce the influence of Faradaic currents coming from the electrical operation in an highly ionic environment, have been fabricated on 35 nm thick SiO2 layers and electrically characterized. These results are useful to experimentally define the main critical issues to be further addressed for the fabrication of reliable bio-sensors based on organic transistors.

  18. Study of the interaction of inorganic and organic compounds of cell culture medium with a Ti surface.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Asperilla, L; García-Alonso, M C; Escudero, M L; Alonso, C

    2010-02-01

    The interaction between Ti and each component of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium was studied in depth using different techniques, such as the measurement of the corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves. The characterization of metal surfaces was carried out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption process of each component was studied using the quartz crystal balance (QCM). The QCM and XPS results reveal that the adsorption kinetics for phosphate and calcium ions is slow. However, the bovine serum albumin (BSA) totally covers the Ti surface rapidly. Because the passive film (titanium oxide) has acidic hydroxyl groups, the calcium ions would have a bridging effect on the electrostatic adsorption of phosphate ions as well as that of BSA. The polarization curves reveal that the adsorbed glucose permits the ionic diffusion of the oxygen to the electrode, while the BSA and fetal bovine serum (FBS) adsorbed after 7 days of immersion act as a diffusive barrier. The impedance measurement and data fitting to the electrical equivalent circuit model show that the resistance of the proteins/TiO(2) interface, for Ti immersed in FBS, is higher than those obtained for BSA, due to the proteins present in the solution as well as the fact that the adsorbed proteins on the surface are greater.

  19. A tunable refractive index matching medium for live imaging cells, tissues and model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Tobias; Hilbert, Lennart; Heide, Michael; Berninger, Lea; Huttner, Wieland B; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Myers, Eugene W; Drechsel, David N; Rink, Jochen C

    2017-01-01

    In light microscopy, refractive index mismatches between media and sample cause spherical aberrations that often limit penetration depth and resolution. Optical clearing techniques can alleviate these mismatches, but they are so far limited to fixed samples. We present Iodixanol as a non-toxic medium supplement that allows refractive index matching in live specimens and thus substantially improves image quality in live-imaged primary cell cultures, planarians, zebrafish and human cerebral organoids. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27240.001 PMID:28708059

  20. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-03-12

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors.

  1. Production of Normal Mammalian Organ Culture Using a Medium Containing Mem-Alpha, Leibovitz L 15, Glucose Galactose Fructose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under micro- gravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel. The medium used for culturing the cells, especially a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells contains a mixture of Mem-alpha and Leibovits L15 supplemented with glucose, galactose and fructose.

  2. Passive-sampler derived air concentrations of persistent organic pollutants on a north-south transect in Chile.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Urrutia, Roberto; Barra, Ricardo; Parra, Oscar; Focardi, Silvano

    2004-12-15

    Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks, were deployed in six locations in Chile along a north-south transect to investigate gas-phase concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The study provides new information on air concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which is lacking in this region. It also provides insight into potential sources and long-range transport (LRT). The samplers were deployed for a 2-month period in five remote sites and one site in the city of Concepción. Mean concentrations (pg m(-3)) for sigmaPCB were 4.7 +/- 2.7 at remote sites and 53 +/- 13 in Concepción. PCB levels at remote sites were related to proximity to urban source regions and/or air back trajectories. With the exception of endosulfan I, mean concentrations (pg m(-3)) of OCPs at background sites were consistently low: 5.4 +/- 1.4 for alpha-HCH, 7.0 +/- 1.1 for gamma-HCH, 2.5 +/- 0.5 for TC, 2.5 +/- 0.6 for CC, 1.9 +/- 1.2 for dieldrin, and less than 3.5 for toxaphene. Endosulfan I showed a decreasing concentration gradient from 99 to 3.5 pg m(-3) from the north to south of Chile. Concentrations of OCPs in the Concepción City were generally 10-20 times higher than at the background sites suggesting continued usage and/or re-emission from past use. For instance, at remote sites, the alpha/gamma ratio (0.76) was typical of background air, while the ratio in Concepción (0.12) was consistent with fresh use of gamma-HCH. Levels of sigmaPBDEs were below the detection limit of 6 pg m(-3) at all sites.

  3. Assessment of seasonal variations in persistent organic pollutants across the region of Tuscany using passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Přibylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Audy, Ondřej; Focardi, Silvano

    2017-03-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured for an entire year in the region of Tuscany, Italy. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed over four sampling periods of 3-5 months from April 2008 to July 2009 in urban (n = 6) and rural (n = 4) sites. The aim of the study was to characterize the spatial and seasonal variations in selected POPs. The POP concentrations (pg m(-3)) in the air were dominated by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑7PCBs). DDTs, and ∑7PCBs showed a clear decreasing urban > rural gradient. The concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were up to 10 and 6 times higher, respectively, in urban sites than in rural sites. ∑7PCBs showed a significant correlation with the urbanized areas located <5 km around the sampling sites. For hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), α-HCH concentrations were similar at both sampling sites and were found to be quite uniform during the four sampling periods. Seasonal fluctuations were observed for DDTs, and ∑7PCBs, with the highest concentrations observed during period 4 (summer-spring); this is most likely due to a temperature-driven re-emission from local sources. These findings were also supported by an air back trajectory analysis in the study area. This study contributes new information about POP levels in the Italian atmosphere and demonstrates the feasibility of using PUF disks to simultaneously assess seasonal concentrations at different sampling sites.

  4. On the construction, comparison, and variability of airsheds for interpreting semivolatile organic compounds in passively sampled air.

    PubMed

    Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    Air mass origin as determined by back trajectories often aids in explaining some of the short-term variability in the atmospheric concentrations of semivolatile organic contaminants. Airsheds, constructed by amalgamating large numbers of back trajectories, capture average air mass origins over longer time periods and thus have found use in interpreting air concentrations obtained by passive air samplers. To explore some of their key characteristics, airsheds for 54 locations on Earth were constructed and compared for roundness, seasonality, and interannual variability. To avoid the so-called "pole problem" and to simplify the calculation of roundness, a "geodesic grid" was used to bin the back-trajectory end points. Departures from roundness were seen to occur at all latitudes and to correlate significantly with local slope but no strong relationship between latitude and roundness was revealed. Seasonality and interannual variability vary widely enough to imply that static models of transport are not sufficient to describe the proximity of an area to potential sources of contaminants. For interpreting an air measurement an airshed should be generated specifically for the deployment time of the sampler, especially when investigating long-term trends. Samples taken in a single season may not represent the average annual atmosphere, and samples taken in linear, as opposed to round, airsheds may not represent the average atmosphere in the area. Simple methods are proposed to ascertain the significance of an airshed or individual cell. It is recommended that when establishing potential contaminant source regions only end points with departure heights of less than ∼700 m be considered.

  5. Behavior of several lead compounds in organic medium with a hydride generator. Direct determination of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Nerin, C.; Olavide, S.; Cacho, J.

    1987-08-01

    A study was carried out with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), using a silica tube, to determine whether lead hydride could be generated in organic medium, using solvents N,N-dimethylformamide, formamide, and dimethyl sulfoxide. Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ was used as standard of Pb(II) and PbO/sub 2/, Pb(C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/)/sub 4/, and PbR/sub 4/ (where R = CH/sub 3/ or C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) were used as standards for Pb(IV). It was found that even with wide ranges of NaBH/sub 4/ concentrations, type and concentration of the acid medium, and various oxidants, no plumbane is generated. However, the hydrogen given out in the decomposition of NaBH/sub 4/ carries the tetraalkyl compound to the silica tube. This tetraalkyl compound can be carried to the silica tube by CO/sub 2/, generated in situ by adding NaHCO/sub 3/ in acid medium, instead of using NaBH/sub 4/. This permits the determination of volatile organometallic lead. The optimal conditions for direct volatilization of PbR/sub 4/, delivery to the silica tube, and AAS measurement were determined. The detection limit was found to be 17 ppb of Pb in a 20-ml sample. The relative standard deviation is 2.31%. Pb was directly determined in several gasoline samples.

  6. Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrially delivered organics in the origin of cellular life. Various processes leading to the emergence of cellular life from organics delivered from space to earth or other planetary bodies in the solar system will be reviewed. The focus will be on: (1) self-assembly of amphiphilic material to vesicles and other structures, such as micelles and multilayers, and its role in creating environments suitable for chemical catalysis, (2) a possible role of extraterrestrial delivery of organics in the formation of the simplest bioenergetics (3) mechanisms leading from amino acids or their precursors to simple peptides and, subsequently, to the evolution of metabolism. These issues will be discussed from two opposite points of view: (1) Which molecules could have been particularly useful in the protobiological evolution; this may provide focus for searching for these molecules in interstellar media. (2) Assuming that a considerable part of the inventory of organic matter on the early earth was delivered extraterrestrially, what does relative abundance of different organics in space tell us about the scenario leading to the origin of life.

  7. Extraterrestrial Organic Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Extraterrestrially delivered organics in the origin of cellular life. Various processes leading to the emergence of cellular life from organics delivered from space to earth or other planetary bodies in the solar system will be reviewed. The focus will be on: (1) self-assembly of amphiphilic material to vesicles and other structures, such as micelles and multilayers, and its role in creating environments suitable for chemical catalysis, (2) a possible role of extraterrestrial delivery of organics in the formation of the simplest bioenergetics (3) mechanisms leading from amino acids or their precursors to simple peptides and, subsequently, to the evolution of metabolism. These issues will be discussed from two opposite points of view: (1) Which molecules could have been particularly useful in the protobiological evolution; this may provide focus for searching for these molecules in interstellar media. (2) Assuming that a considerable part of the inventory of organic matter on the early earth was delivered extraterrestrially, what does relative abundance of different organics in space tell us about the scenario leading to the origin of life.

  8. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing

    2017-02-07

    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  9. Development and Calibration of an Organic-Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Aquatic Passive Sampler for a Diverse Suite of Polar Organic Contaminants.

    PubMed

    Challis, Jonathan K; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    A unique configuration of the diffusive gradients in thin films sampler for polar organics (o-DGT) without a poly(ether sulfone) membrane was developed, calibrated, and field-evaluated. Diffusion coefficients (D) through agarose diffusive gels ranged from (1.02 to 4.74) × 10(-6) cm(2)/s for 34 pharmaceuticals and pesticides at 5, 13, and 23 °C. Analyte-specific diffusion-temperature plots produced linear (r(2) > 0.85) empirical relationships whereby D could be estimated at any environmentally relevant temperature (i.e., matched to in situ water conditions). Linear uptake for all analytes was observed in a static renewal calibration experiment over 25 days except for three macrolide antibiotics, which reached saturation at 300 ng (≈15 d). Experimental sampling rates ranged from 8.8 to 16.1 mL/d and were successfully estimated with measured and modeled D within 19% and 30% average relative error, respectively. Under slow flowing (2.4 cm/s) and static conditions, the in situ diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness ranged from 0.023 to 0.075 cm, resulting in a maximum contribution to mass transfer of <45%. Estimated water concentrations by o-DGT at a wastewater treatment plant agreed well with grab samples and appeared to be less influenced by the boundary layer compared to that of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) deployed simultaneously. The o-DGT sampler is a promising monitoring tool that is largely insensitive to the DBL under typical flow conditions, facilitating the application of measured/modeled diffusion-based sampling rates. This significantly reduces the need for sampler calibration, making o-DGT more widely applicable, reliable, and cost-effective compared to current polar passive samplers.

  10. Chemically-defined medium for growth and differentiation of mixed epithelial and connective tissues in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Hodges, G M; Melcher, A H

    1976-06-01

    The effect on tissue differentiation and growth in vitro of certain of the factors implicated in collagen synthesis (ascorbic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate and oxygen) and the influence of hydrocortisone was studied using organ cultures of fetal mouse mandible as a mixed epithelial and connective tissue system. Using serum-free Waymouth's MB 752/1 chemically-defined medium, addition of high levels of ascorbic acid (300mug per ml), hydrocortisone (1mug per ml) and oxygen (95%) enhanced differentiation in a number of tissues, in particular skin and appendages, tooth germs and bone, while osteoid and dentine production were noticeable promoted. It is suggested that an essential aspect of media design for organ culture involves the incorporaation of collagen-promoting factors to the in vitro enviornment particularly with regard to the controlling role implicated for collagen in a variety of biological processess.

  11. In-situ Characterization of Gas Phase Organic Emissions from a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Sappok, A.; Hunter, J. F.; Jayne, J.; Wong, V. W.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    With volatilities slightly lower than VOCs, intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs; e.g. C13-C20 n-alkanes) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs; e.g. C21-C32 n-alkanes) comprise an important, largely unmeasured part of the organic carbon emission profile of a diesel engine. Similar to VOCs, I/SVOCs have important impacts on air quality and climate, serving as precursor species to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but a detailed understanding of SOA formation from I/SVOCs remains incomplete due to a lack of fast, reliable measurement techniques that target I/SVOCs. This paper presents experimental results obtained with a recently developed technique that combines cryogenic collection and electron-impact, high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry to enable fast, quantitative, volatility-resolved, bulk characterization of I/SVOCs. In this experiment, I/SVOC tailpipe emissions from a Cummins (5.9 L) 2002 ISB 300 engine were measured as a function of engine speed and load during steady-state and transient conditions, including numerous cold starts. Analysis of the high resolution mass spectra reveal evolving hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon signatures as a function of engine block temperature and engine load. The exhaust sampling apparatus included the ability to test different emission control technologies. For a subset of tests, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the exhaust system to characterize post-DPF I/SVOC emissions during soot loading and DPF-regeneration cycles.

  12. Synthesis of Formamide and Related Organic Species in the Interstellar Medium via Chemical Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Jeanvoine, Yannick; Hase, William L.; Song, Kihyung; Largo, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    We show, by means of direct dynamics simulations, how it is possible to define possible reactants and mechanisms leading to the formation of formamide in the interstellar medium. In particular, different ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase were considered: NH3OH+, NH2OH{}2+, H2COH+, and NH4 + for the ions and NH2OH, H2CO, and NH3 for the partner neutrals. These calculations were combined with high level ab initio calculations to investigate possible further evolution of the products observed. In particular, for formamide, we propose that the NH2OH{}2+ + H2CO reaction can produce an isomer, NH2OCH{}2+, that, after dissociative recombination, can produce neutral formamide, which was observed in space. The direct dynamics do not pre-impose any reaction pathways and in other reactions, we did not observe the formation of formamide or any possible precursor. On the other hand, we obtained other interesting reactions, like the formation of NH2CH{}2+. Finally, some radiative association processes are proposed. All of the results obtained are discussed in light of the species observed in radioastronomy.

  13. Enzymatic transesterification of purine nucleoside having a low solubility in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong; Kitagawa, Masaru; Raku, Takao; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Enzymatic transesterification of guanosine having low solubility against organic solvent was examined. For the transesterification between guanosine and divinyl adipate catalyzed by alkaline protease from Bacillus (Bioprase), DMSO was added to DMF to increase the solublility of the nucleoside, and the conversion rate of guanosine to the vinyl guanosine ester was less than 30%. To overcome the reversible inactivation of enzyme by hydrophilic organic solvents, the reaction was carried out with 10% (v/v) water. The transesterification reaction was effectively catalyzed in DMF/DMSO in the presence of water and the conversion rate increased ca. 70% after 7 d reaction. The result shows that the water effect of Bioprase would be a useful method for the synthesis of low solublility nucleoside esters.

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs.

  15. A passivated codoping approach to tailor the band edges of TiO2 for efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zou, Yanhong; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan

    2009-07-01

    We propose an effective passivated codoping approach to tailor the band edges of TiO2 by doping the host with group IVA and group VIB impurities to passive donor-acceptor complexes. A way of achieving p-type TiO2 is found, which can outspread the application range of TiO2 semiconductor. It is demonstrated that the carbon (C)/tungsten (W) codoped TiO2 has a substantial increase in the valence band edge, while leaving the conduction band edge almost unchanged, thus improving the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In principle, the suggested approach for overcoming the p-type doping bottleneck can be applied to other wide-band-gap semiconductors.

  16. Stress-sensitive organs and blood corticosterone after immobilization of active and passive rats immunized with glutamate-bovine serum albumin conjugate.

    PubMed

    Umryukhin, A E; Sotnikov, S V; Chekmareva, N Yu; Vetrile, L A; Zakharova, I A

    2014-12-01

    We studied stress-induced organ and hormonal responses in behaviorally active and passive rats against the background of immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate. The relative weight of the adrenal glands after immobilization was lower in rats immunized with the conjugate in comparison with non-immunized animals. The weight of the adrenal glands in behaviorally active rats decreased in parallel with the decrease in blood corticosterone. In behaviorally active and passive rats immunized with the conjugate, ulcer formation in the stomach was slightly intensified after immobilization. It was hypothesized that immunization with glutamate-BSA conjugate suppresses activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal feedback mechanism underlying the production of glucocorticoid hormones, which is manifested in slightly increased ulceration due to attenuation of the gastroprotective action of corticosterone under stress.

  17. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Passive mode locking of a Nd:YAG laser with a thin gelatine-film saturable absorber containing organic-dye J-aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeeva, V. I.; Kuch'yanov, Aleksandr S.; Plekhanov, A. I.; Solominskii, Yu L.; Tolmachev, Alexei I.; Shapiro, Boris I.

    2003-06-01

    Ultrashort pulses of duration ~13 ps are first obtained in a passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with a negative feedback using a thin gelatine-film saturable absorber containing organic-dye J-aggregates.

  18. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  19. Growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 on LB medium: monitoring utilization of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids with transcriptional microarrays.

    PubMed

    Baev, Mark V; Baev, Dmitry; Radek, Agnes Jancso; Campbell, John W

    2006-07-01

    Microorganisms respond to environmental changes by reprogramming their metabolism primarily through altered patterns of gene expression. DNA microarrays provide a tool for exploiting microorganisms as living sensors of their environment. The potential of DNA microarrays to reflect availability of nutrient components during fermentations on complex media was examined by monitoring global gene expression throughout batch cultivation of Escherichia coli MG1655 on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Gene expression profiles group into pathways that clearly demonstrate the metabolic changes occurring in the course of fermentation. Functional analysis of the gene expression related to metabolism of sugars, alcohols, and organic acids revealed that E. coli growing on LB medium switches from a sequential mode of substrate utilization to the simultaneous one in the course of the growth. Maltose and maltodextrins are the first of these substrates to support growth. Utilization of these nutrients associated with the highest growth rate of the culture was followed by simultaneous induction of enzymes involved in assimilation of a large group of other carbon sources including D-mannose, melibiose, D-galactose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose, D-mannitol, amino sugars, trehalose, L-arabinose, glycerol, and lactate. Availability of these nutrients to the cells was monitored by induction of corresponding transport and/or catabolic systems specific for each of the compounds.

  20. Anomalously slow relaxation of the system of strongly interacting liquid clusters in a disordered nanoporous medium: Self-organized criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borman, V. D.; Tronin, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that changes in the energy of a system of nonwetting liquid clusters confined in a random nanoporous medium in the process of relaxation can be written in the quasiparticle approximation in the form of the sum of the energies of local (metastable) configurations of liquid clusters interacting with clusters in the connected nearest pores. The energy spectrum and density of states of the local configuration have been calculated. It has been shown that the relaxation of the state of the system occurs through the scenario of self-organized criticality (SOC). The process is characterized by the expectation of a fluctuation necessary for overcoming a local energy barrier of the metastable state with the subsequent rapid hydrodynamic extrusion of the liquid under the action of the surface buoyancy forces of the nonwetting framework. In this case, the dependence of the interaction between local configurations on the number of filled pores belonging to the infinite percolation cluster of filled pores serves as an internal feedback initiating the SOC process. The calculations give a power-law time dependence of the relative volume of the confined liquid θ ∼t-α(α ∼ 0.1) . The developed model of the relaxation of the porous medium with the nonwetting liquid demonstrates possible mechanisms and scenarios of SOC for disordered atomic systems.

  1. Enzymatic Synthesis of Isopropyl Acetate by Immobilized Bacillus cereus Lipase in Organic Medium

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Madan Lal; Azmi, Wamik; Kanwar, Shamsher Singh

    2011-01-01

    Selective production of fragrance fatty acid ester from isopropanol and acetic acid has been achieved using silica-immobilized lipase of Bacillus cereus MTCC 8372. A purified thermoalkalophilic extracellular lipase was immobilized by adsorption onto the silica. The effects of various parameters like molar ratio of substrates (isopropanol and acetic acid; 25 to 100 mM), concentration of biocatalyst (25–125 mg/mL), reaction time, reaction temperature, organic solvents, molecular sieves, and initial water activity were studied for optimal ester synthesis. Under optimized conditions, 66.0 mM of isopropyl acetate was produced when isopropanol and acetic acid were used at 100 mM: 75 mM in 9 h at 55°C in n-heptane under continuous shaking (160 rpm) using bound lipase (25 mg). Addition of molecular sieves (3 Å × 1.5 mm) resulted in a marked increase in ester synthesis (73.0 mM). Ester synthesis was enhanced by water activity associated with pre-equilibrated saturated salt solution of LiCl. The immobilized lipase retained more than 50% of its activity after the 6th cycle of reuse. PMID:21603222

  2. Dehydroergosterol structural organization in aqueous medium and in a model system of membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Loura, L M; Prieto, M

    1997-01-01

    The aggregation of delta 5,7,9(11),22-ergostatetraen-3 beta-ol (dehydroergosterol or DHE), a fluorescent analog of cholesterol, was studied by photophysical techniques. It was concluded that the aqueous dispersions of DHE consist of strongly fluorescent microcrystals, and no evidence for self-quenching in micellar-type aggregates was found. The organization of DHE in model systems of membranes (phospholipid vesicles) is strongly dependent on the vesicle type. In small unilamellar vesicles, no evidence for aggregation is obtained, and the fluorescence anisotropy is rationalized on the basis of a random distribution of fluorophores. On the contrary, in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), a steeper concentration depolarization was observed. To explain this, a model that takes into account transbilayer dimer formation was derived. This was further confirmed from observation of excitonic absorption bands of 22-(N-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-amino)-23,24-bisnor- 5-cholen-3 beta-ol (NBD-cholesterol) in LUV, which disappear upon sonication. It is concluded that, in agreement with recent works, sterol aggregation is a very efficient process in large vesicles (and probably in natural membranes), even at very low concentrations (approximately 5 mol%). Images FIGURE 5 PMID:9129825

  3. Solid waste from leather industry as adsorbent of organic dyes in aqueous-medium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Gonçalves, Maraísa; Oliveira, Diana Q L; Guerreiro, Mário C; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Dallago, Rogério M

    2007-03-06

    The industrial tanning of leather usually produces considerable amounts of chromium-containing solid waste and liquid effluents and raises many concerns on its environmental effect as well as on escalating landfill costs. Actually, these shortcomings are becoming increasingly a limiting factor to this industrial activity that claims for alternative methods of residue disposals. In this work, it is proposed a novel alternative destination of the solid waste, based on the removal of organic contaminants from the out coming aqueous-residue. The adsorption isotherm pattern for the wet blue leather from the Aurea tanning industry in Erechim-RS (Brazil) showed that these materials present high activity on adsorbing the reactive red textile dye as well as other compounds. The adsorbent materials were characterized by IR spectroscopy and SEM and tested for the dye adsorption (reactive textile and methylene blue dyes). The concentrations of dyes were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and the chromium extraction from leather waste was realized by basic hydrolysis and determined by atomic absorption. As a low cost abundant adsorbent material with high adsorption ability on removing dye methylene blue (80mgg(-1)) and textile dye reactive red (163mgg(-1)), the leather waste is revealed to be a interesting alternative relatively to more costly adsorbent materials.

  4. Global pilot study of legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants using sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susie; Lee, Sum Chi; Shoeib, Mahiba; Gawor, Anya; Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom

    2010-07-15

    Sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers were deployed alongside polyurethane foam (PUF) disk samplers at 20 sites during the 2009 spring sampling period of the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network. The SIP disk samplers consisted of PUF disks impregnated with finely ground XAD-4 resin. The addition of XAD-4 greatly improves the sorptive capacity of the PUF disk samplers for more volatile and polar chemicals, and allows for linear-phase sampling over several weeks for these compounds. The SIP and PUF disks were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), neutral polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), and ionic PFCs. Correlations between sampler-derived air concentrations for PCBs in the PUF and SIP disks samplers were significant (p < 0.05). The SIP disks effectively captured 4-50% more of the low molecular weight PCBs than the PUF disks samplers, and the PUF disks also had limitations for time-weighted passive sampling of neutral PFCs in air. Theoretical uptake curves for PUF disks showed rapid equilibration occurring in just hours for 8:2 FTOH and in a few days for MeFOSE, while theoretical curves for SIP disks showed superior sampling profiles for the neutral PFCs. PFCs were measured on SIP disks at all sites with 8:2 FTOH being the dominant compound detected and urban centers (n = 3) having the highest total neutral PFC concentrations ranging from 51.7 to 248 pg/m(3). A positive correlation was found between the FTOHs and FOSAs/FOSEs (p < 0.001, Pearson correlation) indicating similar contamination sources. The SIP disk appears to be a promising passive air sampler for measuring both emerging and legacy POPs on a global scale. They can also be used as a complement to the PUF disk sampler for capturing broader classes of compounds, or as a replacement for PUF disks entirely, especially when longer than quarterly deployment periods are desired.

  5. Using Passive Polyethylene Samplers to Evaluate Chemical Activities Controlling Fluxes and Bioaccumulation of Organic Contaminants in Bed Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Semi-empirical estimation of sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural sediments and soils. Chemosphere 10 (8), 833-846, 1981. Khalil, M. and...in the mesohaline Chesapeake Bay. Marine Chem., 49(2-3), 171 -188, 1995. Kraaij, R.H.; Tolls, J.; Sijm, D.; Cornelissen, G.; Heikens, A.; Belfroid... Chemosphere 2000, 40, 457. Rusina, T. P., Smedes, F., Klanova, J., Booij, K. and Holoubek, I. Polymer selection for passive sampling: A comparison of

  6. Guidance on the use of passive-vapor-diffusion samplers to detect volatile organic compounds in ground-water-discharge areas, and example applications in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Peter E.; Vroblesky, Don A.; Lyford, Forest P.

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene-membrane passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, or PVD samplers, have been shown to be an effective and economical reconnaissance tool for detecting and identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bottom sediments of surface-water bodies in areas of ground-water discharge. The PVD samplers consist of an empty glass vial enclosed in two layers of polyethylene membrane tubing. When samplers are placed in contaminated sediments, the air in the vial equilibrates with VOCs in pore water. Analysis of the vapor indicates the presence or absence of VOCs and the likely magnitude of concentrations in pore water.

  7. Influence of organic matter type and medium composition on the sorption affinity of C12-benzalkonium cation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2013-08-01

    We used the 7-μm polyacrylate ion-exchange SPME fibers to investigate C12-benzalkonium sorption to 10 mg/L natural organic matter at concentrations well below the cation-exchange capacity. C12-BAC sorption at constant medium conditions differed within 0.4 log units for two humic acids (Aldrich, Leonardite) and peat (Sphagnum, Pahokee), with similar nonlinear sorption isotherms (KF ∼ 0.8). Sorption to the SPME fibers and Aldrich humic acid (AHA) was reduced at both low pH and high electrolyte concentration, and reduced more strongly by Ca²⁺ compared with Na⁺ at similar concentrations. Sorption isotherms for AHA (5-50-500 mM Na⁺, pH 6) was modeled successfully by the NICA-Donnan approach, resulting in an intrinsic sorption coefficient of 5.35 (Caq = 1 nM). The NICA-Donnan model further explained the stronger specific binding of Ca²⁺ compared to Na⁺ by differences in Boltzmann factors. This study provides relevant information to interpret bioavailability of quaternary ammonium compounds, and possibly for other organic cations.

  8. Comparison of a novel passive sampler to standard water-column sampling for organic contaminants associated with wastewater effluents entering a New Jersey stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, D.A.; Stackelberg, P.E.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    Four water samples collected using standard depth and width water-column sampling methodology were compared to an innovative passive, in situ, sampler (the polar organic chemical integrative sampler or POCIS) for the detection of 96 organic wastewater-related contaminants (OWCs) in a stream that receives agricultural, municipal, and industrial wastewaters. Thirty-two OWCs were identified in POCIS extracts whereas 9-24 were identified in individual water-column samples demonstrating the utility of POCIS for identifying contaminants whose occurrence are transient or whose concentrations are below routine analytical detection limits. Overall, 10 OWCs were identified exclusively in the POCIS extracts and only six solely identified in the water-column samples, however, repetitive water samples taken using the standard method during the POCIS deployment period required multiple trips to the sampling site and an increased number of samples to store, process, and analyze. Due to the greater number of OWCs detected in the POCIS extracts as compared to individual water-column samples, the ease of performing a single deployment as compared to collecting and processing multiple water samples, the greater mass of chemical residues sequestered, and the ability to detect chemicals which dissipate quickly, the passive sampling technique offers an efficient and effective alternative for detecting OWCs in our waterways for wastewater contaminants.

  9. Uptake rate behavior of tube-type passive samplers for volatile organic compounds under controlled atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walgraeve, Christophe; Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Huffel, Katrijn; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2011-10-01

    A systematic laboratory research was performed to investigate the diffusive uptake of four target compounds (limonene, toluene, ethyl acetate, hexane) on axial-sampling sorbent tubes filled with Tenax TA. In a controlled atmosphere (temperature: 21.0 ± 1.8 °C; relative humidity set at different values between 5 and 80%), these passive samplers were exposed for 1, 3 and 7 days to a constant target compound concentration between 8 and 85 ppbv. Simultaneous active sampling and TD-GC-MS analysis was performed to determine VOCs concentrations. A power-law relationship between the sorbed mass on the sampler and exposure dose (11-179 ppmv min) was observed for all compounds. Compounds with a lower Tenax to air partitioning coefficient, i.e. with a lower affinity for Tenax showed a larger deviation from the expected linear relationship, assuming theoretical sampling rates on an ideal sorbent. Results showed that experimentally determined uptake rates (0.90-2.12 ng (ppmv min)-1) may be up to a factor of 2 lower than the theoretical ideal sampling rates, calculated from the molecular diffusion coefficients and the geometrical parameters of the sampler. The applicability of internal standard calibration for passive sampling was evaluated and a practical methodology is proposed with ethylbenzene-d10 as an internal standard.

  10. Calibration of a passive sampler based on stir bar sorptive extraction for the monitoring of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Branislav; Komancová, Lucie; Sobotka, Jaromír

    2016-05-15

    A passive sampler based on stir bars coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was calibrated for the measurement of time-weighted average concentrations of hydrophobic micropollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, in water. Stir bar/water partition coefficients were measured by equilibrating bars with sheets made of silicone rubber material for which partition coefficients had been reported previously. Kinetic parameters characterising the exchange of analytes between stir bars and water were determined under controlled exposure conditions using a passive dosing system. The dosing system consisted of silicone rubber sheets with a large surface area, spiked with analytes. During stir bar sampler exposure, analytes partitioned from dosing sheets to water in the exposure tank and maintained constant exposure concentrations. Reversible and isotropic exchange kinetics of analytes between sampler and water was confirmed by measuring the release of a range of performance reference compounds (PRCs) from stir bars. Application of a two-resistance model confirmed that, except for hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, uptake of the test compounds under the experimental conditions was controlled by diffusion in the water boundary layer. This permits the application of PRCs for in situ calibration of uptake kinetics of test compounds to stir bars.

  11. Tuning the Reversibility of Mg Anodes via Controlled Surface Passivation by H2O/Cl– in Organic Electrolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Connell, Justin G.; Genorio, Bostjan; Lopes, Pietro Papa; ...

    2016-10-17

    Developing a new generation of battery chemistries is a critical challenge to moving beyond current Li-ion technologies. In this work, we introduce a surface-science-based approach for understanding the complex phenomena controlling the reversibility of Mg anodes for Mg-ion batteries. In addition, we identify the profound impact of trace levels of H2O (≤3 ppm) on the kinetics of Mg deposition and determine that passive films of MgO and Mg(OH)2 are formed only after Mg deposition ceases, rather than continuously during Mg reduction. We also find that Cl– inhibits passivation through the formation of adsorbed Cl– (Mg–Cl(ad)) and/or MgCl2 on the surface,more » as well as through a dynamic competition with H2O in the double layer. In conclusion, this surface-science-based approach goes well beyond Mg anodes, highlighting the need for more in-depth understanding of electrolyte chemistries before a new generation of efficient and reversible battery technologies can be realized.« less

  12. Calibration and response of an agarose gel based passive sampler to record short pulses of aquatic organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Aminot, Yann; Readman, James W; Franke, Christine

    2017-04-01

    A passive sampler inspired from previous devices was developed for the integrative sampling of a broad range of contaminants in the water column. Our primary objective was to improve the performance of the device to provide accurate and averaged pollutant water concentrations. For this purpose, an agarose diffusive gel was used as the boundary layer that drives the analyte uptake rate. Contrary to conventional passive samplers, the developed device does not require the sampling rates to be corrected for exposure conditions (e.g. hydrodynamic flow) because the diffusive gel boundary layer selected was sufficiently large to control the pollutant diffusion rate from the aqueous phase. The compounds diffusion coefficients in agarose gel and the gel thickness are the only required data to accurately calculate the time weighted averaged water concentration of pollutants. The performance of the developed sampler was evaluated in the laboratory under two contamination scenarios and in the field in 8 contrasting exposure sites for a selection of 16 emerging pollutants and pesticides. The results show that detection limits of this method are environmentally relevant and allow the determination of the averaged pollutant concentrations. Additionally, the ability of the device to sense very short contamination pulses (5-320min) was evaluated through a theoretical approach and laboratory tests. Results show that the device is suitable for sampling contamination pulses as short as 5min without deviation from the actual average concentrations of pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Passive euthanasia

    PubMed Central

    Garrard, E; Wilkinson, S

    2005-01-01

    The idea of passive euthanasia has recently been attacked in a particularly clear and explicit way by an "Ethics Task Force" established by the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) in February 2001. It claims that the expression "passive euthanasia" is a contradiction in terms and hence that there can be no such thing. This paper critically assesses the main arguments for the Task Force's view. Three arguments are considered. Firstly, an argument based on the (supposed) wrongness of euthanasia and the (supposed) permissibility of what is often called passive euthanasia. Secondly, the claim that passive euthanasia (so-called) cannot really be euthanasia because it does not cause death. And finally, a consequence based argument which appeals to the (alleged) bad consequences of accepting the category of passive euthanasia. We conclude that although healthcare professionals' nervousness about the concept of passive euthanasia is understandable, there is really no reason to abandon the category provided that it is properly and narrowly understand and provided that "euthanasia reasons" for withdrawing or withholding life-prolonging treatment are carefully distinguished from other reasons. PMID:15681666

  14. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, historically a...

  15. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, historically a...

  16. Concentration, sources and light absorption characteristics of dissolved organic carbon on a medium-sized valley glacier, northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fangping; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Qin, Xiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhaofu; Chen, Pengfei; Li, Xiaofei; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-11-01

    Light-absorbing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a major part of the organic carbon in glacierized regions, and has important influences on the carbon cycle and radiative forcing of glaciers. However, few DOC data are currently available from the glacierized regions of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, DOC characteristics of a medium-sized valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12, LHG) on the northern TP were investigated. Generally, DOC concentrations on LHG were comparable to those in other regions around the world. DOC concentrations in snow pits, surface snow and surface ice (superimposed ice) were 332 ± 132, 229 ± 104 and 426 ± 270 µg L-1, respectively. The average discharge-weighted DOC of proglacial stream water was 238 ± 96 µg L-1, and the annual DOC flux released from this glacier was estimated to be 6949 kg C yr-1, of which 46.2 % of DOC was bioavailable and could be decomposed into CO2 within 1 month of its release. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) of DOC at 365 nm was 1.4 ± 0.4 m2 g-1 in snow and 1.3 ± 0.7 m2 g-1 in ice, similar to the values for dust transported from adjacent deserts. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between DOC and Ca2+; therefore, mineral dust transported from adjacent arid regions likely made important contributions to DOC of the glacierized regions, although contributions from autochthonous carbon and autochthonous/heterotrophic microbial activity cannot be ruled out. The radiative forcing of snow pit DOC was calculated to be 0.43 W m-2, demonstrating that DOC in snow needs to be taken into consideration in accelerating melt of glaciers on the TP.

  17. Medium-term comparison of uterus preservation versus hysterectomy in pelvic organ prolapse treatment with Prolift™ mesh.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yi; Chu, Li-Ching; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chuang, Fei-Chi; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Huang, Kuan-Hui

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a medium-term assessment of clinical outcomes and complications after surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using Prolift™ mesh, and sought to determine whether concomitant hysterectomy clinically influenced the outcome of pelvic reconstruction in patients without a prior history of urogenital surgery. Patients diagnosed with POP-Q stage 3/4 uterine prolapse at a tertiary referral urogynecology unit in South Taiwan who had undergone POP repair with Prolift mesh from May 2007 to July 2010 were identified by chart review. Concomitant hysterectomy was performed in 24 patients (hysterectomy group), and uterus-sparing surgery in 78 (uterus-sparing group) Preoperative and postoperative subjective assessments of urinary and prolapse symptoms, objective POP-Q score, urodynamic examination, and postoperative adverse events were compared between the groups. The mean follow-up periods were 25.7 months (range 6.2 - 73.1 months) and 31.7 months (range 6.0 - 78.4 months) in the concomitant hysterectomy and uterus-sparing groups, respectively. There were no between-group differences in functional and anatomic outcomes after surgery. No statistically significant differences were found in postoperative adverse events between the groups. Pelvic reconstruction using Prolift with concomitant hysterectomy and uterus-sparing surgery have similar anatomic and functional results at 2.5 years. Therefore, we consider uterus-sparing surgery to be an alternative to hysterectomy in uterine prolapse repair.

  18. Self-organized, effective medium black silicon antireflection structures for silicon optics in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to its high quality and low cost, silicon is the material of choice for optical devices operating in the mid-infrared (MIR; 2 μm to 6 μm wavelength). Unfortunately in this spectral region, the refractive index is comparably high (about 3.5) and leads to severe reflection losses of about 30% per interface. In this work, we demonstrate that self-organized, statistical Black Silicon structures, fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE), can be used to effectively suppress interface reflection. More importantly, it is shown that antireflection can be achieved in an image-preserving, non-scattering way. This enables Black Silicon antireflection structures (ARS) for imaging applications in the MIR. It is demonstrated that specular transmittances of 97% can be easily achieved on both flat and curved substrates, e.g. lenses. Moreover, by a combined optical and morphological analysis of a multitude of different Black Silicon ARS, an effective medium criterion for the examined structures is derived that can also be used as a design rule for maximizing sample transmittance in a desired wavelength range. In addition, we show that the mechanical durability of the structures can be greatly enhanced by coating with hard dielectric materials like diamond-like carbon (DLC), hence enabling practical applications. Finally, the distinct advantages of statistical Black Silicon ARS over conventional AR layer stacks are discussed: simple applicability to topological substrates, absence of thermal stress and cost-effectiveness.

  19. Enhanced performances for top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes by utilizing green phosphor as energy transfer medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lingling; Bao, Yiyang; Zhang, Yanan; Peng, Ling; Zhu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Yewen; Chen, Shufen

    2016-06-01

    In top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes (TWOLEDs), the device performances attribute to the several important factors, such as exciton profile, energy transfer, and microcavity effect. In this paper, a TWOLED containing a heterojunction blue emission layer (EML) and a red EML is reported. A host material with high triplet energy level is employed for the adjacent blue and red EML, while the inefficient red emission reduces the emission efficiency of the TWOLED. In order to enhance the red emission efficiency, mixed-host and co-doping technologies are used in the red EML. By mixing the hole transporting and electron transporting host materials, the exciton recombination zone extends to the red EML to increase the red emission intensity and reduce the efficiency roll-off. And by co-doping a green phosphor into the red EML as the energy transfer medium, the energy transfer rate is enhanced, and then the current efficiency increases. Besides, both the mixed-host and co-doping change the carrier transport and the exciton recombination zone, which further affects the microcavity resonance in the devices. Due to the enhancement on the red emission intensity and the shift of resonant wavelength, the chromaticity of the TWOLED is improved.

  20. Maintaining the Constant Exposure Condition for an Acute Caenorhabditis elegans Mortality Test Using Passive Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyuck-Chul; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lim, Dongyoung; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Maintaining the constant exposure to hydrophobic organic compouds in acute toxicity tests is one of the most difficult issues in the evaluation of their toxicity and corresponding risks. Passive dosing is an emerging tool to keep constant aqueous concentration because of the overwhelming mass loaded in the dosing phase. The primary objectives of this study were to develop the constant exposure condition for an acute mortality test and to compare the performance of the passive dosing method with the conventional spiking with co-solvent. Methods A custom cut polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubing loaded with benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) was placed in each well of a 24-well plate containing assay medium. The rate of the release of BBP from PDMS was evaluated by measuring the change in the concentration of BBP in the assay medium. The efficiency of maintaining constant exposure condition was also evaluated using a simple two-compartment mass transport model employing a film-diffusion theory. An acute mortality test using 10 C. elegans in each well was conducted for the evaluation of the validity of passive dosing and the comparative evaluation of the passive dosing method and the conventional spiking method. Results Free concentration in the assay medium reached 95% steady state value within 2.2 hours without test organisms, indicating that this passive dosing method is useful for an acute toxicity test in 24 hours. The measured concentration after the mortality test agreed well with the estimated values from partitioning between PDMS and the assay medium. However, the difference between the nominal and the free concentration became larger as the spiked concentration approached water solubility, indicating the instability of the conventional spiking with a co-solvent. Conclusions The results in this study support that passive dosing provides a stable exposure condition for an acute toxicity test. Thus, it is likely that more reliable toxicity assessment can be

  1. Application of XAD-resin based passive air samplers to assess local (roadside) and regional patterns of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Paul; Thuens, Sabine; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Westgate, John N; Wania, Frank; Radke, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We used XAD-resin based passive air samplers (PAS) to measure atmospheric levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at five ombrotrophic bogs in Eastern Canada. The aims of our study were to investigate the influence of local roads on contaminant levels in the bogs, to derive the regional pattern of atmospheric concentrations, and to assess the uncertainties of the method. Expanded uncertainties based on the duplicate PAS deployed at 24 sites were good for the PAHs, while the deployment period of approx. 100 days was too short to yield acceptable uncertainties for PCBs. The regional PAH distribution was in good agreement with the calculated source proximity of the sampled bogs. We conclude that XAD-resin based PAS deployed for comparatively short periods are well suited for measuring atmospheric concentrations of volatile PAHs, while in remote regions longer deployment is necessary for less volatile PAHs and for PCBs.

  2. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L.; Kroutil, R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  3. The potential of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect organic emissions under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.C.; Hammer, C.L. ); Kroutil, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 regulates the emission of 198 air toxics. Currently, there is no existing technology by which a regulatory agency can independently determine if a facility is in compliance. We have successfully tested the ability of passive-remote Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect chemical plumes released in the field. Additional laboratory releases demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy can detect target analytes in mixtures containing components which have overlapping absorbances. The FTIR spectrometer was able to identify and quantify each component released with an average quantitative error of less than 20% using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and 40% using classical least squares analysis (CLS) when calibration files containing pure components and mixtures were used. Calibration files containing only pure analytes resulted in CLS outperforming PLS analyses.

  4. Effect of fast-, medium- and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Castellini, C; Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Franchini, A

    2011-02-01

    The characteristics of meat quality, chemical and fatty acid composition, from fast-growing (FG) and medium-growing (MG) meat-type and slow-growing (SG) egg-type chickens reared under organic conditions were compared. Three-hundred and sixty 1-day-old male chicks, equally divided into three experimental groups represented by strains (FG: Cobb 700, MG: Naked neck Kabir and SG: Brown Classic Lohman) were housed into three poultry houses with outdoor pasture availability of 10 m(2)/bird located in the same Research Centre of the University of Perugia. All the birds were fed ad libitum the same diets formulated according to the European Union (EU) Regulations by using organic raw materials. Birds from the FG and MG groups were raised until 81 days, whereas birds from the SG group were raised until 96 days in order to achieve an acceptable market live weight. SG birds showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher breast meat drip and cook losses, Allo-Kramer shear values and collagen content. In comparison with FG and SG, MG exhibited a higher breast meat pH (5.86% v. 5.79% and 5.78%, respectively; P < 0.01) and a lower lightness (54.88% v. 57.81% and 56.98%, respectively; P < 0.05). Genotype dramatically affected the lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of both breast and thigh meat. SG exhibited the lowest content of lipid, both in breast and in thigh meat, the lowest proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and the highest proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The total n-3 PUFA of SG breast meat was double that of FG meat and intermediate with respect to MG birds (8.07% v. 4.07% v. 5.14% total fatty acids; P < 0.01). The fatty acid composition of thigh meat is similar to that of breast meat, but the differences among genotypes are less pronounced. Total saturated fatty acids were not affected by the genotype. In conclusion, meat functional properties of FG and MG strains appeared much more attractive both for industry and consumer

  5. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  6. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  7. Calculating the diffusive flux of persistent organic pollutants between sediments and the water column on the Palos Verdes shelf superfund site using polymeric passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; Burgess, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    Passive samplers were deployed to the seafloor at a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA, and used to determine water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface sediments and near-bottom water. A model of Fickian diffusion across a thin water boundary layer at the sediment-water interface was used to calculate flux of contaminants due to molecular diffusion. Concentrations at four stations were used to calculate the flux of DDE, DDD, DDMU, and selected PCB congeners from sediments to the water column. Three passive sampling materials were compared: PE strips, POM strips, and SPME fibers. Performance reference compounds (PRCs) were used with PE and POM to correct for incomplete equilibration, and the resulting POP concentrations, determined by each material, agreed within 1 order of magnitude. SPME fibers, without PRC corrections, produced values that were generally much lower (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than those measured using PE and POM, indicating that SPME may not have been fully equilibrated with waters being sampled. In addition, diffusive fluxes measured using PE strips at stations outside of a pilot remedial sand cap area were similar to those measured at a station inside the capped area: 240 to 260 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE. The largest diffusive fluxes of POPs were calculated at station 8C, the site where the highest sediment concentrations have been measured in the past, 1100 ng cm(-2) y(-1) for p,p'-DDE.

  8. Application of passive sampling on assessment of concentration distribution and health risk of volatile organic compounds at a high-tech science park.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Hsiao, Sheng-Ling; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution using passive samplers and to assess the resulting health risks in a high-tech science industrial park. With the advantages of passive sampling techniques, long-term and wide-area samples are collected. The results show TVOC concentrations in summer, fall, winter, and spring are 7.14 ± 5.66 ppb, 18.17 ± 5.81 ppb, 10.30 ± 3.54 ppb, and 14.56 ± 4.53 ppb, respectively; those on weekdays and weekends are 14.36 ± 6.80 ppb and 9.87 ± 4.86 ppb, respectively; and those in industrial and residential zones are 12.97 ± 0.39 ppb and 11.13 ± 0.68 ppb, respectively. Based on concentration variations, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene ratios, we can resolve the source origins. Health risks are assessed based on the resulting concentrations. In the case of non-cancer chronic effects, long-term exposure to these concentrations does not support there is a risk of adverse health effects. However, potential cancer risks of exposure to these concentrations may occur, especially to carbon tetrachloride and benzene. By applying this study's procedures, information on VOC concentration distribution, source identification, and health assessment can be obtained and they are applicable to similar studies.

  9. A passive sampler based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) for sediment-associated organic pollutants: Comparing freely-dissolved concentration with bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David; Diehl, Dario W

    2015-10-01

    The elevated occurrence of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and legacy organchlorine pesticides (e.g. chlordane and DDT) in estuarine sediments continues to poses challenges for maintaining the health of aquatic ecosystems. Current efforts to develop and apply protective, science-based sediment quality regulations for impaired waterbodies are hampered by non-concordance between model predictions and measured bioaccumulation and toxicity. A passive sampler incorporating commercially available solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers was employed in lab and field studies to measure the freely dissolved concentration of target HOCs (Cfree) and determine its suitability as a proxy for bioaccumulation. SPME deduced Cfree for organochlorines was highly correlated with tissue concentrations (Cb) of Macoma and Nereis spp. co-exposed in laboratory microcosms containing both spiked and naturally contaminated sediments. This positive association was also observed in situ for endemic bivalves, where SPME samplers were deployed for up to 1 month at an estuarine field site. The concordance between Cb and Cfree for PAH was more variable, in part due to likely biotransformation by model invertebrates. These results indicate that SPME passive samplers can serve as a proxy for bioaccumulation of sediment-associated organochlorines in both lab and field studies, reducing the uncertainty associated with model predictions that do not adequately account for differential bioavailability.

  10. [The becoming of biological function of endoecology in phylogenesis. The support of "purity" of inter-cellular medium in paracrin cenosises of cells, organs and organism (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N

    2014-10-01

    The decentralized system of resident macrophages phylogenetically is earlier and complement-depending one in every paracrin regulated cenosis of cells, intima of elastic type arteries. This system primarily utilizes protein macromolecules implementing biological reaction of transcytosis. The anatomically and functionally more perfect system of insulin-depended Kupffer macrophages in liver is centralized at the level of organism and is also intended to collect and utilize minor and protein biological "garbage". The various peptides, humoral active mediators, fragments of plasmatic membranes, integral proteins of micro RNA in hydrophilic medium of blood plasma are forming under their physical chemical interaction micro-particles, micro-vesicles and exosomes. All of them, under effect of IgG, absorb phylogenetically late Kupffer macrophages. The consequent system of implementation of biologic function of endoecology includes biologic reaction of exocytosis at autocrin level; complement-depended macrophages in paracrin cenosises of cells; resident macrophages in intima of elastic type arteries with reaction of transcytosis; centralized Kupffer macrophages in liver in sinusoidal capillaries and Disse spaces without reaction of transcytosis. The difference of function of systems makes it possible to make a conception of the role of biologic function of endoecology in pathological processes. Therefore, an opportunity appears to evaluate diagnostic value of methods based on detection of amount and quality composition of micro particles of blood plasma. This can be useful in differential diagnostic of metabolic pandemics.

  11. Complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium: IRAM 30 m line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) and (M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.

    2013-11-01

    Context. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites fallen to Earth and the detection of glycine, the simplest of them, in samples returned from a comet to Earth strongly suggest that the chemistry of the interstellar medium is capable of producing such complex organic molecules and that they may be widespread in our Galaxy. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the degree of chemical complexity that can be reached in the interstellar medium, in particular in dense star-forming regions. Methods: We performed an unbiased, spectral line survey toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), two regions where high-mass stars are formed, with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window. Partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm were performed in parallel. The spectra were analyzed with a simple radiative transfer model that assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium but takes optical depth effects into account. Results: About 3675 and 945 spectral lines with a peak signal-to-noise ratio higher than 4 are detected at 3 mm toward Sgr B2(N) and (M), i.e. about 102 and 26 lines per GHz, respectively. This represents an increase by about a factor of two over previous surveys of Sgr B2. About 70% and 47% of the lines detected toward Sgr B2(N) and (M) are identified and assigned to 56 and 46 distinct molecules as well as to 66 and 54 less abundant isotopologues of these molecules, respectively. In addition, we report the detection of transitions from 59 and 24 catalog entries corresponding to vibrationally or torsionally excited states of some of these molecules, respectively, up to a vibration energy of 1400 cm-1 (2000 K). Excitation temperatures and column densities were derived for each species but should be used with caution. The rotation temperatures of the detected complex molecules typically range from ~50 to 200 K. Among the detected molecules, aminoacetonitrile, n-propyl cyanide, and ethyl formate were reported for the first time in space based on this survey, as were five rare

  12. Cellulose binding domain assisted immobilization of lipase (GSlip-CBD) onto cellulosic nanogel: characterization and application in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Zhang, Shaowei; Wu, Gaobing; Wu, Cheng Chao; Chen, JunPeng; Baskaran, R; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-12-01

    A cbd gene was cloned into the C-terminal region of a lip gene from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The native lipase (43.5 kDa) and CBD-Lip fusion protein (60.2 kDa) were purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE. A highly stable cellulosic nanogel was prepared by controlled hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose onto which the CBD-lip fusion protein was immobilized through bio-affinity based binding. The nanogel-bound lipase showed optimum activity at 55 °C, and it remains stable and active at pH 10-10.5. Furthermore, the immobilized lipase showed an over two-fold increase of relative activity in the presence of DMSO, isopropanol, isoamyl alcohol and n-butanol, but a mild activity decrease at a low concentration of methanol and ethanol. The immobilized biocatalyst retained ~50% activity after eight repetitive hydrolytic cycles. Enzyme kinetic studies of the immobilized lipase showed a 1.24 fold increase in Vmax and 5.25 fold increase in kcat towards p-NPP hydrolysis. Additionally, the nanogel bound lipase was tested to synthesize a biodiesel ester, ethyl oleate in DMSO. Kinetic analysis showed the km 100.5 ± 4.3 mmol and Vmax 0.19 ± 0.015 mmolmin(-1) at varied oleic acid concentration. Also, the values of km and Vmax at varying concentration of ethanol were observed to be 95.9 ± 13.9 mmol and 0.22 ± 0.013 mmolmin(-1) respectively. The maximum yield of ethyl oleate 111.2 ± 1.24 mM was obtained under optimized reaction conditions in organic medium. These results suggest that this immobilized biocatalyst can be used as an efficient tool for the biotransformation reactions on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments (SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  14. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments NAC/SETAC 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  15. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments NAC/SETAC 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  16. Comparison of Passive Samplers for Monitoring Dissolved Organic Contaminants in Water Column Deployments (SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) are difficult to measure in the water column due to their inherent chemical properties resulting in low water solubility and high particle activity. Traditional sampling methods require large quantities of water to be extracted and interferen...

  17. Self-assembly of folic acid: a chiral-aligning medium for enantiodiscrimination of organic molecules in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Lokesh; Suryaprakash, N

    2012-09-10

    Weak orienting medium: Self-assembly of alkaline salt of folic acid yielded a weak liquid-crystalline phase in an aqueous environment. This medium has the ability to discriminate enantiomers. The mesophase exists over a broad range and has the physical parameter dependent tunability of degree of alignment (see scheme). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [The peculiarities of adaptation of a woman organism to the conditions of the Altai medium height altitude zones].

    PubMed

    Chanchaeva, E A

    2011-01-01

    A comparative analysis on the morphological features, the duration of the reproduction period and antioxidant activity of blood plasma of the female population living in the Altai low and medium height altitude zones has been conducted. As a result we have discovered that women living in the unfavorable conditions of medium height altitude zones have a tendency to raise the body mass index, a shorter reproduction period and lower level of blood plasma antioxidant activity.

  19. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials model with a mixture of organic chemicals at a medium-sized paint producer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach 'special advice' for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to exceed

  20. Volatile organic compounds at oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver&nd...

  1. Volatile organic compounds at oil and natural gas production well pads in Colorado and Texas using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot study was conducted in application of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 325A/B variant for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near two oil and natural gas (ONG) production well pads in the Texas Barnett Shale formation and Colorado Denver&nd...

  2. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  3. Spectral simulation methods for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analyses based on infrared spectroscopy and quantitative calibration methods for passive infrared remote sensing of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulub, Yusuf Ismail

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR) has over the years found a myriad of applications including passive environmental remote sensing of toxic pollutants and the development of a blood glucose sensor. In this dissertation, capabilities of both these applications are further enhanced with data analysis strategies employing digital signal processing and novel simulation approaches. Both quantitative and qualitative determinations of volatile organic compounds are investigated in the passive IR remote sensing research described in this dissertation. In the quantitative work, partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis is used to generate multivariate calibration models for passive Fourier transform IR remote sensing measurements of open-air generated vapors of ethanol in the presence methanol as an interfering species. A step-wise co-addition scheme coupled with a digital filtering approach is used to attenuate the effects of variation in optical path length or plume width. For the qualitative study, an IR imaging line scanner is used to acquire remote sensing data in both spatial and spectral domains. This technology is capable of not only identifying but also specifying the location of the sample under investigation. Successful implementation of this methodology is hampered by the huge costs incurred to conduct these experiments and the impracticality of acquiring large amounts of representative training data. To address this problem, a novel simulation approach is developed that generates training data based on synthetic analyte-active and measured analyte-inactive data. Subsequently, automated pattern classifiers are generated using piecewise linear discriminant analysis to predict the presence of the analyte signature in measured imaging data acquired in remote sensing applications. Near infrared glucose determinations based on the region of 5000--4000 cm-1 is the focus of the research in the latter part of this dissertation. A six-component aqueous matrix of glucose

  4. Using long-term air monitoring of semi-volatile organic compounds to evaluate the uncertainty in polyurethane-disk passive sampler-derived air concentrations.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Borůvková, Jana; Harner, Tom; Kalina, Jiří; Melymuk, Lisa; Klánová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Much effort has been made to standardise sampling procedures, laboratory analysis, data analysis, etc. for semi volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs). Yet there are some unresolved issues in regards to comparing measurements from one of the most commonly used passive samplers (PAS), the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk PAS (PUF-PAS), between monitoring networks or different studies. One such issue is that there is no universal means to derive a sampling rate (Rs) or to calculate air concentrations (Cair) from PUF-PAS measurements for SVOCs. Cair was calculated from PUF-PAS measurements from a long-term monitoring program at a site in central Europe applying current understanding of passive sampling theory coupled with a consideration for the sampling of particle associated compounds. Cair were assessed against concurrent active air sampler (AAS) measurements. Use of "site-based/sampler-specific" variables: Rs, calculated using a site calibration, provided similar results for most gas-phase SVOCs to air concentrations derived using "default" values (commonly accepted Rs). Individual monthly PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations for the majority of the target compounds were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed-rank (WSR) test; p < 0.05) to AAS regardless of the input values (site/sampler based or default) used to calculate them. However, annual average PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as AAS measurements except for the particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Underestimation of PUF-derived air concentrations for particle-phase PAHs was attributed to a potential overestimation of the particle infiltration into the PUF-PAS chamber and underestimation of the particle bound fraction of PAHs.

  5. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods.

  6. Evaluation of Passive Samplers for Long-Term Monitoring of Organic Compounds in the Untreated Drinking Water Supply for the City of Eugene, Oregon, September-October 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Cranor, Walter L.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Schroeder, Vickie

    2009-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were deployed at three sites in the McKenzie River basin during September-October 2007. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the city of Eugene, Oregon, and the work presented here was designed to evaluate the use of POCIS and SMPDs as part of a long-term monitoring plan for the river. Various compounds were detected in extracts from the POCIS and SPMDs, indicating that some compounds of concern are present in the McKenzie River basin, including the intake for the drinking water plant. However, most concentrations were near the quantitation limits of the analytical methods used - generally at subnanogram per liter concentrations - and would not have been detectable with conventional water sampling and analysis methods. These results indicate that both POCIS and SPMDs are well suited to monitor organic compounds in the McKenzie River basin.

  7. Formulation of multifunctional oil-in-water nanosized emulsions for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal

    2009-10-20

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type nanosized emulsions (NE) have been widely investigated as vehicles/carrier for the formulation and delivery of drugs with a broad range of applications. A comprehensive summary is presented on how to formulate the multifunctional o/w NE for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body. The NE is classified into three generations based on its development over the last couple of decades to make ultimately a better colloidal carrier for a target site within the internal and external organs/parts of the body, thus allowing site-specific drug delivery and/or enhanced drug absorption. The third generation NE has tremendous application for drug absorption enhancement and for 'ferrying' compounds across cell membranes in comparison to its first and second generation counterparts. Furthermore, the third generation NE provides an interesting opportunity for use as drug delivery vehicles for numerous therapeutics that can range in size from small molecules to macromolecules.

  8. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    PubMed Central

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium. PMID:27112961

  9. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-04-01

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between the active stresses and elasticity of the system. This discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of mixed organic substrates to mushroom compost for treatment of mine drainage in passive bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Yim, Gil-Jae; Lee, Gooyong; Ji, Sang-Woo; Jung, Jin Woong; Park, Hyun-Sung; Song, Hocheol

    2011-03-01

    Bioreactors are one possible best sustainable technology to address the mine-impacted water problems. Several prospective substrates (mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw) were characterized for their ability to serve as a source of food and energy for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Twenty bench-scale batch bioreactors were then designed and set up to investigate relative effectiveness of various mixtures of substrates to that of mushroom compost, the most commonly used substrate in field bioreactors, for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Overall, reactive mixtures showed satisfactory performances in generating alkalinity, reducing sulfate and removing metals (Al>Fe>Mn) (up to 100%) at both pH conditions, for all substrates. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost-based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a more concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO(4)(2-) ratio was weak and this indicates that the type of dissolved organic carbon plays a more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) as it relates to organism bioaccumulation in the water column and interstitial water. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive samplers and organism bioaccumulation were used to measured water quality. Of these investigations, 19 provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler concentrations and organism bioaccumulation. Passive sampling polymers included in the review were: low density polyethylene (LDPE); polyoxymethylene (POM); and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Log-linear regressions correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler concentration (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. In general, the passive sampler concentrations resulted in statistically-significant, logarithmic, predictive relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Overall, bioaccumulation values were greater than passive sampler concentrations. A mean ratio of CL to CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609) for available data. Given that all studies presented resulted in a strong CL versus CPS relationship suggests that using passive sampling as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation is viable when biomonitoring organisms are not available. Passive sampling based measurements can provide useful information for ma

  12. Evaluation of the COSHH Essentials Model with a Mixture of Organic Chemicals at a Medium-Sized Paint Producer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Slaven, James; Bowen, Russell B.; Harper, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model was evaluated using full-shift exposure measurements of five chemical components in a mixture [acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, and xylenes] at a medium-sized plant producing paint materials. Two tasks, batch-making and bucket-washing, were examined. Varying levels of control were already established in both tasks and the average exposures of individual chemicals were considerably lower than the regulatory and advisory 8-h standards. The average exposure fractions using the additive mixture formula were also less than unity (batch-making: 0.25, bucket-washing: 0.56) indicating the mixture of chemicals did not exceed the combined occupational exposure limit (OEL). The paper version of the COSHH Essentials model was used to calculate a predicted exposure range (PER) for each chemical according to different levels of control. The estimated PERs of the tested chemicals for both tasks did not show consistent agreement with exposure measurements when the comparison was made for each control method and this is believed to be because of the considerably different volatilities of the chemicals. Given the combination of health hazard and exposure potential components, the COSHH Essentials model recommended a control approach ‘special advice’ for both tasks, based on the potential reproductive hazard ascribed to toluene. This would not have been the same conclusion if some other chemical had been substituted (for example styrene, which has the same threshold limit value as toluene). Nevertheless, it was special advice, which had led to the combination of hygienic procedures in place at this plant. The probability of the combined exposure fractions exceeding unity was 0.0002 for the batch-making task indicating that the employees performing this task were most likely well protected below the OELs. Although the employees involved in the bucket-washing task had greater potential to

  13. Influence of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a ferric oxyhydroxide-coated quartz sand saturated porous medium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abudalo, R.A.; Ryan, J.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Landkamer, L.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of organic matter on the transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a geochemically heterogeneous saturated porous medium, we measured the breakthrough and collision efficiencies of oocysts as a function of dissolved organic matter concentration in a flow-through column containing ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand. We characterized the surface properties of the oocysts and ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand using microelectrophoresis and streaming potential, respectively, and the amount of organic matter adsorbed on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand as a function of the concentration of dissolved organic matter (a fulvic acid isolated from Florida Everglades water). The dissolved organic matter had no significant effect on the zeta potential of the oocysts. Low concentrations of dissolved organic matter were responsible for reversing the charge of the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand surface from positive to negative. The charge reversal and accumulation of negative charge on the ferric oxyhydroxide-coated sand led to increases in oocyst breakthrough and decreases in oocyst collision efficiency with increasing dissolved organic matter concentration. The increase in dissolved organic matter concentration from 0 to 20 mg L-1 resulted in a two-fold decrease in the collision efficiency. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Function Clustering Self-Organization Maps (FCSOMs) for mining differentially expressed genes in Drosophila and its correlation with the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, L L; Liu, M J; Ma, M

    2015-09-28

    The central task of this study was to mine the gene-to-medium relationship. Adequate knowledge of this relationship could potentially improve the accuracy of differentially expressed gene mining. One of the approaches to differentially expressed gene mining uses conventional clustering algorithms to identify the gene-to-medium relationship. Compared to conventional clustering algorithms, self-organization maps (SOMs) identify the nonlinear aspects of the gene-to-medium relationships by mapping the input space into another higher dimensional feature space. However, SOMs are not suitable for huge datasets consisting of millions of samples. Therefore, a new computational model, the Function Clustering Self-Organization Maps (FCSOMs), was developed. FCSOMs take advantage of the theory of granular computing as well as advanced statistical learning methodologies, and are built specifically for each information granule (a function cluster of genes), which are intelligently partitioned by the clustering algorithm provided by the DAVID_6.7 software platform. However, only the gene functions, and not their expression values, are considered in the fuzzy clustering algorithm of DAVID. Compared to the clustering algorithm of DAVID, these experimental results show a marked improvement in the accuracy of classification with the application of FCSOMs. FCSOMs can handle huge datasets and their complex classification problems, as each FCSOM (modeled for each function cluster) can be easily parallelized.

  15. FIELD METHOD COMPARISON BETWEEN PASSIVE AIR SAMPLERS AND CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND NO2 IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling of gas-phase air toxics and criteria pollutants has become an attractive monitoring method in human exposure studies due to the relatively low sampling cost and ease of use. This study evaluates the performance of Model 3300 Ogawa(TM) Passive NO2 Samplers and 3...

  16. FIELD METHOD COMPARISON BETWEEN PASSIVE AIR SAMPLERS AND CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND NO2 IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling of gas-phase air toxics and criteria pollutants has become an attractive monitoring method in human exposure studies due to the relatively low sampling cost and ease of use. This study evaluates the performance of Model 3300 Ogawa(TM) Passive NO2 Samplers and 3...

  17. Comparison of passive diffusion bag samplers and submersible pump sampling methods for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at Area 6, Naval Air Station, Whidbey Island, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected in April 1999 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington, with passive diffusion samplers and a submersible pump to compare concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water samples collected using the two sampling methods. Single diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 10-foot screened intervals, and multiple diffusion samplers were installed in wells with 20- to 40-foot screened intervals. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 20 days and the wells were then sampled using a submersible pump. VOC concentrations in the 10-foot screened wells in water samples collected with diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump. Analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected from the 20- to 40-foot screened wells with multiple diffusion samplers indicated vertical concentration variation within the screened interval, whereas the analysis of VOC concentrations in samples collected with the submersible pump indicated mixing during pumping. The results obtained using the two sampling methods indicate that the samples collected with the diffusion samplers were comparable with and can be considerably less expensive than samples collected using a submersible pump.

  18. Differences in Early Stages of Tactile ERP Temporal Sequence (P100) in Cortical Organization during Passive Tactile Stimulation in Children with Blindness and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz Alonso, Tomás; Santos, Juan Matías; Ortiz Terán, Laura; Borrego Hernández, Mayelin; Poch Broto, Joaquín; de Erausquin, Gabriel Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Compared to their seeing counterparts, people with blindness have a greater tactile capacity. Differences in the physiology of object recognition between people with blindness and seeing people have been well documented, but not when tactile stimuli require semantic processing. We used a passive vibrotactile device to focus on the differences in spatial brain processing evaluated with event related potentials (ERP) in children with blindness (n = 12) vs. normally seeing children (n = 12), when learning a simple spatial task (lines with different orientations) or a task involving recognition of letters, to describe the early stages of its temporal sequence (from 80 to 220 msec) and to search for evidence of multi-modal cortical organization. We analysed the P100 of the ERP. Children with blindness showed earlier latencies for cognitive (perceptual) event related potentials, shorter reaction times, and (paradoxically) worse ability to identify the spatial direction of the stimulus. On the other hand, they are equally proficient in recognizing stimuli with semantic content (letters). The last observation is consistent with the role of P100 on somatosensory-based recognition of complex forms. The cortical differences between seeing control and blind groups, during spatial tactile discrimination, are associated with activation in visual pathway (occipital) and task-related association (temporal and frontal) areas. The present results show that early processing of tactile stimulation conveying cross modal information differs in children with blindness or with normal vision. PMID:26225827

  19. Differences in Early Stages of Tactile ERP Temporal Sequence (P100) in Cortical Organization during Passive Tactile Stimulation in Children with Blindness and Controls.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Alonso, Tomás; Santos, Juan Matías; Ortiz Terán, Laura; Borrego Hernández, Mayelin; Poch Broto, Joaquín; de Erausquin, Gabriel Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Compared to their seeing counterparts, people with blindness have a greater tactile capacity. Differences in the physiology of object recognition between people with blindness and seeing people have been well documented, but not when tactile stimuli require semantic processing. We used a passive vibrotactile device to focus on the differences in spatial brain processing evaluated with event related potentials (ERP) in children with blindness (n = 12) vs. normally seeing children (n = 12), when learning a simple spatial task (lines with different orientations) or a task involving recognition of letters, to describe the early stages of its temporal sequence (from 80 to 220 msec) and to search for evidence of multi-modal cortical organization. We analysed the P100 of the ERP. Children with blindness showed earlier latencies for cognitive (perceptual) event related potentials, shorter reaction times, and (paradoxically) worse ability to identify the spatial direction of the stimulus. On the other hand, they are equally proficient in recognizing stimuli with semantic content (letters). The last observation is consistent with the role of P100 on somatosensory-based recognition of complex forms. The cortical differences between seeing control and blind groups, during spatial tactile discrimination, are associated with activation in visual pathway (occipital) and task-related association (temporal and frontal) areas. The present results show that early processing of tactile stimulation conveying cross modal information differs in children with blindness or with normal vision.

  20. A study of aerosol entrapment and the influence of wind speed, chamber design and foam density on polyurethane foam passive air samplers used for persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Wild, Edward; Davison, Brian; Barber, Jonathan L; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-06-01

    Polyurethane foam disks are a cheap and versatile tool for sampling persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the air in ambient, occupational and indoor settings. This study provides important background information on the ways in which the performance of these commonly used passive air samplers may be influenced by the key environmental variables of wind speed and aerosol entrapment. Studies were performed in the field, a wind tunnel and with microscopy techniques, to investigate deployment conditions and foam density influence on gas phase sampling rates (not obtained in this study) and aerosol trapping. The study showed: wind speed inside the sampler is greater on the upper side of the sampling disk than the lower side and tethered samplers have higher wind speeds across the upper and lower surfaces of the foam disk at a wind speed > or = 4 m/s; particles are trapped on the foam surface and within the body of the foam disk; fine (<1 um) particles can form clusters of larger size inside the foam matrix. Whilst primarily designed to sample gas phase POPs, entrapment of particles ensures some 'sampling' of particle bound POPs species, such as higher molecular weight PAHs and PCDD/Fs. Further work is required to investigate how quantitative such entrapment or 'sampling' is under different ambient conditions, and with different aerosol sizes and types.

  1. Evaluation of passive air sampler calibrations: Selection of sampling rates and implications for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Helm, Paul A.; Diamond, Miriam L.

    2011-04-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) are a common and highly useful method of sampling persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in air. PAS calibration is necessary to obtain reasonable and comparable semi-quantitative measures of air concentrations. Various methods are found in the literature concerning PAS calibration. 35 studies on PAS use and calibration are examined here, in conjunction with a study involving 10 PAS deployed concurrently in outdoor air with a low-volume air sampler in order to measure the sampling rates of PUF-PAS for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic musks (PCMs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on this analysis it is recommended that (1) PAS should be assumed to represent bulk rather than gas-phase compound concentrations due to the sampling of particle-bound compounds, (2) calibration of PAS sampling rates is more accurately achieved using an active low-volume air sampler rather than depuration compounds since the former measures gas- and particle-phase compounds and does so continuously over the deployment period of the PAS, and (3) homolog-specific sampling rates based on KOA groupings be used in preference to compound/congener-specific or single sampling rates.

  2. Collaborative Preference: The Role of Homophily, Multiplexity, and Advantageous Network Position across Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Troy A.; McDowell, William C.; Harris, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine collaboration between individuals across organizations. While both for profit and not-for-profit organizations utilize collaborative efforts, the factors that are important for bringing individuals and businesses together for collaboration still remain somewhat unresolved. In this paper, colleague…

  3. Raman spectroscopy to monitor the effects of temperature regime and medium composition on micro-organism growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, O.; Haroniková, A.; Ježek, J.; Bernatová, S.; Márová, I.; Breierová, E.; Šerý, M.; Šiler, M.; Zemánek, P.

    2016-12-01

    A biomass of yeast strains has been studied using Raman spectroscopy due to their potential applications in the field of biofuel generation, food industry and biotechnological applications. In order to utilize biomass for efficient industrial/biotechnological production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determined which in turn lead to high production of desired substances such as oil, carotenoids, and pigments in the selected cell line of yeast. Therefore, we focused on different cultivation conditions (the effects of temperature regime and medium composition) and their influence on microorganisms growth and metabolic changes.

  4. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  5. Graphene oxide liquid crystals as a versatile and tunable alignment medium for the measurement of residual dipolar couplings in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xinxiang; Xu, Zhen; Sun, Han; Wang, Shun; Griesinger, Christian; Peng, Li; Gao, Chao; Tan, Ren X

    2014-08-13

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) have proven to be an invaluable anisotropic NMR parameter for the structural elucidation of complex biopolymers and organic molecules. However, a remaining bottleneck limiting its wider use by organic and natural product chemists is the lack of a range of easily applicable aligning media for diverse organic solvents. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) were developed to induce partial orientation of organic molecules to allow RDC measurements. These LCs were determined to be maintainable at very low concentrations (as low as 1 mg/mL, corresponding to quadrupolar (2)H splittings ranging from 2.8 to 30 Hz and maximum (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings of 20 Hz for camphor in a CH3COCH3/water system) and to be remarkably stable and broadly compatible with aqueous and organic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, CH3COCH3, and CH3CN. Moreover, compared with those for other alignment media, very clean and high-quality NMR spectra were acquired with the GO molecules in solution because of their rigidity and high molecular weight. The developed medium offers a versatile and robust method for RDC measurements that may routinize the RDC-based structure determination of organic molecules.

  6. Selective medium for the isolation of Haemophilus aphrophilus from the human periodontium and other oral sites and the low proportion of the organism in the oral flora.

    PubMed Central

    Tempro, P J; Slots, J

    1986-01-01

    We developed a medium for the selective recovery of Haemophilus aphrophilus. The medium, designated TSBVF, was composed of 4% tryptic soy agar, 10% heat-inactivated horse serum, 75 micrograms of bacitracin per ml, 5 micrograms of vancomycin per ml, and 50 micrograms of sodium fluoride per ml. TSBVF yielded a threefold higher recovery of oral H. aphrophilus than did chocolate agar with 75 micrograms of bacitracin per ml, which is a medium routinely used to diagnose human Haemophilus infections. H. aphrophilus and the few contaminating organisms on TSBVF were readily distinguished on the basis of colony morphology. The H. aphrophilus isolates exhibited variable fermentation of raffinose and dextrin but otherwise were biochemically similar. In a clinical study, H. aphrophilus was frequently recovered from supragingival plaque and saliva and occasionally from buccal mucosa and the tonsils. It was also isolated from 29 of 56 subgingival sites in 11 of 14 subjects. Its proportion of the subgingival microflora averaged 0.13% for healthy periodontal sites, 0.05% for adult periodontitis lesions, and 0.03% for localized juvenile periodontitis lesions. We concluded that H. aphrophilus is an indigenous bacterium of the human oral cavity. It occurs in low proportions in subgingival plaque and plays no apparent role in advanced periodontal disease in humans. Images PMID:3700628

  7. Evaluation of the HB&L System for the Microbiological Screening of Storage Medium for Organ-Cultured Corneas.

    PubMed

    Camposampiero, D; Grandesso, S; Zanetti, E; Mazzucato, S; Solinas, M; Parekh, M; Frigo, A C; Gion, M; Ponzin, D

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To compare HB&L and BACTEC systems for detecting the microorganisms contaminating the corneal storage liquid preserved at 31°C. Methods. Human donor corneas were stored at 4°C followed by preservation at 31°C. Samples of the storage medium were inoculated in BACTEC Peds Plus/F (aerobic microorganisms), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (anaerobic microorganisms), and HB&L bottles. The tests were performed (a) after six days of storage, (b) end of storage, and (c) after 24 hours of preservation in deturgescent liquid sequentially. 10,655 storage and deturgescent media samples were subjected to microbiological control using BACTEC (6-day incubation) and HB&L (24-hour incubation) systems simultaneously. BACTEC positive/negative refers to both/either aerobic and anaerobic positives/negatives, whereas HB&L can only detect the aerobic microbes, and therefore the positives/negatives depend on the presence/absence of aerobic microorganisms. Results. 147 (1.38%) samples were identified positive with at least one of the two methods. 127 samples (134 identified microorganisms) were positive with both HB&L and BACTEC. 14 HB&L+/BACTEC- and 6 BACTEC+/HB&L- were identified. Sensitivity (95.5%), specificity (99.8%), and positive (90.1%) and negative predictive values (99.9%) were high with HB&L considering a 3.5% annual contamination rate. Conclusion. HB&L is a rapid system for detecting microorganisms in corneal storage medium in addition to the existing methods.

  8. Passive sampling to measure baseline dissolved persistent organic pollutant concentrations in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund site.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Loretta A; Lao, Wenjian; Maruya, Keith A; White, Carmen; Burgess, Robert M

    2012-11-06

    Passive sampling was used to deduce water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the vicinity of a marine Superfund site on the Palos Verdes Shelf, California, USA. Precalibrated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and polyethylene (PE) strips that were preloaded with performance reference compounds (PRCs) were codeployed for 32 d along an 11-station gradient at bottom, surface, and midwater depths. Retrieved samplers were analyzed for DDT congeners and their breakdown products (DDE, DDD, DDMU, and DDNU) and 43 PCB congeners using GC-EI- and NCI-MS. PRCs were used to calculate compound-specific fractional equilibration achieved in situ for the PE samplers, using both an exponential approach to equilibrium (EAE) and numerical integration of Fickian diffusion (NI) models. The highest observed concentrations were for p,p'-DDE, with 2200 and 990 pg/L deduced from PE and SPME, respectively. The difference in these estimates could be largely attributed to uncertainty in equilibrium partition coefficients, unaccounted for disequilibrium between samplers and water, or different time scales over which the samplers average. The concordance between PE and SPME estimated concentrations for DDE was high (R(2) = 0.95). PCBs were only detected in PE samplers, due to their much larger size. Near-bottom waters adjacent to and down current from sediments with the highest bulk concentrations exhibited aqueous concentrations of DDTs and PCBs that exceeded Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for human and aquatic health, indicating the need for future monitoring to determine the effectiveness of remedial activities taken to reduce adverse effects of contaminated surface sediments.

  9. Comparison of two different passive air samplers (PUF-PAS versus SIP-PAS) to determine time-integrated average air concentration of volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Jong-Eun

    2014-06-01

    Despite remarkable achievements with r some chemicals, a field-measurement technique has not been advanced for volatile hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are the subjects of international concern. This study assesses the applicability of passive air sampling (PAS) by comparing PUF-PAS and its modified SIP-PAS which was made by impregnating XAD-4 powder into PUF, overviewing the principles of PAS, screening sensitive parameters, and determining the uncertainty range of PAS-derived concentration. The PAS air sampling rate determined in this study, corrected by a co-deployed low-volume active air sampler (LAS) for neutral PFCs as model chemicals, was ˜1.2 m3 day-1. Our assessment shows that the improved sorption capacity in a SIP lengthens PAS deployment duration by expanding the linear uptake range and then enlarges the effective air sampling volume and detection frequency of chemicals at trace level. Consequently, volatile chemicals can be collected during sufficiently long times without reaching equilibrium when using SIP, while this is not possible for PUF. The most sensitive parameter to influence PAS-derived CA was an air-side mass transfer coefficient (kA), implying the necessity of spiking depuration chemicals (DCs) because this parameter is strongly related with meteorological conditions. Uncertainty in partition coefficients (KPSM-A or KOA) influences PAS-derived CA to a greater extent with regard to lower KPSM-A chemicals. Also, the PAS-derived CA has an uncertainty range of a half level to a 3-fold higher level of the calculated one. This work is expected to establish solid grounds for the improvement of field measurement technique of HOCs.

  10. Sampling in the Great Lakes for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine-disrupting substances using the passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Helm, Paul A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2010-04-01

    The passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler in the pharmaceutical configuration (i.e., pharmaceutical-POCIS) was calibrated for sampling at water temperatures of 5, 15 and 25 degrees C to determine the influence of temperature on chemical-specific sampling rates (R(S)), thus providing more robust estimates of the time-weighted average concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) in surface water. The effect of water temperature and flow on the R(S) of these analytes was evaluated in the laboratory with a static system. The loss of the test compounds from water by uptake into POCIS was linear over an 8-d period, and these experimental data yielded R(S) values in the range of 0.07 to 2.46 L/d across the temperature range for the 30 compounds tested. Water temperature and flow influenced POCIS uptake rates, but these effects were relatively small, which is consistent with the theory for uptake into POCIS samplers. Therefore, under a narrow range of water temperatures and flows, it may not be necessary to adjust the R(S) for POCIS. Except for acidic drugs and sulfonamide antibiotics, R(S) values were positively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(OW)) of the test compounds. A linear relationship was also observed between R(S) and chromatographic retention times on a C18 reversed-phase column. These observations may provide a rapid method for estimating the R(S) of additional chemicals in the POCIS. The application of the R(S) to POCIS deployed for one month in Lake Ontario, Canada, during the summers of 2006 and 2008 yielded estimates of PPCP and EDS concentrations that are consistent with conventional concentration measurements of these compounds in Lake Ontario surface water. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  11. [Passive euthanasia].

    PubMed

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-01

    After having been acquainted with the historical development of euthanasia, the following steps for assitance in dying, called passive euthanasia are being discussed. a) Assistance during dying without speeding up death is the self-evident duty of a doctor. b) Assistance during death and speeding up the same as an unavoidable result of therapeutical treatment, more or less desired or more or less unavoidable. c) Assistance through letting the patient die by abandoning all therapeutical means, when these would only lead to a short extension of life time. No doctor is compelled to take measures to extend life if it is against the will of the patient. He is not even entitled to do so. A special problem is the abandoning of extended operative treatment, this borders on the so called active enthanasia. The dying patient always has the same right of treatment by a docter as well as nursing like all other suffering human beings. The decision to let a patient die should not result in leaving him by himself and to abandon all nursing as well. Such steps would include letting him lie in dirty linen, not sucking off the mucous secretion from the trachea, refusal to assist during mealtimes, non-assistance during cathetering, and the removal of the dying person to the bathroom, or any other remote orner of the hospital. No dying person should stay without help Loneliness especially is the greatest pain of a dying patient.

  12. Identification of non-streptococcal organisms from human dental plaque grown on the Streptococcus-selective medium mitis-salivarius agar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Si Young

    2015-02-01

    Mitis-salivarius (MS) agar has been used widely in microbial epidemiological studies because oral viridans streptococci can be selectively grown on this medium. Even though the previous findings reported the limited selecting power of MS agar for streptococcus strains, the identities of non-streptococcal strains from human oral samples which can grow on this medium are not clear yet. In this study, we identified non-streptococcal organisms grown on MS agar plates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Eighty bacterial colonies on MS plates were isolated from plaque samples, and bacterial identification was achieved with the rapid ID 32 Strep system and mini API reader. The bacterial colonies identified as non-streptococci by the API system were selected for further identification. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and verified using DNA sequencing analysis for identification. Sequences were compared with those of reference organisms in the genome database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Among the 11 isolated non-streptococcal strains on MS plates, 3 strains were identified as Actinomyces naeslundii, 7 strains were identified as Actinomyces oris and 1 strain were identified as Actinomyces sp. using Blastn. In this study, we showed that some oral Actinomyces species can grow on Streptococcus-selective MS agar plates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Identification of Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: Using Lasers and Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy to Simulate the Interstellar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1998-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Group at NASA Ames Research Center is interested in the identification of large organic molecules in the interstellar medium Many smaller organic species (e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) have been previously identified by their radiofrequency signature due to molecular rotations. However, this becomes increasingly difficult to observe as the size of the molecule increases. Our group in interested in the identification of the carriers of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (absorption features observed throughout the visible and near-infrared in the spectra of stars, due to species in the interstellar medium). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules are thought to be good candidates for these carriers. Laboratory experiments am performed at Ames to simulate the interstellar environment, and to compare spectra obtained from molecules in the laboratory to those derived astronomically. We are also interested in PAHs with respect to their possible connection to the UIR (Unidentified infrared) and ERE (Extended Red Emission) bands - emission features found to emanate from particular regions of our galaxy (e.g. Orion nebula, Red Rectangle, etc.). An old, "tried and proven spectroscopic technique, matrix isolation spectroscopy creates molecular conditions ideal for performing laboratory astrophysics.

  14. The Identification of Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: Using Lasers and Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy to Simulate the Interstellar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1998-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Group at NASA Ames Research Center is interested in the identification of large organic molecules in the interstellar medium Many smaller organic species (e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) have been previously identified by their radiofrequency signature due to molecular rotations. However, this becomes increasingly difficult to observe as the size of the molecule increases. Our group in interested in the identification of the carriers of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (absorption features observed throughout the visible and near-infrared in the spectra of stars, due to species in the interstellar medium). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules are thought to be good candidates for these carriers. Laboratory experiments am performed at Ames to simulate the interstellar environment, and to compare spectra obtained from molecules in the laboratory to those derived astronomically. We are also interested in PAHs with respect to their possible connection to the UIR (Unidentified infrared) and ERE (Extended Red Emission) bands - emission features found to emanate from particular regions of our galaxy (e.g. Orion nebula, Red Rectangle, etc.). An old, "tried and proven spectroscopic technique, matrix isolation spectroscopy creates molecular conditions ideal for performing laboratory astrophysics.

  15. Application of the multi-step EPD technique to fabricate thick TiO2 layers: effect of organic medium viscosity on the layer microstructure.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, A A; Ebadzadeh, T; Raissi, B; Ghashghaie, S; Fateminia, S M A

    2013-02-14

    In the present study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was used to obtain dense layers of TiO(2) in four organic media-methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and butanol-with different TiO(2) nanoparticle concenterations of 1-8 g/L. Microstructural study of the obtained layers by scanning electron (SEM) and optical microscope (OM) revealed that the multistep EPD technique could effectively prevent crack formation across the layer compared with the single-step method and will consequently increase the critical cracking thickness (CCT). The quality of EPD layers was also affected by viscosity. According to SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM) results, as the viscosity of the medium increased, more compact layers were formed which can be attributed to the lower deposition rates in heavier alcohols. High deposition rate in methanol and ethanol was also confirmed by zeta potential results. Suspension viscosity was interestingly observed to control the threshold concentration above which crack formation would occur. These values were measured to be 3 and 5 g/L for methanol and ethanol, respectively. However, in suspensions based on more viscous alcohols, the threshold concentration increased to 8 g/L which implied the decisive role of medium on concentration limits. It indicates that by employing organic vehicles of higher viscosity it is possible to maintain the CCT values obtained in less viscous media with no need to decrease the colloidal concentration of the suspension.

  16. Direct conversion of sugars and organic acids to biobutanol by non-growing cells of Clostridium spp. incubated in a nitrogen-free medium.

    PubMed

    Loyarkat, Sawang; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Umsakul, Kamontam

    2013-12-01

    Several Clostridium spp. were incubated in a nitrogen-free medium (non-growth medium) containing only butyric acid as a sole precursor for performing butanol production by non-growing cells. Non-growing cells of Clostridium spp., especially Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461, could convert butyric acid to butanol via their sole solventogenic activity. This activity was further enhanced in the presence of glucose as a co-substrate. In addition to glucose, other monosaccharides (i.e., galactose and xylose) and disaccharides (i.e., maltose, sucrose, and lactose) could also be used as a co-substrate with butyric acid. Among the organic acids tested (i.e., formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids), only butyric and acetic acids were converted to butanol. This study has shown that it is possible to use the non-growing cells of Clostridium spp. for direct conversion of sugars and organic acids to biobutanol. With this strategy, C. beijerinckii TISTR 1461 produced 12 g/L butanol from 15 g/L glucose and 10 g/L butyric acid with a high butanol yield of 0.68 C-mol/C-mol and a high butanol ratio of 88 %.

  17. High production of succinyl isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 resting cells in aqueous miscible organic medium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen; Chen, Guoguang; Chu, Jianlin; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2015-01-01

    To achieve efficient production of succinyldaidzin and succinylgenistin, resting cells of a solvent-stable strain Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 were used to react with pure isoflavones or soybean flour extract in a reaction medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Strikingly, 0.8 mM daidzein, 0.8 mM genistein, 2.0 mM daidzin, and 2.0 mM genistin were transformed to succinyl isoflavone glycosides in 27 H (yield >90%). The soybean flour extract (6.1%, w/v) contained 0.32 mM daidzein, 0.84 mM daidzin, 0.38 mM genistein, and 1.04 mM genistin. Over 95% of total isoflavones (daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin) in the soybean flour extract were converted to succinyl isoflavone glycosides after 27 H. Strain ZSP01 shows both high glycosylation and succinylation activities. These results suggest that B. licheniformis ZSP01 could be useful for the efficient production of succinyl soybean isoflavone glycosides.

  18. Remarkable swelling capability of amino acid based cross-linked polymer networks in organic and aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Roy, Saswati Ghosh; Haldar, Ujjal; De, Priyadarsi

    2014-03-26

    This work reports design and synthesis of side chain amino acid based cross-linked polymeric gels, able to switch over from organogel to hydrogel by a simple deprotection reaction and showing superabsorbancy in water. Amino acid based methacrylate monomers, tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-l/d-alanine methacryloyloxyethyl ester (Boc-l/d-Ala-HEMA), have been polymerized in the presence of a cross-linker via conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) and the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique for the synthesis of cross-linked polymer gels. The swelling behaviors of these organogels are investigated in organic solvents, and they behave as superabsorbent materials for organic solvents such as dichloromethane, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, etc. Swollen cross-linked polymer gels release the absorbed organic solvent rapidly. After Boc group deprotection from the pendant alanine moiety, the organogels transform to the hydrogels due to the formation of side chain ammonium (-NH3(+)) groups, and these hydrogels showed a significantly high swelling ratio (∼560 times than their dry volumes) in water. The morphology of organogels and hydrogels is studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Amino acid based cross-linked gels could find applications as absorbents for oil spilled on water as well as superabsorbent hydrogels.

  19. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in logarithmic predictive relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a reliable surrogate for biomonitoring organisms when biomonitoring organisms are not available. When applied properly, passive sampling based estimates of bioaccumulation provide useful information for making informed decisions about the bioavailability of HOCs

  20. A strong effect of growth medium and organ type on the identification of QTLs for phytate and mineral concentrations in three Arabidopsis thaliana RIL populations.

    PubMed

    Ghandilyan, Artak; Ilk, Nadine; Hanhart, Corrie; Mbengue, Malick; Barboza, Luis; Schat, Henk; Koornneef, Maarten; El-Lithy, Mohamed; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Reymond, Matthieu; Aarts, Mark G M

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of mineral accumulation in plants is genetically complex, with several genetic loci involved in the control of one mineral and loci affecting the accumulation of different minerals. To investigate the role of growth medium and organ type on the genetics of mineral accumulation, two existing (LerxKond, LerxAn-1) and one new (LerxEri-1) Arabidopsis thaliana Recombinant Inbred Line populations were raised on soil and hydroponics as substrates. Seeds, roots, and/or rosettes were sampled for the determination of their Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P or Zn concentrations. For seeds only, the concentration of phytate (IP6), a strong chelator of seed minerals, was determined. Correlations between minerals/IP6, populations, growth conditions, and organs were determined and mineral/IP6 concentration data were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits. A striking difference was found between QTLs identified for soil-grown versus hydroponics-grown populations and between QTLs identified for different plant organs. Three common QTLs were identified for several populations, growth conditions, and organs, one of which corresponded to the ERECTA locus, variation of which has a strong effect on plant morphology.

  1. Bio-oil production and removal of organic load by microalga Scenedesmus sp. using culture medium contaminated with different sugars, cheese whey and whey permeate.

    PubMed

    Borges, Wesley da Silva; Araújo, Breno Severiano Alves; Moura, Lucas Gomes; Coutinho Filho, Ubirajara; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bio-oil production and the organic load removal using the microalga Scenedesmus sp. The cultivation was carried out in reactors with a total volume of 3 L and 0.7 vvm aeration, with illumination in photoperiods of 12 h light/12 h dark for 12 days. The following sugar concentrations were tested: 2.5, 5.0 and 10 g/L of glucose, lactose, fructose and galactose with 10% inoculum volume. After experiments were performed with cheese whey in natura and cheese whey permeate with different lactose concentrations (1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 g/L). In these experiments the inoculum concentrations were 10, 15, 20 and 30% (v/v). The results showed that this microalga was effective for the production of lipids when it was cultivated in medium with cheese whey in natura with 2.5 g/L of lactose and 20% inoculum (v/v). Using cheese whey in natura at the concentration of 3.5 g/L of lactose and 30% (v/v) of inoculum obtained 77.9% of TOC removal and 38.447 mg of TOC removed/mg oil produced. It was also observed that when there is increased production of bio-oil, there is less removal of organic matter. The addition of glucose, fructose or galactose in the medium did not enhance the production of bio-oil by Scenedesmus sp. when compared to lactose, but increased the organic matter removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical reduction of CO₂ to organic acids by a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang; Wang, Hui; Bian, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Pd-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd-MWNTs) catalysts for the conversion of CO₂ to organic acids were prepared by the ethylene glycol reduction and fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technologies. The amorphous Pd particles with an average size of 5.7 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Functional groups of the MWNTs played a key role in the palladium deposition. The results indicated that Pd-MWNTs could transform CO₂ into organic acid with high catalytic activity and CO₂ could take part in the reduction reaction directly. Additionally, the electrochemical reduction of CO₂ was investigated by a diaphragm electrolysis device, using a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode as a cathode and a Ti/RuO₂ net as an anode. The main products in present system were formic acid and acetic acid identified by ion chromatograph. The selectivity of the products could be achieved by reaction conditions changing. The optimum faraday efficiencies of formic and acetic acids formed on the Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode at 4₂V electrode voltages under 1 atm CO₂ were 34.5% and 52.3%, respectively.

  3. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Organic Acids by a Pd-MWNTs Gas-Diffusion Electrode in Aqueous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang; Bian, Zhaoyong; Liu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Pd-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Pd-MWNTs) catalysts for the conversion of CO2 to organic acids were prepared by the ethylene glycol reduction and fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) technologies. The amorphous Pd particles with an average size of 5.7 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Functional groups of the MWNTs played a key role in the palladium deposition. The results indicated that Pd-MWNTs could transform CO2 into organic acid with high catalytic activity and CO2 could take part in the reduction reaction directly. Additionally, the electrochemical reduction of CO2 was investigated by a diaphragm electrolysis device, using a Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode as a cathode and a Ti/RuO2 net as an anode. The main products in present system were formic acid and acetic acid identified by ion chromatograph. The selectivity of the products could be achieved by reaction conditions changing. The optimum faraday efficiencies of formic and acetic acids formed on the Pd-MWNTs gas-diffusion electrode at 4 V electrode voltages under 1 atm CO2 were 34.5% and 52.3%, respectively. PMID:24453849

  4. Design and synthesis of a new organic receptor and evaluation of colorimetric anion sensing ability in organo-aqueous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikala, P.; Tarafder, Kartick; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-01-01

    A new organic receptor has been designed and synthesized by the combination of aromatic dialdehyde with nitro-substituted aminophenol resulting in a Schiff base compound. The receptor exhibited a colorimetric response for F- and AcO- ion with a distinct color change from pale yellow to red and pink respectively in dry DMSO solvent and yellow to pale greenish yellow in DMSO:H2O (9:1, v/v). UV-Vis titration studies displayed a significant shift in absorption maxima in comparison with the free receptor. The shift could be attributed to the hydrogen bonding interactions between the active anions and the hydroxyl functionality aided by the electron withdrawing nitro substituent on the receptor. 1H NMR titration and density functionality studies have been performed to understand the nature of interaction of receptor and anions. The lower detection limit of 1.12 ppm was obtained in organic media for F- ion confirming the real time application of the receptor.

  5. Extraterrestrial organic chemistry: from the interstellar medium to the origins of life. Part 2: complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites.

    PubMed

    Raulin, F; Kobayashi, K

    2001-01-01

    During COSPAR'00 in Warsaw, Poland, in the frame of Sub-Commission F.3 events (Planetary Biology and Origins of Life), part of COSPAR Commission F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), and Commission B events (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) a large joint symposium (F.3.4/B0.8) was held on extraterrestrial organic chemistry. Part 2 of this symposium was devoted to complex organic chemistry in the environment of planets and satellites. The aim of this event was to cover and review new data which have been recently obtained and to give new insights on data which are expected in the near future to increase our knowledge of the complex organic chemistry occurring in several planets and satellites of the Solar System, outside the earth, and their implications for exobiology and life in the universe. The event was composed of two main parts. The first part was mainly devoted to the inner planets and Europa and the search for signatures of life or organics in those environments. The second part was related to the study of the outer solar system.

  6. Passive solar technology

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  7. Electrical properties of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor structure comprising Al2O3 gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal-organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takeshi; Fukuhara, Noboru; Osada, Takenori; Sazawa, Hiroyuki; Hata, Masahiko; Inoue, Takayuki

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures comprising a Al2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA) conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit) near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1. Using a (111)A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  8. Determination of L-ascorbic acid levels in culture medium: concentrations in commercial media and maintenance of levels under conditions of organ culture.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Melcher, A H; Brunette, D M; Moe, H K

    1977-02-01

    The method of Deutsch and Weeks was modified to provide a reliable and reasonably quick method for assaying the L-ascorbic acid content of culture medium. The modified method was used to determine the decay of L-ascorbic acid under various conditions of culture and the concentration of the vitamin in commercially prepared media. The half-life of L-ascorbic acid in a modified New circulator gassed with 95% O2 + 5% CO2 was 1.5 hr.; and when gassed with 20% O2 + 5% CO2 + 75% N2, about 2 hr. In Petri dishes gassed with 20% O2 + 5% CO2 + 75% N2, the half-life of L-ascorbic acid was 0.9 hr. About 4% of the L-ascorbic acid was lost per day when medium was stored at 0 degrees C and about 9% per day when stored at 5 degrees C. When medium with an initial content of 300 microng per ml was stored at room temperature, the half-life was found to be 15.5 hr. The L-ascorbic acid in five commercially available media, which contain the vitamin in their formulations, was assayed immediately after their delivery to the laboratory. The values of L-ascorbic acid measured in these media were in all cases far lower than prescribed. A continuous-flow organ culture system has been designed which allows the provision of a relatively constant level of L-ascorbic acid to explant by taking advantage of the slow oxidation of L-ascorbic acid at 0 degrees C.

  9. Tin-graphite materials prepared by reduction of SnCl 4 in organic medium: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical lithiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, L.; Schneider, R.; Willmann, P.; Billaud, D.

    Tin-graphite materials were prepared by chemical reduction of SnCl 4 by t-BuONa-activated NaH. TEM imaging showed that the crude material is composed of an amorphous organic matrix containing tin present either as nanosized particles deposited on the graphite surface or as free aggregates. Subsequent washings with ethanol and water allow removal of side products as well as most part of the organic matrix. Electrochemical insertion of lithium occurred in graphite and in tin. The initial reversible massic capacity of 630 mAh g -1 decayed to a stable value of 415 mAh g -1 after 12 cycles. This capacity value was lower than the expected maximum one of 650 mAh g -1 corresponding to a Sn/12C molar composition and assuming the formation of LiC 6 and Li 22Sn 5. Even if this massic capacity is not much improved by comparison with that of graphite, it must be pointed out that the volume capacity of this graphite/Sn material is much larger (2137 mAh cm -3) than that corresponding to graphite (837 mAh cm -3). It was hypothesized that the part of tin bound to graphite could be responsible for the stable reversible capacity. To the contrary, graphite unsupported tin aggregates would contribute to the observed gradual decline in the storage capacity. Therefore, the improvement in cycleability, compared to that of massive metals, could be attributed both to the nanoscale dimension of the metal particles and to interactions between graphite and metal the nature of which remaining to be precised.

  10. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-01-01

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. PMID:27314375

  11. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Yang; Lin, Yi; Zhang, Han; Ding, Dongxiao; Sun, Xia; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Lifeng; Chen, Ya-Jie; Chi, Yu-Lang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-06-15

    An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  12. Aqueous-Medium Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Radical Reactions Catalyzed by Excited Rhodamine B as a Metal-Free Organic Dye under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Eito; Kohtani, Shigeru; Jichu, Takahisa; Fukazawa, Takuya; Nagai, Toyokazu; Kawashima, Akira; Takemoto, Yoshiji; Miyabe, Hideto

    2016-08-19

    The utility of rhodamine B as a water-soluble organic photocatalyst was studied in the cascade radical addition-cyclization-trapping reactions under visible light irradiation. In the presence of (i-Pr)2NEt, the electron transfer from the excited rhodamine B to perfluoroalkyl iodides proceeded smoothly to promote the carbon-carbon bond-forming radical reactions in aqueous media. When i-C3F7I was employed as a radical precursor, the aqueous-medium radical reactions proceeded even in the absence of (i-Pr)2NEt. In these reactions, the direct electron transfer from the excited singlet state of rhodamine B would take place. Furthermore, the cleavage of the C-I bond in less reactive i-PrI could be achieved by the reductive electron transfer from the excited rhodamine B, which was confirmed by the fluorescence quenching of rhodamine B with the addition of i-PrI.

  13. Influence of water activity in the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides produced by a hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidase in an organic medium.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Guerrero, Alma E; Gómez-Ruiz, Lorena; Viniegra-González, Gustavo; Bárzana, Eduardo; García-Garibay, Mariano

    2006-04-20

    The present study evaluated the influence of water activity and lactose concentration on the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), by means of a hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidase in an organic system. The production of GOS gradually grew as water activity increased in the reaction system; later, their synthesis decreased as water activity increased. The authors used the response surface methodology to study how different water activities and different concentrations of lactose influenced the synthesis of GOS and their length. In every case, the variable that proved to have the greatest effect on GOS synthesis was water activity. Maximum GOS3 synthesis was reached at a water activity interval of 0.44-0.57, with lactose concentrations of 0.06%-0.1%, while GOS4 and GOS5 maxima were reached at water activity intervals of 0.47-0.57 and 0.49-0.60, respectively. The research showed that higher water activity was required to synthesize GOS of greater length. Synthesis of GOS would then depend on the flexibility of the enzyme, which in turn would depend on water activity of the reaction system. This hypothesis was supported by experiments in which the reaction temperature was modified in order to change the flexibility of the enzyme, thus leading to longer GOS.

  14. Comparison between classical polyarteritis nodosa and single organ vasculitis of medium-sized vessels: a retrospective study of 25 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kint, N; De Haes, P; Blockmans, D

    2016-02-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by necrotizing inflammation of medium-sized vessels. In clinical practice, the distinction is made between a limited, mostly cutaneous, form and a generalized form. The Chapel Hill Consensus Conference of 2012 on the classification of the vasculitides classifies PAN as a medium vessel vasculitis, whereas the limited forms fall under the heading 'single-organ vasculitis' (SOV), with subdivions such as 'cutaneous arteritis' (formerly called cutaneous PAN) and 'others'. In this last category, forms of PAN limited to a single organ (e.g. testicle, gall bladder or appendix) should be categorized. The relation between classical and limited forms of PAN remains enigmatic. To compare demographics, clinical characteristics and prognosis between SOV and generalized PAN. Clinical files of all patients with a diagnosis of classical or limited PAN made in the departments of general internal medicine and dermatology between 1983 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital were reviewed. The patients of the SOV group tend to be younger, with a female predominance, while we observed a male predominance in the generalized PAN group. Relapses were more common in SOV than in classical PAN. None of the patients initially diagnosed with cPAN/SOV progressed to generalized disease. Though SOV and classical PAN share a lot of similarities, they are probably different disease entities, based on their different demographical, clinical and prognostic characteristics. The 1990 ACR-criteria for classical PAN are too broad since they allow patients with limited disease to be classified as classic PAN.

  15. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Results/Lessons Learned. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in strong logarithmic regression relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Passive sampler uptake and bioaccumulation were not found to be identical (i.e., CPS ≠ CL) but the logarithmic-based relationships between these values were consistently linear and predictive. This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a

  16. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation were measured and 19 of these investigations provided direct comparisons relating passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation. Polymers compared included low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and organisms ranged from polychaetes and oligochaetes to bivalves, aquatic insects, and gastropods. Regression equations correlating bioaccumulation (CL) and passive sampler uptake (CPS) were used to assess the strength of observed relationships. Results/Lessons Learned. Passive sampling based concentrations resulted in strong logarithmic regression relationships, most of which were within one to two orders of magnitude of measured bioaccumulation. Mean coefficients of determination (r2) for LDPE, PDMS and POM were 0.68, 0.76 and 0.58, respectively. For the available raw data, the mean ratio of CL and CPS was 10.8 ± 18.4 (n = 609). Passive sampler uptake and bioaccumulation were not found to be identical (i.e., CPS ≠ CL) but the logarithmic-based relationships between these values were consistently linear and predictive. This review concludes that in many applications passive sampling may serve as a

  17. Adsorption mechanism of ester phosphate on baryum titanate in organic medium. Preliminary results on the structure of the adsorbed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bars, N.; Tinet, D.; Faugère, A. M.; van Damme, H.; Levitz, P.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to evidence the adsorption mechanism and the structure of commercial phosphate ester surfactant stabilized BaTiO3 in organic suspension, and to relate these characteristics to rheological behaviour. Binders and plasticizers are omitted to reduce the number of system components. Firstly adsorption isotherm were determined by inductively coupled argon plasma technique and interpretated based on transmission electron microscopy and ^{31}P nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Preliminary rheological measurements were then performed and related to suspension structure. Structure of the adsorption layer is critically discussed. L'objectif de cette étude est la compréhension du mécanisme d'adsorption d'agents dispersants phosphatés dans des suspensions organiques de BaTiO3, ainsi que la caractérisation de la structure, et du comportement rhéologique de ces suspensions. Liants et plastifiants ne sont pas utilisés, afin de réduire le nombre de composants dans le système. Dans un premier temps, l'isotherme d'adsorption est établie par dosage en émission plasma, puis interprétée sur la base de résultats de Microscopie Eloctronique à Transmission, et de spectroscopie par Résonance Magnétique Nucléaire du ^{31}P. Des mesures rhéologiques préliminaires sont effectuées pour caractériser la structure des suspensions.

  18. Effects of dietary combinations of organic acids and medium chain fatty acids on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and bacterial metabolites in the digestive tract of weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Zentek, J; Ferrara, F; Pieper, R; Tedin, L; Meyer, W; Vahjen, W

    2013-07-01

    Organic short and medium chain fatty acids are used in diets for piglets because they have an impact on the digestive processes and the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 48 pens (2 piglets/pen) were assigned randomly to 4 diets, without additive (control), with organic acids (OA; 0.416% fumaric and 0.328% lactic acid), with medium chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.15% caprylic and capric acid), and a combination of OA and MCFA, to assess changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota with 12 pens per diet. Eight to nine piglets from each group were euthanized after 4 wk. Organic acids, MCFA, and pH in the digesta were determined and the intestinal microbiota was quantified by real-time PCR. The different diets had no effect on the growth performance. Concentration of added fumaric acid was below the detection limit in the upper small intestine whereas the concentration of lactic acid in the digesta was not affected by the treatments. The added MCFA was recovered in the MCFA treated groups in the stomach, but the concentrations declined in the upper small intestine. Concentration of short chain fatty acids was reduced in the colon digesta in piglets fed diets with OA compared with those fed unsupplemented diets (P = 0.029). The MCFA resulted in a pH reduction of the digesta, likely because of the effect on bacterial acid production. The addition of OA increased cell counts of Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella group and clostridial clusters XIVa, I, and IV in the stomach, the clostridial cluster XIVa in the jejunum, and Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella in the ileum and reduced counts of Streptococcus spp. in the colon (P < 0.05). The MCFA induced only minor changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota but increased cell counts for the Escherichia-Hafnia-Shigella group in the jejunum and the clostridial cluster XIVa in the colon digesta (P < 0.05). In the colon of piglets fed diets with organic OA, reduced mean cell counts of STb (est-II) positive Escherichia coli were

  19. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwiseon; Graf, Peter A.; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-03-01

    The calculation of the electronic structure of a nanostructure must take into account surface effects. In experiments, the dangling bonds at the surface of a semiconductor nanostructure are passivated by other semiconductors or by organic ligands. In either case, photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission comes from bulk-like, dot-interior states. These observations suggest that an approach to passivating a simulated nanostructure would be to attach “pseudo-atoms” to each dangling bond. Here we present an automated methodology for generating surface passivating pseudo potentials for bulk empirical pseudo potentials. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. We apply it to two materials, CdSe and InP. Incorporated into a larger computational nanoscience infrastructure, our work represents a much needed improvement in the usability of the empirical pseudo potential method.

  20. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  1. Fundamental studies on passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1993-06-01

    Using photoelectrochemical impedance and admittance spectroscopies, a fundamental and quantitative understanding of the mechanisms for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in contact with aqueous environments is being developed. A point defect model has been extended to explain the breakdown of passive films, leading to pitting and crack growth and thus development of damage due to localized corrosion.

  2. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T. Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.; Sazawa, H.; Hata, M.; Inoue, T.

    2014-07-21

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C–V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}). The D{sub it} was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited D{sub it} around the midgap of less than 4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.

  3. Passive storage technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Advances in storage technology and how passive techniques could be applied to the storage of propellants at the space station are described. The devices considered are passive orbital disconnect struts, cooled shield optimization, liftweight shields and catalytic converters.

  4. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  5. Three-dimensional organization of dendrites and local axon collaterals of shell and core medium-sized spiny projection neurons of the rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Yvette C; Mailly, Philippe; Thierry, Anne-Marie; Groenewegen, Henk J; Deniau, Jean-Michel

    2008-09-01

    Medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSN) in the head of the primate caudate nucleus are thought to have preferred dendritic orientations that tend to parallel the orientations of the striosomes. Moreover, recurrent axon collaterals of MSN in the rat dorsal striatum have been categorized into two types, i.e., restricted and widespread. The nucleus accumbens (Acb) has a highly complex compartmental organization, and the spatial organization of dendritic and axonal arbors of MSN has not yet been systematically studied. In this study, using single-cell juxtacellular labeling with neurobiotin as well as anterograde neuroanatomical tracing with biotinylated dextran amine, we investigated the three-dimensional (3D) organization of dendrites and axons of MSN of the rat Acb in relation to subregional (shell-core) and compartmental (patch-matrix) boundaries. Our results show that dendritic arbors of MSN in both the Acb shell and core subregions are preferentially oriented, i.e., they are flattened in at least one of the 3D-planes. The preferred orientations are influenced by shell-core and patch-matrix boundaries, suggesting parallel and independent processing of information. Dendritic orientations of MSN of the Acb core are more heterogeneous than those of the shell and the dorsal striatum, suggesting a more complex distribution of striatal inputs within the core. Although dendrites respect the shell-core and patch-matrix boundaries, recurrent axon collaterals may cross these boundaries. Finally, different degrees of overlap between dendritic and axonal arborizations of individual MSN were identified, suggesting various possibilities of lateral inhibitory interactions within and between, functionally distinct territories of the Acb.

  6. Water-medium and solvent-free organic reactions over a bifunctional catalyst with Au nanoparticles covalently bonded to HS/SO3H functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilica.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Xia; Wang, Wei; Li, He-Xing

    2011-08-03

    An operationally simple approach for the preparation of a new class of bifunctional Au nanoparticle-acid catalysts has been developed. In situ reduction of Au(3+) with HS-functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) creates robust, fine Au nanoparticles and concomitantly produces a sulfonic acid moiety strongly bonded to PMOs. Characterizations of the nanostructures reveal that Au nanoparticles are formed with uniformed, narrow size distribution around 1-2 nm, which is very critical for essential catalytic activities. Moreover, the Au nanoparticles are mainly attached onto the pore surface rather than onto the outer surface with ordered mesoporous channels, allowing for maximal exposure to reaction substrates while minimizing Au nanoparticle leaching. Their higher S(BET), V(P), and D(P) than either the Au-HS-PMO(Et) or the Au/SO(3)H-PMO(Et) render the catalyst with comparably even higher catalytic efficiency than its homogeneous counterparts. Furthermore, the unique amphiphilic compartment of the Au-HS/SO(3)H-PMO(Et) nanostructures enables organic reactions to proceed efficiently in a pure aqueous solution without using any organic solvents or even without water. As demonstrated experimentally, remarkably, the unique bifunctional Au-HS/SO(3)H-PMO(Et) catalyst displays higher efficiencies in promoting water-medium alkyne hydration, intramolecular hydroamination, styrene oxidation, and three-component coupling reactions and even the solvent-free alkyne hydration process than its homogeneous catalysts. The robust catalyst can be easily recycled and used repetitively at least 10 times without loss of catalytic efficiency. These features render the catalyst particularly attractive in the practice of organic synthesis in an environmentally friendly manner.

  7. Small passive chemical detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.

    1992-03-26

    A novel technique has been developed for the detection of organic compounds in the environment. These detectors are passive'' in the sense that they do not contain any electronic or mechanical instrumentation. A visual color change of the devices after exposure to the target compounds of interest allows a quick identification and quantitative determination of the targets. The detection mechanism is based on colorimetry and combines two molecular biology techniques, Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) and Ouchterlony Double Diffusion in Two Dimensions. Preliminary studies have shown that the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol can be monitored by the formation of the blue colored complexes as a result of the reaction between an enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and a substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate).

  8. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process.

  10. [A cross sectional study of passive smoking of non-smoking women and analysis of influence factors on women passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-Xiu; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xi; Zheng, Su-hua; Gan, De-kun; Fang, Jun

    2006-09-01

    To fund out the state of passive smoking of non-smoking women and search for measures of controlling women passive smoking. 3500 non-smoking women in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu city were interviewed. Analyses were performed by chi2 test Fisher test and ANOVA test. 92.7% passive smoking women exposure to ETS at home, 40.8% at workplace. 38.9% exposed to ETS from birthday, and 42.3% from 18 - 30 age. The average exposure time of passive smoking is (1.17 +/- 1.10) hours per day. The proportion of passive-smoking time over 2 hours at home is higher than work place. In passive-smoking group, the proportion of 30 - 50 age group, secondary education, married, merchant/service, principal of units, and manufacture/transport workers were higher than non-smoking group. 97.5% think that passive smoking is harmful to health, and the proportion of thinking passive smoking has severe harm to health in non-passive-smoking group is higher than passive-smoking group. 70.0% open windows when someone smokes around her, but only 16.9% ask the smokers do not smoke around her forwardly. Suppose that someone were smoking around yourself, the consciousness of avoiding passive smoking forwardly in non-passive-smoking group is stronger than passive-smoking group. 95.1% believe the content of smoking-harm propagandized by medium. The main places of controlling passive smoking are the home and the department, commerce, service, and manufacture/ transport workplace. The rate of passive smoking was influenced by the consciousness of the serious level of harms by passive smoking. Propagandizing the serious harm of passive smoking by medium and strengthening the consciousness of avoiding passive smoking were one of feasible measures to lower the rate of smoking and passive smoking.

  11. Tuning the Reversibility of Mg Anodes via Controlled Surface Passivation by H2O/Cl in Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Justin G.; Genorio, Bostjan; Lopes, Pietro Papa; Strmcnik, Dusan; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2016-10-17

    Developing a new generation of battery chemistries is a critical challenge to moving beyond current Li-ion technologies. In this work, we introduce a surface-science-based approach for understanding the complex phenomena controlling the reversibility of Mg anodes for Mg-ion batteries. In addition, we identify the profound impact of trace levels of H2O (≤3 ppm) on the kinetics of Mg deposition and determine that passive films of MgO and Mg(OH)2 are formed only after Mg deposition ceases, rather than continuously during Mg reduction. We also find that Cl inhibits passivation through the formation of adsorbed Cl (Mg–Cl(ad)) and/or MgCl2 on the surface, as well as through a dynamic competition with H2O in the double layer. In conclusion, this surface-science-based approach goes well beyond Mg anodes, highlighting the need for more in-depth understanding of electrolyte chemistries before a new generation of efficient and reversible battery technologies can be realized.

  12. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites.

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically, acquiring...

  13. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically acquiring ...

  14. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites.

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically, acquiring...

  15. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically acquiring ...

  16. Modeling the uptake of semivolatile organic compounds by passive air samplers: importance of mass transfer processes within the porous sampling media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Wania, Frank

    2012-09-04

    Air sampling based on diffusion of target molecules from the atmospheric gas phase to passive sampling media (PSMs) is currently modeled using the two-film approach. Originally developed to describe chemical exchange between air and water, it assumes a uniform chemical distribution in the bulk phases on either side of the interfacial films. Although such an assumption may be satisfied when modeling uptake in PSMs in which chemicals have high mobility, its validity is questionable for PSMs such as polyurethane foam disks and XAD-resin packed mesh cylinders. Mass transfer of chemicals through the PSMs may be subject to a large resistance because of the low mass fraction of gas-phase chemicals in the pores, where diffusion occurs. Here we present a model that does not assume that chemicals distribute uniformly in the PSMs. It describes the sequential diffusion of vapors through a stagnant air-side boundary layer and the PSM pores, and the reversible sorption onto the PSM. Sensitivity analyses reveal the potential influence of the latter two processes on passive sampling rates (PSRs) unless the air-side boundary layer is assumed to be extremely thick (i.e., representative of negligible wind speeds). The model also reveals that the temperature dependence of PSRs, differences in PSRs between different compounds, and a two-stage uptake, all observed in field calibrations, can be attributed to those mass transfer processes within the PSM. The kinetics of chemical sorption to the PSM from the gas phase in the macro-pores is a knowledge gap that needs to be addressed before the model can be applied to specific compounds.

  17. Growth and synthesis of rubratoxin by Penicillium rubrum in a chemically defined medium fortified with organic acids and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Emeh, C O; Marth, E H

    1976-10-22

    A sterile glucose-mineral salts broth was fortified with equimolar concentrations (10--3 M) of various organic acids and intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Appropriate media were neutralized with 2 N NaOH, inoculated with spore suspensions or mycelial pellets of Penicillium rubrum and incubated quiescently for 14 days or with shaking for 5 days. Rubratoxins were recovered from culture filtrates by ether extraction and resolved by thin-layer chromatography. Toxin formation in quiescent cultures was enhanced by malonate but was not markedly affected by ethyl malonate, shikimate, and acetate or by isocitrate or oxaloacetate added in the presence of malonate. Citrate, cis-aconitate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malonate when present in the medium alone or in conjunction with malonate caused a 15 to 50% reduction in rubratoxin formation. Acetyl-CoA (10--5 M/flask) caused an 80% increase in toxin yield. Rubratoxin formation in shake cultures was not affected by succinate and malonate. All other combinations of intermediates and malonate caused a 10 to 50% reduction in toxin formation. At 10--3 M, citrate enhanced rubratoxin B formation and stimulated rubratoxin A production by as much as 100%. Above 10--3 M, citrate inhibited toxin production. Incorporation of [2-14C]acetate into rubratoxin was enhanced by malonate, fumarate, and malonate. A combination of pyruvate and malonate produced a 40% increase in [2-14C]acetate incorporation into rubratoxin. The highest reduction of labeled acetate incorporation (36%) was caused by succinate or alpha-ketoglutarate combined with malonate.

  18. Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects and Mode of Action of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids in Combination with Organic Acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the synergistic bactericidal effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs; caprylic, capric, and lauric acid) and organic acids (OAs; acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acid) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and to identify their underlying mechanism(s) of action. E. coli O157:H7 was treated with MCFAs, OAs, or different combinations of MCFAs and OAs. Membrane damage and cell morphology were examined by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Combined treatment resulted in an additional log-unit reduction compared with the sum of the reductions obtained after individual treatment. For example, caprylic acid (1.0 mM, or 0.016%) and citric acid (1.0 mM, or 0.012%) alone showed negligible bactericidal effects (0.30- and 0.06-log-unit reductions, respectively); however, a marked synergistic effect (>7.15-log-unit reduction) was observed when the two were combined. Although flow cytometry and microscopic analyses of bacteria treated with individual MCFAs and OAs showed evidence of membrane disruption, the bacteria were still able to form colonies; thus, the cell damage was recoverable. In contrast, cells exposed to combined treatments showed clear membrane disintegration and/or cell death (irreversible damage). The mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effects of combined treatment with MCFAs or OAs may involve disruption of the bacterial membrane, which then facilitates the entry of other antimicrobial compounds into the cytoplasm. The main advantage of combined treatment with very low concentrations of natural antimicrobial compounds is that it is very cost-effective. Thus, this approach may be an alternative to more conventional antimicrobial treatments, such as those currently used in public health, medical centers, and the food industry. PMID:23956396

  19. User's guide for polyethylene-based passive diffusion bag samplers to obtain volatile organic compound concentrations in wells. Part 2, Field tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion samplers installed in observation wells were found to be capable of yielding representative water samples for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The samplers consisted of polyethylene bags containing deionized water and relied on diffusion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through the polyethylene membrane. The known ability of polyethylene to transmit other volatile compounds, such as benzene and toluene, indicates that the samplers can be used for a variety of volatile organic compounds. In wells at the study area, the volatile organic compound concentrations in water samples obtained using the samplers without prior purging were similar to concentrations in water samples obtained from the respective wells using traditional purging and sampling approaches. The low cost associated with this approach makes it a viable option for monitoring large observation-well networks for volatile organic compounds.

  20. A comparative evaluation of passive and active samplers for measurements of gaseous semi-volatile organic compounds in the tropical atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2010-03-01

    The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based passive air samplers (PAS), mounted inside two aluminium bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and sunlight, were used for the collection of atmospheric SVOCs in Singapore during April 2008-June 2008. Data obtained from PAS measurements are compared to those from active high-volume air sampling (AAS). Single factor ANOVA tests show that there were no significant differences in chemical distribution profiles between actively and passively collected samples (PAHs, F = 3.38 × 10 -8 < Fcritical = 4.17 with p > 0.05; OCPs, F = 2.71 × 10 -8 < Fcritical = 4.75 with p > 0.05). The average air-side mass transfer coefficient ( k A) for PAS, determined from the loss of depuration compounds such as 13C 6 - HCB (1000 ng), 13C 12 - 4,4' DDT (1000 ng) and 13C 12 - PCB 101 (1000 ng)spiked on the disks prior to deployment, was 0.12 ± 0.04 m s -1. These values are comparable to those reported previously in the literature. The average sampling rate was 3.78 ± 1.83 m 3 d -1 for the 365 cm 2 PUF disk. Throughout the entire sampling period (˜68 d), most of the PAHs and all OCPs exhibited a linear uptake trend on PAS, while naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and fluorene reached the curvilinear phase after the first ˜30 d exposure. Theoretically estimated times to equilibrium ( t eq) ranged from around one month for Acy to hundreds of years for DB(ah)A. Sampling rates, based on the time integrated active sampling-derived concentrations and masses collected by PUF disks during the linear uptake phase, were determined for all target compounds with the average values of 2.50 m 3 d -1 and 3.43 m 3 d -1 for PAHs and OCPs, respectively. More variations were observed as compared to those from the depuration study. These variation were most likely due to the difference of physicochemical properties of individual species. Lastly, multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the log

  1. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  2. LASL passive program

    SciTech Connect

    Neeper, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent accomplishments are outlined on the following tasks: (1) solar load ratio for sunspaces; (2) thermal performance of components and buildings; (3) convective loop test; (4) similarity study of interzone convection; (5) evaluation of phase-change thermal storage; (6) off-peak electrical auxiliary heating; (7) passive solar design handbook; (8) program support to DOE; and (9) passive cooling for residences. (WHK)

  3. Passive sampling: an effective method for monitoring seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants and metals in the Danube river.

    PubMed

    Vrana, Branislav; Klučárová, Veronika; Benická, Eva; Abou-Mrad, Ninette; Amdany, Robert; Horáková, Soňa; Draxler, Astrid; Humer, Franko; Gans, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Application of passive samplers is demonstrated for assessment of temporal and spatial trends of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and priority metals in the middle stretch of the Danube river. Free dissolved concentrations of PAHs, measured using SPMD samplers, ranged from 5 to 72 ng L(-1). Dissolved PCBs in water were very low and they ranged from 5 to 16 pg L(-1). Concentration of mercury, cadmium, lead and nickel, measured using DGT samplers, were relatively constant along the monitored Danube stretch and in the range <0.1, <1-20, 18-74, and 173-544 ng L(-1), respectively. Concentrations of PAHs decreased with increasing temperature, which reflects the seasonality in emissions to water. This has an implication for the design of future monitoring programs aimed at assessment of long term trends. For such analysis time series should be constructed of data from samples collected always in the same season of the year.

  4. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  5. Selective 4e-/4H+ O2 reduction by an iron(tetraferrocenyl)porphyrin complex: from proton transfer followed by electron transfer in organic solvent to proton coupled electron transfer in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Mittra, Kaustuv; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Samanta, Subhra; Dey, Abhishek

    2013-12-16

    An iron porphyrin catalyst bearing four ferrocenes and a hydrogen bonding distal pocket is found to catalyze 4e(-)/4H(+) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in organic solvent under homogeneous conditions in the presence of 2-3 equiv of Trifluoromethanesulphonic acid. Absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and resonance Raman data along with H2O2 assay indicate that one out of the four electrons necessary to reduce O2 to H2O is donated by the ferrous porphyrin while three are donated by the distal ferrocene residues. The same catalyst shows 4e(-)/4H(+) reduction of O2 in an aqueous medium, under heterogeneous conditions, over a wide range of pH. Both the selectivity and the rate of ORR are found to be pH independent in an aqueous medium. The ORR proceeds via a proton transfer followed by electron transfer (PET) step in an organic medium and while a 2e(-)/1H(+) proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) step determines the electrochemical potential of ORR in an aqueous medium.

  6. Predicting bioavailability and accumulation of organochlorine pesticides by Japanese medaka in the presence of humic acid and natural organic matter using passive sampling membranes.

    PubMed

    Ke, Runhui; Luo, Jianping; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Zijian; Spear, Philip A

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption to dissolved organic matter (DOM) may significantly decrease the freely dissolved concentration of many hydrophobic organic compounds and, hence, result in reduced bioavailability to aquatic organisms. Here, the suitability of using triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) as a biomimetic surrogate to assess the bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water in the presence of DOM was explored. The accumulation of OCPs was measured in TECAM and pelagic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) in the laboratory after 12 h exposure to water containing different levels of Aldrich humic acid. Further, OCP uptake by TECAM and medaka in real aqueous environments was evaluated after 30 d exposures in two sites. Laboratory results showed that OCP uptake by medaka consistently decreased with increasing levels of humic acid in the range of 0-15 mg C/L in sample solutions. This tendency was closely mimicked by OCP accumulation in TECAM under the same conditions. Field results showed that TECAM accumulated similar OCP patterns as medaka (r2 = 0.92 for site 1 and r2 = 0.94 for site 2), although comparison of the in-field eight OCP concentrations in TECAM to those in medaka yielded approximately a factor of 3 (on a wet weight basis). These results suggest that the TECAM method can be used as a simple and useful tool to predict the bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of poorly biotransformed organic compounds in pelagic fish in aqueous environment.

  7. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dieldrin uptake and translocation in plants growing in hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Sakai, Mizuki

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that the Cucurbitaceae family takes up a large amount of persistent organic pollutants from soils and that the translocation of those compounds in cucurbits is higher than those in non-cucurbits. To understand the persistent organic pollutant uptake mechanisms of plant species, we compared the dieldrin absorption and transportation potentials of several plants in hydroponic medium. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Moench), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), soybean (Glycine max), komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. peruviridis), white-flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were grown in a dieldrin-added hydroponic medium for 10 d, and then the amount of dieldrin in their shoots and roots was measured. All of the roots contained dieldrin, whereas only the cucurbits (white-flowered gourd, cucumber, and zucchini) contained considerable amounts of dieldrin in their shoots. The dieldrin uptake to the roots depended on the concentration of the n-hexane soluble components in the roots, regardless of whether the dieldrin in the roots was translocated to shoots or not. The dieldrin uptake from the solution to the roots was thought to be due to a passive response, such as adsorption on the roots. The translocation of dieldrin from the roots to the shoots was probably through the xylems. The amounts of dieldrin in the shoots per transpiration rates were higher for cucurbits than for non-cucurbits. It seems likely that cucurbits have uptake mechanisms for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

  9. Passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and emerging compounds in Kolkata megacity and rural mangrove wetland Sundarban in India: An approach to regional monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Estellano, Victor H; Mitra, Soumita; Audi, Ondrej; Kukucka, Petr; Přibylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Corsolini, Simonetta

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m(3)) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑6DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑7PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑10PBDEs: 0.30-23 (11 ± 9). Low values for all the studied POPs were recorded in the remote area of the Sundarban site (with the exception of DDTs: o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), where ∑4DDTs was 161 ± 36. In particular, the site of Ballygunge, located in the southern part of Kolkata, showed the highest level of all the metabolites/congeners of POPs, suggesting a potential hot spot of usage and emissions. From HCHs, α-/γ-HCH isomers ratio was low (0.67-1.96) indicating a possible sporadic source of lindane. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal (at 3 sites) reflecting wide spread use of lindane both in Kolkata and the Sundarban region; however, isomeric composition in Kolkata also suggests potential technical HCHs use. Among DDT metabolites, both o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT shared the dominant percentages accounting for ∼26-46% of total DDTs followed by p,p'-DDE (∼12-19%). The PCB congener profile was dominated by tri- and tetra-Cl at the southern and eastern part of Kolkata. These results are one of the few contributions that reports air concentrations of POPs, concurrently, at urban and remote villages in India. These data are useful to assess atmospheric pollution levels and to motivate local and regional authorities to better understand the potential human exposure risk associated to urban areas in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  11. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  12. Techniques for active passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  13. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  14. Outer Membrane Permeability of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Studies of Passive Diffusion of Small Organic Nutrients Reveal the Absence of Classical Porins and Intrinsically Low Permeability.

    PubMed

    Kowata, Hikaru; Tochigi, Saeko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kojima, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    The outer membrane of heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria plays the role of a selective permeability barrier that prevents the influx of toxic compounds while allowing the nonspecific passage of small hydrophilic nutrients through porin channels. Compared with heterotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, the outer membrane properties of cyanobacteria, which are Gram-negative photoautotrophs, are not clearly understood. In this study, using small carbohydrates, amino acids, and inorganic ions as permeation probes, we determined the outer membrane permeability of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in intact cells and in proteoliposomes reconstituted with outer membrane proteins. The permeability of this cyanobacterium was >20-fold lower than that of Escherichia coli The predominant outer membrane proteins Slr1841, Slr1908, and Slr0042 were not permeable to organic nutrients and allowed only the passage of inorganic ions. Only the less abundant outer membrane protein Slr1270, a homolog of the E. coli export channel TolC, was permeable to organic solutes. The activity of Slr1270 as a channel was verified in a recombinant Slr1270-producing E. coli outer membrane. The lack of putative porins and the low outer membrane permeability appear to suit the cyanobacterial autotrophic lifestyle; the highly impermeable outer membrane would be advantageous to cellular survival by protecting the cell from toxic compounds, especially when the cellular physiology is not dependent on the uptake of organic nutrients.IMPORTANCE Because the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria affects the flux rates for various substances into and out of the cell, its permeability is closely associated with cellular physiology. The outer membrane properties of cyanobacteria, which are photoautotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, are not clearly understood. Here, we examined the outer membrane of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. We revealed that it is relatively permeable to inorganic ions but is markedly less

  15. The influence of organic-film morphology on the efficient electron transfer at passivated polymer-modified electrodes to which nanoparticles are attached.

    PubMed

    Barfidokht, Abbas; Ciampi, Simone; Luais, Erwann; Darwish, Nadim; Gooding, J Justin

    2013-07-22

    The impact of polymer-film morphology on the electron-transfer process at electrode/organic insulator/nanomaterial architectures is studied. The experimental data are discussed in the context of the most recent theory modelling the nanoparticle-mediated electron-transfer process at electrode/insulator/nanomaterial architectures proposed by Chazalviel and Allongue [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 762-764]. A previous report [Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 1073-1080] by us qualitatively verified the theory and demonstrates a transition from thickness-independent to thickness-dependent electron transfer as the layer thickness exceeds a certain threshold. This follow-up study explores a different polymer, poly(phenylenediamine), and focuses on the effect of the uniformity of organic film on electron transfer at these hybrid structures. Electron-transfer kinetics of modified surfaces, which were assessed using the redox species Ru(NH3)6(3+) in aqueous solution, showed that a thickness-dependent electron-transfer regime is achieved with poly(phenylenediamine). This is attributed to the sufficiently thin films never being fabricated with this polymer. Rather, it is suggested that thin poly(phenylenediamine) layers have a globular structure with poor film homogeneity and pinhole defects.

  16. Investigation of polyethylene passive diffusion samplers for sampling volatile organic compounds in ground water at Davis Global Communications, Sacramento, California, August 1998 to February 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Borchers, J.W.; Campbell, T.R.; Kinsey, Willey

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen wells were instrumented with diffusion samplers as a test to determine whether the samplers could be used to obtain representative volatile organic compound concentrations at a study site in Sacramento, California. Single diffusion samplers were placed in 10-foot-long well screens, and multiple diffusion samplers were positioned in 20-foot-long well screens. Borehole geophysical logs and electromagnetic flowmeter tests were run in selected wells with 20-foot-long well screens prior to deploying the samplers. The diffusion samplers were recovered after 25 to 30 days, and the wells were then sampled by using the purge-and-sample method. In most wells, the concentrations obtained by using the downhole diffusion samplers closely matched those obtained by using the purge-and-sample method. In seven wells, the concentrations differed between the two methods by only 2 micrograms per liter (g/L) or less. In three wells, volatile organic compounds were not detected in water obtained by using either method. In the four remaining wells, differences between the methods were less than 2g/L in the 0.2- to 8.5-g/L concentration range and from 1.2 to 8.7g/L in the 10- to 26-g/L concentration range. Greater differences (23 percent or 14.5g/L, 31 percent or 66g/L, and 46 percent or 30g/L) between the two methods were observed for tetrachloroethene concentrations, which ranged between 30 and 211g/L in three wells. The most probable explanation for the differences is that in some wells, the purging induced drawdowns and introduced water that differed in volatile organic compound concentrations from the in situ water in contact with the screened interval of the well. Alternate explanations include the possibility of unrecorded changes in nearby contaminant-extraction-well operation during the equilibration period. The data suggest that the combined use of borehole flowmeter tests and diffusion samplers may be useful in optimizing the radius of capture of contaminated ground

  17. USE OF PASSIVE SAMPLERS IN THE DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) employs a number of passive diffusion-based samplers for the collection of select gaseous air pollutants. These pollutants include criteria gases such as ozone, carbonyls such as acrolein, and volatile organics such as 1-3, ...

  18. Influence of beam incidence and irradiation parameters on stray neutron doses to healthy organs of pediatric patients treated for an intracranial tumor with passive scattering proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonfrate, A; Farah, J; De Marzi, L; Delacroix, S; Hérault, J; Sayah, R; Lee, C; Bolch, W E; Clairand, I

    2016-04-01

    In scattering proton therapy, the beam incidence, i.e. the patient's orientation with respect to the beam axis, can significantly influence stray neutron doses although it is almost not documented in the literature. MCNPX calculations were carried out to estimate stray neutron doses to 25 healthy organs of a 10-year-old female phantom treated for an intracranial tumor. Two beam incidences were considered in this article, namely a superior (SUP) field and a right lateral (RLAT) field. For both fields, a parametric study was performed varying proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and air gap size. Using a standard beam line configuration for a craniopharyngioma treatment, neutron absorbed doses per therapeutic dose of 63μGyGy(-1) and 149μGyGy(-1) were found at the heart for the SUP and the RLAT fields, respectively. This dose discrepancy was explained by the different patient's orientations leading to changes in the distance between organs and the final collimator where external neutrons are mainly produced. Moreover, investigations on neutron spectral fluence at the heart showed that the number of neutrons was 2.5times higher for the RLAT field compared against the SUP field. Finally, the influence of some irradiation parameters on neutron doses was found to be different according to the beam incidence. Beam incidence was thus found to induce large variations in stray neutron doses, proving that this parameter could be optimized to enhance the radiation protection of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Culture Medium for Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Neidhardt, Frederick C.; Bloch, Philip L.; Smith, David F.

    1974-01-01

    A new minimal medium for enterobacteria has been developed. It supports growth of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium at rates comparable to those of any of the traditional media that have high phosphate concentrations, but each of the macronutrients (phosphate, sulfate, and nitrogen) is present at a sufficiently low level to permit isotopic labeling. Buffering capacity is provided by an organic dipolar ion, morpholinopropane sulfonate, which has a desirable pK (7.2) and no apparent inhibitory effect on growth. The medium has been developed with the objectives of (i) providing reproducibility of chemical composition, (ii) meeting the experimentally determined nutritional needs of the cell, (iii) avoiding an unnecessary excess of the major ionic species, (iv) facilitating the adjustment of the levels of individual ionic species, both for isotopic labeling and for nutritional studies, (v) supplying a complete array of micronutrients, (vi) setting a particular ion as the crop-limiting factor when the carbon and energy source is in excess, and (vii) providing maximal convenience in the manufacture and storage of the medium. PMID:4604283

  20. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, David; Neri, Robin

    2016-02-05

    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  1. Polyethylene passive samplers to determine sediment-pore water distribution coefficients of persistent organic pollutants in five heavily contaminated dredged sediments.

    PubMed

    Charrasse, Benoit; Tixier, Céline; Hennebert, Pierre; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Pore concentration and partition coefficients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments from five distinct contaminated sites in France (marine harbour, rivers canals and highway sedimentation tank). The assessment of the risk caused by such micropollutants requires, in most cases, the measurement of their availability. To assess this availability, low density polyethylene (LDPE) membrane samplers were exposed to these sediments under constant and low-level agitation over a period of 46 days. Freely dissolved pore water contaminant concentrations were estimated from the concentration at equilibrium in the LDPE membrane. The depletion of contaminants in the sediments was monitored by the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Marked differences in freely dissolved PAH and PCB concentrations and resulting sediment-pore water partition coefficients between these five sediments were observed. Data set was tested onto different empirical and mechanistic models. As final findings, triple domain sorption (a total organic carbon, black carbon and oil phase model) could model PCB data successfully whereas the best fitting for PAH partitioning was obtained by Raoult's Law model.

  2. Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-26

    92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Active and Passive Remote Sensing of Ice NO0014-89-J-l 107 6. AUTHOR(S) 425f023-08 Prof. J.A. Kong 7... REMOTE SENSING OF ICE Sponsored by: Department of the Navy Office of Naval Research Contract number: N00014-89-J-1107 Research Organization: Center for...J. A. Kong Period covered: October 1, 1988 - November 30, 1992 St ACTIVE AND PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING OF ICE FINAL REPORT This annual report covers

  3. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  4. A comparison of the performance of cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar with Oxoid chromogenic urinary tract infection (CUTI) medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of organisms from urine.

    PubMed

    Fallon, D; Andrews, N; Frodsham, D; Gee, B; Howe, S; Iliffe, A; Nye, K J; Warren, R E

    2002-07-01

    As part of the UK antimicrobial resistance strategy and action plan, the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) is required to collect antibiotic susceptibility data so that resistance trends and patterns can be monitored. Most laboratories report urine Gram negative isolates, as "coliforms" according to morphological appearance, but without an acceptable identification system the antimicrobial surveillance data will be meaningless. Commercially available identification systems tend to be expensive and time consuming. Chromogenic agars, which claim to improve the detection of mixed cultures and identification of organisms from urine, have now become available and may provide a cost effective alternative. The primary aim of this study was to compare the performance of cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar with a chromogenic agar (Oxoid urinary tract infection medium; CUTI) in terms of isolation rates and ability to detect mixed cultures. Secondary aims were to evaluate the correlation of "presumptive" identification of isolates from chromogenic media with that of two commercial identification systems and to appraise the sensitivity of the semiquantitative loop and filter paper strip culture techniques. One thousand, four hundred and sixty six urine samples were examined in four laboratories using the semiquantitative culture methods of 1 microl loop and filter paper strip. The degree of accuracy of organism identification was measured by comparing the presumptive identification using colony colour supplemented with simple bench tests, with identification obtained from two more complex commercial systems. There was no significant difference between the performance of the loop and filter paper strip methods on the CLED agar, but the CUTI agar performed significantly better than the CLED agar for the detection of significant isolates and mixed cultures. This difference was greater using the loop method. Identification of the organisms using the commercial

  5. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  6. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  7. Production of Whole-Cell Lipase from Streptomyces clavuligerus in a Bench-Scale Bioreactor and Its First Evaluation as Biocatalyst for Synthesis in Organic Medium.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Jéssica Bravin Carmello; da Silva Cruz, Rosineide Gomes; Tardioli, Paulo Waldir

    2017-02-24

    This work evaluated a wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus strain as a whole-cell lipase (Sc-WCL) producer by submerged fermentation. In an orbital shaker, lipase hydrolytic activity of 3000 U L(-1), measured at pH 9.0 and 37 °C by using p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate, was achieved after 36 h fermentation using glycerol-free production medium in a baffled Erlenmeyer flask at 28 °C and pH 6.8. Maximum productivity of 52.5 U L(-1) h(-1) was achieved after 24 h in bioreactor using glycerol-free production medium at pH 6.8 and 28 °C, with agitation at 400 rpm and aeration at 1 vvm. Sc-WCL was shown to be more active at 60 °C and pH 10.7, while higher activity retention was observed at 30-40 °C after 1 h incubation at pH 10. Sc-WCL showed to have potential to be used as biocatalyst in hydrolysis and esterification reactions. In the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl palmitate, lyophilized Sc-WCL expressed a hydrolytic activity (330 units g(-1) solid, measured at 37 °C and pH 9.0) around 100-fold higher than the ones declared by a supplier of lyophilized powders of mixtures of intracellular lipases from Thermus thermophiles and Thermus flavus (≥3.0 units g(-1) solid, measured at 65 °C and pH 8.0). In the synthesis of butyl butyrate in anhydrous medium, 85% ester conversion was achieved at 37 °C after 8 h reaction. Thus, Sc-WCL showed to be a promising biocatalyst because it is cheaper than the isolated and purified lipases.

  8. Contribution of passive smoking to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, L H; Garfinkel, L; Correa, P; Haley, N; Hoffmann, D; Preston-Martin, S; Sandler, D

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews data from experimental and epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and makes 12 recommendations for further study. The physicochemical nature of passive smoke, the smoke inhaled by nonsmokers, differs significantly from the mainstream smoke inhaled by the active smoker. At present, measurement of urinary cotinine appears to be the best method of assessing exposures to passive smoking. Data indicate that the greater number of lung cancers in nonsmoking women is probably related to environmental tobacco smoke. Exposures in utero and very early in life to passive smoking may be important in relationship to the subsequent development of cancer and need further consideration. The short-term effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the cardiovascular system, especially among high-risk individuals, may be of greater concern than that of cancer and requires further study. Further study of increased risks of lung cancers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke exposure requires larger collaborative studies to identify lung cancer cases among nonsmokers, better delineation of pathology, and more careful selection of controls. In addition, studies of epithelial cells or specific cytology should be undertaken to determine evidence of cellular changes in relation to environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Animal inhalation studies with passive smoke should be initiated with respect to transplacental carcinogenesis, the relationship of sidestream smoke exposure with lung cancer, the induction of tumors in the respiratory tract and other organs, and the differences in the physicochemical natures of sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:3830114

  9. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  10. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Passives and Their Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langacker, Ronald W.; Munro, Pamela

    1975-01-01

    An underlying representation for passive sentences in Mojave and Uto-Aztecan is proposed, and the broader issues that arise in extending the analysis to other languages and incorporating it in linguistic theory as a substantive language universal are explored. (Author/RM)

  12. Passive hydrogel fuel generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neefe, Ch. W.

    1985-04-16

    A passive hydrogen oxygen generator in which the long wavelength infrared portion of the sun's spectrum heats water to provide circulation of the water within the generator. The shorter wavelength portion of the spectrum to which water is transparent is used in splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen by photoelectrolysis.

  13. Passive Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic bearing for limited rotation devices requires no feedback control system to sense and correct shaft position. Passive Magnetic Torsion Bearing requires no power supply and has no rubbing parts. Torsion wire restrains against axial instability. Magnetic flux geometry chosen to assure lateral stability with radial restoring force that maintains alignment.

  14. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    PubMed

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system.

  15. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Thon, Susanna M.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Carey, Graham H.; Fischer, Armin; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electron-hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device.

  16. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ip, Alexander H; Thon, Susanna M; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R; Carey, Graham H; Fischer, Armin; Kemp, Kyle W; Kramer, Illan J; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electron-hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device.

  17. "Get"-Passives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Peter C.

    1996-01-01

    Tests claims regarding "get"-passives in English via interrogation of a set of written and spoken corpora. The data suggest that "get"-passives are often associated with two types of pragmatic implicature. Finally, the corpus provides evidence of three types of variation with 'get'-passives: regional, stylistic, and diachronic.…

  18. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Ferrari, Carlo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-09-16

    In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein-pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC-CVG-AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75-100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L(-1) based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L(-1), depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence.

  19. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  20. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  1. Dominance of candidate Saccharibacteria in a membrane bioreactor treating medium age landfill leachate: Effects of organic load on microbial communities, hydrolytic potential and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Melidis, Paraschos; Zerva, Ioanna; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Nikolaki, Sofia; Tsiamis, George; Ntougias, Spyridon

    2017-08-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR), accomplishing high nitrogen removal efficiencies, was evaluated under various landfill leachate concentrations (50, 75 and 100% v/v). Proteinous and carbohydrate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial product (SMP) were strongly correlated (p<0.01) with organic load, salinity and NH4(+)-N. Exceptionally high β-glucosidase activities (6700-10,100Ug(-1)) were determined during MBR operation with 50% v/v leachate, as a result of the low organic carbon availability that extendedly induced β-glucosidases to breakdown the least biodegradable organic fraction. Illumina sequencing revealed that candidate Saccharibacteria were dominant, independently of the leachate concentration applied, whereas other microbiota (21.2% of total reads) disappeared when undiluted leachate was used. Fungal taxa shifted from a Saccharomyces- to a newly-described Cryptomycota-based community with increasing leachate concentration. Indeed, this is the first report on the dominance of candidate Saccharibacteria and on the examination of their metabolic behavior in a bioreactor treating real wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Active and passive euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Rachels, J

    1975-01-09

    The traditional distinction between active and passive euthanasia requires critical analysis. The conventional doctrine is that there is such an important moral difference between the two that, although the latter is sometimes permissible, the former is always forbidden. This doctrine may be challenged for several reasons. First of all, active euthanasia is in many cases more humane than passive euthanasia, Secondly, the conventional doctrine leads to decisions concerning life and death on irrelevant grounds. Thirdly, the doctrine rests on a distinction between killing and letting die that itself has no moral importance. Fourthly, the most common arguments in favor of the doctrine are invalid. I therefore suggest that the American Medical Association policy statement that endorses this doctrine is unsound.

  3. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Yorktown, VA; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin [Lagga Arby, SE; Ciovati, Gianluigi [Newport News, VA

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  4. Passively actuated valve

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  5. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Hall, Earl T. (Inventor); Baker, Donald A. (Inventor); Bryant, Timothy D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  6. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Hall, Earl T.; Baker, Donald A.; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1992-08-01

    An ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system is discussed. The invention is comprised of a piezoelectric polymer film, combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt, and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted by a fetus inside an expectant mother. Additionally, the monitor will filter out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  7. Passive fetal monitoring sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The invention is an ambulatory, passive sensor for use in a fetal monitoring system. The invention incorporates piezoelectric polymer film combined with a metallic mounting plate fastened to a belt and electrically connected to a signal processing unit by means of a shielded cable. The purpose of the sensor is to receive pressure pulses emitted from a fetus inside an expectant mother and to provide means for filtering out pressure pulses arising from other sources, such as the maternal heart.

  8. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%.

  9. Electronic Spectroscopy of Organic Cations in Gas-Phase at 6 K:IDENTIFICATION of C60/^+ in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, John P.

    2016-06-01

    After the discovery of C60, the question of its relevance to the diffuse interstellar bands was raised. In 1987 H. W. Kroto wrote: ``The present observations indicate that C60 might survive in the general interstellar medium (probably as the ion C60/^+)''. In 1994 two diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 9632 and 9577 Å/ were detected and proposed to be the absorption features of C60/^+. This was based on the proximity of these wavelengths to the two prominent absorption bands of C60/^+ measured by us in a neon matrix in 1993. Confirmation of the assignment required the gas phase spectrum of C60/^+ and has taken 20 years. The approach which succeeded confines C60/^+ ions in a radiofrequency trap, cools them by collisions with high density helium allowing formation of the weakly bound C60/^+--He complexes below 10 K. The photofragmentation spectrum of this mass-selected complex is then recorded using a cw laser. In order to infer the position of the absorption features of the bare C60/^+ ion, measurements on C60/^+--He_2 were also made. The spectra show that the presence of a helium atom shifts the absorptions by less than 0.2 Å, much less than the accuracy of the astronomical measurements. The two absorption features in the laboratory have band maxima at 9632.7(1) and 9577.5(1) Å, exactly the DIB wavelengths, and the widths and relative intensities agree. This leads to the first definite identification of now five bands among the five hundred or so DIBs known and proves the presence of gaseous C60/^+ in the interstellar medium. The absorption of cold C70/^+ has also been obtained by this approach. In addition the electronic spectra of a number of cations of astrophysical interest ranging from those of carbon chains including oxygen to larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon could be measured in the gas phase at around 10 K in the ion trap but using an excitation-dissociation approach. The implications of these laboratory spectra in relation to the diffuse

  10. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  12. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  14. Passive swimming in viscous oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Ikhee; Huang, Yangyang; Zimmermann, Walter; Kanso, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Fluid-based locomotion at low Reynolds number is subject to the constraints of Purcell's scallop theorem: reciprocal shape kinematics identical under a time-reversal symmetry cannot cause locomotion. In particular, a single degree-of-freedom scallop undergoing opening and closing motions cannot swim. Most strategies for symmetry breaking and locomotion rely on direct control of the swimmer's shape kinematics. Less is known about indirect control via actuation of the fluid medium. To address how such indirect actuation strategies can lead to locomotion, we analyze a Λ -shaped model system analogous to Purcell's scallop but able to deform passively in oscillatory flows. Neutrally buoyant scallops undergo no net locomotion. We show that dense, elastic scallops can exhibit passive locomotion in zero-mean oscillatory flows. We examine the efficiency of swimming parallel to the background flow and analyze the stability of these motions. We observe transitions from stable to unstable swimming, including ordered transitions from fluttering to chaoticlike motions and tumbling. Our results demonstrate that flow oscillations can be used to passively actuate and control the motion of microswimmers, which may be relevant to applications such as surgical robots and cell sorting and manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  15. Active-passive calibration of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mario; Richardson, Andrew C.; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Oddershede, Lene B.; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    In order to use optical tweezers as a force measuring tool inside a viscoelastic medium such as the cytoplasm of a living cell, it is crucial to perform an exact force calibration within the complex medium. This is a nontrivial task, as many of the physical characteristics of the medium and probe, e.g., viscosity, elasticity, shape, and density, are often unknown. Here, we suggest how to calibrate single beam optical tweezers in a complex viscoelastic environment. At the same time, we determine viscoelastic characteristics such as friction retardation spectrum and elastic moduli of the medium. We apply and test a method suggested [M. Fischer and K. Berg-Sørensen, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S239 (2007)], a method which combines passive and active measurements. The method is demonstrated in a simple viscous medium, water, and in a solution of entangled F-actin without cross-linkers.

  16. Active-passive calibration of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mario; Richardson, Andrew C; Reihani, S Nader S; Oddershede, Lene B; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    In order to use optical tweezers as a force measuring tool inside a viscoelastic medium such as the cytoplasm of a living cell, it is crucial to perform an exact force calibration within the complex medium. This is a nontrivial task, as many of the physical characteristics of the medium and probe, e.g., viscosity, elasticity, shape, and density, are often unknown. Here, we suggest how to calibrate single beam optical tweezers in a complex viscoelastic environment. At the same time, we determine viscoelastic characteristics such as friction retardation spectrum and elastic moduli of the medium. We apply and test a method suggested [M. Fischer and K. Berg-Sørensen, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S239 (2007)], a method which combines passive and active measurements. The method is demonstrated in a simple viscous medium, water, and in a solution of entangled F-actin without cross-linkers.

  17. Molten salt medium synthesis of wormlike platinum silver nanotubes without any organic surfactant or solvent for methanol and formic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haidong; Liu, Rui; Guo, Yong; Yang, Shengchun

    2015-12-14

    In the current research, the PtxAgy (x/y = 86/14, 79/21, 52/48, 21/79, 11/89) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized in the KNO3-LiNO3 molten salts without using any organic surfactant or solvent. The SEM results suggest that when the content of Ag is higher than 48%, the wormlike PtxAgy nanotubes (NTs) can be synthesized. The diameter of the PtxAgyNTs shows a slow decrease with the increase of Ag content. The TEM and HRTEM results indicate that the growth of hollow PtxAgy NTs undergoes an oriented attachment process and a Kirkendall effect approach. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement indicate that the Pt52Ag48 catalyst presents a remarkable enhancement for methanol electrooxidation, while the Pt86Ag14 catalyst prefers electrochemically oxidizing formic acid compared with that of the commercially available Pt black.

  18. Comet Halley as an aggregate of interstellar dust and further evidence for the photochemical formation of organics in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, R.; Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.; Greenberg, J. M.; Mccain, P. J.; Mendoza-Gomez, C. X.; Schutte, W.

    1992-01-01

    Photolysis of mixtures of CO:NH3:H2O at 12 K results in the formation of an organic residue which is not volatile in high vacuum at room temperature. Analysis of this fraction by GC-MS resulted in the detection of C2-C3 hydroxy acids and hydroxy amides, glycerol, urea, glycine, hexamethylene tetramine, formamidine and ethanolamine. Use of isotopically labeled gases made it possible to establish that the observed products were not contaminants. The reaction pathways for the formation of these products were determined from the position of the isotopic labels in the mass spectral fragments. The significance of these findings to the composition of comets and the origins of life is discussed.

  19. Comet Halley as an aggregate of interstellar dust and further evidence for the photochemical formation of organics in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, R.; Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.; Greenberg, J. M.; Mccain, P. J.; Mendoza-Gomez, C. X.; Schutte, W.

    1992-01-01

    Photolysis of mixtures of CO:NH3:H2O at 12 K results in the formation of an organic residue which is not volatile in high vacuum at room temperature. Analysis of this fraction by GC-MS resulted in the detection of C2-C3 hydroxy acids and hydroxy amides, glycerol, urea, glycine, hexamethylene tetramine, formamidine and ethanolamine. Use of isotopically labeled gases made it possible to establish that the observed products were not contaminants. The reaction pathways for the formation of these products were determined from the position of the isotopic labels in the mass spectral fragments. The significance of these findings to the composition of comets and the origins of life is discussed.

  20. Electrocatalytic oxidation of small organic molecules in acid medium: enhancement of activity of noble metal nanoparticles and their alloys by supporting or modifying them with metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Pawel J.; Pieta, Izabela S.; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Wadas, Anna; Marks, Diana; Klak, Karolina; Stobinski, Leszek; Cox, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Different approaches to enhancement of electrocatalytic activity of noble metal nanoparticles during oxidation of small organic molecules (namely potential fuels for low-temperature fuel cells such as methanol, ethanol and formic acid) are described. A physical approach to the increase of activity of catalytic nanoparticles (e.g. platinum or palladium) involves nanostructuring to obtain highly dispersed systems of high surface area. Recently, the feasibility of enhancing activity of noble metal systems through the formation of bimetallic (e.g. PtRu, PtSn, and PdAu) or even more complex (e.g. PtRuW, PtRuSn) alloys has been demonstrated. In addition to possible changes in the electronic properties of alloys, specific interactions between metals as well as chemical reactivity of the added components have been postulated. We address and emphasize here the possibility of utilization of noble metal and alloyed nanoparticles supported on robust but reactive high surface area metal oxides (e.g. WO3, MoO3, TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5, and CeO2) in oxidative electrocatalysis. This paper concerns the way in which certain inorganic oxides and oxo species can act effectively as supports for noble metal nanoparticles or their alloys during electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen and representative organic fuels. Among important issues are possible changes in the morphology and dispersion, as well as specific interactions leading to the improved chemisorptive and catalytic properties in addition to the feasibility of long time operation of the discussed systems. PMID:24443590

  1. Three novel input logic gates supported by fluorescence studies: organic nanoparticles (ONPs) as chemo-sensor for detection of Zn²⁺ and Al³⁺ in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Aguilar, C A; Pandiyan, T; Singh, N; Jayanthi, N

    2015-07-05

    Organic nanoparticles (ONPs) of N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylimine) (salen) were synthesized and applied for specific recognition of Zn(2+) and Al(3+) ions in an aqueous medium. The results show that fluorescence intensity rises with the increasing concentration of Zn(2+) in salen solution, proving that salen-ONPs detect Zn(2+) efficiently in the aqueous medium as chemo-sensor. Furthermore, the salen-ONPs/Zn(2+) system performs as an ON-OFF switch between pH 6.0 and 4.0. Amusingly, although salen-ONPs/Al(3+) does not show any significant effect in the fluorescence spectra, highest fluorescence intensity was observed when Al(3+) ion was added to salen-ONPs/Zn(2+) in a sequential order (addition of Zn(2+) to salen-ONPs, followed by Al(3+)). This system can be applied as a novel three inputs logic gate supported by the fluorescence for the detection of Zn(2+) and Al(3+) in biological and environmental samples. It appears that photo induced electron transfer (PET) occurs in the salen-ONPs when the fluorophore is excited. For salen/Zn(2+) system, the PET is being inhibited considerably by lowering the receptor HOMO energy due to the formation of a bond between the metal ion and ligand, enhancing the fluorescence emission. This is consistent with the theoretical study that the energy of HOMO of the ligand is lower than that of Zn(salen)(2+) complex.

  2. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  3. Is Passive Diagnosis Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Andrews, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Tuberculosis (TB) is characterized by a subclinical phase (symptoms absent or not considered abnormal); prediagnostic phase (symptoms noticed but diagnosis not pursued); and clinical phase (care actively sought). Diagnostic capacity during these phases is limited. Objectives: To estimate the population-level impact of TB case-finding strategies in the presence of subclinical and prediagnostic disease. Methods: We created a mathematical epidemic model of TB, calibrated to global incidence. We then introduced three prototypical diagnostic interventions: increased sensitivity of diagnosis in the clinical phase by 20% (“passive”); early diagnosis during the prediagnostic phase at a rate of 10% per year (“enhanced”); and population-based diagnosis of 5% of undiagnosed prevalent cases per year (“active”). Measurements and Main Results: If the subclinical phase was ignored, as in most models, the passive strategy was projected to reduce TB incidence by 18% (90% uncertainty range [UR], 11–32%) by year 10, compared with 23% (90% UR, 14–35%) for the enhanced strategy and 18% (90% UR, 11–28%) for the active strategy. After incorporating a subclinical phase into the model, consistent with population-based prevalence surveys, the active strategy still reduced 10-year TB incidence by 16% (90% UR, 11–28%), but the passive and enhanced strategies’ impact was attenuated to 11% (90% UR, 8–25%) and 6% (90% UR, 4–13%), respectively. The degree of attenuation depended strongly on the transmission rate during the subclinical phase. Conclusions: Subclinical disease may limit the impact of current diagnostic strategies for TB. Active detection of undiagnosed prevalent cases may achieve greater population-level TB control than increasing passive case detection. PMID:23262515

  4. A comparison of the performance of cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar with Oxoid chromogenic urinary tract infection (CUTI) medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of organisms from urine

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, D; Andrews, N; Frodsham, D; Gee, B; Howe, S; Iliffe, A; Nye, K J; Warren, R E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: As part of the UK antimicrobial resistance strategy and action plan, the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) is required to collect antibiotic susceptibility data so that resistance trends and patterns can be monitored. Most laboratories report urine Gram negative isolates, as “coliforms” according to morphological appearance, but without an acceptable identification system the antimicrobial surveillance data will be meaningless. Commercially available identification systems tend to be expensive and time consuming. Chromogenic agars, which claim to improve the detection of mixed cultures and identification of organisms from urine, have now become available and may provide a cost effective alternative. The primary aim of this study was to compare the performance of cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar with a chromogenic agar (Oxoid urinary tract infection medium; CUTI) in terms of isolation rates and ability to detect mixed cultures. Secondary aims were to evaluate the correlation of “presumptive” identification of isolates from chromogenic media with that of two commercial identification systems and to appraise the sensitivity of the semiquantitative loop and filter paper strip culture techniques. Method: One thousand, four hundred and sixty six urine samples were examined in four laboratories using the semiquantitative culture methods of 1 μl loop and filter paper strip. The degree of accuracy of organism identification was measured by comparing the presumptive identification using colony colour supplemented with simple bench tests, with identification obtained from two more complex commercial systems. Results: There was no significant difference between the performance of the loop and filter paper strip methods on the CLED agar, but the CUTI agar performed significantly better than the CLED agar for the detection of significant isolates and mixed cultures. This difference was greater using the loop method. Identification of the

  5. Passive millimeter wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergande, Al; Dean, Donald D.; O'Donnell, Daniel J.

    1996-05-01

    Passive millimeter wave (MMW) imaging provides a breakthrough capability for driver vision enhancement to counter the blinding effects of inclement weather. This type of sensor images in a manner analogous to an infrared or visible camera, but receives its energy from the MMW portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Technology has progressed to the point where MMW radiometric systems offer advantages to a number of vision applications. We report on our developmental 94 GHz radiometric testbed, and the eventual technological evolutions that will help MMW radiometers and radars meet military and commercial market needs.

  6. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  7. Passive propellant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, D. A.; Regnier, W. W.; Jacobs, V. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A passive propellant acquisition and feed system is disclosed which acquires and feeds gas-free propellant in low or zero-g environments during orbital maneuvers and retains this propellant under high axially directed acceleration such as may be experienced during launch of a space vehicle and orbit-to-orbit transfer is described. The propellant system includes a dual compartment propellant tank with independent surface tension acquisition channels in each compartment to provide gas-free flow of pressurized liquid propellant from one compartment to the other in one direction only.

  8. Passive orbital disconnect strut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.; Kittel, P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and test results with a third generation passive orbital disconnect strut (PODS) for space-based cryogenic He dewars are presented. Three pairs of PODS struts support a tank and change lengths in response to gas and temperature changes. A thin wall fiberglass tube is used on the cold disconnect end, which can be operated on the ground or in space. Tests were performed to characterize heat flows across the cold end to a liquid He sink and subsequent vacuum pressure within the He tank. Heat transfer was lower than predicted, suggesting that longer dewar in-orbit lifetimes can be expected with the new PODS.

  9. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Takeshi Fukuhara, Noboru; Osada, Takenori; Sazawa, Hiroyuki; Hata, Masahiko; Inoue, Takayuki

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures comprising a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA) conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}) near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce D{sub it} to below 2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Using a (111)A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  10. Developments on passive cooling in buildings -- Results from recent research

    SciTech Connect

    Santamouris, M.; Argiriou, A.A.; Balaras, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent developments in natural and passive cooling in buildings and the main results from the European research project PASCOOL. The project was completed at the end of 1995, after 27 months of theoretical and experimental work resulting in a better understanding of passive cooling techniques and the development of tools and design guidelines. The project was a collaboration of 29 European universities and research organizations from 12 countries.

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  13. Photometric Passive Range Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argueta-Diaz, Victor; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we present a passive optical ranging method that consists of taking several photometric measurements from the light radiated by an object and deriving the range from these measurements. This passive ranging device uses an iris of radius a, a lens of radius larger than a, and a photodetector of radius p

  14. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Peter A. . E-mail: peter_graf@nrel.gov; Kim, Kwiseon; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-06-10

    We describe a systematic and efficient method of determining pseudo-atom positions and potentials for use in nanostructure calculations based on bulk empirical pseudopotentials (EPMs). Given a bulk EPM for binary semiconductor X, we produce parameters for pseudo-atoms necessary to passivate a nanostructure of X in preparation for quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. These passivants are based on the quality of the wave functions of a set of small test structures that include the passivants. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. It enables and/or streamlines surface passivation for empirical pseudopotential calculations.

  15. Surface passivation optimization using DIRECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Peter A.; Kim, Kwiseon; Jones, Wesley B.; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2007-06-01

    We describe a systematic and efficient method of determining pseudo-atom positions and potentials for use in nanostructure calculations based on bulk empirical pseudopotentials (EPMs). Given a bulk EPM for binary semiconductor X, we produce parameters for pseudo-atoms necessary to passivate a nanostructure of X in preparation for quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations. These passivants are based on the quality of the wave functions of a set of small test structures that include the passivants. Our method is based on the global optimization method DIRECT. It enables and/or streamlines surface passivation for empirical pseudopotential calculations.

  16. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  17. Passive appendages generate drift through symmetry breaking

    PubMed Central

    Lācis, U.; Brosse, N.; Ingremeau, F.; Mazzino, A.; Lundell, F.; Kellay, H.; Bagheri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals use plumes, barbs, tails, feathers, hairs and fins to aid locomotion. Many of these appendages are not actively controlled, instead they have to interact passively with the surrounding fluid to generate motion. Here, we use theory, experiments and numerical simulations to show that an object with a protrusion in a separated flow drifts sideways by exploiting a symmetry-breaking instability similar to the instability of an inverted pendulum. Our model explains why the straight position of an appendage in a fluid flow is unstable and how it stabilizes either to the left or right of the incoming flow direction. It is plausible that organisms with appendages in a separated flow use this newly discovered mechanism for locomotion; examples include the drift of plumed seeds without wind and the passive reorientation of motile animals. PMID:25354545

  18. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  19. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  20. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  1. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  2. Commentary on "Capturing the Evasive Passive"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; Snyder, William

    2009-01-01

    Passives has been the focus of much research in language acquisition since the 1970s. It has been clear from this research that young children seldom produce passives spontaneously, particularly "long" or "full" passives with a by-phrase; and they usually perform poorly on experimental tests of the comprehension of passives, especially passives of…

  3. End-of-Mission Passivation: Successes and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Matney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The passivation of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages at end-of-mission has been a principal space debris mitigation measure world-wide since the 1980 s. Space vehicle passivation includes the removal of stored energies, especially those associated with propulsion and electrical power systems. Prior to 2007 the breakup of non-functioning, non-passivated space vehicles was the major source of hazardous debris in Earth orbit. The United Nations and the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee have both included passivation in their formal space debris mitigation guidelines. This often simple countermeasure has been adopted by many spacefaring countries and organizations and has undoubtedly prevented numerous major satellite breakups. For some existing space vehicle designs, passivation requires changes in hardware, software, and/or operational procedures. Questions about the permissible degree of passivation for both current and future space vehicles have arisen and are addressed herein. An important element to be considered is the potentially long period in which the space vehicle will remain in orbit, i.e., up to 25 years after mission termination in LEO and for centuries in orbits above LEO. Finally, the issue of passivation of space vehicles which have failed prematurely is addressed.

  4. Subject, Topic and Sesotho Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of Sesotho-speaking children's spontaneous language showed that the acquisition of passives was closely linked to the fact that Sesotho subjects must be discourse topics. It is suggested that a detailed analysis of how passive constructions interact with other components of a given linguistic system is critical for developing coherent and…

  5. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  6. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  7. Passive retrofits for Navy housing

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

  8. Microwave gain medium with negative refractive index.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dexin; Chang, Kihun; Ran, Lixin; Xin, Hao

    2014-12-19

    Artificial effective media are attractive because of the fantastic applications they may enable, such as super lensing and electromagnetic invisibility. However, the inevitable loss due to their strongly dispersive nature is one of the fundamental challenges preventing such applications from becoming a reality. In this study, we demonstrate an effective gain medium based on negative resistance, to overcompensate the loss of a conventional passive metamaterial, meanwhile keeping its original negative-index property. Energy conservation-based theory, full-wave simulation and experimental measurement show that a fabricated sample consisting of conventional sub-wavelength building blocks with embedded microwave tunnel diodes exhibits a band-limited Lorentzian dispersion simultaneously with a negative refractive index and a net gain. Our work provides experimental evidence to the assertion that a stable net gain in negative-index gain medium is achievable, proposing a potential solution for the critical challenge current metamateiral technology faces in practical applications.

  9. CBI: Systems or Medium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham-Wheat, Nancy L.

    This paper addresses one area of conflict in decisionmaking in computer-based instruction (CBI) research: the relationship between the researcher's definition of CBI either as a medium or as an integrated system and the design of meaningful research questions. (A medium is defined here as a device for the delivery of instruction, while an…

  10. Optimizing the response from a passively controlled biventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Gaddum, Nicholas Richard; Timms, Daniel L; Pearcy, Mark John

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies into rotary biventricular support have indicated that inadequate left/right flow balancing may lead to vascular congestion and/or ventricular suckdown. The implementation of a passive controller that automatically adjusts left/right flow during total and partial cardiac support would improve physiological interaction. This has encouraged the development of a biventricular assist device (BiVAD) prototype that achieves passive control of the two rotary pumps' hydraulic output by way of a nonrotating double pressure plate configuration, the hub, suspended between the ventricular assist device (VAD) impellers. Fluctuations in either the VAD's inlet or outlet pressure will cause the hub to translate, and in doing so, affect each pump's hydraulic outputs. In order to achieve partial support, the floating assembly needed to respond to pathologic blood pressure signals while being insensitive to residual ventricular function. An incorporated mechanical spring-mass-damper assembly affects the passive response to optimize the dynamic interaction between the prototype and the supported cardiovascular system. It was found that increasing the damping from a medium to a high level was effective in filtering out the higher frequency ventricular pressure signals, reducing a modified amplitude ratio by up to 72%. A spring response was also identified as being inherent in the passive response and was characterized as being highly nonlinear at the extremes of the floating assembly's translation range. The results from this study introduce a new means of BiVAD control as well as the characterization of a fully passive mechanical physiological controller.

  11. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  12. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  13. Eighth national passive solar conference. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, A.; Zee, R.

    1983-12-01

    The Eighth National Passive Solar Conference was held near Santa Fe, New Mexico at the Glorieta Conference Center on September 5 to 11, 1983. Nearly 900 people from all across the nation and the world attended the conference. Close to 200 technical papers were presented, 50 solar product exhibits were available; 34 poster sessions were presented; 16 solar workshops were conducted; 10 renowned solar individuals participated in rendezvous sessions; 7 major addresses were delivered; 5 solar home tours were conducted; 2 emerging architecture sessions were held which included 21 separate presentations; and commercial product presentations were given for the first time ever at a national passive solar conference. Peter van Dresser of Santa Fe received the prestigious Passive Solar Pioneer Award, posthumously, from the American Solar Energy Society and Benjamin T. Buck Rogers of Embudo received the prestigious Peter van Dresser Award from the New Mexico Solar Energy Association. This report reviews conference organization, attendance, finances, conference evaluation form results, and includes press coverage samples, selected conference photos courtesy of Marshall Tyler, and a summary with recommendations for future conferences. The Appendices included conference press releases and a report by the New Mexico Solar Industry Development Corporation on exhibits management.

  14. Passive solar heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingenbach, W.

    1981-08-01

    The Toas State Office Building is a single-story office building in New Mexico which incorporates passive collection and storage of solar energy along with natural lighting for general illumination. The building is oriented to take advantage of early morning sunlight and is designed to supply 70% of the heating load by solar heat. The site is equipped with clerestory windows, totaling 2695 square feet, 296 square feet of south facing windows, and east and west window scoops totaling 218 square feet. The collected solar energy is stored in 14,080 gallons of water contained in drums located in the clerestory area, as well as in the masonry construction mass. Auxiliary heat is provided via electric strips in the supply ducts. Movable, insulated shutters are provided to reduce the loss from the clerestory window area at night. The project is described with pictures and diagrams of the final installation provided. An updated performance data report is included, and functional problems, general comments, maintenance and refurbishment recommendations are discussed.

  15. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  16. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  17. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  18. Passive thermosiphon solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A passive thermosiphon solar collector was designed, built, installed and tested under this grant. The basic premise was to design a simple system that was economical to build and easy to install as a retrofit to many similar homes in the local community. The module is comprised of a 2X4 frame with a sandwiched insert consisting of a flat black painted aluminum absorber panel and a fiberglass reinforced plastic glazing. This insert is completely sealed from the environment with neoprene seals and rubber silicone sealant. The modules are enclosed in an overall framework of 2X8 material bolted to a concrete reinforced footing and attached to the residence at the top. This framework results in an air chamber behind the absorber panel where the air from the basement enters the chamber at the bottom and exits at the top of the chamber into the house. The air chamber is completely insulated with 5/8 inch polyisocyanurate foil covered foam board. Fabrication is detailed in the Design and Construction section and supplemented with the photo series submitted with the Second Quarter report. The test results indicate this modular concept is a viable solution to conserving our national resources and reducing heating expenses. In this specific experiment, the use of solar energy provided a thirty-five percent reduction in natural gas consumption for this home.

  19. Influence of sampler configuration on the uptake kinetics of a passive air sampler.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Wong, Cindy; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

    2012-01-03

    Passive air samplers (PAS) are simple and cost-effective tools to monitor semivolatile organic compounds in air. Chemical uptake occurs by molecular diffusion from ambient air to a passive sampling medium (PSM). Previous calibration studies indicate that even for the same type of PAS, passive air sampling rates (R, m(3)(air)/d) can be highly variable due to the influence of a number of factors. Earlier studies mainly focused on factors (e.g., wind speed and temperature) influencing R via the kinetic resistance posed by the air boundary layer surrounding the PSM because that layer was deemed to be the main factor determining the uptake kinetics. Whereas recent calibration studies suggest that the PAS configuration can influence R, so far few studies have specifically focused on this factor. In this study, with the objective to understand the effect of PAS configurations on R, we applied a gravimetrical approach to study the kinetics of water vapor uptake from indoor air by silica gel placed inside cylindrical PAS of various configurations. We also conducted an indoor calibration for polychlorinated biphenyls on the same type of PAS using XAD-resin as the PSM. R was found to be proportional to the interfacial transfer area of the PSM but not the amount of the PSM because chemicals mainly accumulated in the outer layer of the PSM during the deployment time of the PAS. The sampler housing and the PSM can introduce kinetic resistance to chemical uptake as indicated by changes in R caused by positioning the PSM at different distances from the opening of the sampler housing and by using PSM of different diameters. Information gained from this study is useful for optimizing the PAS design with the objective to reduce the material and shipping costs without sacrificing sampling efficiency.

  20. Passive Endwall Treatments for Enhancing Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    These lecture notes were presented at the von Karman Institutes lecture series on Advances in Axial Compressor Aerodynamics, May 2006. They provide a fairly extensive overview of what's been learned from numerous investigations of various passive casing endwall technologies that have been proposed for alleviating the stall limiting physics associated with the compressor endwall flow field. The lecture notes are organized to give an appreciation for the inventiveness and understanding of the earliest compressor technologists and to provide a coherent thread of understanding that has arisen out of the early investigations. As such the lecture notes begin with a historical overview of casing treatments from their infancy through the earliest proposed concepts involving blowing, suction and flow recirculation. A summary of lessons learned from these early investigations is provided at the end of this section. The lecture notes then provide a somewhat more in-depth overview of recent advancements in the development of passive casing treatments from the late 1990's through 2006, including advancements in understanding the flow mechanism of circumferential groove casing treatments, and the development of discrete tip injection and self-recirculating casing treatments. At the conclusion of the lecture notes a final summary of lessons learned throughout the history of the development of passive casing treatments is provided. Finally, a list of future needs is given. It is hoped that these lecture notes will be a useful reference for future research endeavors to improve our understanding of the fluid physics of passive casing treatments and how they act to enhance compressor stability, and that they will perhaps provide a springboard for future research activities in this area of interest

  1. Passive and Hybrid PFC Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Yasuyuki

    The diode rectifier offers several desirable features such as a unity displacement-factor and a high efficiency with low complexity and high reliability, but the utility line-current is significantly distorted. The traditional multi-pulse (e.g., 12-pulse, 18-pulse and so on) PAM concept by means of multiple rectifier units and phase-shifting isolation-transformers is a well-known scheme to improve the input line-current waveform and reduce dc-current/voltage ripple. Though, the necessity of the isolation-transformer is a great weak point especially for applications in low to medium power range. To mitigate the problem, several investigations have been done. The PWM rectifier is a modern and effective alternative, although it results in a higher initial cost, lower efficiency and EMI noise problems due to high frequency switching. To solve the problem, we have two alternatives without PWM and are so called “Passive” schemes. One is the multi-pulse/multi-phase scheme without the isolation transformer but with an autotransformer. This scheme results in a simplified multi-pulse PAM rectifier. The other is the Third-Harmonic-Current Injection and the expanded schemes. Although these two schemes have been studied independently in most cases, new types of diode PFC rectifier obtained by combining the two schemes have been studied recently. Additionally, further new topologies, so called “Hybrid” type, have been proposed very recently. The rectifiers with the new concept consist of an autotransformer-connected double 3-phase bridge 12-pulse rectifier and a PWM dc-dc converter on the dc-side to perform the current injection. The Hybrid rectifiers offer output voltage controllability and sinusoidal input currents similarly to the PWM rectifiers. To show the current trends and remaining possibilities of the Passive and Hybrid rectifiers, this paper gives a survey and historical review of the rectifiers. Then, some new topologies in the category are investigated

  2. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  3. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  4. Passive Solar Is Common Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    A checklist of concepts concerning passive solar energy techniques. Many can be applied immediately to existing buildings, while others should be brought into the initial planning of buildings. (Author/MLF)

  5. Orion Passive Thermal: Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Hermandez, Angel; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    A general overview of the NASA Orion Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) is presented. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; and 3) Orion PTCS Overview.

  6. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  7. Solar passive systems for buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A survey is provided of what is known about the design of solar passive buildings. A systematic presentation is given of proven concepts with suitable illustrations. It is intended as a general guide for architects, designers and other building practitioners. Topics include the various concepts of solar passive heating and cooling, design factors such as location, climate, microclimate, form; building metabolism, thermal and visual comfort; location and form of illumination; and natural cooling via wind towers and cisterns.

  8. Synergetic events in geological medium and nonlinear features of wave propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is artificially and naturally influenced on different scale levels, which change it's state and which lead to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is a topic of the synergetic theory (or science of self organization). The idea of physical meso mechanics which was elaborated by Russian academician Panin V.E., which includes the synergetic approach, is a constructive method for research of the state of heterogenic materials. That result had been obtained for specimens of different materials. In our investigations of time-dependent geological medium in the frame of natural experiments in real rock massive, which are hard man-caused influenced it had been showed, that the dynamics of the state can be revealed by using synergetic approach for hierarchic media. The important role for research of dynamic geological systems play the use of active and passive geophysical monitoring, which can be achieved with use of electromagnetic and seismic fields. As it had been showed by our experience the change of the system on the researched space bases and times can be revealed by parameters, linked with peculiarities of the medium of the second and higher rank. Thus the research of the state dynamics and the events of self organization we can provide with geophysical methods, oriented on the many ranked hierarchic time-dependent model of the medium. For fields of plastic deformation and stresses it had been considered a system of differential equations. The developing theory of modelling and interpretation of geophysical monitoring data must be active guided by the mathematical methods of nonlinear dynamics and control. The developing of that direction can allow us to forecast and prevent catastrophic man-made events (rock bursts). We had elaborated a new approach of forecasting such events using the method of constructing phase portraits using the data of electromagnetic monitoring and detailed seismological

  9. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  10. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  11. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  12. Treating inertia in passive microbead rheology.

    PubMed

    Indei, Tsutomu; Schieber, Jay D; Córdoba, Andrés; Pilyugina, Ekaterina

    2012-02-01

    The dynamic modulus G(*) of a viscoelastic medium is often measured by following the trajectory of a small bead subject to Brownian motion in a method called "passive microbead rheology." This equivalence between the positional autocorrelation function of the tracer bead and G(*) is assumed via the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER). However, inertia of both bead and medium are neglected in the GSER so that the analysis based on the GSER is not valid at high frequency where inertia is important. In this paper we show how to treat both contributions to inertia properly in one-bead passive microrheological analysis. A Maxwell fluid is studied as the simplest example of a viscoelastic fluid to resolve some apparent paradoxes of eliminating inertia. In the original GSER, the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the tracer bead does not satisfy the correct initial condition. If bead inertia is considered, the proper initial condition is realized, thereby indicating an importance of including inertia, but the MSD oscillates at a time regime smaller than the relaxation time of the fluid. This behavior is rather different from the original result of the GSER and what is observed. What is more, the discrepancy from the GSER result becomes worse with decreasing bead mass, and there is an anomalous gap between the MSD derived by naïvely taking the zero-mass limit in the equation of motion and the MSD for finite bead mass as indicated by McKinley et al. [J. Rheol. 53, 1487 (2009)]. In this paper we show what is necessary to take the zero-mass limit of the bead safely and correctly without causing either the inertial oscillation or the anomalous gap, while obtaining the proper initial condition. The presence of a very small purely viscous element can be used to eliminate bead inertia safely once included in the GSER. We also show that if the medium contains relaxation times outside the window where the single-mode Maxwell behavior is observed, the oscillation can be

  13. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  14. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1987-01-01

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  15. Passive solar design: final evaluation, the Passive Studio

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Duncan S.; Rose, Stuart

    1980-08-01

    The further evaluation of the workshops in passive design for practicing architects and engineers through delayed interviews with a sample of the participants is reported with particular emphasis on the extent to which the participants have practiced passive design in the three-four months since attending. Also discussed is an unsuccessful attempt to conduct a lower-cost version of the program outside of normal office hours. Finally, the follow-on programs and improvements that the interviews indicated are needed are identified. (MHR)

  16. Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Slots, J

    1982-01-01

    A selective medium, TSBV (tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin) agar, was developed for the isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, TSBV agar contained (per liter) 40 g of tryptic soy agar, 1 g of yeast extract, 100 ml of horse serum. 75 mg of bacitracin, and 5 mg of vancomycin. The TSBV medium suppressed most oral species and permitted significantly higher recovery of A. actinomycetemcomitans than nonselective blood agar medium. The distinct colonial morphology and positive catalase reaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans easily distinguished this bacterium from Haemophilus aphrophilus, Capnocytophaga species, and a few other contaminating organisms. With the TSBV medium, even modestly equipped laboratories will be able to isolate and identify A. actinomycetemcomitans from clinical specimens. Images PMID:7068837

  17. The uncertainty research of visual positioning in different mediums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanzhu; Wang, Song; Ai, Xinbo; Meng, Zhen; Tian, Wenjia; Wang, Jiao; Hu, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In engineering application, there existed deviation when light spreads in different mediums. At the same time miscellaneous medium and random fluctuation may lead to inaccuracy of visual positioning. It explored visual positioning technology in condition of different mediums for binocular camera. Firstly focused on medium material and impurity in real environment, the refractive index formula is derived through binocular visual positioning principle. Then considering deviation when light spreads in different mediums, deductive process of vision positioning is realized according to calculated refractive index. Because cloud model can better describe randomness and fuzziness. It was introduced to deal with problems of random fluctuation in different mediums. Finally simulation was designed to prove the accuracy improvement in different mediums. The result showed that accuracy error had decreased by 66.7% after considering transparent organic mediums. Compared with not knowing refractive index, positioning error had decreased by 49.7%.

  18. Comparison of Dey and Engley (D/E) neutralizing medium to Letheen medium and standard methods medium for recovery of Staphylococcus aureus from sanitized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dey, B P; Engley, F B

    1995-01-01

    The ability of Dey and Engley (D/E) Neutralizing Medium to recover Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 from tile surfaces exposed to a commercial phenol (Mikro-Bac) and a quaternary ammonium compound (Mikro-Quat) was compared to recovery with Letheen Medium. Standard Methods Medium was used as a control recovery medium. Organisms were exposed to both antimicrobials for varying time periods, then were recovered by swab and Rodac plate on both test media. The recovery by either procedure was significantly higher with Dey and Engley (D/E) Neutralizing Medium than with Letheen and Standard Methods Medium. The D/E Medium shows promise for evaluating antimicrobial chemicals used in environmental sanitation.

  19. Passive-solar retrofit concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Four retrofit passive solar designs for single family dwellings are presented. The first design, for a house in Minnesota, involves insulating wall cavities and the attic with blown cellulose, reduction of infiltration, and installation of insulating shades on all windows. The second, for a house in Michigan, combines weatherization, a sunspace with clerestory, and a thermosiphoning collector. The third, for a house in Missouri, involves the addition of a large sunspace with a passive solar hot water preheater for a hot tub. The fourth, for a house in Indiana, combines intensive weatherization with a two story sunspace and thermal chimney addition. All designs are thoroughly illustrated.

  20. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  1. Mission 119 passive microwave results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, J. P.; Mennella, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements of the sea surface were made for determining surface wind speeds from the NP3A aircraft (NASA-927). Observations were made at frequencies of 1.4, 10.6, and 31.4 GHz during NASA mission 119, undertaken off Bermuda in the vicinity of Argus Island sea tower during January 1970. Passive microwave observations from Argus Island ocean showed that the surface roughness effect, dependent on wind speed, is also dependent on observational frequency, increasing with increasing frequency. The roughness effect appears to be dominant for wind speeds less than 30 to 40 knots (2).

  2. The anodic passivation of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.

    1983-10-01

    The anodic passivation of Li has been characterized at room temperature in a variety of electrolytes (propylene carbonate, thionyl chloride, sulfur dioxide), as a function of convection and current density and in the presence of water and other impurities. In thionyl chloride the effect of salt concentration (0.5-4.5M, LiA1C1/sub 4/) and acidity (0.5-3M, A1C1/sub 3/) has been studied. The evidence accumulated suggests that anodic passivation is caused by anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of electrolyte salt in superficial anolyte.

  3. Indoor localization using passive RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems based on passive tags are used successfully in a wide range of object identification applications. However, the increasing needs to meet new demands on applications of localization and tracking create a new field for evolution of the RFID technology. This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cost-effective localization system for in-building usage that is able to localize objects that carry passive RFID tags. The RFID reading is performed by a single Reader and an array of directional antennas through multiplexing. Evaluation and experimental results from three localization algorithms based on RSSI are presented.

  4. Measuring freely dissolved water concentrations of PCBs using LDPE passive samplers and performance reference compounds (PRCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-Density polyethylene (LDPE) sheets are often used as passive samplers for aquatic environmental monitoring to measure the dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). These concentrations are then used to evaluate the potential for ecological and human...

  5. Measuring freely dissolved water concentrations of PCBs using LDPE passive samplers and performance reference compounds (PRCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-Density polyethylene (LDPE) sheets are often used as passive samplers for aquatic environmental monitoring to measure the dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). These concentrations are then used to evaluate the potential for ecological and human...

  6. Evaluating PCB Bioavailability Using Passive Samplers and Mussles at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  7. Evaluating PCB Bioavailability Using Passive Samplers and Mussles at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  8. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  9. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  10. User's guide for polyethylene-based passive diffusion bag samplers to obtain volatile organic compound concentrations in wells. Part I, Deployment, recovery, data interpretation, and quality control and assurance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion samplers installed in observation wells were found to be capable of yielding representative water samples for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The samplers consisted of polyethylene bags containing deionized water and relied on diffusion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds through the polyethylene membrane. The known ability of polyethylene to transmit other volatile compounds, such as benzene and toluene, indicates that the samplers can be used for a variety of volatile organic compounds. In wells at the study area, the volatile organic compound concentrations in water samples obtained using the samplers without prior purging were similar to concentrations in water samples obtained from the respective wells using traditional purging and sampling approaches. The low cost associated with this approach makes it a viable option for monitoring large observation-well networks for volatile organic compounds.

  11. The statistics of a passive scalar in field-guided magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J.; Boldyrev, S.; Cattaneo, F.; Perez, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    A variety of studies of magnetised plasma turbulence invoke theories for the advection of a passive scalar by turbulent fluctuations. Examples include modelling the electron density fluctuations in the interstellar medium, understanding the chemical composition of galaxy clusters and the intergalactic medium, and testing the prevailing phenomenological theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. While passive scalar turbulence has been extensively studied in the hydrodynamic case, its counterpart in MHD turbulence is significantly less well understood. Herein we conduct a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of incompressible, field-guided, MHD turbulence in order to establish the fundamental properties of passive scalar evolution. We study the scalar anisotropy, establish the scaling relation analogous to Yaglom's law, and measure the intermittency of the passive scalar statistics. We also assess to what extent the pseudo Alfven fluctuations in strong MHD turbulence can be modelled as a passive scalar. The results suggest that the dynamics of a passive scalar in MHD turbulence is considerably more complicated than in the hydrodynamic case.

  12. Orion Passive Thermal Control Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    An viewgraph presentation of Orion's passive thermal control system is shown. The topics include: 1) Orion in CxP Hierarchy; 2) General Orion Description/Orientation; 3) Module Descriptions and Images; 4) Orion PTCS Overview; 5) Requirements/Interfaces; 6) Design Reference Missions; 7) Natural Environments; 8) Thermal Models; 9) Challenges/Issues; and 10) Testing

  13. Passive maser development at NRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. D.; Frank, A.; Folen, V.

    1981-01-01

    The application of passive hydrogen masers to satellites was investigated. The NRL maser is of compact design suitable for the space environment. It is based on a dielectrically loaded sapphire cavity and uses a computer optimized set of four shields. The servo design is a phase sensitive method which directly measures the phase dispersion of the interrogating signal as it passes through the cavity.

  14. Passive Fiber Optic Gyro Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    34. FORWORD The report summarizes the principles of operation of the passive fiber optic gyro. It starts with a discussion of the Sagnac effect and...polarization and the angle of the " fast " axis varied nonlinearly and that the two effects are partially independent. Based on tests with a 200 meter length of

  15. Solar Array Passive LDEF Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Marshall researcher examines a sample from the Solar Array Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF, which flew in space, measured the number, severity, and effects of micrometeroid hits on various materials. The data will lead to improved spacecraft design in the future.

  16. Thoracoscopic surgery support system using passive RFID marker.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Hiromi; Kojima, Fumitsugu; Okada, Minoru; Sugiura, Tadao; Sato, Toshihiko; Oshiro, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a RFID based thoracoscopic surgery support system, which is capable of marking a tumor inside organ tissue. The marker composed of small RFID-tags is implanted in the vicinity of tumor found in the endoscopy test. In the thoracoscopic surgery operation for removing the tumor, an RFID detector determines the accurate position of the implanted RFID-tag markers by measuring the strength of the signal emitted from the target tag. Due to limitation in the size of RFID-tag, the proposed system employs a passive RFID. To activate the passive tag implanted in the organ tissue, this paper designs a saddle-shape efficient power supply antenna. A sensitive and frequency-selective receiver is then designed for detecting the weak signal from the tag. The feasibility test confirms that the proposed method is capable of determining the accurate location of RFID tags implanted in the patient's organ tissue.

  17. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  18. Passive system with tunable group velocity for propagating electrical pulses from sub- to superluminal velocities.

    PubMed

    Haché, Alain; Essiambre, Sophie

    2004-05-01

    We report an observation of tunable group velocity from sub-luminal to superluminal in a completely passive system. Electric pulses are sent along a spatially periodic conducting medium containing a punctual nonlinearity, and the resulting amplitude-dependent phase shift allows us to control dispersion and the propagation velocity at the stop band frequency.

  19. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE, IN SITU, INTEGRATIVE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Until recently, hydrophobic, bioconcentratable compounds have been the primary focus of most environmental organic contaminant investigations, There is an increasing realization that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants as well. This group of compounds includes a wide variety of chemicals, including potentially endocrine disrupting and estrogenic contaminants which have been shown to contribute to numerous abnormalities such as impaired reproduction in aquatic organisms exposed in environmental waters. To address this issue, we developed a passive, in situ, sampling device (the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler or POCIS) which integratively concentrates trace levels of complex mixtures of hydrophilic environmental contaminants, enables the determination of their time-weighted average water concentrations and provides a screening assessment of the toxicological significance of the complex mixture of waterborne contaminants. Using a prototype sampler (effective membrane sampling surface area = 18.2 cm 2) linear uptake of selected herbicides and pharmaceuticals was observed for up to 56 days. Estimation of the ambient water concentrations of chemicals of interest is achieved by using appropriate uptake models and determination of POCIS chemical sampling rates. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of

  1. Passive Detection of Narrowband Sources Using a Sensor Array

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D H; Candy, J V; Guidry, B L

    2007-10-24

    In this report we derive a model for a highly scattering medium, implemented as a set of MATLAB functions. This model is used to analyze an approach for using time-reversal to enhance the detection of a single frequency source in a highly scattering medium. The basic approach is to apply the singular value decomposition to the multistatic response matrix for a time-reversal array system. We then use the array in a purely passive mode, measuring the response to the presence of a source. The measured response is projected onto the singular vectors, creating a time-reversal pseudo-spectrum. We can then apply standard detection techniques to the pseudo-spectrum to determine the presence of a source. If the source is close to a particular scatterer in the medium, then we would expect an enhancement of the inner product between the array response to the source with the singular vector associated with that scatterer. In this note we begin by deriving the Foldy-Lax model of a highly scattering medium, calculate both the field emitted by the source and the multistatic response matrix of a time-reversal array system in the medium, then describe the initial analysis approach.

  2. Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N

    2016-11-15

    The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae.

  3. Radiative transfer in multilayered random medium with laminar structure - Green's function approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    For a multilayered random medium with a laminar structure a Green's function approach is introduced to obtain the emitted intensity due to an arbitrary point source. It is then shown that the approach is applicable to both active and passive remote sensing. In active remote sensing, the computed radar backscattering cross section for the multilayered medium includes the effects of both volume multiple scattering and surface multiple scattering at the layer boundaries. In passive remote sensing, the brightness temperature is obtained for arbitrary temperature profiles in the layers. As an illustration the brightness temperature and reflectivity are calculated for a bounded layer and compared with results in the literature.

  4. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  6. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  7. Small passive chemical detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.C.

    1992-03-26

    A novel technique has been developed for the detection of organic compounds in the environment. These detectors are ``passive`` in the sense that they do not contain any electronic or mechanical instrumentation. A visual color change of the devices after exposure to the target compounds of interest allows a quick identification and quantitative determination of the targets. The detection mechanism is based on colorimetry and combines two molecular biology techniques, Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT) and Ouchterlony Double Diffusion in Two Dimensions. Preliminary studies have shown that the presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol can be monitored by the formation of the blue colored complexes as a result of the reaction between an enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) and a substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate).

  8. Passive immunization of pigeons against trichomoniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Nonimmune homing pigeons Columba livia were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of Trichomonas gallinae and subsequently transfused with plasma from acute or chronically infected pigeons harboring one of 3 different strains of T. gallinae. The transfusions were either a single 2 mi dose given one day after inoculation or three 1 ml doses given 0, 5, and 10 days after inoculation. Plasma from pigeons harboring any of the 3 strains was capable of passively immunizing nonimmune birds. All birds which were immunized with plasma from infected pigeons survived until killed at the end of the test period and no visceral lesions were found on necropsy but trichomonads were present in the oropharynx. All controls (untreated or transfused with normal plasma) died of visceral trichomoniasis. Immune plasma produced some lysis of trichomonads in vitro, and inhibition of motility and vacuolization occurred in some of the non-lysed organisms. The overall lytic activity in vitro affected less than 10% of the suspended trichomonads.

  9. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    SciTech Connect

    Towle, S.

    1980-03-01

    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  10. Development of Verbal Passive in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally investigate knowledge of passives of actional ("hold") and psychological ("love") verbs in children with Williams syndrome (WS). Passives are usually reported to be in line with mental age in WS. However, studies usually focus on passives of actional verbs only. Method: Twenty-six children with WS, ages 6-16, and 3…

  11. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  12. Use of reference chemicals to determine passive uptake rates of common indoor air VOCs by collocation deployment of active and passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Xian, Qiming; Feng, Yong-Lai; Chan, Cecilia C; Zhu, Jiping

    2011-09-01

    Passive samplers have become more popular in their application in the measurement of airborne chemicals. For volatile organic compounds, the rate of a chemical's diffusivity is a determining factor in the quantity of the chemical being collected for a given passive sampler. While uptake rate of a chemical in the passive sampler can be determined either by collocation deployment of both active and passive samplers or use of controlled facilities such as environmental chambers, a new approach without a need for accurate active flow rate in the collocation experiment was demonstrated in this study. This approach uses chemicals of known uptake rates as references to calculate the actual flow rate of the active sampling in the collocation experiment. The active sampling rate in turn can be used in the determination of the uptake rates of all other chemicals present in the passive samplers. The advantage of such approach is the elimination of the errors in actual active sampling rate associated with low flow employed in the collocation experiment. Using this approach, passive uptake rates of more than 80 volatile organic compounds commonly present in indoor air were determined. These experimentally determined uptake rates correlate well with air diffusivity of the chemicals, indicating the regression equation describing such correlation might be useful in predicting the uptake rates of other volatile organic chemicals in indoor air based on their air diffusivity.

  13. Simulation of selective passive compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Spikings, C.R.; Putley, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Compulsators have attracted a great deal of interest over the last few years as a way of providing repetitive high current millisecond pulses. The compulsator stores energy in a rotational form and works on a similar principle to a conventional alternator except that its internal impedance is reduced through compensating currents allowing greater currents to be drawn. This paper presents the theory behind selective passive compensation and presents some results from the computer simulation of a railgun powered by a selective passive compulsator. These results show that compulsator can be configured to produce flat topped current pulses into a railgun load. A test compulsator with active compensation has previously been designed and built by Culham Laboratory.

  14. New England style passive solar

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.

    2000-06-01

    There are homeowners throughout New England who planned for and built homes that allow them to avoid the sting of winter's high heating bills. These climate-responsive homes rely on passive solar heating, cooling and lighting. An example of such a climate-responsive/passive solar house is the home that Arthur and Terry Becker build on 6 beautiful acres (2.4 hectares) of rolling farm and woodland southeast of Andover, Connecticut, in 1981. They worked very closely with their designer, Al Eggan of K.T. Lear and Associates, to ensure that they would never have to pay for home heating oil, and that they would enjoy a level of year-round comfort that they had not experienced in conventionally built homes.

  15. Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

    1998-11-01

    A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

  16. All-passive nonreciprocal metastructure

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Davoyan, Arthur R.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-01-01

    One-way propagation of light, analogous to the directional flow of electrons in the presence of electric potential difference, has been an important goal in the wave–matter interaction. Breaking time-reversal symmetry in photonic flows is faced with challenges different from those for electron flows. In recent years several approaches and methods have been offered towards achieving this goal. Here we investigate another systematic approach to design all-passive relatively high-throughput metastructures that exhibit nonreciprocal properties and achieve wave-flow isolation. Moreover, we build on those findings and propose a paradigm for a quasi-two-dimensional metastructure that mimics the nonreciprocal property of Faraday rotation without using any magnetic or electric biasing. We envision that the proposed approaches may serve as a building block for all-passive time-reversal symmetry breaking with potential applications for future nonreciprocal systems and devices PMID:26414528

  17. Application of the PASSIL technique for the passive sampling of exemplary polar contaminants (pharmaceuticals and phenolic derivatives) from water.

    PubMed

    Caban, Magda; Męczykowska, Hanna; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are one of the very promising media for the passive sampling of organic contaminants in water. These compounds offer a wide range of interactions with various analytes and give possibilities to control analyte properties by altering their structures, but most of all, possess a high polarity independent of the water solubility. Recently, some ILs were successfully applied as the receiving phase in the passive sampling of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and this approach was acronymized to PASSIL. In this paper, we aimed to verify the applicability of the PASSIL technique for the selective extraction and enrichment of polar and semi-polar compounds from aqueous environments. The test kit of analytes comprised selected pharmaceuticals and phenol-type compounds, while the applied ILs were alkylimidazolium- and alkylphosphonium entities with a variety of anions. The 14-day-long experiments were performed in static and semi-static no-renewal systems. The kinetics of the uptake process, the analyte extraction efficiency and the sampling rates for all analytes were determined. One of the tested ionic liquids [P666-14][N(CN)2] presented very promising properties both as a stable medium between polyethersulfone (PES) membranes as well as a highly effective extraction phase. The uptake kinetics of the analytes and the determined sampling rates confirm the better and faster efficiency of PASSIL extraction when compared to commercially available passive samplers. Additionally, some selectivity was observed during analyte extraction, which results from the specific interaction between the IL and analytes, but not from the lipophilicity or ionization state of the analytes. These very promising findings make the PASSIL approach a very promising and competitive analytical tool for the extraction of environmental contaminants over a wide polarity range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  19. Active and Passive Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, James R.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid ocean wind sensor (HOWS) can map ocean vector wind in low to hurricane-level winds, and non-precipitating and precipitating conditions. It can acquire active and passive measurements through a single aperture at two wavelengths, two polarizations, and multiple incidence angles. Its low profile, compact geometry, and low power consumption permits installation on air craft platforms, including high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

  20. Interior design for passive solar homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.