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Sample records for organisations medicales europeennes

  1. Voluntary Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Shirley; Spiret, Claire; Dimitriadi, Yota; McCrindle, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) is the umbrella organisation for Member Organisations from 145 countries, with a total membership of 10 million. While Member Organisations offer training and development within their own countries, WAGGGS offers international opportunities, such as leadership development at…

  2. Organisational Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  3. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  4. Organisational Structure & Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  5. Organisational skills and tools.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Paul

    2009-04-01

    While this article mainly applies to practitioners who have responsibilities for leading teams or supervising practitioners, many of the skills and tools described here may also apply to students or junior practitioners. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the main points about organisation, some of the organisational skills and tools that are available, and some examples of how these skills and tools can be used to make practitioners more effective at organising their workload. It is important to realise that organising work and doing work are two completely different things and shouldn't be mixed up. For example, it would be very difficult to start organising work in the middle of a busy operating list: the organisation of the work must come before the work starts and therefore preparation is often an important first step in organising work. As such, some of the tools and skills described in this article may need to be used hours or even days prior to the actual work taking place.

  6. Chemical organisation theory.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Peter; di Fenizio, Pietro Speroni

    2007-05-01

    Complex dynamical reaction networks consisting of many components that interact and produce each other are difficult to understand, especially, when new component types may appear and present component types may vanish completely. Inspired by Fontana and Buss (Bull. Math. Biol., 56, 1-64) we outline a theory to deal with such systems. The theory consists of two parts. The first part introduces the concept of a chemical organisation as a closed and self-maintaining set of components. This concept allows to map a complex (reaction) network to the set of organisations, providing a new view on the system's structure. The second part connects dynamics with the set of organisations, which allows to map a movement of the system in state space to a movement in the set of organisations. The relevancy of our theory is underlined by a theorem that says that given a differential equation describing the chemical dynamics of the network, then every stationary state is an instance of an organisation. For demonstration, the theory is applied to a small model of HIV-immune system interaction by Wodarz and Nowak (Proc. Natl. Acad. USA, 96, 14464-14469) and to a large model of the sugar metabolism of E. Coli by Puchalka and Kierzek (Biophys. J., 86, 1357-1372). In both cases organisations where uncovered, which could be related to functions.

  7. An Organisational Interoperability Agility Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Government Organisations Organisation OIM Level 0 r anisation OIM Level 1 OIM Level 2 OIM Level 4 OIM Level 3 Layer for one Operational Type I l Figure...Government Organisations Organisation OIM Level 0 r anisation OIM Level 1 OIM Level 2 OIM Level 4 OIM Level 3 Layer for one Operational Type I l

  8. World Organisation for Animal Health

    MedlinePlus

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  9. The Army Learning Organisation Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge Management DALO DSTO Army Learning Organisation DASS Defence Assisted Study Scheme DLOQ Dimensions of a Learning Organisation Questionnaire...realised. Facilitation was provided through external (academic/subject matter expert) and internal (DALO Research Team) providers. The external...being an organisational archetype characterised by the existence of certain internal conditions and proclivities which facilitate learning at

  10. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  11. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  12. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  13. General attributes of safe organisations

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, P

    2004-01-01

    In analysing the safety strategies of organisations successfully managing hazardous systems it is apparent that safety itself is a problematic, and even risky, concept. It is less the valuation of safety per se than the disvalue surrounding mis-specification, misidentification, and misunderstanding that drives reliability in these organisations. Two contrasting models of high reliability can be identified in precluded event and resilience focused organisations. Each model is adapted to different properties in the raw material, process variances, and knowledge base of the organisation. These two models bound the reliability approaches available to medicine. The implications of each for medical reliability strategy are explored, and the possible adaptation of features from each for medical organisations are assessed. PMID:15576691

  14. Building Organisational Capability the Private Provider Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Organisational capability is recognised as a key to organisational success. The combination of human capital (peoples' skills and knowledge), social capital (relationships between people) and organisational capital (the organisation's processes), is central to building an organisation's capability. This paper, presented at the 2008 annual…

  15. Building a strategic security organisation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size.

  16. A typology of organisational cultures

    PubMed Central

    Westrum, R

    2004-01-01

    There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

  17. A Comparison of Midwife-Led and Medical-Led Models of Care and Their Relationship to Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wernham, Ellie; Gurney, Jason; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Sarfati, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand. Methods and Findings This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. Participants were mother/baby pairs for all 244,047 singleton, term deliveries occurring between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012 in New Zealand in which no major fetal, neonatal, chromosomal or metabolic abnormality was identified and the mother was first registered with a midwife, obstetrician, or general practitioner as lead maternity carer. Main outcome measures were low Apgar score at five min, intrauterine hypoxia, birth-related asphyxia, neonatal encephalopathy, small for gestational age (as a negative control), and mortality outcomes (perinatal related mortality, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality). Logistic regression models were fitted, with crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) generated for each outcome for midwife-led versus medical-led care (based on lead maternity carer at first registration) with 95% confidence intervals. Fully adjusted models included age, ethnicity, deprivation, trimester of registration, parity, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and pre-existing diabetes and/or hypertension in the model. Of the 244,047 pregnancies included in the study, 223,385 (91.5%) were first registered with a midwife lead maternity carer, and 20,662 (8.5%) with a medical lead maternity carer. Adjusted ORs showed that medical-led births were associated with lower odds of an Apgar score of less than seven at 5 min (OR 0.52; 95% confidence

  18. Joining Forces: Working with Spirituality in Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Joining Forces" (Lindamood); "Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation" (Hawkins); "Management--A 'Spiritual' Foundation?" (Nevard); "Hermit in Organisations" (Murray); "Towards a Spiritual Perspective on Behavior at Work" (Henson); "On Uncertainty" (Adlam); "Spirituality in Organisations" (Lee); "Ecological Organisation" (Conn);…

  19. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  20. PREFACE: Scientific Organising Committee Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    Edited by: Oliver Roberts Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Local Organising Committee: Oliver Roberts (Chair) Antonio Martin-Carrillo Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Alexey Uliyanov David Murphy Sinéad Hales Scientific Organising Committee:: Sheila McBreen, (UCD, Ireland) (Chair) Franco Camera (INFN-Milano, Italy) Nerine Cherepy (LLNL, USA) Jarek Glodo (RMD, USA) Lorraine Hanlon (UCD, Ireland) Paul Lecoq (CERN, Switzerland) Julie McEnery (NASA, USA) Oliver Roberts (UCD, Ireland) Anant Setlur, (GE, USA) Brian Shortt, (ESA, the Netherlands) Kenneth Stanton (UCD, Ireland)

  1. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  2. School Building Organisation in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the past and current organizational structure of Greece's School Building Organisation, a body established to work with government agencies in the design and construction of new buildings and the provisioning of educational equipment. Future planning to incorporate culture and creativity, sports, and laboratory learning in modern school…

  3. Understanding bullying in healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Belinda

    2015-12-02

    Bullying is a pervasive problem in healthcare organisations. Inquiries and reports on patient care and poor practice in the NHS have emphasised the substantial negative effects this behaviour may have on patient care. If bullying is to be addressed, it is crucial we develop clarity about what behaviours constitute bullying and how these behaviours differ from other negative behaviours in the workplace. It is important that we recognise the extent of the problem; statistics on the prevalence of bullying are likely to be an underestimate because of under-reporting of bullying. Effective interventions may only be designed and implemented if there is knowledge about what precipitates bullying and the magnitude of the changes required in organisations to tackle bullying. Individuals should also be aware of the options that are available to them should they be the target of bullying behaviour and what they should do if they witness bullying in their workplace.

  4. Reflection as a Catalyst for Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipfer, Kristin; Kump, Barbara; Wessel, Daniel; Cress, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a psychological perspective on organisational learning, putting "reflection" into the centre of attention. We argue that (1) organisational learning is based on individual and team learning at work, (2) reflection is the driving force that leads to organisational learning and (3) cumulation of the staff's reflection outcomes…

  5. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    PubMed

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement.

  6. Improving Organisational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    organisational effectiveness of coalition HQs conducting Non-article 5 crisis response operations. The paper will present intermediate results of the work of...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Swiss Military Academy at ETH Zurich...their organisational effectiveness. It is the result of the work of NATO Research and Technology Organisation (RTO) Task Group HFM-163 “Improving

  7. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  8. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement.

  9. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  10. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  11. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  12. A Sociocultural Analysis of Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreham, Nick; Morgan, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The concept of organisational learning has been widely debated and frequently contested by educationalists, but the specific processes and actions which constitute this form of learning have received relatively little research attention. This paper reports a three-year empirical investigation into organisational learning in a large industrial…

  13. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  14. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  15. Building Innovative Vocational Education and Training Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Highly innovative organisations demonstrate six key characteristics. They create learning cultures which promote innovation as a core organisational capability; employ leaders who are "failure-tolerant"; identify innovators; reward people who propose innovative ideas; use partnerships; and, promote innovation through teams. This report…

  16. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  17. Learning Organisations: A Literature Review and Critique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    organisational learning, and accompanying processes and mechanisms designed to facilitate learning across these levels. For example, there is a tendency by...and leaders would need to relinquish control over the learning process . The reliance on employee’s initiative and creativity may challenge...organisational processes .................................................................................................................... 29 5.3

  18. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  19. Organisational Change: A Solution-Focused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a solution-focused approach to organisational change. Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is an intervention more commonly applied to individuals. In this study the intervention is used with groups of people working in educational organisations to help manage the change process. The approach…

  20. The "State of Art" of Organisational Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…

  1. Determinants of Organisational Climate for Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Adela; Scott, Don

    2013-01-01

    Being aware of the factors that develop a positive organisational climate is especially important in universities, where the academic members of staff are, in large measure, self-motivated. To identify the determinants of organisational climate for university academia, the validity and reliability of the first-order constructs of autonomy,…

  2. Organisational Blogs: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical link between blogs and organisational learning. It aims to provide a set of practical guidelines on how to overcome the challenges of implementing an organisational blog. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review will be used to examine blogs and their association towards…

  3. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  4. The learning organisation and health care education.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Rashid K; Al-Hashmi, Intisar S

    2007-12-01

    The 'Learning Organisation' is a concept first described by Peter Senge as an organisation where people continuously learn and enhance their capabilities to create. It consists of five main disciplines: team learning, shared vision, mental models, personal mastery and systems thinking. These disciplines are dynamic and interact with each other. System thinking is the cornerstone of a true learning organisation and is described as the discipline used to implement the disciplines. In a learning organisation, health care education aims to educate its members with up to date knowledge to produce competent and safe personnel, who can promote quality in health care services. In addition, there are some educational concepts and theoretical models, which are of relevance to the learning organisation, and can provide a framework for managerial decisions. The stages required to achieve the principles of a learning organisation will be described in detail. Moreover, in a proper culture which supports the learning organisation, members continuously learn to improve the environment and never remain passive recipients.

  5. Corporate information systems in health organisations.

    PubMed

    Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nature of corporate information systems and their applications in health organisations. It emphasises the importance of financial and human resource information in the creation of a corporate data model. The paper summarises the main features of finance and human resource systems as they are used in health organisations. It looks at a series of case studies carried out in health organisations, which were selected on the basis of their representation of different aspects of service delivery. It also discusses the theoretical and practical perspectives of the systems themselves, their roles in information management, executive and decision support, and in planning and forecasting.

  6. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    PubMed

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  7. Leading organisational learning in health care.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S; Edmondson, A C

    2002-03-01

    As healthcare organisations seek to enhance safety and quality in a changing environment, organisational learning practices can help to improve existing skills and knowledge and provide opportunities to discover better ways of working together. Leadership at executive, middle management, and local levels is needed to create a sense of shared purpose. This shared vision should help to build effective relationships, facilitate connections between action and reflection, and strengthen the desirable elements of the healthcare culture while modifying outdated assumptions, procedures, and structures.

  8. The Learning Organisation and Health Care Education

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abri, Rashid K; Al-Hashmi, Intisar S

    2007-01-01

    The ‘Learning Organisation’ is a concept first described by Peter Senge as an organisation where people continuously learn and enhance their capabilities to create. It consists of five main disciplines: team learning, shared vision, mental models, personal mastery and systems thinking. These disciplines are dynamic and interact with each other. System thinking is the cornerstone of a true learning organisation and is described as the discipline used to implement the disciplines. In a learning organisation, health care education aims to educate its members with up to date knowledge to produce competent and safe personnel, who can promote quality in health care services. In addition, there are some educational concepts and theoretical models, which are of relevance to the learning organisation, and can provide a framework for managerial decisions. The stages required to achieve the principles of a learning organisation will be described in detail. Moreover, in a proper culture which supports the learning organisation, members continuously learn to improve the environment and never remain passive recipients. PMID:21748105

  9. Organisational Learning and the Organisational Life Cycle: The Differential Aspects of an Integrated Relationship in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…

  10. Responses to Climate Change: Exploring Organisational Learning across Internationally Networked Organisations for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Emily; Osbahr, Henny

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from the organisational learning and governance literature, this paper assesses four internationally networked governmental and non-governmental organisations in the UK addressing climate change. We analyse how those concerned understand the climate change crisis, what mechanisms are put in place to address information flows, and what…

  11. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an…

  12. Human Resource Development in Construction Organisations: An Example of a "Chaordic" Learning Organisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiden, Ani B.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of the learning organisation (LO) is associated with an advanced approach to human resource development (HRD) characterised by an ethos of self-responsibility and self-development. The learning climate that this engenders is supported by temporary organisational structures responsive to environmental change. The purpose of his…

  13. The Strength of Organisational Culture: Organisational Performance in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bipath, Keshni; Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the more frequently cited cultural dimensions within the field of cultural research is that of cultural strength (Cameron & Ettington, 1998). Early published works on organisational culture argue that there is an absolute need for a "strong" culture for organisations to be effective. This study has examined the contradiction…

  14. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    PubMed

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas.

  15. Nuclear organisation and RNAi in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Woolcock, Katrina J; Bühler, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been used extensively for investigating RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated heterochromatin assembly. However, only recently have studies begun to shed light on the 3D organisation of chromatin and the RNAi machinery in the fission yeast nucleus. These studies indicate association of repressive and active chromatin with different regions of the nuclear periphery, similar to other model organisms, and clustering of functionally related genomic features. Unexpectedly, RNAi factors were shown to associate with nuclear pores and were implicated in the regulation of genomic features outside of the well-studied heterochromatic regions. Nuclear organisation is likely to contribute to substrate specificity of the RNAi pathway. However, further studies are required to elucidate the exact mechanisms and functional importance of this nuclear organisation.

  16. Organisational socialisation in a crisis context.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management.

  17. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  18. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  19. Why Youth Workers Need to Collectively Organise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corney, Tim; Broadbent, Robyn; Darmanin, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Recent attempts at professionalising the youth sector have focused on "codes of ethics" and left pay and conditions issues to community sector unions. The authors suggest that the history of nursing in Victoria provides a case example of the benefits of combining professional aspirations with industrial organisation.

  20. Managing Evaluation: A Community Arts Organisation Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Peter; Atkinson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Arts and health organisations must increasingly provide measurable evidence of impact to stakeholders, which can pose both logistical and ideological challenges. This paper examines the relationship between the ethos of an arts and health organisation with external demands for evaluation. Methods Research involved an ethnographic engagement where the first author worked closely with the organisation for a year. In addition to informal discussions, twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with core staff and participants. Transcribed interviews were coded and emerging themes were identified. Results Staff considered evaluation to be necessary and useful, yet also to be time consuming and a potential threat to their ethos. Nevertheless, they were able to negotiate the terms of evaluation to enable them to meet their own needs as well as those of funders and other stakeholders. Conclusions While not completely resisting outside demands for evaluation, the organisation was seen to intentionally rework demands for evidence into processes they felt they could work with, thus enabling their ethos to be maintained. PMID:25429306

  1. Organisational Learning for School Quality and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagrosen, Yvonne; Lagrosen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to shed light upon the connections between quality management, employee health and organisational learning in a school setting. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a quantitative survey. Items measuring health status and values of quality management were included in a questionnaire addressed to…

  2. Qualifications and Skills: The Organisational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dafou, Efthimia

    2009-01-01

    This paper portrays the inferences that employers in Greece draw from particular aspects of study programmes, as recorded on educational qualifications. Based on semi-structured interviews with human resource managers in 37 industrial and service organisations and general directors of careers offices in eight higher education institutions, and…

  3. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…

  4. Organising Communities-of-Practice: Facilitating Emergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne; Petter, Christian; de Laat, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of communities of practice (CoP) has received great attention in educational and organisational practice and research. Although the concept originally refers to collaborative practices that emerge naturally, educational and HRD practitioners are increasingly searching for ways to create these practices intentionally in order to…

  5. Organisational Capability--What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Organisational capability is rapidly becoming recognized as the key to organizational success. However, the lack of research on it has been well documented in the literature, and organizational capability remains an elusive concept. Yet an understanding of organizational capability can offer insights into how RTOs might work most effectively,…

  6. Organised surfactant assemblies in analytical atomic spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del Rosario; Gonzalez, Elisa Blanco; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Luisa

    1999-02-01

    The use of surfactant-based organised assemblies in analytical atomic spectroscopy is extensively and critically reviewed along three main lines: first, the ability of organised media to enhance detection of atomic spectroscopic methods by favourable manipulation of physical and chemical properties of the sample solution second, the extension of separation mechanisms by resorting to organised media and third a discussion of synergistic combinations of liquid chromatography separations and atomic detectors via the use of vesicular mobile phases. Changes in physical properties of sample solutions aspirated in atomic spectrometry by addition of surfactants can be advantageously used in at least four different ways: (i) to improve nebulisation efficiency; (ii) to enhance wettability of solid surfaces used for atomisation; (iii) to improve compatibility between aqueous and organic phases; and (iv) to achieve good dispersion of small particles in "slurry" techniques. Controversial results and statements published so far are critically discussed. The ability of surfactant-based organised assemblies, such as micelles and vesicles, to organise reactants at the molecular level has also been applied to enhance the characteristics of chemical generation of volalite species of metals and semi-metals (e.g., hydride or ethylide generation of As, Pb, Cd, Se, Sn, and cold vapour Hg generation) used in atomic methods. Enhancements in efficiency/transport of volatile species, increases in the reaction kinetics, stabilisation of some unstable species and changes in the selectivity of the reactions by surfactants are dealt with. Non-chromatographic cloud-point separations to design pre-concentration procedures with subsequent metal determination by atomic methods are addressed along with chromatographic separations of expanded scope by addition of surfactants to the conventional aqueous mobile phases of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the synergistic

  7. Information Security Status in Organisations 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawileh, Anas; Hilton, Jeremy; McIntosh, Stephen

    This paper presents the results of the latest survey on information security management and pracitces in organisations. The study is based on a holistic approach to information security that does not confine itself to technical measures and technology implementations, but encompasses other equally important aspects such as human, social, motiviational and trust. In order to achieve this purpose, a comprehensive intellectual framework of the concepts of information security using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was utilised. The survey questions were drived from this conceptual model to ensure their coherence, completeness and relevance to the topic being addressed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the survey results and draws significant insight into the existing status of informaiton assurance in organisations that could be useful for security practitioners, researchers and managers.

  8. Knowledge Creation in Construction Organisations: A Case Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliufoo, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and characterise the knowledge creation process in construction organisations and explore to what extent organisations facilitate the process. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach is adopted using four construction organisations; a knowledge creation model is also used as the…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  10. Bridging Theory and Practice: A Conceptual Framework for Consulting Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Meca B.; Welch, Jennie; Hazle Bussey, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of organisations are emerging as partners to districts pursuing systemic improvement. Given the critical role a consulting organisation could play in supporting system reform efforts, how does a district leader looking to establish a consulting partnership determine what characteristics in a consulting organisation may be more…

  11. Intelligence Base: Strategic Instrument of an Organisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    RTO-MP-IST-055 1 - 1 Intelligence Base: Strategic Instrument of an Organisation Major Marc Rabaey and Colonel Jean-Marie Leclercq, Ir...in the fight against international terrorism a nation has to share intelligence and exchange information with other nations. This requires a secure...and performing communication system. This paper introduces the concept of the Intelligence Base, which meets the needs of an efficient and effective

  12. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P

    1999-01-01

    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  13. Self-organisation and motion in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenau, T. A.; Hesselberg, T.

    2014-03-01

    Self-organisation appeals to humans because difficult and repeated actions can be avoided through automation via bottom-up nonhierarchical processes. This is in contrast to the top-level controlled action strategy normally applied in automated products and in manufacturing. There are many situations where it is required that objects perform an action dependent on external stimuli. An example is automatic window blinds that open or closes in response to sunlight level. However, simpler and more robust designs could be made using the self-organising principles for movement found in many plants. Plants move to adapt to external conditions, e.g. sun-flower buds tracking the sun, touch-me-not Mimosa and Venus fly trap responding to mechanical stimuli by closing leaves to protect them and capture insects respectively. This paper describes 3 of the basic biomimetic principles used by plants to track the sun; i) light causing an inhibiting effect on the illuminated side causing it to bend, ii) light inducing a signal from the illuminated side that causes an action on the darker side and iii) light illuminating a number of sensing plates pointing upwards at an angle activate an expansion on the same side. A concept for mimicking the second principle is presented. It is a very simple and possible reliable self-organising structure that aligns a plate perpendicular to the source of illumination.

  14. Challenging the Post-Fordist/Flexible Organisation Thesis: The Case of Reformed Educational Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehony, Kevin J.; Deem, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines claims that recent reforms to UK education have led to significant organisational changes in primary school and higher education. It also examines two main theoretical explanations for these, namely post-Fordism and New Managerialism. Examples of changes in both schools and universities, including flexibility and teamwork, are…

  15. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  16. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, L. E. C.; Holme, P.

    2010-07-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent of the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight —the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company— and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the complaints. We also apply principal component analysis to the set of feature vectors concluding that a reduction of the dimensionality of these from 8827 to 27 gives an optimal hierarchical representation.

  17. Landscape self organisation: Modelling Sediment trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoorl, J. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rivers tend to develop towards an equilibrium length profile, independently of exogenous factors. In general, although still under debate, this so-called self-organisation is assumed to be caused by simple feedbacks between sedimentation and erosion. Erosion correlates positively with gradient and discharge and sedimentation negatively. With the LAPSUS model, which was run for the catchment of the Sabinal, a small river in the South of Spain, this interplay of erosion and sedimentation results in sediment pulses (sequences of incision and sedimentation through time). These pulses are visualised in a short movie ( see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5LDUMvYZxU). In this case the LAPSUS model run did not take climate, base level nor tectonics into account. Therefore, these pulses can be considered independent of them. Furthermore, different scenarios show that the existence of the pulses is independent of precipitation, erodibility and sedimentation rate, although they control the number and shape of the pulses. A fieldwork check showed the plausibility of the occurrence of these sediment pulses. We conclude that the pulses as modelled with LAPSUS are indeed the consequence of the feedbacks between erosion and sedimentation and are not depending on exogenous factors. Keywords: Landscape self-organisation, Erosion, Deposition, LAPSUS, Modelling

  18. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  19. A Developmental Guide to the Organisation of Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.

    2009-01-01

    A developmental guide to close relationships is presented. Parent-child, sibling, friend, and romantic relationships are described along dimensions that address permanence, power, and gender. These dimensions describe relationship differences in organisational principles that encompass internal representations, social understanding, and interpersonal experiences. The concept of domain specificity is borrowed from cognitive development to address the shifting developmental dynamics of close relationships. Distinct relationships are organised around distinct socialisation tasks, so each relationship requires its own organisational system. As a consequence, different principles guide different relationships, and these organisational principles change with development. PMID:20090927

  20. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    PubMed

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  1. Making Decisions about Workforce Development in Registered Training Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research activity is to understand further how large and small registered training organisations (RTOs) make decisions about the allocation of resources for developing their workforces. Six registered training organisations--four technical and further education (TAFE) institutes and two private providers--were selected for…

  2. Cage Painting within the Fifth Discipline of Learning Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmington, Glyn M.; Alagic, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Learning organisations face new challenges in the 21st century. Increased flow of trade in commodities, manufactured goods and information as well as mobility of people have led to increased global interdependence, interconnectedness and cultural diversity. People and teams within learning organisations have become globally distributed with the…

  3. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  4. Towards Zero Management Learning Organisations: A Honey-Bee Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper is a distinctive element of an empirical study on learning organisations carried out between 1999 and 2002. It seeks to examine a whole range of issues that seem to permeate higher-performing organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The study design utilised both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies.…

  5. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  6. Organisational Stress among Faculty Members of Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areekkuzhiyil, Santhosh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Quality faculty members is a must for any higher education institution aspiring for Quality. Organisational stress one of the most important factors influencing the quality and efficiency of the faculty. Hence, the Organisational stress has to be managed in such a way that it should contribute to the quality of higher education. Hence…

  7. The Impact of Graphic Organisers on Learning from Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteleyn, Jordi; Mottart, André; Valcke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    There is abundant educational research indicating that graphic organisers (knowledge maps, concept maps, or mind maps) have a beneficial impact on learning, but hardly any research has examined this in the context of presentations. This study therefore investigated how graphic organisers -- as delivered via presentation software -- affect learning…

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  9. Transferability of Skills and Education and Thai Academics' Organisational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…

  10. The Strength of Accountability and Teachers' Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) involves discretionary behaviour advantageous to the organisation that goes beyond existing role expectations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the strength of accountability and teachers' OCB within three different management systems in which teachers are working: a…

  11. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  12. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  13. Measuring Organisational Capabilities in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobe, Belete J.; Kober, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework and instrument to measure the organisational capabilities of university schools/departments. In doing so, this study provides evidence of the way competitive resources are bundled to generate organisational capabilities that give university…

  14. Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

  15. Organisational Studies in an Era of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Eric; Wallace, Mike

    2014-01-01

    One social science base for educational administration proposed in the Baron and Taylor collection was organisation theory. In the event this expectation turned out to be over-optimistic. Organisation theory was much too contested and insufficiently pragmatic for the British taste. Major developments in this field occurred mainly in the USA.…

  16. The Ideology of Learning Organisations in Africa: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akella, Devi

    2010-01-01

    Organisations worldwide have acknowledged the connection between corporate learning, development and business sustainability. Emphasis is being laid on creating and designing a learning organisation "that is skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring and retaining knowledge" [Garvin, (2000), p.32]. Extensive literature…

  17. Organisational Capability in Internalising Quality Culture in Higher Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Burhan Muhammad Bn; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of leadership roles related to organisational capability consisting of directing setting, strategic and organisational process, alignment, intervention and strategic capability on depending variable internalising quality culture in IIUM. The study used 100 samples consisting of lecturers, non-academic staff and…

  18. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  19. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-01-17

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations.

  20. Impact of organisational change on mental health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-08-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems. More studies of long-term effects are required including relevant analyses of confounders.

  1. Current organisation of clinical cytology in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milicić-Juhas, Valerija; Loncar, Branka; Mahovlić, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Pajtler, Marija

    2010-03-01

    Current cytological service in Croatia is organised in 46 cytological organisational units in 23 towns with total of 350 employees: 101 specialists of clinical cytology, 20 residents in clinical cytology, 141 cytotechnologists (cytoscreeners), 45 health technicians, and 25 administrators and 18 auxiliary personnel. In spite of employment of significant number of cytotechnologists in the last ten years, there is still an unacceptable ratio of number of cytologists and cytotechnologists (1:1.4) which is the result of unresolved education of cytotechnologists which should be permanent, complete and acknowledged. Education and scientific promotion of cytologists is continuous and today our profession has 31 masters of science and 9 doctors of science, one of which is the assistant professor, and four of them are associate or full professors at medical schools in Zagreb and Osijek. Croatian cytology, in average, is in its "best years", i.e. an average cytologist is 46-years-old and cytotechnologist is averagely 43-years-old, but "suffers" from personnel deficit. With regard to the type of activity, the most numerous are units dealing the entire diagnostic cytology (72%), 13% general cytology without gynaecological cytology, while 15% are engaged in one diagnostic field (gynaecological, pulmological or thyroid cytology). According to accessible data, total of 770996 cytological examinations were done in Croatia in 2008. The increasing application of additional methods (cytochemical, immunocytochemical, molecular, cytogenetics and computer-assisted image analysis) has become a trend in numerous cytological units. Exclusively morphological analysis of standard stained samples is performed in 37% of units, morphological and cytochemical staining methods are used in 17% of units, and additional immunocytochemical methods in 30% of units. According to the long tradition of cytology in Croatia, that has progressed thanks to the enthusiasm and great effort of our teachers, we

  2. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic

  3. Included or Excluded? The Dual Influences of the Organisational Field and Organisational Practices on New Female Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elg, Ulf; Jonnergard, Karin

    2010-01-01

    A number of measures have been taken by the society to ensure gender equality in higher education. Nevertheless, women still face great difficulties when pursuing an academic career. Our aim is to increase the understanding of how the society, conceptualised as the organisational field, interacts with organisational factors and personal actions as…

  4. Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: Exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana Rita; Lozano, Rodrigo; Ceulemans, Kim; Ramos, Tomás B

    2017-05-01

    Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability.

  5. Extracellular matrix, supramolecular organisation and shape.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J E

    1995-01-01

    Connective tissue function is defined as the formation and maintenance of shape, without which centralised physiologies (circulatory, digestive or nervous) could not have evolved. Two elements, inextensible (collagenous) fibrils and compression-resistant interfibrillar soluble polymers (proteoglycans), cope with all usual stresses. Relationships between the two are highly specific, as demonstrated by electron histochemistry based on Cupromeronic blue and critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) methodologies. Recent ideas on (1) the protofibrillar or modular structure of collagen fibrils, (2) the nature of specific binding sites for proteoglycans on fibrils, and (3) fundamental similarities in secondary and tertiary structures of the glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan, chondroitin, keratan and dermatan sulphates) are described. They have greatly illuminated the study of extracellular matrix structure and function in normal, pathological (osteogenesis imperfecta) and ageing tissues. The small proteoglycans are proposed to be tissue organisers, orienting and ordering the collagen fibrils--thus shaping the tissue at a molecular and ultimately macro level. These interfibrillar structures are based on their bifunctional character, the protein parts binding to collagen fibrils at specific sites and the glycosaminoglycans duplexing and aggregating to hold the proteins and hence the collagen fibrils at defined distances from each other, rather like yardsticks. Examples of the way these functions work in specific tissues are drawn from the cornea and vitreous humour of the eye and developing tendon. Images Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 PMID:7591990

  6. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  7. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  8. Hierarchical radial and polar organisation of chromosomes in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Millan, N M; Lau, P; Hann, M; Ioannou, D; Hoffman, D; Barrionuevo, M; Maxson, W; Ory, S; Tempest, H G

    2012-10-01

    It is well established that chromosomes occupy distinct positions within the interphase nuclei, conferring a potential functional implication to the genome. In addition, alterations in the nuclear organisation patterns have been associated with disease phenotypes (e.g. cancer or laminopathies). The human sperm is the smallest cell in the body with specific DNA packaging and the mission of delivering the paternal genome to the oocyte during fertilisation. Studies of nuclear organisation in the sperm have postulated nonrandom chromosome position and have proposed a chromocentre model with the centromeres facing toward the interior and the telomeres toward the periphery of the nucleus. Most studies have assessed the nuclear address in the sperm longitudinally predominantly using centromeric or telomeric probes and to a lesser extent with whole chromosome paints. To date, studies investigating the radial organisation of human sperm have been limited. The purpose of this study was to utilise whole chromosome paints for six clinically important chromosomes (18, 19, 21, 22, X, and Y) to investigate nuclear address by assessing their radial and longitudinal nuclear organisation. A total of 10,800 sperm were analysed in nine normozoospermic individuals. The results have shown nonrandom chromosome position for all chromosomes using both methods of analysis. We present novel radial and polar analysis of chromosome territory localization within the human sperm nucleus. Specifically, a hierarchical organisation was observed radially with chromosomes organised from the interior to the periphery (chromosomes 22, 21, Y, X, 19, and 18 respectively) and polar organisation from the sperm head to tail (chromosomes X, 19, Y, 22, 21, and 18, respectively). We provide evidence of defined nuclear organisation in the human sperm and discuss the function of organisation and potential possible clinical ramifications of these results in regards to male infertility and early human development.

  9. Are organisational factors affecting the emotional withdrawal of community nurses?

    PubMed

    Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.

  10. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure.

    PubMed

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria; Christensen, Hanne; De Keyser, Jacques; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Ferro, Jose M; Ford, Gary A; Grau, Armin; Keller, Emanuella; Leys, Didier; Russell, David; Toni, Danilo; Turc, Guillaume; Van der Worp, Bart; Wahlgren, Nils; Steiner, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important cornerstones in this standard operating procedure: The first is the implementation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for the development of its Guideline Documents. The second one is the decision of the European Stroke Organisation to move from the classical model of a single Guideline Document about a major topic (e.g. management of ischemic stroke) to focused modules (i.e. subdivisions of a major topic). This will enable the European Stroke Organisation to react faster when new developments in a specific stroke field occur and update its recommendations on the related module rather swiftly; with the previous approach of a single large Guideline Document, its entire revision had to be completed before an updated publication, delaying the production of up-to-date guidelines. After discussion within the European Stroke Organisation Guidelines Committee and significant input from European Stroke Organisation members as well as methodologists and analysts, this document presents the official standard operating procedure for

  11. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle.

  12. Clinical service organisation for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephanie JC; Bestall, Janine C; Cotter, Sarah; Falshaw, Margaret; Hood, Sonja G; Parsons, Suzanne; Wood, Lesley; Underwood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious, common condition associated with frequent hospitalisation. Several different disease management interventions (clinical service organisation interventions) for patients with CHF have been proposed. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of disease management interventions for patients with CHF. Search methods We searched: Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials (to June 2003); MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2003); EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2003); CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2003); AMED (January 1985 to July 2003); Science Citation Index Expanded (searched January 1981 to March 2001); SIGLE (January 1980 to July 2003); DARE (July 2003); National Research Register (July 2003); NHS Economic Evaluations Database (March 2001); reference lists of articles and asked experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing disease management interventions specifically directed at patients with CHF to usual care. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently extracted data information and assessed study quality. Study authors were contacted for further information where necessary. Main results Sixteen trials involving 1,627 people were included. We classified the interventions into three models: multidisciplinary interventions (a holistic approach bridging the gap between hospital admission and discharge home delivered by a team); case management interventions (intense monitoring of patients following discharge often involving telephone follow up and home visits); and clinic interventions (follow up in a CHF clinic). There was considerable overlap within these categories, however the components, intensity and duration of the interventions varied. Case management interventions tended to be associated with reduced all cause mortality but these findings were not statistically significant (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.10, P = 0.23), although the

  13. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  14. Sustaining health promotion programs within sport and recreation organisations.

    PubMed

    Casey, Meghan M; Payne, Warren R; Eime, Rochelle M; Brown, Sue J

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of the sport and recreation sector as a setting for health promotion is a new strategy implemented by health policy makers and strategic planners. Strategies to promote and sustain health promotion activities are important considering the risk that programs may cease after initial funding ends. This study explored the factors affecting the sustainability of a sport- and recreation-based health promotion program. A stratified sampling method was used to select four of the nine Regional Sports Assemblies (RSAs) that delivered a state-wide health promotion program funded by the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation in Australia. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with four Executive Officers (EOs) and focus group discussions with their Boards of Management. A sustainability checklist with pre-specified dimensions (e.g. organisational setting, broader community environment, and program design and implementation) guided data collection and analysis. The results showed that the organisational setting and the broader community environment supported program institutionalisation; whilst the design and implementation of the program worked against institutionalisation. The capacity of the organisations to generate new funds for the program was limited; the relationship between the central funding organisation and the Boards of Management was weak; and the program did not support the retention of staff. The engagement of sport and recreation organisations has potential to facilitate health promotion and public health. To enhance organisational capacity and achieve program sustainability, it is important that organisational processes, structures, and resources that support long-term health promotion practice are effectively and efficiently planned and managed.

  15. Post-Activity Report: DHSS Organisational Culture and Performance Workshop 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    summarises the outcomes of the workshop hosted by the DSTO Army Learning Organisation (ALO) team. Professor Karen Watkins (University of Georgia) facilitated...the workshop (applying Action Learning principles) to generate critical reflection and questioning of Defence organisational culture. The workshop...Culture and Performance Workshop Executive Summary The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) Army Learning Organisation (ALO

  16. Linking Shared Organisational Context and Relational Capital through Unlearning: An Initial Empirical Investigation in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan G.; Dewhurst, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The environment provided by an organisation to facilitate learning and create knowledge has been defined as the shared organisational context. The value to an organisation of knowledge created by the shared organisational context is called intellectual capital, of which one key component is relational capital. The purpose of this paper is…

  17. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin

    2017-06-01

    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  18. Improving organisational resilience through enterprise security risk management.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, John; Loyear, Rachelle

    Enterprise Security Risk Management (ESRM) is a new philosophy and method of managing security programmes through the use of traditional risk principles. As a philosophy and life cycle, ESRM is focused on creating a business partnership between security practitioners and business leaders to more effectively provide protection against security risks in line with acceptable risk tolerances as defined by business asset owners and stakeholders. This paper explores the basics of the ESRM philosophy and life cycle and also shows how embracing the ESRM philosophy and implementing a risk-based security management model in the business organisation can lead to higher levels of organisational resilience as desired by organisation leaders, executives and the board of directors.

  19. Contrasting DNA sequence organisation patterns in sauropsidian genomes.

    PubMed

    Epplen, J T; Diedrich, U; Wagenmann, M; Schmidtke, J; Engel, W

    1979-11-01

    The genomic DNA organisation patterns of four sauropsidian species, namely Python reticularis, Caiman crocodilus, Terrapene carolina triungius and Columba livia domestica were investigated by reassociation of short and long DNA fragments, by hyperchromicity measurements of reannealed fragments and by length estimations of S1-nuclease resistant repetitive duplexes. While the genomic DNA of the three reptilian species shows a short period interspersion pattern, the genome of the avian species is organised in a long period interspersion pattern apparently typical for birds. These findings are discussed in view of the close phylogenetic relationships of birds and reptiles, and also with regard to a possible relationship between the extent of sequence interspersion and genome size.

  20. Leading European Intergovernmental Research Organisations at FP6 Launch Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    EIROforum at "European Research 2002" (Brussels, November 11-13, 2002) Go to the EIROforum website Last year, seven of Europe's leading intergovernmental research organisations set up a high-level co-ordination and collaboration group, known as EIROforum , cf. ESO PR 12/01. They include CERN (particle physics), EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion). All of them have powerful research infrastructures and laboratories which are used by an extensive network of scientists. Together, they represent European spearheads in some of the most crucial basic and applied research fields. The EIROforum organisations will be highly visible at the upcoming EU-conference on "European Research 2002 - The European Research Area and the Framework Programme" , to be held on November 11-13, 2002, at the "Palais du Heysel" in Brussels (Belgium). This meeting will be attended by more than 8000 scientists and decision-makers from all over Europe and serves to launch the 6th EC Framework Programme (2002 - 2006), which will have an important impact on Europe's R&D landscape during the coming years. A joint 400 sq.m. exhibition , featuring the individual EIROforum organisations, their current programmes and many front-line achievements in their respective areas of activity, will be set up at Stand L in Hall 11 . It includes a central area, with a small cinema, displaying information about their current interactions via EIROforum. The stands will be manned throughout the conference by high-level representatives from the seven organisations. On Tuesday, November 12, 2002, 14:00 hrs, a Press Conference will take place at this exhibition stand, in the presence of the European Commissioner for Research, M. Phillippe Busquin, and most of the Directors General (or equivalent) of the EIROforum organisations. The main themes will be the increasingly intense interaction and co

  1. Recent patents on self-organised magnetic nanodot arrays.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, J J; Bobek, T; Teichert, C

    2011-01-01

    As the continuous advance in the process of device miniaturisation reaches down to the nanometre range, fabrication techniques based on self-organisation, i.e., the spontaneous formation of ordered patterns on surfaces, are becoming increasingly attractive as potential, highly efficient alternatives to lithographic methods. In this article we review some of the methodologies that have been developed recently to produce ordered arrays of nanomagnets using self-organised surface templates, and we list the patents that have been filed recently to protect those fabrication procedures. We describe the underlying phenomena giving rise to the appearance of the ordered structures, and discuss their characteristics and the controllable parameters.

  2. Modular functional organisation of the axial locomotor system in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Charrier, Vanessa; Mathou, Alexia

    2014-02-01

    Most investigations on tetrapod locomotion have been concerned with limb movements. However, there is compelling evidence that the axial musculoskeletal system contributes to important functions during locomotion. Adult salamanders offer a remarkable opportunity to examine these functions because these amphibians use axial undulations to propel themselves in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this article, we review the currently available biological data on axial functions during various locomotor modes in salamanders. We also present data showing the modular organisation of the neural networks that generate axial synergies during locomotion. The functional implication of this modular organisation is discussed.

  3. Transformations? Skilled Change Agents Influencing Organisational Sustainability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Keith; Boulet, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Training employees in sustainability knowledge and skills is considered a vital element in creating a sustainability culture within an organisation. Yet, the particular types of training programs that are effective for this task are still relatively unknown. This case study describes an innovative workplace training program using a "head,…

  4. A Multi-organisational Approach to Service Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purchase, Valerie; Mills, John; Parry, Glenn

    Who is involved in delivering a service? There has been growing recognition in a wide variety of contexts that service is increasingly being delivered by multi-rather than single-organisational entities. Such recognition is evident not only in our experience but in a number of areas of literature including strategy development, core competence analysis, operations and supply chain management, and is reflected in and further facilitated by ICT developments. Customers have always been involved in some degree in the process of value delivery and such involvement is increasing to include complex co-creation of value. Such interactions are challenging when they involve individual customers, however, this becomes ever more challenging when the 'customer' is another organisation or when there are multiple 'customers'. Within this chapter we will consider some of the key drivers for a multi-organisational approach to service delivery; examine the ways in which the parties involved in service co-creation have expanded to include multiple service providers and customers; and finally, identify some of the challenges created by a multi-organisational approach to service delivery.

  5. Self-Organisation and Capacity Building: Sustaining the Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Alan; Walker, Allan; Chan, Anissa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to describe the application of theoretical principles derived from a study of self-organisation and complex systems theory and their application to school-based capacity building to support planned change. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a case example in a Hong Kong School to illustrate the application of…

  6. Organisational change: a methodology to uncover the business idea.

    PubMed

    Barker, J; Anderson, P

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the "Business Idea", as defined by van der Heijden (1996), in The Family Planning Association of WA Inc (FPWA) which is a Non-Government Organisation (NGO) in Perth, Western Australia. This organisation was chosen as, along with many other NGOs, it was undergoing major changes in its funding, role and required outcomes. A qualitative interpretivist single case study methodology employing grounded theory research principles and methods was used to study the Business Idea framework in this setting. Thirty-four members of FPWA's staff were interviewed and data was managed using NUD*IST4 and Decision Explorer data storage, data retrieval and graphical reproduction facilities. Results indicated that images of the Business Idea model within FPWA were largely consistent across all staff levels excepting members of the Board of Management. Changes within the organisation were impacting heavily on staff, who needed to be assisted over the transitional phase. Strong leadership and corporate direction were identified as essential if the FPWA was to balance the strongly held sense of social justice amongst its staff with a need for greater productivity efficiency and accountability across the organisation.

  7. The Sound of Silence: The Case of Virtual Team Organising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panteli, N.; Fineman, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of silence within a virtual organising context. The paper raises issues related to the construction of silence in the virtual team context and the implications it has on team interactions. By drawing upon existing studies on virtual teams, we argue that members' silence may not always have negative effects on team…

  8. Learning robot actions based on self-organising language memory.

    PubMed

    Wermter, Stefan; Elshaw, Mark

    2003-01-01

    In the MirrorBot project we examine perceptual processes using models of cortical assemblies and mirror neurons to explore the emergence of semantic representations of actions, percepts and concepts in a neural robot. The hypothesis under investigation is whether a neural model will produce a life-like perception system for actions. In this context we focus in this paper on how instructions for actions can be modeled in a self-organising memory. Current approaches for robot control often do not use language and ignore neural learning. However, our approach uses language instruction and draws from the concepts of regional distributed modularity, self-organisation and neural assemblies. We describe a self-organising model that clusters actions into different locations depending on the body part they are associated with. In particular, we use actual sensor readings from the MIRA robot to represent semantic features of the action verbs. Furthermore, we outline a hierarchical computational model for a self-organising robot action control system using language for instruction.

  9. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  10. Uses and Risks of Microblogging in Organisational and Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad Kharman Shah, Nordiana; Latif Shabgahi, Soureh; Cox, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to clarify the relationship between organisational and educational use of microblogging. Although enterprise and education are very different sectors of activity and have diverse research traditions, this review argues that there is a benefit to be derived from comparing research work across the two settings.…

  11. Reflection--A Method for Organisational and Individual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randle, Hanne; Tilander, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents how organisational development can be the results when politicians, managers, social workers and teaching staff take part in reflection. The results are based on a government-funded initiative in Sweden for lowering sick absenteeism. Three local governments introduced reflection as a strategy to combat work related stress and a…

  12. Education for Active Citizenship: Women's Organisations in Interwar Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    Following the enfranchisement of women in 1918 women's organisations throughout Britain reconsidered and revised their aims for the future. In many cases this involved educating their members, and women in general, on how to use their new influence in society. Such "education for citizenship", which also drove attempts to raise the…

  13. Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Sense Making in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) Intelligence Community Mark Burnett, Pete Wooding * and Paul Prekop...3 And it is possible to inter-relate all three models – see Rousseau and Breton 2005. DSTO-GD...worthy of more detailed consideration. DSTO-GD-0440 22 References Breton , R. and Rousseau, R. (2005), "The C-OODA: A Cognitive Version

  14. Exploring SME Market Orientation: An Organisational Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Robert; Maycock, Carina; Oztel, Hulya

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and enhance organisational capability through learning within a small firm context. This paper forms part of a KTP project. The paper considers here traditional quantitative approaches where data was gathered largely through questionnaires received from a single source within the firm approaches for…

  15. Organisational and Task Factors Influencing Teachers' Professional Development at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; Van der Heijden, Béatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers' professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has become a permanent issue on the agenda of schools…

  16. Clustered Self Organising Migrating Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman

    2009-08-01

    An approach of population dynamics and clustering for permutative problems is presented in this paper. Diversity indicators are created from solution ordering and its mapping is shown as an advantage for population control in metaheuristics. Self Organising Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) is modified using this approach and vetted with the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Extensive experimentation is conducted on benchmark problems in this area.

  17. Recognising Current Competencies of Volunteers in Emergency Service Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Ralph; Chamings, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to show the relationship between organisational structure and flexibility of training has not been well researched. Focusing on the role of recognition of current competencies, this study provides evidence of the effects of the former on the latter. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper evidence was obtained by…

  18. The Components and Determinants of Preschool Teacher Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Stundi, Masada

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the components and determinants of preschool teacher organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB), i.e. role behaviours that are discretionary, unrewarded and beyond formal-role expectations. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 12 Israeli kindergarten teachers and four supervisors participated in…

  19. Professional relations in sport healthcare: workplace responses to organisational change.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    This article examines the impact of organisational changes in UK elite sport on the professional relations among and between different healthcare providers. The article describes the processes by which demand for elite sport healthcare has increased in the UK. It further charts the subsequent response within medicine and physiotherapy and, in particular, the institutionalisation of sport-specific sub-disciplines through the introduction of specialist qualifications. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 14 doctors and 14 physiotherapists, the article argues that organisational changes have led to intra-professional tensions within both professional groups but in qualitatively different forms reflecting the organisational traditions and professional identities of the respective disciplines. Organisational changes promoting multi-disciplinary healthcare teams have also fostered an environment conducive to high levels of inter-professional cooperation though significant elements of inter-professional conflict remain. This study illustrates how intra-professional relations are affected by specialisation, how legitimation discourses are used by different professions, and how intra- and inter-professional conflict and cooperation should be seen as highly interdependent processes.

  20. Teachers' Professional Identity Negotiations in Two Different Work Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vähäsantanen, Katja; Hökkä, Päivi; Eteläpelto, Anneli; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Littleton, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have described professional identity as the interplay between individual agency and social context. However, we need to understand how these are intertwined in different kinds of work settings. This paper focuses on teachers' professional identity negotiations as involving the work organisation, the professional community and…

  1. What Impact Can Organisations Expect from Professional Doctorates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Alison; Slade, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the impact of professional doctorate programmes on graduates and their work organisations. Telephone interviews were carried out with graduates and nominated peer and senior colleagues to elucidate the types of change apparent and the impact of those changes. We found that all interviewees reported development…

  2. The Mechanism for Organising and Propelling Educational Technology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yongqian, Liu; Dongyuan, Cheng; Xinli, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Having started early in the 1920s as a spontaneously launched educational activity by civil organisations under the influence of American audio-visual theory and practice, Chinese educational technology was later put under governmental management. This paper is composed of five parts covering mainly the historical development of educational…

  3. Use of Cognitive Organisers as a Self Regulated Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kym; Dawson, Vaille; Venville, Grady

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the use of cognitive organisers as a self-regulated learning strategy by gifted and talented science students in a Year 9 class at a metropolitan high school in Perth, Western Australia. The case study research design incorporates three primary methods of data collection including participant observation in classrooms,…

  4. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…

  5. Small Organisations and Cultural Institutions--A Digital Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Jaqueline

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how technology presents both problems and opportunities for the historian, the researcher, small organisations, and cultural heritage institutions. Ways of safeguarding historical material in digital form are suggested, and the role of cultural heritage bodies as managers of sustainable digital collections is…

  6. Introducing Live ePortfolios to Support Self Organised Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Thomas; Winfield, Sandra; Smallwood, Angela; Coolin, Kirstie; Wood, Stuart; Searchwell, Louis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a platform on which a new generation of applications targeted to aid the self-organised learner can be presented. The new application is enabled by innovations in trust-based security of data built upon emerging infrastructures to aid federated data access in the UK education sector. Within the proposed architecture, users and…

  7. Franchisees in Crisis: Using Action Learning to Self-Organise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the use of action learning by a group of 30 franchisees to organise themselves and work through a period of upheaval and uncertainty when their parent company faced liquidation. Written from the perspective of one of the franchisees who found herself adopting action learning principles to facilitate the group, it…

  8. Reconciling Organisational Culture and External Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Dhaya

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture and external quality assurance have both been presented as significant drivers of effectiveness, efficiency and excellence in higher education institutions. However, these assumptions have not been critically examined given the philosophical, conceptual and methodological contestations surrounding both constructs. A…

  9. Emergent Communities of Practice in Temporary Inter-Organisational Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juriado, Rein; Gustafsson, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to discuss the emergence of communities of practice in a temporary event organisation involving public and private partners. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs qualitative methods in the form of 31 semi-structured interviews, a five-week period of participant observations and archive research in a Swedish…

  10. Once upon a Time... Tales of Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enrich the conceptual vocabulary of organisational learning by discussing the relevance of the interdisciplinary work of Gregory Bateson, an original and challenging twentieth century thinker. Design/methodology/approach: The paper debates a number of principles identified by Bateson, which reflect patterns…

  11. Human Resource Management in Australian Registered Training Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Hawke Geof

    2008-01-01

    This report forms part of a comprehensive research program that has examined issues related to building the organisational capability of vocational education and training providers. In particular, this report focuses on the current state of human resource management practice in both technical and further education and private registered training…

  12. Biological Nature of Knowledge in the Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a biological approach to the analysis of learning organisations based on complexity theory, autopoiesis, and evolutionary epistemology. Design/methodology/approach: This paper synthesises ideas from disciplines ranging from physics, epistemology and philosophy of science to military affairs, to sketch a scientific framework in…

  13. HIV/AIDS and disability organisations in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite; Groce, Nora; Eide, Arne Henning

    2010-02-01

    Despite the seriousness of the HIV epidemic globally, and in South Africa in particular, little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects disabled people. One important and little explored area is the role that organisations that represent disabled people or that work on behalf of disabled people, are playing in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic among the disabled people they represent or serve. This paper presents the findings of a nationwide survey of disability organisations in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of disability organisations in addressing the HIV epidemic among disabled people in South Africa. The findings suggest that while organisations recognise the importance of providing HIV education, and many have taken steps to do so, disabled people are largely excluded from general HIV prevention messages. Disabled people also have significant difficulties in accessing general health care, relevant for HIV testing and treatment. In a country trying to manage serious social problems with limited resources, this paper highlights the need for increased cooperation and collaboration between relevant parties in order to facilitate the changes necessary for disabled people to access needed health information and care.

  14. Teachers' Organisational Behaviour in Public and Private Funded Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…

  15. Learning Organisation Review--A "Good" Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Mijalce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to perform integrative literature review of the learning organisation (LO) concept, on the basis of the results of the literature review to assess the concept on the principles of "good" theory, and provide future avenues for LO concept clarification and development. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. Organisational Factors and Teachers' Professional Development in Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…

  17. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  18. Principals' Opinions of Organisational Justice in Elementary Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Inayet; Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--This study aims to present the opinions of public elementary school principals in Turkey about the current organisational justice practices among teachers from the distributive, procedural, interactional, and rectificatory dimensions. Design/methodology/approach--The opinions of 11 public elementary school principals in Ankara about…

  19. Developing a Supportive Learning Environment in a Newly Formed Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the factors that employees perceived were important in creating a supportive learning environment in a recently merged organisation. The study provides rich qualitative data from the employees' perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This case study used a qualitative phenomenological constructivist…

  20. Improving Your Organisation's Workplace Learning. Consortium Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many organisations, including VET providers, are looking to find ways to achieve competitive advantage through the people they employ. Creating this advantage has a number of facets and most of these depend on training and developing people, and their ability to learn. The VET sector also faces significant changes in the ways it does business.…

  1. Organisational Culture and Technology-Enhanced Innovation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Higher education institutions are evolving and technology often plays a central role in their transformations. Educational changes benefit from a supportive environment. The study examines the relationship between organisational culture and teachers' perceptions of and responses to technology-enhanced innovation among Chinese universities. A…

  2. The Human Rights Approach to Education in International Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the work of three international governmental organisations (IGOs) dealing with human rights will be discussed, namely the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Council of Europe (CoE). In the first section, the main characteristics of the…

  3. Strategic Capacity and Organisational Capabilities: A Challenge for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Paradeise, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Are universities able to operate as strategic actors? An organisational sociology based approach supported by a comparative field research project identifies three types of social, cultural and cognitive processes that play a decisive role in building and implementing local capabilities required to mobilise a strategic capacity. The paper…

  4. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  5. Universities' Responses to Globalisation: The Influence of Organisational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…

  6. Using enterprise architecture to analyse how organisational structure impact motivation and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Närman, Pia; Johnson, Pontus; Gingnell, Liv

    2016-06-01

    When technology, environment, or strategies change, organisations need to adjust their structures accordingly. These structural changes do not always enhance the organisational performance as intended partly because organisational developers do not understand the consequences of structural changes in performance. This article presents a model-based analysis framework for quantitative analysis of the effect of organisational structure on organisation performance in terms of employee motivation and learning. The model is based on Mintzberg's work on organisational structure. The quantitative analysis is formalised using the Object Constraint Language (OCL) and the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and implemented in an enterprise architecture tool.

  7. Organising habilitation services: team structures and family participation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M

    2000-11-01

    This study is part of a project focusing on co-operation between receivers of habilitation services (families) and professionals. The study focuses on the organisation and co-ordination of the services, and compares two structures for their accomplishment. The first is the typical multiprofessional habilitation team (MHT), and the second is the individualised team (ISP). MHT teams are organised within the habilitation agency, while ISP teams span institutional boundaries. An ISP team is formed around the individual child who receives services from the habilitation centre, and includes parents (sometimes the child), professionals from the habilitation centre, and professionals from other service-providing institutions that are actively involved (for instance pre-school teacher, schoolteacher etc.). The team maps child and family needs, organises assessments and services and formulates goals that subsequently are monitored and followed up. A questionnaire (Measures of Processes of Care) was used to assess the experiences of 385 service receivers. The questionnaire focuses on service receivers' experiences of the family-centredness of the service, operationalised in 56 items, along with five items concerning perceptions of level of control over service provision. The experiences of families having individualised teams were compared to those not having these teams. Significant differences were obtained, suggesting the impact of the form of service organisation on the content. Families having ISP teams report both more family-centred service, and a greater level of control over service provision. Results are discussed in terms of organising structures and co-ordination of services, and in terms of family participation.

  8. Patient organisations and the reimbursement process for medicines: an exploratory study in eight European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557

  9. Achieving enhanced organisational resilience by improved management of risk: Summary of research into the principles of resilience and the practices of resilient organisations.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Paul

    There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.

  10. Synthetic biology in the view of European public funding organisations

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Lei; Gaisser, Sibylle; Schmidt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the decisions of major European public funding organisations to fund or not to fund synthetic biology (SB) and related ethical, legal and social implication (ELSI) studies. We investigated the reaction of public organisations in six countries (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the UK) towards SB that may influence SB’s further development in Europe. We examined R&D and ELSI communities and their particular funding situation. Our results show that the funding situation for SB varies considerably among the analysed countries, with the UK as the only country with an established funding scheme for R&D and ELSI that successfully integrates these research communities. Elsewhere, we determined a general lack of funding (France), difficulties in funding ELSI work (Switzerland), lack of an R&D community (Austria), too small ELSI communities (France, Switzerland, Netherlands), or difficulties in linking existing communities with available funding sources (Germany), partly due to an unclear SB definition. PMID:22586841

  11. Workplace bullying in nursing: towards a more critical organisational perspective.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Vickers, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley

    2006-06-01

    Workplace bullying is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession. Bullying in nursing is frequently described in terms of 'oppressed group' behaviour or 'horizontal violence'. It is proposed that the use of 'oppressed group' behaviour theory has fostered only a partial understanding of the phenomenon in nursing. It is suggested that the continued use of 'oppressed group' behaviour as the major means for understanding bullying in nursing places a flawed emphasis on bullying as a phenomenon that exists only among nurses, rather than considering it within the broader organisational context. The work of Foucault and the 'circuits of power' model proposed by Clegg are used to provide an alternative understanding of the operation of power within organisations and therefore another way to conceive bullying in the nursing workforce.

  12. An early history of the Gestalt factors of organisation.

    PubMed

    Vezzani, Stefano; Marino, Barbara F M; Giora, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Wertheimer's (1923, Psychologische Forschung 4 301 - 350) idea that the perceptual world is articulated according to factors of organisation is widely acknowledged as one of the most original contributions of Gestalt psychology and stands as a milestone in the history of vision research. An inquiry focused on the forerunners of some of Wertheimer's factors of perceptual organisation is documented here. In fact, in 1900 Schumann described grouping by proximity and by vertical symmetry, and in 1903 G E Müller identified the factors of sameness/similarity and contour. Other authors contributed to the early description of these factors, such as Rubin, who in 1922 originally illustrated grouping by similarity. Even though Wertheimer himself granted these authors due recognition, later psychologists have paid little attention to their contributions. Some possible reasons for this negligence are briefly discussed.

  13. Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.

    PubMed

    Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff.

  14. A Meta-Analysis: Exploring the Effects of Gender on Organisational Commitment of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgiç, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of organisational commitment (OC) are of great importance to organisations. Considering the effect of teacher commitment on student success and the increasing teacher turnover rates in the world, studies focusing on the organisational commitment of teachers gained more importance. However there is still a significant gap about the…

  15. Linking Action Learning and Inter-Organisational Learning: The Learning Journey Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents and illustrates the learning journey (LJ)--a new management development approach to inter-organisational learning based on observation, reflection and problem-solving. The LJ involves managers from different organisations and applies key concepts of action learning and systemic organisational development. Made up of…

  16. Organisational Learning and Leadership: On Metaphor, Meaning Making, Liminality and Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jean A.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses sensemaking as a broad framework for understanding organisational learning and its implications for leadership in a global context. Organisational metaphors, the concept of liminality and understanding organisations as interpretation systems are presented as possibilities for enhancing intercultural communication within…

  17. Attracting Generation Y Graduates: Organisational Attributes, Likelihood to Apply and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terjesen, Siri; Vinnicombe, Susan; Freeman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Building on person-organisation fit and gender self-schema, this research aims to examine UK university final year students' perception of the importance of organisational attributes and their presence in three major graduate employers. This study also seeks to explore which organisational attributes attract Generation Y men and women to…

  18. Organisational Restructuring and Downsizing: Issues Related to Learning, Training and Employability of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbery, Ronan; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article sets out to look at how employees who have survived an organisational downsizing and restructuring process adjust to meet the dynamics of the organisation, develop new skills and competencies, and the extent to which they take on new roles in the organisation. Design/methodology/approach: Collects accounts from managers,…

  19. Organisation of Workplace Learning: A Case Study of Paediatric Residents' and Consultants' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Mads; Nøhr, Susanne Backman; Jacobsen, Tine Klitgaard; Musaeus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have examined how doctors learn in the workplace, but research is needed linking workplace learning with the organisation of doctors' daily work. This study examined residents' and consultants' attitudes and beliefs regarding workplace learning and contextual and organisational factors influencing the organisation and planning of…

  20. Secure and interoperable communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wilmuth; Marques, Hugo; Pereira, Luis; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Brouwer, Frank; Bouwers, Bert; Politis, Ilias; Lykourgiotis, Asimakis; Ladas, Alexandros; Adigun, Olayinka; Jelenc, David

    2016-05-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS&S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on agencies and organisation responsible for PS&S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events, Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organisations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies such as TETRA, TETRAPOL or P25, do not currently provide broadband capability nor is expected such technologies to be upgraded in the future. This presents a major limitation in supporting new services and information flows. Furthermore, there is no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. In this contribution the design of a next generation communication infrastructure for PPDR organisations which fulfills the requirements of secure and seamless end-to-end communication and interoperable information exchange within the deployed communication networks is presented. Based on Enterprise Architecture of PPDR organisations, a next generation PPDR network that is backward compatible with legacy communication technologies is designed and implemented, capable of providing security, privacy, seamless mobility, QoS and reliability support for mission-critical Private Mobile Radio (PMR) voice and broadband data services. The designed solution provides a robust, reliable, and secure mobile broadband communications system for a wide variety of PMR applications and services on PPDR broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, interagency and cross-border operations with emphasis on interoperability between users in PMR and LTE.

  1. The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 organises heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Sobecki, Michal; Mrouj, Karim; Camasses, Alain; Parisis, Nikolaos; Nicolas, Emilien; Llères, David; Gerbe, François; Prieto, Susana; Krasinska, Liliana; David, Alexandre; Eguren, Manuel; Birling, Marie-Christine; Urbach, Serge; Hem, Sonia; Déjardin, Jérôme; Malumbres, Marcos; Jay, Philippe; Dulic, Vjekoslav; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Feil, Robert; Fisher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators. Ki-67 depletion disrupted nucleologenesis but did not inhibit pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, it altered gene expression. Ki-67 silencing also had wide-ranging effects on chromatin organisation, disrupting heterochromatin compaction and long-range genomic interactions. Trimethylation of histone H3K9 and H4K20 was relocalised within the nucleus. Finally, overexpression of human or Xenopus Ki-67 induced ectopic heterochromatin formation. Altogether, our results suggest that Ki-67 expression in proliferating cells spatially organises heterochromatin, thereby controlling gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13722.001 PMID:26949251

  2. Agri-environmental collaboratives as bridging organisations in landscape management.

    PubMed

    Prager, Katrin

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, landscape and its management has become a focus of policies and academic conceptualisation. Landscape is understood as a concept of interconnected natural and human systems. Its management must take into account the dynamic interdependencies and diverging interests of various stakeholders at different levels. Bridging organisations can provide an arena for trust-building, conflict resolution, learning and collaboration between relevant stakeholders. This paper draws on two strands of literature - landscape governance and co-management of social-ecological systems - to investigate the contributions of agri-environmental collaboratives (AEC) to sustainable landscape management. Based on data from 41 interviews with key informants and AEC members in Germany and the Netherlands, six fields of contributions were identified: policy implementation and service provision; coordination and mediation; awareness raising and behaviour change; care for 'everyday' landscapes; maintenance and protection of landscapes (including species and habitats); and income generation and economic benefits. Some of the contributions evolve around the specific role of AEC as bridging organisations, but other contributions such as economic benefits emerge beyond this analytical lens. The paper therefore emphasises holistic, bottom up assessment of AEC contributions and argues that governments should support such organisations through i) funding for facilitators and ii) funding for impact monitoring and data management.

  3. The organisation of spatial and temporal relations in memory.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Renante; Curtiss, Kaitlin; Meltzer, Jed A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2017-04-01

    Episodic memories are comprised of details of "where" and "when"; spatial and temporal relations, respectively. However, evidence from behavioural, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies has provided mixed interpretations about how memories for spatial and temporal relations are organised-they may be hierarchical, fully interactive, or independent. In the current study, we examined the interaction of memory for spatial and temporal relations. Using explicit reports and eye-tracking, we assessed younger and older adults' memory for spatial and temporal relations of objects that were presented singly across time in unique spatial locations. Explicit change detection of spatial relations was affected by a change in temporal relations, but explicit change detection of temporal relations was not affected by a change in spatial relations. Younger and older adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for temporal relations, but only younger adults showed eye movement evidence of incidental memory for spatial relations. Together, these findings point towards a hierarchical organisation of relational memory. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the neural mechanisms that may support such a hierarchical organisation of memory.

  4. The obligations of Member Countries of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) in the Organisation of Veterinary Services.

    PubMed

    Vallat, B; Wilson, D W

    2003-08-01

    The authors discuss the mission, organisation and resources of Veterinary Services in the new international trading environment and examine how the standards for Veterinary Services, contained in the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) International Animal Health Code (the Code), help provide the necessary support for Veterinary Services to meet their rights and obligations under the provisions of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The authors describe the challenges of gaining access to international trading markets through surveillance and control of OIE listed diseases. Finally, the approach in the Code to the principles underpinning the quality of Veterinary Services and to guidelines for evaluating Veterinary Services, is discussed.

  5. Distance in Schools: The Influence of Psychological and Structural Distance from Management on Teachers' Trust in Management, Organisational Commitment, and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Maren; Karsten, Sjoerd; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between teachers' perceived psychological distance and structural distance from management and teachers' affective organisational commitment (AOC) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Teachers' trust in management was expected to mediate these relationships. Furthermore, the adequacy and…

  6. Mastering organisational behaviour Mastering organisational behaviour Pettinger Richard Macmillan Master Series 246pp £12.99 0 333 79279 3 0333792793 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    If diagrammatic and pictorial learning is your preferred style you may find that Mastering Organisational Behaviour, written by Richard Pettinger, meets your needs. Throughout the book Pettinger uses diagrams, rather than case study examples, to help the reader understand the theory behind organisational behaviour.

  7. Disruption of rich club organisation in cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Anil M; Lawrence, Andrew; Norris, David G; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Recent studies have demonstrated that structural connectivity of brain networks in SVD is disrupted. However, little is known about the extent and location of the reduced connectivity in SVD. Here they investigate the rich club organisation-a set of highly connected and interconnected regions-and investigate whether there is preferential rich club disruption in SVD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and cognitive assessment were performed in a discovery sample of SVD patients (n = 115) and healthy control subjects (n = 50). Results were replicated in an independent dataset (49 SVD with confluent WMH cases and 108 SVD controls) with SVD patients having a similar SVD phenotype to that of the discovery cases. Rich club organisation was examined in structural networks derived from DTI followed by deterministic tractography. Structural networks in SVD patients were less dense with lower network strength and efficiency. Reduced connectivity was found in SVD, which was preferentially located in the connectivity between the rich club nodes rather than in the feeder and peripheral connections, a finding confirmed in both datasets. In discovery dataset, lower rich club connectivity was associated with lower scores on psychomotor speed (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) and executive functions (β = 0.20, P = 0.009). These results suggest that SVD is characterized by abnormal connectivity between rich club hubs in SVD and provide evidence that abnormal rich club organisation might contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in SVD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1751-1766, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions

  9. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  10. Clinical narrative and clinical organisation: properties of radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Rooksby, J; Kay, S

    2001-01-01

    Radiology reports, as a form of clinical narrative, are more than a repository of patient information but are active in patient care. They are not unique and individual to each patient but have structured content suitable for supporting the activities of care. We consider these activities of care and how they manifest in the report. This recognition of the infusion of clinical organisation in clinical narrative leads to the recognition of seven properties of radiology reports: labels, concepts, genre, structure, author, subject, reader. These properties exist across two relationships: the intertextual relationship between radiology reports and the interpersonal relationship between a radiology report and people.

  11. Identifying single points of failure in your organisation.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Robby J

    2013-01-01

    Single points of failure may spell disaster for businesses that have not adequately identified and mitigated these critical risks. A single point of failure audit will identify the single points of failure in all functional areas that may negatively impact organisational processes and process flows. This paper provides a holistic approach to constructing a successful single point of failure audit and identifies the systems that are frequently the sources of single points of failure. It also examines the internal and external risks that may spawn single points of failure and provides various mitigation strategies for the systems identified.

  12. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  13. Recommendations for headache service organisation and delivery in Europe.

    PubMed

    Steiner, T J; Antonaci, F; Jensen, R; Lainez, M J A; Lanteri-Minet, M; Valade, D

    2011-08-01

    Headache disorders are a major public-health priority, and there is pressing need for effective solutions to them. Better health care for headache-and ready access to it-are central to these solutions; therefore, the organisation of headache-related services within the health systems of Europe becomes an important focus. These recommendations are the result of collaboration between the European Headache Federation and Lifting The Burden: the Global Campaign against Headache. The process of development included wide consultation. To meet the very high level of need for headache care both effectively and efficiently, the recommendations formulate a basic three-level model of health-care organisation rationally spread across primary and secondary health-care sectors, taking account of the different skills and expertise in these sectors. They recognise that health services are differently structured in countries throughout Europe, and not always adequately resourced. Therefore, they aim to be adaptable to suit these differences. They are set out in five sections: needs assessment, description of the model, adaptation, standards and educational implications.

  14. Investigating referral pathways from primary care to consumer health organisations.

    PubMed

    Young, Charlotte E; Mutch, Allyson J; Boyle, Frances M; Dean, Julie H

    2010-01-01

    While chronic disease places an increasing burden on Australia's primary care system it is unrealistic to expect GPs to meet the range of support needs experienced by patients managing chronic conditions. Consumer health organisations (CHO) have the potential to augment clinical care by providing a variety of supportive services; however, they are underutilised by patients and GPs. This qualitative study investigates GPs' knowledge and perceptions of CHO and their contributions to chronic disease care. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs. Overall, participants demonstrated clear understanding of the role of CHO in chronic disease management, but a critical finding was the way GPs' view of their own chronic care role appears to influence referral practices. GPs operating in a traditional role were less likely to refer to CHO than those who had adopted a chronic care approach. A second key finding related to GPs' views of Diabetes Australia. All GPs identified this organisation as an important referral point, providing some reassurance that CHO can be integrated into the primary care sector. Further research is needed to determine how the 'definite advantages' associated with Diabetes Australia can be used to extend GP referral and enhance the health system's integration of other CHO.

  15. Practice education facilitator roles and their value to NHS organisations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Betsy; Rapson, Terri; Allibone, Liz; Hamilton, Rozi; Mambanje, Constance S; Pisaneschi, Laura

    2017-02-23

    The role of the practice education facilitator (PEF) was introduced to support the management of large student nurse numbers in clinical areas and to monitor and enhance the quality of placements. While much has been written about the activities and roles undertaken by PEFs, less is known about the value of this type of role to the NHS organisations that employ them. This article explores some of the views of PEFs working in a variety of trusts and organisations in London and surrounding counties. There is no consistent job definition and often insufficient support, leading to some PEFs feeling overwhelmed by the work and isolated within the role. Since its introduction, the role has required post holders to work more strategically within their trusts' education remits. However, it was felt by most post holders that the role remains undervalued and the perception is that these posts are vulnerable to budget cuts. The article considers what effect this could have on pre-registration nurse education. The profile of the role needs to be strengthened through consistent job descriptions and streamlining the number of job titles attached to the role.

  16. Disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a network-enabled model to examine the disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations (STOs). Little attention is devoted to this matter in recent research. This study places emphasis on such organisations and the proposed model tests hypotheses related to network relation and coordination preparedness. It analyses the data set entitled 'Preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack, 2004', which contains 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls in the United States.(1) The following questions form the basis of this study: 'What do STOs need to be better prepared to respond to a disaster?'; 'How does network relationship between STOs and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of STOs for disaster recovery?'; and 'Which centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse coordination preparedness?' The results show that STOs with a high level of connectedness and strong ties to other emergency agencies are better prepared for disaster response.

  17. Organisational commitment in nurses: is it dependent on age or education?

    PubMed

    Jones, April

    2015-02-01

    In hospitals in the United States, the ratio of nurses to patients is declining, resulting in an increase in workloads for the remaining nurses. Consequently, the level of commitment that these nurses have to their jobs is important. Outside health care, employees from different generations working for a variety of organisations differ in their levels of organisational commitment, but this information has not been available for nurses. This study, carried out in the state of Alabama, looks at whether nurses from different generations differ in their levels of organisational commitment, and also whether there are any differences in organisational commitment between licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered nurses (RNs). A questionnaire designed to measure levels of organisational commitment was answered by 145 nurses. The results were analysed for any differences in organisational commitment in nurses from different generations and with different nursing degrees. Nurses from different generations showed the same levels of organisational commitment, but LPNs showed significantly less affective commitment, that is, lower feelings of loyalty to their workplace, than RNs. This information may be useful for hospital administrators and human resource managers in the United States to highlight the value of flexible incentive packages to address the needs of a diverse workforce. For healthcare employers in the UK, the concept that there is an association between nursing qualifications and levels of organisational commitment is critical for building organisational stability and effectiveness, and for nurse recruitment and retention.

  18. Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina; Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry in Finland prior to critical discussions on the topic. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 85 patient organisations (response rate 65%, n = 55) and 20 drug firms (response rate 100%) in 2003, and by interviewing 13 organisations and surveying their web-pages and other documents in 2004. In the surveys, half of the patient organisations and 80% of the drug firms considered co-operation important. Most (71%) organisations reported financial support from the drug industry. Most organisations and drug firms had experienced problems. Common problems for organisations were too little or too unpredictable support from industry, and threats to independence and objectivity. Drug firms frequently mentioned unclear rules of co-operation. The patient organisation interviews exhibited similar themes and findings to those found in the surveys, revealing the complexity and importance of co-operation in organisation activities, and the variation between organisations. This case study from Finland showed that co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry was common, many-sided and not usually transparent. The close connections between patient organizations and commercial companies, particularly drug firms, raise several policy issues and the need for action.

  19. Partner or perish? Exploring inter-organisational partnerships in the multicultural community aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Radermacher, Harriet; Karunarathna, Yoshitha; Grace, Nicci; Feldman, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Given an Australian national and state policy agenda that continues to promote collaborative work, many community organisations are attempting to engage in partnerships with mixed results. This paper reports on a qualitative study conducted to explore the experiences of existing partnerships between organisations and small community groups who deliver community based support services to older people from culturally diverse backgrounds. In particular, this study sought to identify the key factors that facilitate and hinder the formation, maintenance and effectiveness of partnerships within the ethnic and multicultural community aged care (EMCAC) sector. Fourteen participants representing nine community and health service organisations located in the Melbourne metropolitan area took part in semi-structured interviews. Participants reported that partnerships between organisations are necessary and beneficial within the EMCAC sector. Organisational capacity, access to information and guidelines, and the inequality experienced by smaller organisations were key issues identified by participants. Increasing organisational capacity and reducing the inequalities experienced in partnerships may be addressed via training and education about the nature of partnerships, as well as by advocating for increased resources to smaller ethno-specific organisations. Further investigation is required to examine whether not engaging in partnerships will deem an organisation unsustainable in the longer term.

  20. Desert Stone Mantles: Quantification and Significance of Self-Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgitt, David; Rosser, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Desert stone mantles exhibit sorting patterns which are evidence of self-organisation. Previous investigations of stone mantles developed on Late Tertiary and Quaternary basalts in arid northeastern Jordan, revealed distinct variations in the nature of stone cover both downslope and between lithologies of different age. However, manual field measurements of clast size and shape did not preserve information about the spatial configuration of the stone surface. Improved digital image capture and analysis techniques, including using a kite-based platform for vertical photography of the surface, has permitted the nature of stone mantles to be examined and modelled in greater detail. Image analysis has been assisted by the strong contrast in colour between the basalt clasts and the underlying surface enabling a binary classification of images, from which data on size, shape and position of clasts can be readily acquired. Quantification of self-organisation through a box-counting technique for measuring fractal dimension and a procedure using Thiessen polygons to determine ‘locking structures' indicates a general increase in organisation of the stone mantle downslope. Recognition of emergent behaviour requires an explanation in terms of positive feedback between controlling process and the influence of surface form. A series of rainfall simulation and infiltration experiments have been undertaken on plots to assess the variation in surface hydrology as a response to variations in ground surface and slope profile form. The relative contribution of runoff events of varying size and the degree to which the ground surface configuration accelerates or restricts modification of the surface influences the overall evolution of slope profiles via the erosion, transfer and deposition of both surface clasts and the underlying fine grained sediments. Critical to this modification is the interplay between the surface configuration, rainfall and runoff. The experiments presented

  1. Indico central - events organisation, ergonomics and collaboration tools integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito Gonzélez López, José; Ferreira, José Pedro; Baron, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    While the remote collaboration services at CERN slowly aggregate around the Indico event management software, its new version which is the result of a careful maturation process includes improvements which will set a new reference in its domain. The presentation will focus on the description of the new features of the tool, the user feedback process which resulted in a new record of usability. We will also describe the interactions with the worldwide community of users and server administrators and the impact this has had on our development process, as well as the tools set in place to streamline the work between the different collaborating sites. A last part will be dedicated to the use of Indico as a central hub for operating other local services around the event organisation (registration epayment, audiovisual recording, webcast, room booking, and videoconference support)

  2. [Organisation of headache units from a multidisciplinary point of view].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Del-Rio Gonzalez, M

    2015-01-01

    Headache units have come into being to respond to the need to address the treatment of patients with complex headaches in a multidisciplinary manner. Although headaches are one of the most prevalent medical pathologies, it is surprising how little is being done to foster the development of such units. Within the multidisciplinary organisation, the role of the neurologist with adequate training in this field is essential. He or she is the person responsible for receiving, directing, supervising and coordinating the treatment, together with other medical specialties. The basic core of the team should consist of a psychiatrist, psychologist and physiotherapist. Their joint coordinated action generates an objective improvement in the pain over and beyond that achieved with each isolated treatment.

  3. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    PubMed

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes.

  4. [Process optimisation in hospitals: from process to business organisation].

    PubMed

    Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Apart from a multidimensional quality definition and the understanding of quality as a company-wide challenge, a third essential element of quality management is prevention. Thus, company quality policy has to be prevention-oriented and requires both customer and process orientation as important prerequisites. Process orientation especially focuses on the critical analyses of work flows as a condition for identifying early intervention options which, in turn, may influence the result. Developing a business organisation requires the definition of criteria for space planning, room assignment and room integration in consideration of both medical and economic aspects and the architectural concept. Specific experiences will be demonstrated as a case study using the example of a new building in the midst of the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital in Dresden, the Diagnostic Centre for Internal Medicine and Neurology. The hospital management placed an order to develop a sustainable as well as feasible business organisation for all the different departments. The idea was to create a medical centre where maximum use was made of all planned spaces and resources on the basis of target processes which had to be defined and agreed upon with all the persons concerned. In a next step all the personal, space and operational resources required were assigned. The success of management in all industries, including the health care sector, crucially depends on the translation of ideas into practice, among them the critical factor of sustainability. In this context, the support by the management as a role model, a formal frame for the respective project group and the definition of controlling via defined indicators have special importance. The example of the Diagnostic Centre for Internal Medicine and Neurology demonstrates that the result of changed processes may release a cultural change where competition can be replaced by cooperation step by step.

  5. Comprehensive Re-Organisation: Debating Single-Sex and Mixed Education in Wiltshire 1967-1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive re-organisation largely swept away single-sex secondary education in the state maintained sector in England and Wales. Literature suggests this occurred with little discussion. Single-sex versus mixed education was debated as part of Wiltshire education committee's re-organisation of the Trowbridge and Salisbury girls' high schools…

  6. Preventing Early Leaving in VET: Distributed Pedagogical Leadership in Characterising Five Types of Successful Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents 14 organisers of upper secondary education in Finland with exceptionally low dropout rates. As a case study in which common strengths were defined, five types of organisations with typical characteristics were found: "Working life-oriented," "Networked and team-based," "Cosy and traditional,"…

  7. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study examining organisational culture and structure in ten Australian registered training organisations (RTOs) and is part of a program of research examining the factors which affect and help build the capability of vocational education and training (VET) providers. The study sought to determine: (1) how…

  8. What Makes a School a Learning Organisation? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 137

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kools, Marco; Stoll, Louise

    2016-01-01

    What are the characteristics of a school as learning organisation? This paper should be seen as an attempt to work towards a common understanding of the school as a learning organisation concept that is both solidly founded in the literature and is recognisable to all parties involved, i.e. educators, policy makers, parents and others alike. The…

  9. Teachers’ Conceptions of Quality and Organisational Values in Higher Education: Compliance or Enhancement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Willems, Jos; Van Hout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are often assumed to have a negative attitude towards quality endeavours of their institutions and to hold defensive organisational values. However, there is little empirical research on this issue. This study focuses on teachers' conceptions of quality, on their preferred organisational values and on the relationships between the two. A…

  10. Scale Development of Individual and Organisation Infrastructure for Heart Health Promotion in Regional Health Authorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Anderson, Donna; Raine, Kim; Cook, Kay; Barrett, Linda; Prodaniuk, Tricia R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate measures of individual and organisational infrastructure for health promotion within Alberta's (Canada) 17 Regional Health Authorities (RHAs). Design: A series of phases were conducted to develop individual and organisational scales to measure health promotion infrastructure. Instruments were…

  11. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  12. How Is Learning Time Organised in Primary and Secondary Education? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This issue of "Education Indicators in Focus" reports that Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries organise learning time for primary and secondary education in different ways: (1) The number and length of school holidays differs significantly across OECD countries, meaning the number of instructional days…

  13. Using the business excellence model to develop a strategy for a healthcare organisation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, G

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the appropriateness of the Business Excellence Model in developing a strategy for Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust to measure organisational performance. The need for a strategy to measure organisational performance and to improve organisational performance was highlighted with the production of the Government White Paper, The New NHS: Modern and Dependable. At the heart of recommendations there is emphasis on improving quality and driving efficiency. Greater emphasis will be placed on organisations measuring their performance. By utilising the conceptual framework, which consisted of The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Model, it became evident that, although tools were in existence within Bolton Hospitals to measure organisational performance, several critical areas needed addressing. By addressing these key areas, the organisation could begin to work towards its goal of business excellence. The conclusions drawn from this project demonstrated that there was scope for Bolton Hospitals to improve on organisational performance. It was highlighted that the Trust was functioning well in some areas of the EFQM Model, but not in others. For Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust to improve organisational performance, the EFQM Model should be adopted.

  14. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  15. Student Power in a Global Perspective and Contemporary Trends in Student Organising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemencic, Manja

    2014-01-01

    Students, if organised into representative student governments or movements, can be a highly influential agency shaping higher education policy. This article introduces the Special Issue on student power in a global perspective, which addresses the question of how students are organised in different world regions and what role they play in higher…

  16. Revenue Generation and Organisational Change in Higher Education: Insights from Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Julia Antonia

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of four major Canadian universities' strategies for generating revenue in the face of prolonged cutbacks. The universities are placed on a continuum of higher education funding, institutional types and organisational attributes. The study produced new hypotheses about how universities' organisational attributes change…

  17. Quality Management in Hungarian Higher Education: Organisational Responses to Governmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csizmadia, Tibor; Enders, Jurgen; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on responses of higher education institutions to governmental policy. We investigate the influence of organisational characteristics on the implementation of quality management in Hungarian higher education institutions. Our theoretical framework is based on organisational theories (resource dependency and…

  18. Systems-Psychodynamics in Schools: A Framework for EPs Undertaking Organisational Consultancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloquin, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article considers how a framework for understanding group and organisational behaviour, systems-psychodynamics, can be utilised by educational psychologists taking up an organisational consultancy role to work with schools as whole systems. It outlines the three main theories that constitute a systems-psychodynamic perspective and considers…

  19. Organisational Cultures in Public and Private Portuguese Universities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Aristides I.; Hill, Manuela M.

    2008-01-01

    Perceptions of organisational culture made by three categories of staff playing managerial roles in each of two Portuguese Universities (one public and the other private) were compared using a questionnaire adapted from the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument and translated into Portuguese. The four scales of the questionnaire, designed…

  20. Implementing a Technology-Supported Model for Cross-Organisational Learning and Knowledge Building for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tammets, Kairit; Pata, Kai; Laanpere, Mart

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed using the elaborated learning and knowledge building model (LKB model) derived from Nonaka and Takeuchi's knowledge management model for supporting cross-organisational teacher development in the temporarily extended organisations composed of universities and schools. It investigated the main LKB model components in the context…

  1. The Development of Language for Implementing IT within a Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Adrian; Sice, Petia

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role that language can play in the development of technologies or other processes within an organisation. Examples and lessons from the literature of the learning organisation are looked as a key in the development of language. The paper uses a practical example of a customer complaints management system to demonstrate how…

  2. The effect of organisational context variables on employer attitudes toward employability of ex-offenders.

    PubMed

    Lukies, John; Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J

    2011-05-01

    The authors tested the premise that organisational context variables (i.e., size of organisation, industry type, location, and respondent's position in organisation) had significant effects on employer (N = 596) attitudes toward employability of ex-offenders. They also examined whether organisational context variables had an equivalent effect on employer attitudes to that of job-seeker criminal history and employer personal characteristics (e.g., respondent age and gender). Using linear regression (HLM 6.02a), organisational context variables were shown to have a significant effect on employer attitudes. In addition, organisational context variables had a significantly greater effect on employer attitudes than did employer personal characteristics. However, job-seeker criminal history contributed more to respondent ratings of ex-offender employability than did organisational context variables. The finding that judgements of employability are influenced by organisational context variables has implications for future research relevant to reintegration. Stakeholder attitudes toward the reintegration success of ex-offenders may be generally influenced by context variables.

  3. A Positive Approach to Change: The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Library and Information Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    Library and information management (LIM) organisations are on an almost continual path of change driven by changes in technology, service models, staffing structures, and financial allocations. The way in which LIM organisations approach change varies, as does the success rate of change management procedures undertaken. One particular approach to…

  4. How Organisations Are Using Blended E-Learning to Deliver More Flexible Approaches to Trade Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Victor James; Johnston, Margaret Alison; Poulsen, Alison Louise

    2015-01-01

    Training organisations are being asked to respond to the growing levels of diversity around the contexts for training and to examine a wider range of training solutions than in the past. This research investigates how training organisations in Australia are using blended forms of e-learning to provide more responsive, flexible and innovative…

  5. Organisation of workplace learning: a case study of paediatric residents' and consultants' beliefs and practices.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Mads; Nøhr, Susanne Backman; Jacobsen, Tine Klitgaard; Musaeus, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined how doctors learn in the workplace, but research is needed linking workplace learning with the organisation of doctors' daily work. This study examined residents' and consultants' attitudes and beliefs regarding workplace learning and contextual and organisational factors influencing the organisation and planning of medical specialist training. An explorative case study in three paediatric departments in Denmark including 9 days of field observations and focus group interviews with 9 consultants responsible for medical education and 16 residents. The study aimed to identify factors in work organisation facilitating and hindering residents' learning. Data were coded through an iterative process guided by thematic analysis. Findings illustrate three main themes: (1) Learning beliefs about patient care and apprenticeship learning as inseparable in medical practice. Beliefs about training and patient care expressed in terms of training versus production caused a potential conflict. (2) Learning context. Continuity over time in tasks and care for patients is important, but continuity is challenged by the organisation of daily work routines. (3) Organisational culture and regulations were found to be encouraging as well inhibiting to a successful organisation of the work in regards to learning. Our findings stress the importance of consultants' and residents' beliefs about workplace learning as these agents handle the potential conflict between patient care and training of health professionals. The structuring of daily work tasks is a key factor in workplace learning as is an understanding of underlying relations and organisational culture in the clinical departments.

  6. Auto-organisation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Boury, Bruno; Corriu, Robert J P

    2002-04-21

    Silica-based hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel chemistry exhibit chemical and physical properties revealing their anisotropic organisation. Besides the opportunities that this phenomenon opens for the preparation of new materials, it also provides arguments to the chemist looking for a better comprehension and control of the organisation of solids.

  7. The Contributions of Organisational and Technological Practices to the Speedup of New Product Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    Based on data from 700 companies in 20 countries, this paper records the research that investigates the contribution of organisational and technological practices to speed up New Product Development (NPD). The organisational practice is found positively correlated with the speed of NPD. However, no significant direct relationship was found between…

  8. The Network University? Technology, Culture and Organisational Complexity in Contemporary Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tania; Marginson, Simon; Snyder, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of the network organisation in relation to the technologised university. Drawing upon the early findings of a study that examines the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on both organisational and teaching and learning issues in five Australian universities, the authors discuss the way in…

  9. Teaching Children to Organise and Represent Large Data Sets in a Histogram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven; Putt, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Although some bright students in primary school are able to organise numerical data into classes, most attend to the characteristics of individuals rather than the group, and "see the trees rather than the forest". How can teachers in upper primary and early high school teach students to organise large sets of data with widely varying…

  10. Creating Visual Aids with Graphic Organisers on an Infinite Canvas--The Impact on the Presenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteleyn, Jordi; Mottart, Andre; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Instead of the traditional set of slides, the visual aids of a presentation can now be graphic organisers (concept maps, knowledge maps, mind maps) on an infinite canvas. Constructing graphic organisers has a beneficial impact on learning, but this topic has not been studied in the context of giving a presentation. The present study examined this…

  11. Organisational and Occupational Boundaries in Australian Universities: The Hierarchical Positioning of Female Professional Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gender on organisational structures for professional university staff have been largely overlooked in the literature. Using data from one Australian university, we examine the location of professional female staff in the organisational hierarchy. Our analysis indicated that significant gendered segregation existed within and across…

  12. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  13. Integrating Knowledge Management into Organisational Learning: A Review of Concepts and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pun, Kit Fai; Nathai-Balkissoon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the concepts and constructs of some common models and frameworks advocated for knowledge management (KM) and organisational learning (OL) in literature. It sets forth a critical enquiry towards the integration of KM and OL practices and their relationship with the concepts of the learning organisation (LO) and…

  14. Work Organisation, Forms of Employee Learning and National Systems of Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Kraemer-Mbula, Erika; Rasmussen, Palle

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a multi-level framework to investigate for 17 European nations the links between forms of work organisation and style of employee learning at the workplace on the one hand, and the characteristics of national educational and training systems on the other. The analysis shows that forms of work organisation characterised by…

  15. Organisational Learning as an Emerging Process: The Generative Role of Digital Tools in Informal Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Za, Stefano; Spagnoletti, Paolo; North-Samardzic, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention is paid to organisational learning, with the success of contemporary organisations strongly contingent on their ability to learn and grow. Importantly, informal learning is argued to be even more significant than formal learning initiatives. Given the widespread use of digital technologies in the workplace, what requires…

  16. An Exploration of the Relationship between Learning Organisations and the Retention of Knowledge Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Kelley, Liz; Blackman, Deborah A.; Hurst, Jeffrey Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between learning organisation theory and the potential to retain knowledge workers. It emphasises that human resource (HR) managers must recognise specific relationships between learning organisation elements, job satisfaction facets and turnover intent as they emerge for their…

  17. How do consumer leaders co-create value in mental health organisations?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-23

    Objectives Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be involved in decision-making processes within mental health organisations. Some organisations have embraced leadership roles for consumers, but research suggests consumers remain disempowered within mental health services. Drawing on a service-dominant logic, which emphasises the co-creation of value of services, the present study provides an overview of consumer leadership within mental health organisations in the Australian Capital Territory.Methods Mental health organisations subscribing to the local peak body mailing list were invited to complete a survey about consumer leadership. Survey data were summarised using descriptive statistics and interpreted through the lens of service-dominant logic.Results Ways in which organisations may create opportunities for consumers to co-create value within their mental health services included soliciting feedback, involving consumer leaders in service design, having consumer leaders involved in hiring decisions and employing consumer leaders as staff or on boards. Strategies that organisations used to develop consumer leaders included induction, workshops and training in a variety of organisational processes and skills.Conclusions The findings of the present study extend the application of a service-dominant logic framework to consumer leadership within mental health organisations through consideration of the diverse opportunities that organisations can provide for consumer co-creation of service offerings.What is known about the topic? Policy calls for consumer involvement in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation and delivery. The extent to which service organisations have included consumer leaders varies, but research suggests that this inclusion can be tokenistic or that organisations choose to work with consumers who are less likely to challenge the status quo. Service literature has explored the way consumers can co

  18. Bacterial Stigmergy: An Organising Principle of Multicellular Collective Behaviours of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Erin S.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.

    2015-01-01

    The self-organisation of collective behaviours often manifests as dramatic patterns of emergent large-scale order. This is true for relatively “simple” entities such as microbial communities and robot “swarms,” through to more complex self-organised systems such as those displayed by social insects, migrating herds, and many human activities. The principle of stigmergy describes those self-organised phenomena that emerge as a consequence of indirect communication between individuals of the group through the generation of persistent cues in the environment. Interestingly, despite numerous examples of multicellular behaviours of bacteria, the principle of stigmergy has yet to become an accepted theoretical framework that describes how bacterial collectives self-organise. Here we review some examples of multicellular bacterial behaviours in the context of stigmergy with the aim of bringing this powerful and elegant self-organisation principle to the attention of the microbial research community. PMID:25653882

  19. Investigating enterprise application integration benefits and barriers in healthcare organisations: an exploratory case study.

    PubMed

    Khoumbati, Khalil; Themistocleous, Marinos; Irani, Zahir

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, healthcare organisations have focused on the latest technological innovations to overcome their organisational problems. There was rarely a single approach for implementing Information Systems (IS), as healthcare organisations have developed their applications without a common enterprise architectural planning. Nowadays, dozens, if not hundreds of different types of open and proprietary systems exist in healthcare organisations. This growing complexity of healthcare IS has driven IS managers to seek applicable solutions for integrating their systems. As a result, different integration efforts have continuously been made to overcome integration problems. Recently technological developments have emerged in the area of integration technology such as enterprise application integration (EAI) and web services. This paper seeks to expand the knowledge on EAI, and focuses on understanding the EAI benefits and barriers in healthcare organisations.

  20. [Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment].

    PubMed

    Mañas, Miguel A; Salvador, Carmen; Boada, Joan; González, Esperanza; Agulló, Esteban

    2007-08-01

    Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. The role of organisational commitment in public administration and its repercussions on the institution are examined in this study. It reports part of a larger research project that studies job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. Data were collected from 697 public-sector employees, using questionnaires. Results showed that job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were strong predictors of organisational commitment. Higher levels of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were associated with more favourable perceptions of organisational commitment. Furthermore, this study highlights the impact of dynamic work on the employee's commitment.

  1. Reorientation of health services: enablers and barriers faced by organisations when increasing health promotion capacity.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, K; Judd, J; Devine, S; Watt, K

    2016-04-20

    Issue addressed: Primary healthcare settings are important providers of health promotion approaches. However, organisational challenges can affect their capacity to deliver these approaches. This review identified the common enablers and barriers health organisations faced and it aimed to explore the experiences health organisations, in particular Aboriginal organisations, had when increasing their health promotion capacity.Methods: A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature was conducted. Articles published between 1990-2014 that focused on a health care-settings approach and discussed factors that facilitated or hindered an organisation's ability to increase health promotion capacity were included.Results: Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative (n = 18) and quantitative (n = 7) study designs were included. Only one article described the experiences of an Aboriginal health organisation. Enablers included: management support, skilled staff, provision of external support to the organisation, committed staffing and financial resources, leadership and the availability of external partners to work with. Barriers included: lack of management support, lack of dedicated health promotion staff, staff lacking skills or confidence, competing priorities and a lack of time and resources allocated to health promotion activities.Conclusions: While the literature highlighted the importance of health promotion work, barriers can limit the delivery of health promotion approaches within primary healthcare organisations. A gap in the literature exists about how Aboriginal health organisations face these challenges.So what?: Primary healthcare organisations wanting to increase their health promotion capacity can pre-empt the common barriers and strengthen identified enablers through the shared learnings outlined in this review.

  2. Organisational aspects of spatial information infrastructure in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecka, Elzbieta; Zwirowicz-Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    One of the more important elements of spatial information infrastructure is the organisational structure defining the obligations and dependencies between stakeholders that are responsible for the infrastructure. Many SDI practitioners and theoreticians emphasise that its influence on the success or failure of activities undertaken is significantly greater than that of technical aspects. Being aware of the role of the organisational structure in the creating, operating and maintenance of spatial information infrastructure (SII), Polish legislators placed appropriate regulations in the Spatial Information Infrastructure Act, being the transposition of the INSPIRE Directive into Polish Law. The principal spatial information infrastructure stakeholders are discussed in the article and also the scope of cooperation between them. The tasks and relationships between stakeholders are illustrated in UML, in both the use case and the class diagram. Mentioned also are the main problems and obstructions resulting from imprecise legal regulations. Jednym z istotniejszych komponentów infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej (IIP) jest struktura organizacyjna określająca m.in. zależności pomiędzy organizacjami tworzącymi infrastrukturę. Wielu praktyków i teoretyków SDI podkreśla, że wpływ aspektów organizacyjnych na sukces lub porażkę SDI jest dużo większy niż elementów technicznych. Mając świadomość znaczącej roli struktury organizacyjnej w tworzeniu, funkcjonowaniu i zarządzaniu infrastrukturą przestrzenną w Polsce, legislatorzy umieścili odpowiednie zapisy w ustawie z dnia 4 marca 2010 r. o infrastrukturze informacji przestrzennej, będącej transpozycją dyrektywy INSPIRE do prawa polskiego. W artykule omówiono strukturę organizacyjną IIP w Polsce, podając (m.in. w postaci diagramów UML) obowiązki poszczególnych organów administracji zaangażowanych w jej budowę i rozwój, a także omówiono zależności i zakres współpracy pomi

  3. Improving health service delivery organisational performance in health systems: a taxonomy of strategy areas and conceptual framework for strategy selection.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah W; Curry, Leslie; Bashyal, Chhitij; Berman, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2012-03-01

    Health systems strengthening (HSS) is a priority for global health funders, policy-makers and practitioners. Although many HSS efforts have focused on policy levers such as financing approaches, payment schemes or regulatory reforms, less attention has been directed to targeting the organisations that deliver health services such as hospitals, health centres and clinics. Evidence suggests that the impact of organisation-level interventions varies by context; however, we lack a general framework for integrating organisational context into performance improvement strategies for health service delivery organisations. Drawing on open systems theories from organisational behaviour and management as well as a review of 181 empirical studies of health service delivery organisations in low- and middle-income countries, we propose a taxonomy of seven strategy areas for improving organisational performance as well as a multistage conceptual framework for selecting among them. We propose that the choice of strategy for improving health service delivery organisational performance should be informed by: (i) the root cause of the organisation's performance gap; (ii) the environmental conditions facing the organisation; and (iii) the implementation capability of the organisation. We also highlight conditions under which different strategy areas may be expected to be optimally effective. The approaches presented in this paper offer a way for health system decision-makers and researchers to systematically assess and incorporate organisational context in the process of developing strategies to improve the performance of health service delivery organisations and, ultimately, of health systems.

  4. Emergence of self-organised oscillatory domains in fungal mycelia.

    PubMed

    Tlalka, M; Bebber, D P; Darrah, P R; Watkinson, S C; Fricker, M D

    2007-11-01

    Fungi play a central role in the nutrient cycles of boreal and temperate forests. In these biomes, the saprotrophic wood-decay fungi are the only organisms that can completely decompose woody plant litter. In particular, cord-forming basidiomycete fungi form extensive mycelial networks that scavenge scarce mineral nutrients and translocate them over long distances to exploit new food resources. Despite the importance of resource allocation, there is limited information on nutrient dynamics in these networks, particularly for nitrogen, as there is no suitable radioisotope available. We have mapped N-translocation using photon-counting scintillation imaging of the non-metabolised amino acid analogue, (14)C-aminoisobutyrate. We describe a number of novel phenomena, including rapid, preferential N-resource allocation to C-rich sinks, induction of simultaneous bi-directional N-transport, abrupt switching between different pre-existing transport routes, and emergence of locally synchronised, oscillatory phase domains. It is possible that such self-organised oscillatory behaviour is a mechanism to achieve global co-ordination in the mycelium.

  5. COMMITTEES: Quark Matter 2008 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    Organising Committee Madan M Aggarwal (Chandigarh) Jan-e Alam (Kolkata) Convener Arup Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Debades Bandyopadhyay (Kolkata) Rahul Basu (Chennai) Rakesh K Bhandari (Kolkata) Anju Bhasin (Jammu) Subhasis Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Convener Sukalyan Chattopadhyay (Kolkata) Asis Chaudhuri (Kolkata) Premomoy Ghosh (Kolkata) Sanjay Ghosh (Kolkata) Sourendu Gupta (Mumbai) Muhammad Irfan (Aligarh) Durga P Mahapatra (Bhubaneswar) DAmruta Mishra (New Delhi) Ajit K Mohanty (Mumbai) Bedangadas Mohanty (Kolkata) Vaisali Naik (Kolkata) Tapan K Nayak (Kolkata) Convener Sudhir Raniwala (Jaipur) Sourav Sarkar (Kolkata) Bikash Sinha (Kolkata) Chair Dinesh Srivastava (Kolkata) Raghava Varma (Mumbai) Yogendra P Viyogi (Bhubaneswar)Co-chair International Advisory Committee R Aymar,Switzerland Jean Paul Blaizot, France Peter Braun Münzinger, Germany Igor M Dremin, Russia Kari Eskola, Finland Jens Jorgen Gaardhoje,Denmark Rajiv V Gavai, India Hans-Ake Gustaffson, Sweden Hans Gutbrod, Germany Miklos Gyulassy, USA Timothy Hallman, USA Hideki Hamagaki, Japan Tetsuo Hatsuda, Japan Huan-Zhong Huang, USA Barbara Jacak, USA Peter Jenni, Switzerland Taka Kajino, Japan Takeshi Kodama, Brazil T D Lee, USA Peter Levai, Hungary Luciano Maiani, Italy Larry McLerran, USA Berndt Müller, USA Guy Paic, Mexico Sibaji Raha, India Lodovico Riccati, Italy Hans Georg Ritter, USA Helmut Satz, Germany Jurgen Schukraft, Switzerland Yves Schutz, France Edward V Shuryak, USA Johanna Stachel, Germany Horst Stöcker, Germany Itzhak Tserruya, Israel Xin-Nian Wang, USA Bolek Wyslouch, USA Glenn R Young, USA William A Zajc, USA Wen-Long Zhan, China

  6. Semi-automated software service integration in virtual organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Sargolzaei, Mahdi; Shadi, Mahdieh

    2015-08-01

    To enhance their business opportunities, organisations involved in many service industries are increasingly active in pursuit of both online provision of their business services (BSs) and collaborating with others. Collaborative Networks (CNs) in service industry sector, however, face many challenges related to sharing and integration of their collection of provided BSs and their corresponding software services. Therefore, the topic of service interoperability for which this article introduces a framework is gaining momentum in research for supporting CNs. It contributes to generation of formal machine readable specification for business processes, aimed at providing their unambiguous definitions, as needed for developing their equivalent software services. The framework provides a model and implementation architecture for discovery and composition of shared services, to support the semi-automated development of integrated value-added services. In support of service discovery, a main contribution of this research is the formal representation of services' behaviour and applying desired service behaviour specified by users for automated matchmaking with other existing services. Furthermore, to support service integration, mechanisms are developed for automated selection of the most suitable service(s) according to a number of service quality aspects. Two scenario cases are presented, which exemplify several specific features related to service discovery and service integration aspects.

  7. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    PubMed

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis.

  8. Self-organisation Processes In The Carbon ARC For Nanosynthis

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Jonathan; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2014-02-26

    The atmospheric pressure carbon arc in inert gases such as helium is an important method for the production of nanomaterials. It has recently been shown that the formation of the carbon deposit on the cathode from gaseous carbon plays a crucial role in the operation of the arc, reaching the high temperatures necessary for thermionic emission to take place even with low melting point cathodes. Based on observed ablation and deposition rates, we explore the implications of deposit formation on the energy balance at the cathode surface, and show how the operation of the arc is self-organised process. Our results suggest that the can arc operate in two di erent regimes, one of which has an important contribution from latent heat to the cathode energy balance. This regime is characterised by the enhanced ablation rate, which may be favourable for high yield synthesis of nanomaterials. The second regime has a small and approximately constant ablation rate with a negligible contribution from latent heat.

  9. Quantitative analysis of Brazilian football players' organisation on the pitch.

    PubMed

    Moura, Felipe Arruda; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Anido, Ricardo de Oliveira; de Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite; Cunha, Sergio Augusto

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise Brazilian teams' coverage area and spread on the pitch while attacking and defending and to analyse the teams' organisation in tackle and shot on goal situations. We obtained the trajectories of 223 players in eight games with a tracking method. Team area was defined as the area of the convex hull formed by players' positions. Team spread was defined as the Frobenius norm of the distance-between-player matrix. We calculated teams' area and spread over time and in situations of shots on goal (n = 233) and tackles (n = 1897). While the players attacked, spread and area (median +/- confidence interval) ranged from 322.9 +/- 0.8 to 387.8 +/- 1.0 m and from 905.4 +/- 4.4 to 1407.6 +/- 5.5 m2, respectively. On defence, the values were smaller (p < 0.05) and ranged from 283.4 +/- 0.9 to 325.8 +/- 0.9 m and from 773.8 +/- 4.6 to 1158.4 +/- 5.5 m2 for the spread and the area. In defending circumstances, the teams presented a greater area and spread when they suffered shots on goal than when the teams performed tackles. In attacking situations, the teams presented a greater area and spread when they suffered tackles than when they performed shots on goal. The results allowed showing the attacking-defending interaction between Brazilian teams.

  10. Argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region counts and prognosis in pharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pich, A.; Pisani, P.; Kzengli, M.; Cappello, N.; Navone, R.

    1991-01-01

    The prognostic significance of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) has been evaluated in biopsy specimens from 61 primary squamous and undifferentiated carcinomas of the pharynx prior to therapy. The univariate Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis showed a significant correlation between 3- and 5-year survival rates and the mean AgNOR number per tumour cell (P less than 0.001). No significant correlation was found between prognosis and patients age and sex, tumour location, clinical stage, histologic grade, extent of lymphocytic infiltration, HMFG-2 positivity of tumour cells and UCHL1, LN2, MB2 positivity of infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant association between AgNOR counts and tumour histologic grade or clinical stage. Multivariate survival analysis showed that only two variables were significantly correlated with prognosis: AgNOR counts (P less than 0.001) and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration (P less than 0.027). Our results indicate the prognostic value of AgNOR counts and suggest the use of this method as a significant parameter in the pretherapeutic assessment of the aggressiveness of pharyngeal carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1716455

  11. Managing security risks for inter-organisational information systems: a multiagent collaborative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Wu, Harris; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Desheng; Chen, Fuzan; Tian, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Information sharing across organisations is critical to effectively managing the security risks of inter-organisational information systems. Nevertheless, few previous studies on information systems security have focused on inter-organisational information sharing, and none have studied the sharing of inferred beliefs versus factual observations. In this article, a multiagent collaborative model (MACM) is proposed as a practical solution to assess the risk level of each allied organisation's information system and support proactive security treatment by sharing beliefs on event probabilities as well as factual observations. In MACM, for each allied organisation's information system, we design four types of agents: inspection agent, analysis agent, control agent, and communication agent. By sharing soft findings (beliefs) in addition to hard findings (factual observations) among the organisations, each organisation's analysis agent is capable of dynamically predicting its security risk level using a Bayesian network. A real-world implementation illustrates how our model can be used to manage security risks in distributed information systems and that sharing soft findings leads to lower expected loss from security risks.

  12. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia.

  13. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Robert; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-01-01

    Background Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary health care. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers. Setting The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts. Method This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list. Results Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye) and 36% (Ngamiland) selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork. Conclusions The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development. PMID:26842516

  14. Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

    2005-01-01

    All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

  15. How Multi-Levels of Individual and Team Learning Interact in a Public Healthcare Organisation: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; Kelliher, Felicity; Harrington, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the relevant literature on organisational learning and offer a preliminary conceptual framework as a basis to explore how the multi-levels of individual learning and team learning interact in a public healthcare organisation. The organisational learning literature highlights a need for further understanding of…

  16. PORTRAYALS OF COLOMBIAN AND VENEZUELAN IMMIGRANT ORGANISATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    SANCHEZ-R, MAGALY; AYSA-LASTRA, MARIA

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the public images of Colombian and Venezuelan immigrant organisations in the United States. Immigrant organisations’ webpages and the expression of their main aims and goals serve to identify their major concerns as they create public images not only for the organisation but for the immigrant community itself. To interpret the immigrant organisations’ public images and their goals, we offer a multilevel study that considers immigrants’ contexts of exit, which are related to the motivation of migrate and the particular sociodemographic makeup of immigrant groups. This paper adds the Venezuelan immigrant experience to the literature on immigrant organisations. PMID:25324586

  17. Factors affecting the innovative practice of nurse managers in health organisations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindy; McMurray, Adela J

    This exploratory study reports on two surveys conducted in metropolitan and rural health organisations. Two questionnaires consisting of open and closed questions were distributed to a total of 340 respondents resulting in 176 usable responses, yielding a response rate of 53%. The findings revealed that nurse managers require fairness, trust, recognition, supervisory encouragement, organisational support, and reward for efforts. These are key aspects of organisational climate, which support innovative practice. Experience and innovation were significantly related and other factors such as, management structures and management styles, also had an impact on nurse managers' ability to exhibit innovative behaviour in the 21st Century workplace.

  18. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance

    PubMed Central

    Parmelli, Elena; Flodgren, Gerd; Schaafsma, Mary Ellen; Baillie, Nick; Beyer, Fiona R; Eccles, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Organisational culture is an anthropological metaphor used to inform research and consultancy and to explain organisational environments. Great emphasis has been placed during the last years on the need to change organisational culture in order to pursue effective improvement of healthcare performance. However, the precise nature of organisational culture in healthcare policy often remains underspecified and the desirability and feasibility of strategies to be adopted has been called into question. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. To examine the effectiveness of these strategies according to different patterns of organisational culture. Search methods We searched the following electronic databases for primary studies: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Business and Management, EThOS, Index to Theses, Intute, HMIC, SIGLE, and Scopus until October 2009. The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) was searched for related reviews. We also searched the reference lists of all papers and relevant reviews identified, and we contacted experts in the field for advice on further potential studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or well designed quasi-experimental studies, controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) meeting the quality criteria used by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC). Studies should be set in any type of healthcare organisation in which strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance were applied. Our main outcomes were objective measures of professional performance and patient outcome. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors

  19. The periepiglottic space: topographic relations and histological organisation.

    PubMed Central

    Reidenbach, M M

    1996-01-01

    Important aspects of histological organisation and topographic relations of the pre-epiglottic space are not fully understood. This region was therefore reinvestigated in plastinated serial sections of 19 human adult specimens. The cranial part of the pre-epiglottic space is homogenously filled with adipose tissue and extends around the epiglottis in a horseshoe fashion. Therefore, the term periepiglottic space (PES) is a more accurate description of this region. The cranial border of the PES is constituted by the hyoepiglottic membrane, which extends between the epiglottis and the tongue, and the hyoepiglottic ligament. The ligament consists of a cranial fibre layer anchored within the lingual muscles, and a caudal layer attached to the hyoid bone. Anterior to the lingual surface of the epiglottis, both fibre layers become apposed to form a dense collagenous mass, which may stabilise the epiglottis during deglutition. Contractions of the infrahyoid muscles will be transmitted to the thyrohyoid membrane anterior to the PES by numerous collagenous septa which originate from the membrane and radiate into the muscles. In contrast, the pre-epiglottic adipose tissue is not connected to the thyrohyoid membrane. The caudal part of the PES is subdivided by two paramedian sagittal collagenous septa. They include a medial compartment bordered by the epiglottis posteriorly and the thyroepiglottic ligament inferiorly. The two lateral subdivisions of the PES extend between the glands of the vestibular folds and towards the aryepiglottic folds, but a distinct confining collagenous layer is absent there. Posterolaterally, the PES is separated from the paraglottic space by the thyroarytenoid muscle and by a cranial extension of the fibrous sheet of the muscle. This collagenous tissue is often split into several layers and displays gaps which may facilitate the spread of malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655405

  20. International Summit 2014: Organisation of clinical ultrasound in the world.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a widely used imaging modality throughout the world, yet differences in usage remain among countries or regions, according to the results of the International Summit, organised by the ESR during the European Congress of Radiology last March in Vienna. The International Summit is held each year by the ESR and its partner national and international societies of radiology from outside Europe with the primary goal of gathering information about a particular topic in radiology from a worldwide perspective. In 2014, some aspects of the practice of US imaging within and outside radiology were discussed, following a list of items prepared by the ESR Working Group on Ultrasound. Results showed that radiological US has similar problems throughout the world. At the same time, however, there are profound differences in how US is practised and the results of this meeting should be considered with caution. The results of the International Summit offer an overview of the major trends and differences in the use of US worldwide, but as a whole suggest that this imaging technique still plays a major role in radiology and health care.Main messages• US is a widely used modality and constitutes a great part of radiological workload.• The use of ultrasound is split between radiological and non-radiological services.• Training differs among countries and the presence of local subspecialty societies improves training quality.• The shortage of local radiologists and lack of interest among young radiologists are worrying.• US use should not be limited to radiologists alone, especially in sparsely populated areas.

  1. Satellite end of life constraints: Technical and organisational solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrières, Bernard; Alby, Fernand; Cazaux, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Since 1974 with the radiocommunication satellite Symphony1, CNES launched and operated 11 GEO and 20 LEO satellites. During those 36 years, both flight segment and ground segment dramatically evolved and operational organisations and techniques equally improved. At the present time, CNES operates 1 GEO satellite and 17 LEO satellites with not much more people and costs than in 1986 when its first Satellite Operation Direction in Toulouse was only in charge of Telecom1A, Telecom1B and Spot1. This fantastic technical evolution combined with the huge increase of services to citizens and governments given by Space systems was unfortunately also associated with an enormous growth of space pollution by debris of all sizes. From the beginning, CNES was a major actor of the international effort to promote regulations in order to try to reduce or at least control this problematic situation. Internally, CNES, not only set up an operational on-call service to deal with collision risks, but decided to do its best to apply the new guidelines to the end of life of satellites under its responsibility even for those developed and launched a very long time ago. For instance, that was the case in 2009 for the reorbitation of the GEO satellite Telecom 2C (launched in 1995) and for the deorbitation of the LEO satellite Spot2 (launched in 1990). In addition, CNES prepares procedures to be able to be as exemplary as possible for its other spacecrafts whose end of life approaches. The constraints and challenges to face in order to cope with these new requirements are multiple: choice of final orbit, realistic calculation of re-entry duration, estimation of residual propellant, electric passivation, management of explosion risks… All these studies and operational experience gained will be helpful for the new role of CNES, which recently became in charge of controlling space operators in the frame of the new French space law on space operations.

  2. The value of increasing the role of private individuals and organisations in One Health.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Fischer, J; Bengis, R

    2014-08-01

    Few non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been involved in work with wildlife diseases and the One Health concept. However, there are several NGOs and scientific institutions, on international and national levels, that can potentially play a significant role in furthering the objectives of the One Health concept by contributing to wildlife health or wildlife disease knowledge and collaborations. This is because many NGOs have dedicated members that voluntarily become involved in the wildlife aspect of the One Health concept, in many different ways. The authors have identified six international organisations, and ten national organisations that could well be involved in this work. They recommend that the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Delegates, and OIE National Focal Points for Wildlife in different countries, focus on establishing links and collaboration between the Veterinary Services (including Focal Points) and various NGOs, as well as scientific institutions both on a national level and international level.

  3. Safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations: antecedents and consequences of safety behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Muñiz, Beatriz; Montes-Peón, José Manuel; Vázquez-Ordás, Camilo José

    2012-03-01

    The occupational health and safety standard OHSAS 18001 has gained considerable acceptance worldwide, and firms from diverse sectors and of varying sizes have implemented it. Despite this, very few studies have analysed safety management or the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organisations. The current work aims to analyse the safety climate in these organisations, identify its dimensions, and propose and test a structural equation model that will help determine the antecedents and consequences of employees' safety behaviour. For this purpose, the authors carry out an empirical study using a sample of 131 OHSAS 18001-certified organisations located in Spain. The results show that management's commitment, and particularly communication, have an effect on safety behaviour and on safety performance, employee satisfaction, and firm competitiveness. These findings are particularly important for management since they provide evidence about the factors that should be encouraged to reduce risks and improve performance in this type of organisation.

  4. Understanding the organisational context for adverse events in the health services: the role of cultural censorship

    PubMed Central

    Hart, E; Hazelgrove, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper responds to the current emphasis on organisational learning in the NHS as a means of improving healthcare systems and making hospitals safer places for patients. Conspiracies of silence have been identified as obstacles to organisational learning, covering error and hampering communication. In this paper we question the usefulness of the term and suggest that "cultural censorship", a concept developed by the anthropologist Robin Sherriff, provides a much needed insight into cultures of silence within the NHS. Drawing on a number of illustrations, but in particular the Ritchie inquiry into the disgraced gynaecologist Rodney Ledward, we show how the defining characteristics of cultural censorship can help us to understand how adverse events get pushed underground, only to flourish in the underside of organisational life. Key Words: cultural censorship; organisational culture; quality improvement; patient safety PMID:11743156

  5. Digital innovation through partnership between nature conservation organisations and academia: a qualitative impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Galán-Díaz, Carlos; Edwards, Peter; Nelson, John D; van der Wal, René

    2015-11-01

    Nature conservation organisations increasingly turn to new digital technologies to help deliver conservation objectives. This has led to collaborative forms of working with academia to spearhead digital innovation. Through in-depth interviews with three UK research-council-funded case studies, we show that by working with academics conservation organisations can receive positive and negative impacts, some of which cut across their operations. Positive impacts include new ways of engaging with audiences, improved data workflows, financial benefits, capacity building and the necessary digital infrastructure to help them influence policy. Negative impacts include the time and resources required to learn new skills and sustain new technologies, managing different organisational objectives and shifts in working practices as a result of the new technologies. Most importantly, collaboration with academics was shown to bring the opportunity of a profound change in perspectives on technologies with benefits to the partner organisations and individuals therein.

  6. Enhancing engagement with community sector organisations working in sustainable waste management: A case study.

    PubMed

    Dururu, John; Anderson, Craig; Bates, Margaret; Montasser, Waleed; Tudor, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Voluntary and community sector organisations are increasingly being viewed as key agents of change in the shifts towards the concepts of resource efficiency and circular economy, at the community level. Using a meta-analysis and questionnaire surveys across three towns in the East Midlands of England, namely Northampton, Milton Keynes and Luton, this study aimed to understand public engagement with these organisations. The findings suggest that these organisations play a significant and wide-spread role, not only with regard to sustainable environmental management, but also a social role in community development and regeneration. The surveys indicated that there were generally high levels of awareness of the organisations and strong engagement with them. Clothes were the items most donated. Key reasons for engagement included the financial value offered and the perception that it helped the environment. However, potential limitations in future public engagement were also determined and recommendations for addressing these suggested.

  7. Organisational participation and health among smallholder farmers: a longitudinal study in a Latin American context

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Fadya; Mota, Eduardo; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of social organisation affiliation and farmers’ agricultural production practices on farmer health. Organisations facilitate the acquisition and exchange of forms of social capital which can influence the adoption of practices with potential health impacts. In countries such as Ecuador, smallholder agriculture is practised by socially vulnerable populations. Agricultural production often involves the use of extremely hazardous pesticides, while practices that reduce the use of chemicals through integrated pest management (IPM) remain uncommon. Design Longitudinal study (2007–2010). Setting 12 Ecuadorian communities, previously part of a participatory action research study. Participants 208 small-scale farmers. Inclusion criteria were: age between 18 and 65 years, literate and resident in the community for the previous 3 years. Primary outcomes The differential effects of the membership in social organisations (as an effect modifier), on the relationship between the implementation of IPM practices (main independent variable) and farmers’ health, measured by neurocognitive performance scores (better higher value; dependent variable). Results Among organisational participants, the coefficient of association between the implementation of IPM practices for the category good/very good (vs no use) and neurocognitive performance, when farmers were involved in organisations, was negative and moderate (β=−0.17, SE 0.21) though not significant (p>0.1); for the category little/moderate use, the coefficient was positive (β=0.34, SE 0.19) and significant. Among those who did not participate in organisations, both little/moderate use and good/very good use of IPM practices were associated with an increase in neurocognitive performance. Conclusions The effect of agricultural production practices on farmers’ health, transmitted through organisations, can be differentiated. Organisations as structures of social capital seem to be

  8. Sources of organisational resiliency during the Thailand floods of 2011: a test of the bonding and bridging hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Simon; Arlikatti, Sudha; Siebeneck, Laura; Pongponrat, Kannapa; Jaikampan, Kraiwuth

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Institutional Collective Action framework, this research tests the impact of two competing hypotheses--bonding and bridging--on enhancing organisational resiliency. The bonding hypothesis posits that organisational resiliency can be achieved if an organisation works closely with others, whereas the bridging hypothesis argues that such a structure places considerable stress on an organisation and advocates for an organisation to position itself as a central actor to gain access to novel resources from a diverse set of entities to achieve resiliency. The paper analyses data gathered from semi-structured interviews with 44 public, private, and non-profit organisations serving communities affected by the Great Floods of 2011 in the Thai capital, Bangkok (urban), and in Pathum Thani (suburban) and Ayutthaya (rural) provinces. The findings suggest that: organisational resiliency was associated with the bridging effect; organisations in the rural province were more resilient than those in the suburban and urban centres; and private and non-governmental organisations generally were more resilient than public sector organisations. The findings highlight the importance of fostering multi-sector partnerships to enhance organisational resiliency for disaster response.

  9. Effect of weightlessness on colloidal particle transport and segregation in self-organising microtubule preparations.

    PubMed

    Tabony, James; Rigotti, Nathalie; Glade, Nicolas; Cortès, Sandra

    2007-05-01

    Weightlessness is known to effect cellular functions by as yet undetermined processes. Many experiments indicate a role of the cytoskeleton and microtubules. Under appropriate conditions in vitro microtubule preparations behave as a complex system that self-organises by a combination of reaction and diffusion. This process also results in the collective transport and organisation of any colloidal particles present. In large centimetre-sized samples, self-organisation does not occur when samples are exposed to a brief early period of weightlessness. Here, we report both space-flight and ground-based (clinorotation) experiments on the effect of weightlessness on the transport and segregation of colloidal particles and chromosomes. In centimetre-sized containers, both methods show that a brief initial period of weightlessness strongly inhibits particle transport. In miniature cell-sized containers under normal gravity conditions, the particle transport that self-organisation causes results in their accumulation into segregated regions of high and low particle density. The gravity dependence of this behaviour is strongly shape dependent. In square wells, neither self-organisation nor particle transport and segregation occur under conditions of weightlessness. On the contrary, in rectangular canals, both phenomena are largely unaffected by weightlessness. These observations suggest, depending on factors such as cell and embryo shape, that major biological functions associated with microtubule driven particle transport and organisation might be strongly perturbed by weightlessness.

  10. Advancing our understanding of functional genome organisation through studies in the fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ida; Bjerling, Pernilla

    2011-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the functional organisation of the cell nucleus. Still many questions remain to be answered about the relationship between the spatial organisation of the nucleus and the regulation of the genome function. There are many conflicting data in the field making it very difficult to merge published results on mammalian cells into one model on subnuclear chromatin organisation. The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, over the last decades has emerged as a valuable model organism in understanding basic biological mechanisms, especially the cell cycle and chromosome biology. In this review we describe and compare the nuclear organisation in mammalian and fission yeast cells. We believe that fission yeast is a good tool to resolve at least some of the contradictions and unanswered questions concerning functional nuclear architecture, since S. pombe has chromosomes structurally similar to that of human. S. pombe also has the advantage over higher eukaryotes in that the genome can easily be manipulated via homologous recombination making it possible to integrate the tools needed for visualisation of chromosomes using live-cell microscopy. Classical genetic experiments can be used to elucidate what factors are involved in a certain mechanism. The knowledge we have gained during the last few years indicates similarities between the genome organisation in fission yeast and mammalian cells. We therefore propose the use of fission yeast for further advancement of our understanding of functional nuclear organisation.

  11. Working towards integrated community care for older people: empowering organisational features from a professional perspective.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bienke M; Snoeren, Miranda W C; Van Regenmortel, Tine; Abma, Tineke A

    2015-01-01

    Although multi-disciplinary cooperation between professionals is a prerequisite to provide integrated care in the community, this seems hard to realise in practice. Yet, little is known about the experiences of professionals who implement it nor about the organisational features professionals identify as empowering during this cooperation process. Therefore, a case study of a multi-disciplinary geriatric team was performed. The data-collection included observations of meetings, in-depth interviews and focus groups with professionals (N = 12). Data were analysed inductively and related to the three organisational levels within the model of organisational empowerment of Peterson and Zimmerman. Signs of empowering organisational features on the intraorganisational level were mutual trust and clear working routines. On the interorganisational level important features included improved linkages between participating organisations and increased insight into each other's tasks. Tensions occurred relating to the inter- and the extraorganisational level. Professionals felt that the commitment of the management of involved organisations should be improved just as the capacity of the team to influence (local) policy. It is recommended that policymakers should not determine the nature of professional cooperation in advance, but to leave that to the local context as well as to the judgement of involved professionals.

  12. Organisational sources of safety and danger: sociological contributions to the study of adverse events

    PubMed Central

    West, E.

    2000-01-01

    Organisational sociology has long accepted that mistakes of all kinds are a common, even normal, part of work. Medical work may be particularly prone to error because of its complexity and technological sophistication. The results can be tragic for individuals and families. This paper describes four intrinsic characteristics of organisations that are relevant to the level of risk and danger in healthcare settings—namely, the division of labour and "structural secrecy" in complex organisations; the homophily principle and social structural barriers to communication; diffusion of responsibility and the "problem of many hands"; and environmental or other pressures leading to goal displacement when organisations take their "eyes off the ball". The paper argues that each of these four intrinsic characteristics invokes specific mechanisms that increase danger in healthcare organisations but also offer the possibility of devising strategies and behaviours to increase patient safety. Stated as hypotheses, these ideas could be tested empirically, thus adding to the evidence on which the avoidance of adverse events in healthcare settings is based and contributing to the development of theory in this important area. (Quality in Health Care 2000;9:120–126) Key Words: organisation; safety; errors; adverse events PMID:11067250

  13. Spatial organisation in hydrological model structure for New Zealand catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary; Woods, Ross; Clark, Martyn

    2013-04-01

    Hydrologists increasingly agree that a single hydrological model structure is unlikely to be suitable for all catchments: instead, models should be selected according to characteristics of the catchment. Our challenge is to determine how to select the most appropriate model structure. This complex question requires that we use observed data to infer dominant runoff generation processes, and translate this process knowledge into model structure choices. We can then ask questions such as: over what scales do recommended model structures change? How much data is needed to select model structure? How can we generalise model structure choices to catchments where data is scarce? In this presentation we address these questions, using the New Zealand landscape as our 'virtual laboratory'. New Zealand is an excellent location to test hypotheses relating to model structure, due to its rich diversity of hydrological landscapes. Landscape types range from temperate rainforest with steep, bedrock gorges, through rolling pasture, to alluvial plains with braided rivers. Our method is to apply diagnostic signatures, which use a range of hydrological data types, to target specific aspects of model structure choice. We bring together results from national hydrometric networks, and in-depth studies in experimental catchments, to explore organisation, similarity and diversity in recommended model structures across the New Zealand landscape. To identify model structures which are consistent with measured data, we use a range of diagnostic signatures tailored to the data types available. At the national scale, networks of rain and flow gauges are used to investigate runoff ratio, recession characteristics and threshold responses to precipitation and soil moisture. At the experimental Mahurangi catchments, dense networks of 13 rain, 27 flow and 36 soil moisture gauges within a 50 km2 area enable us to evaluate small-scale patterns and diversities of model structure. In contrast, the

  14. Practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, David; Bertrand, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Discharge measurements performed by the French governmental hydrometer team feed a national database. This data is available for general river flows knowkedge, flood forecasting, low water survey, statistical calculations flow, control flow regulatory and many other uses. Regularly checking the measurements quality and better quantifying its accuracy is therefore an absolute need. The practice of inter-laboratory comparison in hydrometry particularly developed during the last decade. Indeed, discharge measurement can not easily be linked to a standard. Therefore, on-site measurement accuracy control is very difficult. Inter-laboratory comparison is thus a practical solution to this issue. However, it needs some regulations in order to ease its practice and legitimize its results. To do so, the French government hydrometrics teams produced a practical methodological guide for hydrometric inter-laboratory organisation in destination of hydrometers community in view of ensure the harmonization of inter-laboratory comparison practices for different materials (ADCP, current meter on wadind rod or gauging van, tracer dilution, surface speed) and flow range (flood, low water). Ensure the results formalization and banking. The realisation of this practice guide is grounded on the experience of the governmental teams & their partners (or fellows), following existing approaches (Doppler group especially). The guide is designated to validate compliance measures and identify outliers : Hardware, methodological, environmental, or human. Inter-laboratory comparison provides the means to verify the compliance of the instruments (devices + methods + operators) and provides methods to determine an experimental uncertainty of the tested measurement method which is valid only for the site and the measurement conditions but does not address the calibration or periodic monitoring of the few materials. After some conceptual definitions, the guide describes the different stages of an

  15. The Role of Non-Governmental Organisations and Faith-Based Organisations in Achieving Education for All: The Case of Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimuko, Mikako

    2009-01-01

    Sierra Leone, one of the world's poorest countries, experienced a civil war from 1991 to 2002. The government's capacity to provide educational services remains weak, and still over 30% of children in the country are hard to reach and do not have access to primary education. This paper discusses the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs)…

  16. Relationship between organisational commitment and burnout syndrome: a canonical correlation approach.

    PubMed

    Enginyurt, Ozgur; Cankaya, Soner; Aksay, Kadir; Tunc, Taner; Koc, Bozkurt; Bas, Orhan; Ozer, Erdal

    2016-04-01

    Objective Burnout syndrome can significantly reduce the performance of health workers. Although many factors have been identified as antecedents of burnout, few studies have investigated the role of organisational commitment in its development. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between subdimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment) and subdimensions of organisational commitment (affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment). Methods The present study was a cross-sectional survey of physicians and other healthcare employees working in the Ministry of Health Ordu University Education and Research Hospital. The sample consisted of 486 healthcare workers. Data were collected using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Organisation Commitment Scale, and were analysed using the canonical correlation approach. Results The first of three canonical correlation coefficients between pairs of canonical variables (Ui , burnout syndrome and Vi, organisational commitment) was found to be statistically significant. Emotional exhaustion was found to contribute most towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of burnout syndrome, whereas affective commitment provided the largest contribution towards the explanatory capacity of canonical variables estimated from the subdimensions of organisational commitment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that affective commitment is the primary determinant of burnout syndrome in healthcare professionals. What is known about the topic? Organisational commitment and burnout syndrome are the most important criteria in predicting health workforce performance. An increasing number of studies in recent years have clearly indicated the field's continued relevance and importance. Conversely, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a technique for describing the relationship

  17. The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveslage, Ingmar; Fischer, Joachim; Kühnlenz, Frank; Lichtblau, Björn; Milkereit, Claus; Picozzi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications technologies without the need of a planned, centralised infrastructure. It also sets out to overcome problems of insufficient node density, which typically affects present existing early warning systems, by having the SOSEWIN seismological sensing units being comprised of low-cost components (generally bought "off-the-shelf"), with each unit initially costing 100's of Euros, in contrast to 1,000's to 10,000's for standard seismological stations. The reduced sensitivity of the new sensing units arising from the use of lower-cost components will be compensated by the network's density, which in the future is expected to number 100's to 1000's over areas served currently by the order of 10's of standard stations. The robustness, independence of infrastructure, spontaneous extensibility due to a self-healing/self-organizing character in the case of removing/failing or adding sensors makes SOSEWIN potentially useful for various use cases, e.g. monitoring of building structures (as we could proof during the L'Aquila earthquake) or technical systems and most recently for seismic microzonation. Nevertheless the main purpose SOSEWIN was initially invented for is the earthquake early warning and rapid response, for which reason the ground motion is continuously monitored by conventional accelerometers (3-component) and processed within a station. Based on this, the network itself decides whether an event is detected cooperatively in a two-level hierarchical alarming protocol. Experiences and experiment results with the SOSEWIN-prototype installation in the Ataköy district of Istanbul (Turkey) are presented. The limited size of this installation with currently 20 nodes allows not answering certain questions regarding the useful or possible size of a SOSEWIN installation

  18. Planetary Data Archiving Activities in Indian Space Research Organisation (isro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched its first planetary mission to Moon viz., Chandrayaan-1 on October 22, 2008. The basic objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission are photoselenological and chemical mapping of the Moon with improved spatial and spectral resolution. The payloads in this mission are: (i) Terrain mapping stereo camera (TMC) with 20km swath (400-900 nm band) for 3D imaging of lunar surface at a spatial resolution of 5m (ii) Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) in the 400-920 nm band with 64 channels and spatial resolution of 80m (20km swath) for mineralogical mapping (iii) High-energy X-ray (30-270 keV) spectrometer having a footprint of 40km for study of volatile transport on Moon and (iv) Laser ranging instrument with vertical resolution of 5m (v) Miniature imaging radar instrument (Mini-SAR) from APL, NASA to look for presence of ice in the polar region (vi) Near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) from Max Plank Institute, Germany (vii)Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from JPL, NASA for mineralogical mapping in the infra-red regions (0.7 -3.0 micron) (viii) Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) from Sweden, India and Japan for detection of low energy neutral atoms emanated from the lunar surface (ix) Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) from Bulgaria for monitoring energetic particle flux in the lunar environment and (x) Collimated low energy (1-10keV) X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) with a field of view of 20km for chemical mapping of the lunar surface from RAL, UK. A wealth of data has been collected (November 2008 to August 2009) from the above instru-ments during the mission life of Chandrayaan-1 and the science data from these instruments is being archived at Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC). ISRO Science Data Archive (ISDA) identified at ISSDC is the primary data archive for the payload data of current and future Indian space science missions. The data center (ISSDC) is responsible for the Ingest, Archive, and Dissemination of the payload

  19. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  20. Organisational development in general practice: lessons from practice and professional development plans (PPDPs)

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; Hocking, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices) that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development) and education (self-directed adult learning theories) and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4) where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of introducing expert external

  1. Temporal changes in cytoskeletal organisation within isolated chondrocytes quantified using a novel image analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Knight, M M; Idowu, B D; Lee, D A; Bader, D L

    2001-05-01

    This paper examines temporal changes in the organisation of the cytoskeleton within isolated articular chondrocytes cultured for up to 7 days in agarose constructs. Fluorescent labelling and confocal microscopy were employed to visualise microtubules (MT), vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) and actin microfilaments (AMF). To quantify the degree of cytoskeletal organisation within populations of cells, a novel image analysis technique has been developed and fully characterised. Organisation was quantified in terms of an Edge Index, which reflects the density of 'edges' present within the confocal images as defined by a Sobel digital filter. This parameter was shown to be independent of image intensity and, for all three cytoskeletal components, was validated statistically against a visual assessment of organisation. Both MT and VIF exhibited fibrous networks extending throughout the cytoplasm, while AMF appeared as punctate units associated with the cell membrane. The use of the Edge Index parameter revealed statistical significant temporal variation, in particular associated with VIF and AMF. These findings indicate the possibility of cytoskeletal mediated temporal variation in many aspects of cell behaviour following isolation from the intact tissue. Furthermore, the image analysis techniques are likely to be useful for future studies aiming to quantify changes in cytoskeletal organisation.

  2. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    PubMed

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food.

  3. Organisational reporting and learning systems: Innovating inside and outside of the box

    PubMed Central

    Furniss, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Reporting and learning systems are key organisational tools for the management and prevention of clinical risk. However, current approaches, such as incident reporting, are struggling to meet expectations of turning health systems like the UK National Health Service (NHS) into learning organisations. This article aims to open up debate on the potential for novel reporting and learning systems in healthcare, by reflecting on experiences from two recent projects: Proactive Risk Monitoring in Healthcare (PRIMO) and Errordiary in Healthcare. These two approaches demonstrate how paying attention to ordinary, everyday clinical work can derive useful learning and active discussion about clinical risk. We argue that innovations in reporting and learning systems might come from both inside and outside of the box. ‘Inside’ being along traditional paths of controlled organisational innovation. ‘Outside’ in the sense that inspiration comes outside of the healthcare domain, or more extremely, outside official channels through external websites and social media (e.g. patient forums, public review sites, whistleblower blogs and Twitter streams). Reporting routes that bypass official channels could empower staff and patient activism, and turn out to be a driver to challenge organisational processes, assumptions and priorities where the organisation is failing and has become unresponsive. PMID:25999777

  4. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  5. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  6. Getting to the heart of the matter: a diary study of swimmers' appraisals of organisational stressors.

    PubMed

    Didymus, Faye F; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    We explored sport performers' cognitive appraisals of organisational stressors. The relevant demands and transactional alternatives that athletes experience in relation to the situational properties were identified. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semi-structured, interval-contingent daily diaries for a 28-day period. A combination of inductive and deductive content analysis was used to organise and analyse the diary entries with a focus on the following areas: organisational stressors, their underlying situational properties, and the swimmers' transactional alternatives. One hundred and thirty-one of the organisational stressors were appraised as threat, 41 as challenge, and 83 as harm/loss. Support was found for the majority of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) situational properties with the only exception being temporal uncertainty. Imminence was associated with the greatest number of threat appraisals (47), novelty was associated with the greatest number of challenge appraisals (17), and duration was associated with the greatest number of harm/loss appraisals (22). It is concluded that appraisal plays a pivotal role in sport performers' experiences of their organisational environment. Swimmers' transactional alternatives are influenced by the situational properties of the stressors encountered.

  7. Learning to listen to the organisational rhetoric of primary health and social care integration.

    PubMed

    Warne, T; McAndrew, S; King, M; Holland, K

    2007-11-01

    The sustained modernisation of the UK primary health care service has resulted in individuals and organisations having to develop more integrated ways of working. This has resulted in changes to the structure and functioning of primary care organisations, changes to the traditional workforce, and an increase in scope of primary care practice. These changes have contributed to what for many staff has become a constantly turbulent organisational and practice environment. Data from a three-year project, commissioned by the North West Development Agency is used to explore how staff involved in these changes dealt with this turbulence. Three hundred and fifty staff working within primary care participated in the study. A multimethods approach was used which facilitated an iterative analysis and data collection process. Thematic analysis revealed a high degree of congruence between the perceptions of all staff groups with evidence of a generally well-articulated, but often rhetorical view of the organisational and professional factors involved in how these changes were experienced. This rhetoric was used by individuals as a way of containing both the good and bad elements of their experience. This paper discusses how these defense mechanisms need to be recognised and understood by managers so that a more supportive organisational culture is developed.

  8. Organisational reporting and learning systems: Innovating inside and outside of the box.

    PubMed

    Sujan, Mark; Furniss, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Reporting and learning systems are key organisational tools for the management and prevention of clinical risk. However, current approaches, such as incident reporting, are struggling to meet expectations of turning health systems like the UK National Health Service (NHS) into learning organisations. This article aims to open up debate on the potential for novel reporting and learning systems in healthcare, by reflecting on experiences from two recent projects: Proactive Risk Monitoring in Healthcare (PRIMO) and Errordiary in Healthcare. These two approaches demonstrate how paying attention to ordinary, everyday clinical work can derive useful learning and active discussion about clinical risk. We argue that innovations in reporting and learning systems might come from both inside and outside of the box. 'Inside' being along traditional paths of controlled organisational innovation. 'Outside' in the sense that inspiration comes outside of the healthcare domain, or more extremely, outside official channels through external websites and social media (e.g. patient forums, public review sites, whistleblower blogs and Twitter streams). Reporting routes that bypass official channels could empower staff and patient activism, and turn out to be a driver to challenge organisational processes, assumptions and priorities where the organisation is failing and has become unresponsive.

  9. Delivering organisational adaptation through legislative mechanisms: Evidence from the Adaptation Reporting Power (Climate Change Act 2008).

    PubMed

    Jude, S R; Drew, G H; Pollard, S J T; Rocks, S A; Jenkinson, K; Lamb, R

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that organisations, particularly in key infrastructure sectors, are potentially vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events, and require organisational responses to ensure they are resilient and adaptive. However, detailed evidence of how adaptation is facilitated, implemented and reported, particularly through legislative mechanisms is lacking. The United Kingdom Climate Change Act (2008), introduced the Adaptation Reporting Power, enabling the Government to direct so-called reporting authorities to report their climate change risks and adaptation plans. We describe the authors' unique role and experience supporting the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) during the Adaptation Reporting Power's first round. An evaluation framework, used to review the adaptation reports, is presented alongside evidence on how the process provides new insights into adaptation activities and triggered organisational change in 78% of reporting authorities, including the embedding of climate risk and adaptation issues. The role of legislative mechanisms and risk-based approaches in driving and delivering adaptation is discussed alongside future research needs, including the development of organisational maturity models to determine resilient and well adapting organisations. The Adaptation Reporting Power process provides a basis for similar initiatives in other countries, although a clear engagement strategy to ensure buy-in to the process and research on its long-term legacy, including the potential merits of voluntary approaches, is required.

  10. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    PubMed Central

    De Sa, Angela; Christodoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA) survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA) and had 6 months of coaching. Results Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group. PMID:27608671

  11. Age-associated changes in rich-club organisation in autistic and neurotypical human brains

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic structural networks in the human brain have a rich-club architecture comprising both highly inter-connected central regions and sparsely connected peripheral regions. Recent studies show that disruption of this functionally efficient organisation is associated with several psychiatric disorders. However, despite increasing attention to this network property, whether age-associated changes in rich-club organisation occur during human adolescence remains unclear. Here, analysing a publicly shared diffusion tensor imaging dataset, we found that, during adolescence, brains of typically developing (TD) individuals showed increases in rich-club organisation and inferred network functionality, whereas individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) did not. These differences between TD and ASD groups were statistically significant for both structural and functional properties. Moreover, this typical age-related changes in rich-club organisation were characterised by progressive involvement of the right anterior insula. In contrast, in ASD individuals, did not show typical increases in grey matter volume, and this relative anatomical immaturity was correlated with the severity of ASD social symptoms. These results provide evidence that rich-club architecture is one of the bases of functionally efficient brain networks underpinning complex cognitive functions in adult human brains. Furthermore, our findings suggest that immature rich-club organisation might be associated with some neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26537477

  12. The role of organisational support in teleworker wellbeing: a socio-technical systems approach.

    PubMed

    Bentley, T A; Teo, S T T; McLeod, L; Tan, F; Bosua, R; Gloet, M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of telework and other forms of mobile working enabled by digital technology is increasing markedly. Following a socio-technical systems approach, this study aims to examine the role of organisational social support and specific support for teleworkers in influencing teleworker wellbeing, the mediating role of social isolation, potentially resulting from a person-environment mismatch in these relationships, and possible differences in these relationships between low-intensity and hybrid teleworkers. Teleworkers' (n = 804) perceptions of support and telework outcomes (psychological strain, job satisfaction, and social isolation) were collected using an on-line survey of teleworking employees distributed within 28 New Zealand organisations where knowledge work was undertaken. Organisational social support and teleworker support was associated with increased job satisfaction and reduced psychological strain. Social isolation mediated the relationship between organisational social support and the two outcome variables, and some differences were observed in the structural relationships for hybrid and low-intensity teleworker sub-samples. These findings suggest that providing the necessary organisational and teleworker support is important for enhancing the teleworker-environment fit and thereby ensuring desirable telework outcomes.

  13. Resource based view of the firm as a theoretical lens on the organisational consequences of quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Burton, Christopher R; Rycroft-Malone, Jo

    2014-08-01

    Evaluating the investment that healthcare organisations make in quality improvement requires knowledge of impact at multiple levels, including patient care, workforce and other organisational resources. The degree to which these resources help organisations to survive and thrive in the challenging contexts in which healthcare is designed and delivered is unknown. Investigating this question from the perspective of the Resource Based View (RBV) of the Firm may provide insights, although is not without challenge.

  14. Civil society organisations' roles in health development in Vietnam: HIV as a case study.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Civil society in contemporary Vietnam has been recognised as an important force in public health. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of 30 organisations and networks in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, this paper argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) focus almost exclusively on providing information and services, including care and treatment, in line with a state-sanctioned 'implementer' role for civil society, and that these organisations therefore miss an opportunity to act as agents for change. It was observed that the CSOs taking on roles involving advocacy and the monitoring of policy implementation were those that focus exclusively on HIV/AIDS prevention and control. However, the sustainability of these efforts is unclear.

  15. Looking good or doing good? Motivations for organisational citizenship behaviour in Turkish versus South Korean collectivists.

    PubMed

    Alabak, Merve; Peker, Müjde; Booth, Robert W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore potential motivations to perform organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in collectivistic Turkish and South Korean societies. Although collectivism has been proposed as a predictor of OCB, previous research has not fully explored the possibility that collectivistic individuals' OCB may result from their self-oriented motives (i.e. social desirability concerns) or their future-oriented motives (i.e. long-term orientation concerns). We predicted that OCB stems from social desirability concerns among Turkish collectivists, meaning it is used for maintaining a positive image within the organisation. However, for South Korean collectivists, we predicted that OCB stems from their long-term orientation concerns, meaning it is used to make the organisation better. The results were in line with our predictions, and the findings are discussed in terms of their implications for firms in collectivistic societies.

  16. Introduction of the transtheoretical model and organisational development theory in weight management: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Ke; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are serious public health and medical problems among children and adults worldwide. Behavioural change has been demonstrably contributory to weight management programs. Behavioural change-based weight loss programs require a theoretical framework. We will review the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in weight management. The transtheoretical model is a behaviour theory of individual level frequently used for weight management programs. The organisational development theory is a more complicated behaviour theory that applies to behavioural change on the system level. Both of these two theories have their respective strengths and weaknesses. In this manuscript, we try to introduce the transtheoretical model and the organisational development theory in the context of weight loss programs among population that are overweight or obese. Ultimately, we wish to present a new framework/strategy of weight management by integrating these two theories together.

  17. Understanding the organisational context for adverse events in the health services: the role of cultural censorship.

    PubMed

    Hart, E; Hazelgrove, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper responds to the current emphasis on organisational learning in the NHS as a means of improving healthcare systems and making hospitals safer places for patients. Conspiracies of silence have been identified as obstacles to organisational learning, covering error and hampering communication. In this paper we question the usefulness of the term and suggest that "cultural censorship", a concept developed by the anthropologist Robin Sherriff, provides a much needed insight into cultures of silence within the NHS. Drawing on a number of illustrations, but in particular the Ritchie inquiry into the disgraced gynaecologist Rodney Ledward, we show how the defining characteristics of cultural censorship can help us to understand how adverse events get pushed underground, only to flourish in the underside of organisational life.

  18. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.

  19. Harnessing ISO/IEC 12207 to Examine the Extent of SPI Activity in an Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Paul; O'Connor, Rory

    The quality of the software development process directly affects the quality of the software product. To be successful, software development organisations must respond to changes in technology and business circumstances, and therefore software process improvement (SPI) is required. SPI activity relates to any modification that is performed to the software process in order to improve an aspect of the process. Although multiple process assessments could be employed to examine SPI activity, they present an inefficient tool for such an examination. This paper presents an overview of a new survey-based resource that utilises the process reference model in ISO/IEC 12207 in order to expressly and directly determine the level of SPI activity in a software development organisation. This survey instrument can be used by practitioners, auditors and researchers who are interested in determining the extent of SPI activity in an organisation.

  20. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties.

  1. Efficacy of insurance for organisational disaster recovery: case study of the 2010 and 2011 Canterbury earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charlotte; Seville, Erica; Vargo, John

    2017-04-01

    Insurance is widely acknowledged to be an important component of an organisation's disaster preparedness and resilience. Yet, little analysis exists of how well current commercial insurance policies and practices support organisational recovery in the wake of a major disaster. This exploratory qualitative research, supported by some quantitative survey data, evaluated the efficacy of commercial insurance following the sequence of earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010 and 2011. The study found that, generally, the commercial insurance sector performed adequately, given the complexity of the events. However, there are a number of ways in which insurers could improve their operations to increase the efficacy of commercial insurance cover and to assist organisational recovery following a disaster. The most notable of these are: (i) better wording of policies; (ii) the availability of sector-specific policies; (iii) the enhancement of claims assessment systems; and (iv) risk-based policy pricing to incentivise risk reduction measures.

  2. Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing; Liu, Shanshi; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Hongchun

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on investigating whether organisational identification mediates the effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour and how these mediation mechanisms differ according to gender. Through analysing 212 supervisor-subordinate dyads from a Chinese air transportation group, the research indicated that organisational identification partially mediated the effect of job security on in-role behaviour and fully mediated the effect of job security on extra-role behaviour. A multi-group analysis also showed that there were significant differences between male and female employees in these relationships. In addition, moderated mediation analyses showed that gender moderated the indirect effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour through organisational identification. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Understanding communication and coordination among government and service organisations after a disaster.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to discover how coordination and communication between the government and service organisations responsible for the relief effort following Hurricane Katrina contributed to the poor outcomes for the communities impacted by the storm. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: communication was positively correlated with the degree of coordination immediately following Katrina; and miscommunication was negatively correlated with the degree of coordination after the storm. Quantitative content analysis of media reports was used to analyse the data and test the hypotheses. Both communication and miscommunication were found to be positively correlated with coordination. The results of this study suggest that increasing interorganisational communication and establishing clearly defined roles for organisations must be a high priority in revamping organisational protocol on disaster response if any new approach is to be successful.

  4. Involvement of Patient Organisations in Research and Development of Orphan Drugs for Rare Diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mavris, M.; Le Cam, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Patients’ representatives have an increasingly present voice in all aspects of drug development from fundamental research through regulatory processes to health technology assessment. Although major advances have been made in raising awareness and increasing funding for rare diseases, important challenges remain in terms of best use of resources, coordinating efforts and improving policy. This article describes actions taken by rare disease patients’ organisations as well as initiatives at the national and European levels to promote research into rare diseases. A survey conducted by EURORDIS (European Organisation for Rare Diseases) on the support (financial and non-financial) provided by patients’ organisations in rare disease research is described as well as the involvement of patients’ representatives in regulatory processes for medicinal products at the European Medicines Agency. The importance of including patients’ groups in fundamental and clinical research as equal partners has become a fact that clearly contributes to the success of an application and the research conducted. PMID:23293582

  5. [Culture and cultural gaps in work teams: implications for organisational commitment].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Lanero, Ana; Yurrebaso, Amaia; Tejero, Blanca

    2007-05-01

    Some theoreticians of organisational commitment have proposed that culture is an important determinant of organisational commitment. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the role that work teams culture (subculture) and their cultural gaps play in commitment. This study is an attempt to overcome this lack. Using a sample of 375 work teams from various public and private organisations, it was found that the results confirmed our proposals. Cultural gaps were negatively related to commitment; the teams subculture was positively related to commitment, and more highly to commitment to values than to commitment to continuing. Contrary to the results of other studies, the demographic variables (age, time on the team, time in the company) were not significant, except that educational level was related to the commitment to continue. The implications of these results are analysed.

  6. The relationship between quality management practices and organisational performance: A structural equation modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, Z.; Razali, A. M.; Mustafa, Z.

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the quality management practices (QMPs) and organisational performance for the manufacturing industry in Malaysia. In this study, a QMPs and organisational performance framework is developed according to a comprehensive literature review which cover aspects of hard and soft quality factors in manufacturing process environment. A total of 11 hypotheses have been put forward to test the relationship amongst the six constructs, which are management commitment, training, process management, quality tools, continuous improvement and organisational performance. The model is analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS software version 18.0 using Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation. A total of 480 questionnaires were distributed, and 210 questionnaires were valid for analysis. The results of the modeling analysis using ML estimation indicate that the fits statistics of QMPs and organisational performance model for manufacturing industry is admissible. From the results, it found that the management commitment have significant impact on the training and process management. Similarly, the training had significant effect to the quality tools, process management and continuous improvement. Furthermore, the quality tools have significant influence on the process management and continuous improvement. Likewise, the process management also has a significant impact to the continuous improvement. In addition the continuous improvement has significant influence the organisational performance. However, the results of the study also found that there is no significant relationship between management commitment and quality tools, and between the management commitment and continuous improvement. The results of the study can be used by managers to prioritize the implementation of QMPs. For instances, those practices that are found to have positive impact on organisational performance can be recommended to

  7. Building integrated care systems: a case study of Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Nuria Toro; Zabalegui, Iñaki Berraondo; Irazusta, Itziar Pérez; Solinís, Roberto Nuño; Del Río Cámara, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This paper analyses the implementation of integrated care policies in the Basque Country through the deployment of an Integrated Health Organisation in Bidasoa area during the period 2011–2014. Structural, functional and clinical integration policies have been employed with the aim to deliver integrated and person-centred care for patients, especially for those living with chronic conditions. Methods This organisational case study used multiple data sources and methods in a pragmatic and reflexive manner to build a picture of the organisational development over a 4-year period. In order to measure the progress of integration three concepts have been measured: (i) readiness for chronicity measured with Assessment of Readiness for Chronicity in Healthcare Organisations tool; (ii) collaboration between clinicians from different care levels measured with the D'Amour Questionnaire, and (iii) overall impact of integration through several indicators based on the Triple Aim Framework. Results The measurement of organisational readiness for chronicity showed improvements in five of the six areas under evaluation. Similarly the collaboration between professionals of different care levels showed a steady improvement in each of the 10 items. Furthermore, the Triple Aim-based indicators showed a better experience of care in terms of patients’ perceptions of care coordination; a reduction in hospital utilisation, particularly for patients with complex chronic conditions; and cost-containment in terms of per capita expenditure. Conclusion There is a significant amount of data that shows that Bidasoa Integrated Health Organisation has progressed in terms of delivering integrated care for chronic conditions with a positive impact on several Triple Aim outcomes. PMID:26150764

  8. FGF Signalling Regulates Chromatin Organisation during Neural Differentiation via Mechanisms that Can Be Uncoupled from Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nishal S.; Rhinn, Muriel; Semprich, Claudia I.; Halley, Pamela A.; Dollé, Pascal; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Storey, Kate G.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling in Raldh2−/− embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that can direct

  9. Advancing general practice nursing in Australia: roles and responsibilities of primary healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Lane, Riki; Halcomb, Elizabeth; McKenna, Lisa; Zwar, Nicholas; Naccarella, Lucio; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Russell, Grant

    2016-04-21

    Objectives Given increased numbers and enhanced responsibilities of Australian general practice nurses, we aimed to delineate appropriate roles for primary health care organisations (PHCOs) to support this workforce.Methods A two-round online Delphi consensus process was undertaken between January and June 2012, informed by literature review and key informant interviews. Participants were purposively selected and included decision makers from government and professional organisations, educators, researchers and clinicians from five Australian states and territoriesResults Of 56 invited respondents, 35 (62%) and 31 (55%) responded to the first and second invitation respectively. Participants reached consensus on five key roles for PHCOs in optimising nursing in general practice: (1) matching workforce size and skills to population needs; (2) facilitating leadership opportunities; (3) providing education and educational access; (4) facilitating integration of general practice with other primary care services to support interdisciplinary care; and (5) promoting advanced nursing roles. National concerns, such as limited opportunities for postgraduate education and career progression, were deemed best addressed by national nursing organisations, universities and peak bodies.Conclusions Advancement of nursing in general practice requires system-level support from a range of organisations. PHCOs play a significant role in education and leadership development for nurses and linking national nursing organisations with general practices.What is known about the topic? The role of nurses in Australian general practice has grown in the last decade, yet they face limited career pathways and opportunities for career advancement. Some nations have forged interprofessional primary care teams that use nurses' skills to the full extent of their scope of practice. PHCOs have played important roles in the development of general practice nursing in Australia and internationally

  10. Evaluating the organisational climate in Italian public healthcare institutions by means of a questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Wienand, Ulrich; Cinotti, Renata; Nicoli, Augusta; Bisagni, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Background By means of the ICONAS project, the Healthcare Agency of an Italian Region developed, and used a standardised questionnaire to quantify the organisational climate. The aims of the project were (a) to investigate whether the healthcare institutions were interested in measuring climate, (b) to estimate the range of applicability and reliability of the instrument, (c) to analyse the dimensions of climate among healthcare personnel, (d) to assess the differences among employees with different contractual positions. Methods The anonymous questionnaire containing 50 items, each with a scale from 1 to 10, was offered to the healthcare organisations, to be compiled during ad hoc meetings. The data were sent to the central project coordinator. The differences between highly specialised staff (mostly physicians) and other employees were assessed after descriptive statistical analysis of the single items. Both Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis were used. Results Ten healthcare organisations agreed to partecipate. The questionnaire was completed by 8691 employees out of 13202. The mean value of organisational climate was 4.79 (range 1–10). There were significant differences among single items and between the 2 groups of employees. Multivariate methods showed: (a) one principal component explained > 40% of the variance, (b) 7 factors summarised the data. Conclusion Italian healthcare institutions are interested in assessing organisational phenomena, especially after the reforms of the nineties. The instrument was found to be applicable and suitable for measuring organisational climate. Administration of the questionnaire leads to an acceptable response rate. Climate can be discribed by means of 7 underlying dimensions. PMID:17519007

  11. Self-organising disturbance attenuation for synchronised agents with individual dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunze, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a self-organising networked controller for disturbance attenuation in multi-agent systems. A disturbance affecting a single agent has some effect on all neighbouring agents through the communication network. To avoid large disturbance effects, the proposed self-organising controller switches off the communication whenever the effect of the disturbance on the corresponding agent exceeds a given bound. As a consequence, the structure of the networked controller is adjusted to the current disturbance. It is proved that the proposed controller bounds the effect of any disturbance on all undisturbed agents. The results are illustrated by their application to a robot formation problem.

  12. Redirecting traditional professional values to support safety: changing organisational culture in health care

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, J; Quijada, M

    2004-01-01

    Professionals in healthcare organisations who seek to enhance safety and quality in an increasingly demanding industry environment often identify culture as a barrier to change. The cultural focus on individual autonomy, for example, seems to conflict with desired norms of teamwork, problem reporting, and learning. We offer a definition and explication of why culture is important to change efforts. A cultural analysis of health care suggests professional values that can be redirected to support change. We offer examples of organisations that drew upon cultural strengths to create new ways of working and gradually shifted the culture. PMID:15576686

  13. [Polish pharmaceutical organisations in Great Britain in the years 1943-1949].

    PubMed

    Dymarczyk, I

    2000-01-01

    In August 1943 a group of Polish pharmacists fighting in the armed forces in Great Britain established The Scientific Society of Polish Pharmacists of the Armed Forces. It was a military organisation. In September 1945 a professional organisation, named the Polish Pharmaceutical Association Abroad was formed in Scotland. The first chairman was Master of Pharmacy, Mateusz Bronisław Grabowski. This is the first study devoted to this subject, and the lecture will be prepared on the basis of material brought from London.

  14. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks.

  15. Towards a learning networked organisation: human capital, compatibility and usability in e-learning systems.

    PubMed

    Ivergård, Toni; Hunt, Brian

    2005-03-01

    In all parts of organisations there flourish developments of different new subsystems in areas of knowledge and learning. Over recent decades, new systems for classification of jobs have emerged both at the level of organisations and at a macro-labour market level. Recent developments in job evaluation systems make it possible to cope with the new demands for equity at work (between, for example, genders, races, physical abilities). Other systems have emerged to describe job requirements in terms of skills, knowledge and competence. Systems for learning at work and web-based learning have created a demand for new ways to classify and to understand the process of learning. Often these new systems have been taken from other areas of the organisation not directly concerned with facilitating workplace learning. All these new systems are of course closely interrelated but, in most organisations, a major problem is the severe lack of cohesion and compatibility between the different subsystems. The aim of this paper is to propose a basis for how different human resource systems can be integrated into the business development of an organisation. We discuss this problem and develop proposals alternative to integrated macro-systems. A key element in our proposition is a structure for classification of knowledge and skill to be used in all parts of the process. This structure should be used as an added dimension or an overlay on all other subsystems of the total process. This will facilitate a continued use of all existing systems within different organisations. We develop Burge's (personal communication) model for learning to show that learning is not a successive linear process, but rather an iterative process. In this way we emphasise the need for greater involvement of learners in the development of learning systems towards increased usability in a networked system. This paper is divided into two parts which are closely related. The first part gives an overview of the

  16. Setting or Mixed Ability? Teachers' Views of the Organisation of Pupils for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris M. M.; Sutherland, Margaret J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how staff in schools formulate decisions about pupil organisation. A small sample of primary and secondary schools from across Scotland was involved in the study. In 1996 Her Majesty's Inspectors published a report entitled "Achievement for All" (SOEID, 1996) which, it was envisaged, would form the basis of school…

  17. Setting or Mixed Ability?: Pupils' Views of the Organisational Arrangement in Their School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chris M. M.; Sutherland, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    In 1996 Her Majesty's Inspectors of schools published a report entitled "Achievement for All" (SOEID, 1996). This report identified a number of key principles governing the organisation of pupils by class, or within class, in Scottish schools and concluded that: The application of these principles does not give rise to one, universally best method…

  18. Symmetry breaking, germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Susanne C; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call 'gastruloids'.

  19. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  20. Organisational Change: Communicating to Schein's Operator, Engineer and Executive Occupational Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Geoffrey R.; Hayes, Kathryn J.; Sloan, Terry; Fitzgerald, Janna Anneke

    2011-01-01

    There has been substantial academic interest surrounding innovation, change management and the individual attributes that permit and promote learning, organisational change and innovative behaviour. This research uses a psychometric tool known as the Instinctive Drives System[R] to measure preferred working styles in 3943 employees from a range of…

  1. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  2. Students Educating Students: Insights from Organising an International, Interdisciplinary Conference on Surveillance and Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viteri, Maria-Amelia; Tobler, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the multiple ways in which anthropology graduate students crossed the boundaries of educational discourses by encouraging themselves, other students, activists and community leaders to speak in dialogical contexts (Giroux 2005: 73). They did this through the organisation of the Interrogating Diversity Conference. The…

  3. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  4. Boundaries as Mechanisms for Learning in Emergency Exercises with Students from Emergency Service Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    To prepare emergency response organisations for collaborative work in unpredictable and dynamic situations, various types of exercises are widely used. Still, our knowledge of collaboration exercises with emergency response students is limited. This study aimed to contribute to this field by exploring boundaries that emerged between collaborating…

  5. Between Immediacy and Imagination: The Place of the Educator and Organiser in Union Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Can the current education programme of the Australian trade union movement contribute to reviving union growth and union culture, develop new activists and leaders, and encourage and facilitate the organisational change needed to re-orient unions to develop broader alliances? Twenty-five Australian trade union leaders were asked to describe the…

  6. Organising Learning: Informal Workplace Learning in a Trade Union Child-Care Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Trade unions, like many other membership-based social movement organisations, are confronted by the challenge of growth and revitalisation. Declining membership numbers, an increasingly restrictive legislative framework, and dramatic changes in modes of employment have combined to challenge many unions to rethink the way they work. In…

  7. Using Insights from Email Users to Inform Organisational Email Management Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Judith; Renaud, Karen

    2012-01-01

    One would expect email substantially to increase organisational productivity and efficiency. There is little empirical evidence of this since email use is such a complex tool that it would be well nigh impossible to attribute efficiency increases solely to email. There is anecdotal evidence of the positive aspects of email (Phillips, S.R. and…

  8. Talent Development Environment and Workplace Adaptation: The Mediating Effects of Organisational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunasegaran, Mageswari; Ismail, Maimunah; Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Ramayah, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between talent development environment (TDE) variables of job focus and long-term development with the workplace adaptation (WA) of Malaysian professional returnees as mediated by the organisational support. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 respondents who are Malaysian professional…

  9. The Benefits of Management and Organisation: A Case Study in Young Language Learners' Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannikas, Christina Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on primary language education within a Greek region: specifically, on the positive effects of classroom management and organisation on a student-centred approach of teaching. In the case of the Greek education system, language teachers are encouraged to adopt student-centred approaches in their classroom but have not received…

  10. Creating a Learning Organisation within the Family Business: An Irish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdthistle, Naomi; Fleming, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to investigate how a learning organisation can be created within the framework of the family SME in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach--No comprehensive list of independent family businesses in Ireland was available. To overcome this problem a pragmatic approach was taken in the construction of a sampling…

  11. Initial Investigation of Organisational Factors Associated with the Implementation of Active Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyffe, Chris; McCubbery, Jeffrey; Reid, Katharine J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Active support (AS) has been shown to increase the amount of time that residents in shared residential settings are involved in purposeful activities. The organisational processes required to implement AS have been less well researched. Method: Staff in community houses answered questions about the occurrence of organisational…

  12. Skirts, Sarees and Sarongs: The Rhetoric and Reality behind the Celebration of Diversity in Organisational Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Farhad

    2009-01-01

    The article critically examines the ethos of the diversity movement in organisational life. The rationale for the diversity agenda is located within a particular turn taken by the philosophies of liberalism and multiculturalism. This results in the extreme idea that one ought not to criticise the ways and views of others--whatever they are.…

  13. The Perception of Error in Production Plants of a Chemical Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Jurgen; Hopfer, Eva

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable current interest in error-friendly corporate culture, one particular research question being how and under what conditions errors are learnt from in the workplace. This paper starts from the assumption that errors are inevitable and considers key factors which affect learning from errors in high responsibility organisations,…

  14. Planning and Organisation of Teachers' Continuous Professional Development in Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the planning and organisation of teachers' continuous professional development as part of the nationally representative "Schools and Continuing Professional Development in England--State of the Nation" research study (SoNS), commissioned by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA). Thematic analysis…

  15. Partnerships with Cultural Organisations: A Case for Partnerships Developed by Teacher Educators for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Narelle; Weller, Jacolyn

    2015-01-01

    New ways of working in teacher education are currently being highlighted, especially in relation to partnerships. One type of partnership that is under utilised is that with cultural organisations. This paper reports on two projects where the authors work with preservice teachers in partnership with a wildlife sanctuary and a national gallery.…

  16. Reimagining Gender through Policy Development: The Case of a "Single-Sex" Educational Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthirt Cohen, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, a feminist educational organisation in the USA for young women, ages 14-21, adopted a policy in order to clarify their target constituency of girls and young women. The policy defined "girls and young women" not as a designation associated with fixed biological sex, but instead as a self-determined identity label creating an explicit…

  17. Organisational Issues for E-Learning: Critical Success Factors as Identified by HE Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project that identified organisational critical success factors (CSFs) for e-learning implementation in higher education (HE). These CSFs can be used as a theoretical foundation upon which to base decision-making and strategic thinking about e-learning. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  18. Using the Research and Development in Organisations Model to Improve Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the application of the Research and Development in Organisations (RADIO) model to five action research projects carried out in schools around transition processes. The RADIO model is mapped onto all five studies, and adapting the model in order to include greater stakeholder participation is suggested. Reflections are made…

  19. The Psychology of Delivering a Psychological Service: Self-Organised Learning as a Model for Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Steve; Jenner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article describes how one Educational Psychology Service in the UK developed a service delivery based on self-organised learning (SOL). This model is linked to the paradigms and discourses within which educational psychology and special educational needs work. The work described here is dedicated to the memory of Brian Roberts, academic, close…

  20. Intergenerational Sharing of Knowledge as Means of Deepening the Organisational Learning Culture in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph; Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2016-01-01

    Learning organisations promote the transfer of insights to new personnel (vertical dimension) and the development of shared team knowledge (horizontal dimension). Educational research focuses mainly on the horizontal dimension. This study examined a theoretical framework combining both dimensions and its contribution to teachers' work. Three…

  1. The Effect of the Research Assessment Exercise on Organisational Culture in English Universities: Collegiality versus Managerialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Keiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify the effect of the research assessment exercise (RAE) on the balance between collegiality and managerialism in English universities. The article examines the institutional strategies for the 2001 RAE and its effect on organisational culture, identifying change in governance, management and leadership in…

  2. On the Determinants of Employment-Related Organised Education and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Staffan; Rubenson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of employment-related organised education and informal learning in the Canadian workforce. The paper draws on a large-scale survey, the Changing Nature of Work and Lifelong Learning (WALL), which was based on structured and standardised telephone interviews with a representative sample of 5783 Canadian members…

  3. The Relationships among Students' Commitment, Self-Esteem, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaola, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important dependent variables in education and work research, performance has been operationalised either as the proficiency with which core tasks are performed (task performance), or as extra-role behaviours that support core activities (organisational citizenship behaviours). Relative to academic performance (core academic…

  4. Reading in the Australian Curriculum English: Describing the Effects of Structure and Organisation on Multimodal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Beryl; Cottrell, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The recently introduced "Australian Curriculum: English" (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA), 2012) requires students to "read" multimodal text and describe the effects of structure and organisation. We begin this article by tracing the variable understandings of what reading multimodal text might…

  5. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  6. Implementing a Quality Management Framework in a Higher Education Organisation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Kim; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report and analyse the lessons learned from a case study on the implementation of a quality management system within an IT Division in a higher education (HE) organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a review of the relevant literatures and the use of primary sources such as document analysis,…

  7. The Impact of Organisational Support for Career Development on Career Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Belinda Renee; Bradley, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organisational support for career development (OSCD) and employees' career satisfaction. Based on an extended model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and an integrative model of proactive behaviours, the study proposed that career management behaviours would mediate…

  8. Organisational Learning Approaches to School Leadership and Management: Teachers' Values and Perceptions of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedder, David; MacBeath, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we report results of a survey of 1,397 teachers in 26 primary and 17 secondary schools in England as part of the Learning How to Learn project. We consider how school self-evaluation can be understood within an organisational learning frame. Factor analysis of teachers' responses helped us identify 4 dimensions of organisational…

  9. Quality Assurance Processes in Finnish Universities: Direct and Indirect Outcomes and Organisational Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapakorpi, Arja

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, quality assurance related to the Bologna process has been adapted to existing systems of higher education at the national level and a form of implementation is also recognised at the level of the higher education institution. In universities, varied outcomes of quality assurance are based on interaction of organisational structures,…

  10. Holding a Sustainability Bearing through Cutty-Grass and Clearings: Implementing Sustainability during Disruptive Organisational Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Chris; Jansen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article explores our experiences as faculty implementing a five year sustainability strategic plan within the Outdoor and Environmental Education (OEE) curriculum centre during a time of organisational restructuring. This paper builds on the work of Jansen and Boardman (2011) who describe the process of developing the strategic plan and some…

  11. Engineering Lecturers' Competencies and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) at Kyambogo University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagaari, James R. K.; Munene, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish the relevant competencies possessed by engineering lecturers and the relationship between those competencies and the exhibited organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Design/methodology/approach: The study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was qualitative using a competency interview…

  12. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  13. Towards an Agenda for Disability Research in Europe: Learning from Disabled People's Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Mark; Waddington, Lisa; Bessozi, Carlotta

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges of building capacity for collaborative participatory research with disabled people's organisations in European countries. The paper presents initial findings from the project "European Research Agendas for Disability Equality" (EuRADE), which seeks to build the capacity of civil society organisations…

  14. Second Language Learning in Campaign Organisations: Means for Endorsing Students' Social Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Ira

    2012-01-01

    The provision of second language courses is a means through which campaign organisations promoting a more egalitarian, integrated and inclusive society are trying to achieve their aims. It is expected that, through these classes, migrant students will be enabled to break their isolation and to become more socially involved. This paper explores…

  15. A Knowledge Management Technology Architecture for Educational Research Organisations: Scaffolding Research Projects and Workflow Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthukumar; Hedberg, John G.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing recognition that the economic climate of the world is shifting towards a knowledge-based economy where knowledge will be cherished as the most prized asset. In this regard, technology can be leveraged as a useful tool in effectually managing the knowledge capital of an organisation. Although several research studies have advanced…

  16. Benefits of Vocational Education and Training in Europe for People, Organisations and Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Giovanni; Bainbridge, Steve; Dunkel, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    People, organisations and governments invest in vocational education and training (VET) because of its positive outcomes, such as higher wages, improved productivity and economic growth. But VET also brings non-economic benefits, such as lower absenteeism and less crime. Research on VET's benefits has focused on specific relationships, such its…

  17. Organisational Communication and Its Relationships with Occupational Stress of Primary School Staff in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Nobile, John

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is an important issue for most occupations and often arises when the demands of the workplace become excessive or aspects of work are unpleasant. If left unmanaged occupational stress can lead to a range of outcomes that can cost organisations dearly, including burnout, physical sickness, absenteeism and turnover. Some aspects…

  18. A Study of Distress, Wellness and Organisational Role Stress among MBA Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajender

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Distress, Wellness and Organisational role stress of MBA professionals in the area of various companies and industries of Haryana. The effect of sex and age on the above variables were examined. Total 101 professionals (60 men and 41 women) were administered for the study. General Health Questionnaire-28…

  19. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  20. Role of Women in the Management of Police Organisation: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabat, Satya Narayan; Mishra, Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the emancipation and advancements of women all over the world in 21st century, women continue to be under-represented in management positions. The role of women as managers encompassed even those areas of work, which were earlier considered to be strongly man's domain like the police organisation. The objective of the study was to…

  1. Butterfly eyespot organiser: in vivo imaging of the prospective focal cells in pupal wing tissues

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Mayo; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M.

    2017-01-01

    Butterfly wing eyespot patterns are determined in pupal tissues by organisers located at the centre of the prospective eyespots. Nevertheless, organiser cells have not been examined cytochemically in vivo, partly due to technical difficulties. Here, we directly observed organiser cells in pupal forewing epithelium via an in vivo confocal fluorescent imaging technique, using 1-h post-pupation pupae of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. The prospective eyespot centre was indented from the plane of the ventral tissue surface. Three-dimensional reconstruction images revealed that the apical portion of “focal cells” at the bottom of the eyespot indentation contained many mitochondria. The mitochondrial portion was connected with a “cell body” containing a nucleus. Most focal cells had globular nuclei and were vertically elongated, but cells in the wing basal region had flattened nuclei and were tilted toward the distal direction. Epithelial cells in any wing region had cytoneme-like horizontal processes. From 1 h to 10 h post-pupation, nuclear volume increased, suggesting DNA synthesis during this period. Morphological differences among cells in different regions may suggest that organiser cells are developmentally ahead of cells in other regions and that position-dependent heterochronic development is a general mechanism for constructing colour patterns in butterfly wings. PMID:28094808

  2. Examining the Use of New Science Metaphors in the Learning Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years, the new science has become popular in management literature. This involves the use of metaphors from the field of science (e.g. mathematics, chemistry, physics and biology) in the field of management. This paper aims to examine the use of new science metaphors in learning organisation (LO) discourse and research.…

  3. Cultures of Silence and Cultures of Voice: The Role of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw TO

    2015-01-01

    ‘Whistleblowing’ has come to increased prominence in many health systems as a means of identifying and addressing quality and safety issues. But whistleblowing – and the reactions to it – have many complex and ambiguous aspects that need to be considered as part of the broader (organisational) cultural dynamics of healthcare institutions. PMID:26340388

  4. Assessing the Organisational Impact of External Quality Assurance: Hypothesising Key Dimensions and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Leiber, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide a framework in which the organisational impact of external quality assurance (EQA) can be assessed. Based on existing studies of the impact of EQA in universities and colleges it is suggested that greater systematisation of how impact is measured is needed for a better understanding of how EQA can be used as a…

  5. The Gown and the Korowai: Maori Doctoral Students and the Spatial Organisation of Academic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Sue; McKinley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on 38 student interviews carried out in the course of the team research project "Teaching and Learning in the Supervision of Maori Doctoral Students". Maori doctoral thesis work takes place in the intersections between the Maori (tribal) world of identifications and obligations, the organisational and epistemological…

  6. Organising, Educating, and Training: Varieties of Activist Learning in Left Social Movements in Sheffield (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, John

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on activist research working in an anti-deportation social movement, and on sixteen interviews with both experienced and less experienced activists between 2009 and 2011. The anti deportation social movement made up of a range of organisations, is identified as a left social movement situated in an historic producer…

  7. The Complexity Turn in Studies of Organisations and Leadership: Relevance and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Stig O.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread experience of complexity is the experience of radical unpredictability and loss of clear connections between cause and effect. The typical response from leaders and researchers is to suggest that more complex contexts require new ways of management control and that particular ways of organising and leading are better than others in…

  8. The Challenges of Adopting the Learning Organisation Philosophy in a Singapore School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.; Tee, Ng Pak

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a case study that examines how the Learning Organisation (LO) concept can be applied in a Singapore school and the challenges that the school faces in the process. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research inquiry was adopted using ethnographic methods. Data includes in-depth face-to-face interviews, observation of…

  9. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Hubert J.

    In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

  10. Prevention of Bullying in Early Educational Settings: Pedagogical and Organisational Factors Related to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that bullying behaviour begins at an early age (three to six years) and that preventive practices should target early educational settings. However, no previous studies focus on early educational settings (kindergartens) as an arena for bullying behaviour. The aim of this study was to find what kind of organisational and…

  11. Higher Education Mergers: Integrating Organisational Cultures and Developing Appropriate Management Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William

    2007-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that an unusually broad range of issues take on strategic significance in a merger and that organisational cultures are critical to the successful integration of staff, students and other stakeholders within a newly combined higher education institution (HEI). This study was based on two specialist higher education (HE)…

  12. The Empirical Relationship among Organisational Learning, Continuous Improvement and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hongyi; Ho, Kario; Ni, Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    There are still many questions remain unanswered about the relationship between Organisational Learning (OL) and Continuous Improvement (CI). For example, how do OL and CI contribute to business performance? Are OL and CI equal? Do OL and CI support each other? Should OL and CI be implemented separately or together? If together, how to integrate…

  13. Does Training Influence Organisational Performance?: Analysis of the Spanish Hotel Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubeda-Garcia, Mercedes; Marco-Lajara, Bartolome; Sabater-Sempere, Vicente; Garcia-Lillo, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify which variables of training policy have a significant and positive impact on organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: A targeted literature review was conducted to identify and collate a comprehensive range of human resource management and training conceptualisations/investigations. This…

  14. Transforming Schools into Democratic Organisations: The Case of the Secondary Schools Management Development Project in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monyatsi, Pedzani Perci

    2005-01-01

    As a democratic country which aims at nurturing and sustaining its envied democracy, organisations in Botswana are expected and encouraged to build and maintain democratic structures and principles. In September 1993, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Botswana and the then British Overseas Development Agency (ODA) launched an ambitious…

  15. The Integral University: Holistic Development of Individuals, Communities, Organisations and Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieffer, Alexander; Lessem, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    The article describes an approach towards a fully transformed university, coined Integral University. Linking Education (E), Research (R), Activation (A) and Catalysation (C), it can "CARE" for individual, organisation, communal and societal development. Within it, theory and practice, knowledge creation and transformative action go hand…

  16. Group Size and Organisational Conditions for Children's Learning in Preschool: A Teacher Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a limited amount of research about group size in preschool, and how it impacts on teachers' working conditions and their ability to support children's learning and knowledge development in line with curriculum intentions. Purpose: From a perspective on quality, this article examines the organisational conditions for children's…

  17. Distributing Leadership to Establish Developing and Learning School Organisations in the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljenberg, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is considered to be significant for creating a developing and learning school organisation. In Sweden, distributed leadership and teacher teams are an "institutionalised practice"; despite this, sustainable school improvement is difficult to achieve. This article presents findings from a case study of three schools that…

  18. Discrete Self-Organising Migrating Algorithm for Flow Shop Scheduling with no Wait Makespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel discrete Self Organising Migrating Algorithm for the task of flowshop scheduling with no-wait makespan. The new algorithm is tested with the small and medium Taillard benchmark problems and the obtained results are competitive with the best performing heuristics in literature.

  19. Relationship between Professional Learning Community, Bureaucratic Structure and Organisational Trust in Primary Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…

  20. Human Resource Management in Australian Registered Training Organisations: Literature Review and Discussion Starter. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This project seeks to establish the current state of human resource management practice in RTOs in Australia. The project takes a strategic approach, particularly in the case study phase where the research will attempt to examine the links between human resource management and the strategy of the organisation. The results of the project will…

  1. "It Just Makes You Feel Invincible": A Foucauldian Analysis of Children's Experiences of Organised Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Simon R.; Payne, Deborah; Schluter, Philip J.; Thomson, Rex W.

    2015-01-01

    The childhood years are highlighted as a crucial time when ongoing participation in physical activity can be nurtured and maintained. The nurturing of a child's proclivity to participate in organised sport normally falls into the domain of adults. While both parents and coaches have been identified as key influences on children's enjoyment of…

  2. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  3. Taking Charge at Any Age: Learning and Wellbeing by Older Men through Community Organisations in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares learning narratives associated with older men's participation in three community organisations in an Australian rural setting: an adult and community education provider, an emergency service organization and an aged care facility. The interview data are from a larger Australian study of learning in community…

  4. The Use of Learning Platforms to Organise Learning in English Primary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey; Clark, Wilma; Hadjithoma-Garstka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the use and potentials of Learning Platform (LP) technologies for organising learning in English primary and secondary schools. It reports on the findings of qualitative research on the benefits of LPs based on data from case studies in 12 "early adopting" English primary and secondary schools. The paper reports…

  5. Effects of the ISIS Recommender System for Navigation Support in Self-Organised Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; van den Berg, Bert; Eshuis, Jannes; Waterink, Wim; Nadolski, Rob; Berlanga, Adriana; Boers, Nanda; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The need to support users of the Internet with the selection of information is becoming more important. Learners in complex, self-organising Learning Networks have similar problems and need guidance to find and select most suitable learning activities, in order to attain their lifelong learning goals in the most efficient way. Several research…

  6. System Constellations as a Tool Supporting Organisational Learning and Change Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenkrahe, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Originally developed in the context of family therapy, system constellations are introduced using an organisational learning and system theoretical framework. Constellations are systemic group interventions using a spatial representation of the system elements. They correspond to deutero-learning processes and use higher-order systemic thinking.…

  7. How Organisational Culture Influences Teachers' Support of Openly Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the relationship between US high schools' organisational cultures and student perceptions of responses to anti-gay language in their school. Using data from 67 interviews with young people who identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, I compare teachers' responses to anti-gay language in schools that do and schools that do…

  8. Five Literatures of Organisation: Putting the Context Back into Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Paul; Raynor, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we develop the arguments of Glatter on the importance of adopting a more "organisation-oriented" approach to educational leadership development. Through a critical review of current publications and national courses in the field, we argue that educational leadership is still very skills focussed at the expense of more sophisticated…

  9. Informal Workplace Learning among Nurses: Organisational Learning Conditions and Personal Characteristics That Predict Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Vermeire, Eva; Cabus, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine which organisational learning conditions and individual characteristics predict the learning outcomes nurses achieve through informal learning activities. There is specific relevance for the nursing profession because of the rapidly changing healthcare systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 203 nurses…

  10. Safe paediatric intensive care. Part 2: workplace organisation, critical incident monitoring and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Frey, Bernhard; Argent, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    In order to optimise safety within the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU), it is essential to optimise organisation, identify problem areas and implement standards and guidelines for safe practice (with appropriate monitoring). Organisational issues have a major impact on safety: the introduction and-recently-centralisation of paediatric intensive care, the appointment of dedicated paediatric intensivists, nursing staffing, handovers, rounds, the number of work hours and night shifts with the associated problems of disturbed circadian rhythms. The technique of voluntary, anonymous, non-punitive critical incident reporting has the potential to identify incidents and latent errors before they become self-evident through a major incident. This systems approach focuses on organisational and communication problems. Standards and guidelines may help in weighing up the benefits and risks of invasive procedures, and interventional studies have shown that implementation of standards and guidelines can improve outcome. Mortality prediction models enable us to monitor quality of care and, thus, to investigate the best ways of organising intensive care and monitoring the effects of changes in practice.

  11. Programme Evaluation Theory: The Next Step toward a Synthesis of Logic Models and Organisational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, William J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the formulation of policy, at whatever level, to whatever scale or scope, is any different to the myriad of processes involved in strategic planning within and between organisations, and the attendant decision making processes that abound in such an environment (Hage, 1980; Hickson, 1987; Thompson, 1967; Weick, 1976). Those…

  12. Practical Work in Chemistry: Chemistry Students' Perceptions of Working Independently in a Less Organised Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Robert James

    2010-01-01

    A study of chemistry students in an organic practical class, where they were required to work on their own, found considerable benefits in allowing them to work independently in a less organised environment. Although apprehensive at first, they soon gained a self-belief in their own abilities and were able to complete the course with minimal input…

  13. International Organisations and the Evaluation of Education Systems: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to develop research involving a macro-level critical comparative analysis of reference documents produced by international organisations (UNDP, OECD, UNESCO, the World Bank and the European Union) which guide world education policy decisions. The primary objective was to consider the key guidelines currently defined for…

  14. Change, Technology and Higher Education: Are Universities Capable of Organisational Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the…

  15. Change, Technology and Higher Education: Are Universities Capable of Organisational Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the…

  16. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  17. Meeting the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation's (SCO) Challenges: What Role Can Technology Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Facing a collection of challenges, how can the Shanghai cooperation organisation (SCO) use technology to help improve cohesion, cope with enlargement, manage relations better with external parties, develop resources, advance economic cooperation between members, improve their speed of decision making and upgrade their quality of decision…

  18. Teacher Empowerment, Horizontal and Vertical Organisational Learning, and Positional Mobility in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the contribution of horizontal and vertical organisational learning and its timing to the effective integration of teachers in classes they have not previously taught. Three hundred and forty-five teachers from 64 schools, with at least 4 years of teaching experience, completed questionnaires about the extent of horizontal (OL)…

  19. Gen Y Recruitment: Understanding Graduate Intentions to Join an Organisation Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Lewis, Ioni; Banks, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework, the purpose of this paper is to explore whether the standard TPB constructs explained variance in Generation Y (Gen Y) individuals' intentions to join their ideal organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach was used featuring qualitative and quantitative…

  20. Alternative Organisational Learning Therapy: An Empirical Case Study Using Behaviour and U Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-An; Kuo, Tsung-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the concept and process of deeper learning, namely the U theory (Senge, Scharmer, Jaworski, & Flowers, 2004a). As a driver to get a deeper exploration of organisational change process, the theory of U goes beyond the interpersonal aspects of learning, instead focusing on a deeper personal generative learning that emphasizes…

  1. Safety in the operating theatre – Part 2: Human error and organisational failure*

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    2005-01-01

    

 Over the past decade, anaesthetists and human factors specialists have worked together to find ways of minimising the human contribution to anaesthetic mishaps. As in the functionally similar fields of aviation, process control and military operations, it is found that errors are not confined to those at the "sharp end". In common with other complex and well defended technologies, anaesthetic accidents usually result from the often unforeseeable combination of human and organisational failures in the presence of some weakness or gap in the system's many barriers and safeguards. Psychological factors such as inattention, distraction and forgetfulness are the last and often the least manageable aspects of the accident sequence. Whereas individual unsafe acts are hard to predict and control, the organisational and contextual factors that give rise to them are present before the occurrence of an incident or accident. As such, they are prime candidates for treatment. Errors at the sharp end are symptomatic of both human fallibility and underlying organisational failings. Fallibility is here to stay. Organisational and local problems, in contrast, are both diagnosable and manageable. PMID:15692005

  2. Career Orientations and Career Cultures: Individual and Organisational Approaches to Beginning Teachers' Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldwell, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very large literature on teacher careers from an individual perspective, there is relatively little that links the perspectives of teachers themselves to how schools as organisations approach careers. The aim of this paper is, first, to outline how teachers' orientations towards careers change across three dimensions, and, second, to…

  3. Education for Sustainability: The Contribution and Potential of a Non-Governmental Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joy A.; Birch, Joanna C.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports some of the findings of a recent comprehensive review of the education provision of The Wildlife Trusts UK, one of the UK's leading non-governmental organisations (NGOs) concerned with nature conservation. These findings are set within the context of current thinking on responsibility for education for sustainability. It…

  4. Scoping literature review on the Learning Organisation concept as applied to the health system.

    PubMed

    Akhnif, E; Macq, J; Idrissi Fakhreddine, M O; Meessen, B

    2017-03-01

    ᅟ: There is growing interest in the use of the management concept of a 'learning organisation'. The objective of this review is to explore work undertaken towards the application of this concept to the health sector in general and to reach the goal of universal health coverage in particular. Of interest are the exploration of evaluation frameworks and their application in health.

  5. Schooling, Organisation of the Constitutional Monarchy and the Education of Citizens (Brazil, 1822-1889)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Cynthia Greive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the process of institutionalisation of public elementary schooling associated with the political organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the legislation regarding citizen rights and prerogatives in Brazil, especially in the province of Minas Gerais, during the nineteenth century. During this…

  6. A Place for Organisational Critical Consciousness: Comparing Two Case Studies of Freirean Nonprofits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary goals of Freirean theory is the achievement of a higher level of political and social consciousness amongst participants in educational programming. Freire himself only loosely defined this sense of consciousness, and interpretations of how this abstract concept might look vary widely. In some organisations, the politically…

  7. Rethinking Networks in Education: Case Studies of Organisational Development Networks in Neoliberal Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2002 the National College for School Leadership in England launched what they claimed to be the biggest school networking initiative of its kind. The networks which were members of this programme involved schools working together to achieve shared priorities and can be viewed as examples of organisational development networks. These networks,…

  8. A Multi-Level Examination of Leadership Practices in Quality Management: Implications for Organisational Performance in Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdere, Mesut

    2007-01-01

    Organisations are continuously challenged to become more strategic, productive and cost-effective. As a result, quality management has become increasingly important to achieve desired organisational performance outcomes. Quality management considers leadership an important component to implement and sustain quality products and services to…

  9. International Organisations and the Shared Construction of Policy "Problems": Problematisation and Change in Education Governance in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grek, Sotiria

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, research has shown the ways that national governments have seemingly ceded some of their autonomy in education policy development to international organisations (IOs) in the context of globalisation and one of its conduits, Europeanisation. This article develops the idea that IOs, and particularly the Organisation for Economic…

  10. Exploring Organisational Stratification and Technological Pedagogical Change: Cases of Technology Integration Specialists in Hong Kong International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2015-01-01

    An international school may make organisational choices that divide the school by curriculum, grade-level, language and location. This article explores how a school's organisational stratification impacts how the school supports changing teaching and learning practices through technology. The article draws from case data of technology integration…

  11. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  12. Organisational Innovations in the Integration of Learning and Earning: Professional Development, Curriculum, Student Outcomes and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael; Cui, Guihua; Harreveld, Bobby

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into organisational innovations in Senior L/earning as these potentially relate to teachers' professional development, the curriculum and the outcomes for young adults. Specifically, this paper focuses on an investigation into organisational innovations in Senior L/earning in Queensland through a…

  13. Filling the Gaps: The Role and Impact of International Non-Governmental Organisations in "Education for All"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tota, Pasqua Marina

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the involvement of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in transnational education policy-making, with particular reference to the global initiative Education for All (EFA). EFA is a policy process carried out by international governmental organisations (IGOs) with the main aim to achieve basic education for…

  14. The Organisation and the Recontextualization of "Rika" (School Science) Education in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isozaki, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author considers the organisation and the recontextualization of "Rika" (School Science) in the second half of the nineteenth century in Japan. In considering developments, the author set up analyses points based on curriculum politics and concluded that the organisation and the recontextualization of "Rika"…

  15. Emergency and crisis management: critical incident stress management for first responders and business organisations.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was performed on critical incident stress after September 11th, 2001 (9/11), and Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which focused on the need to implement a holistic critical incident stress management programme for first responders and business organisations. Critical incident stress management is required to handle acute stress and other distress in the face of natural or man-made disasters, including terrorist attacks. A holistic approach to community resilience through a well-planned and implemented critical incident stress management programme has been shown in the literature to promote self-help and self-efficacy of individuals and organisations. The interventions and programme elements defined clearly show how a number of different intervention and prevention strategies will promote business and community resilience and also self-efficacy in a culturally-diverse community and organisation. Implementing a critical incident stress management programme within a responding business organisation is critical because of the fact that first responders are the most susceptible every day to exposure to critical incidents that will affect their mental health; and business employees will suffer some of the same maladies as first responders in the event of a disaster or crisis. Utilising the framework provided, a holistic critical incident stress management programme can be implemented to help reduce the effects of burnout, absenteeism, acute stress, post-traumatic stress, substance use and traumatic stress, and to work to promote community resilience and toughen individuals against the effects of stress. Taking care of the needs of the employees of a business organisation, and of those of first responders, is clearly required.

  16. Impacts of Intensive Logging on the Trophic Organisation of Ant Communities in a Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Newton, Rob J.; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  17. Impacts of intensive logging on the trophic organisation of ant communities in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Newton, Rob J; Vun Khen, Chey; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging

  18. Effectiveness of organisational infrastructures to promote evidence-based nursing practice

    PubMed Central

    Flodgren, Gerd; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena; Cole, Nick; Foxcroft, David R

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses and midwives form the bulk of the clinical health workforce and play a central role in all health service delivery. There is potential to improve health care quality if nurses routinely use the best available evidence in their clinical practice. Since many of the factors perceived by nurses as barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) lie at the organisational level, it is of interest to devise and assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures designed to promote EBP among nurses. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of organisational infrastructures in promoting evidence-based nursing. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, BIREME, IBECS, NHS Economic Evaluations Database, Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes up to 9 March 2011. We developed a new search strategy for this update as the strategy published in 2003 omitted key terms. Additional search methods included: screening reference lists of relevant studies, contacting authors of relevant papers regarding any further published or unpublished work, and searching websites of selected research groups and organisations. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted times series (ITSs) and controlled before and after studies of an entire or identified component of an organisational infrastructure intervention aimed at promoting EBP in nursing. The participants were all healthcare organisations comprising nurses, midwives and health visitors. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. For the ITS analysis, we reported the change in the slopes of the regression lines, and the change in the level effect of the outcome at 3

  19. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  20. Embedding effective depression care: using theory for primary care organisational and systems change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression and related disorders represent a significant part of general practitioners (GPs) daily work. Implementing the evidence about what works for depression care into routine practice presents a challenge for researchers and service designers. The emerging consensus is that the transfer of efficacious interventions into routine practice is strongly linked to how well the interventions are based upon theory and take into account the contextual factors of the setting into which they are to be transferred. We set out to develop a conceptual framework to guide change and the implementation of best practice depression care in the primary care setting. Methods We used a mixed method, observational approach to gather data about routine depression care in a range of primary care settings via: audit of electronic health records; observation of routine clinical care; and structured, facilitated whole of organisation meetings. Audit data were summarised using simple descriptive statistics. Observational data were collected using field notes. Organisational meetings were audio taped and transcribed. All the data sets were grouped, by organisation, and considered as a whole case. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was identified as an analytical theory to guide the conceptual framework development. Results Five privately owned primary care organisations (general practices) and one community health centre took part over the course of 18 months. We successfully developed a conceptual framework for implementing an effective model of depression care based on the four constructs of NPT: coherence, which proposes that depression work requires the conceptualisation of boundaries of who is depressed and who is not depressed and techniques for dealing with diffuseness; cognitive participation, which proposes that depression work requires engagement with a shared set of techniques that deal with depression as a health problem; collective action, which proposes that

  1. Quantifying the effects of resolution on convective organisation in cloud-system resolving simulations of West Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bethan; Stier, Philip; Birch, Cathryn

    2016-04-01

    Convection transports moisture, momentum, heat and aerosols through the troposphere, and so the variability of convection is a major driver of global weather and climate. Convection in the tropics is organised across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales, from the few kilometres and hours associated with individual cloud systems, through the mesoscale of squall lines and cloud clusters, to the synoptic scale of tropical cyclones. Global and limited area models often fail to represent many of these scales of organisation, and the interaction between the scales remains poorly understood. In this work we devise a new metric to quantify the degree of convective organisation. We apply this metric to data from simulations of the West African Monsoon region from the CASCADE project, where simulations were performed using the Met Office Unified Model at 12 km horizontal grid length with parameterised convection, and at 12, 4 and 1.5 km horizontal grid lengths with permitted convection. This allows us to perform quantitative analysis of convective organisation across model configurations that experience the same large-scale state and differ only in horizontal grid length and representation of deep convection. We show that our analysis technique can be usefully applied to high-resolution, cloud-system resolving, large-domain simulations of tropical convection. We use our technique to quantify the effects of horizontal grid length and of convective parameterisation on the degree of organisation in the simulated convection, and investigate the spatiotemporal variability of the convective organisation in the different model configurations. We then determine relationships between the degree of convective organisation and precipitation. Further, we compare our results against equivalent parameters derived from satellite data to identify how well each of the model configurations performs against observations. Through the use of this new metric, this work provides a quantitative

  2. An empirically-derived approach for investigating Health Information Technology: the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the Elementally Entangled Organisational Communication (EEOC) framework by drawing on a set of three case studies which assessed the impact of new Health Information Technology (HIT) on a pathology service. The EEOC framework was empirically developed as a tool to tackle organisational communication challenges in the implementation and evaluation of health information systems. Methods The framework was synthesised from multiple research studies undertaken across a major metropolitan hospital pathology service during the period 2005 to 2008. These studies evaluated the impact of new HIT systems in pathology departments (Laboratory Information System) and an Emergency Department (Computerised Provider Order Entry) located in Sydney, Australia. Results Key dimensions of EEOC are illustrated by the following case studies: 1) the communication infrastructure between the Blood Bank and the ward for the coordination and distribution of blood products; 2) the organisational environment in the Clinical Chemistry and Haematology departments and their attempts to organise, plan and control the processing of laboratory specimens; and 3) the temporal make up of the organisation as revealed in changes to the way the Central Specimen Reception allocated, sequenced and synchronised work tasks. Conclusions The case studies not only highlight the pre-existing communication architecture within the organisation but also the constitutive role communication plays in the way organisations go about addressing their requirements. HIT implementation involves a mutual transformation of the organisation and the technology. This is a vital consideration because of the dangers associated with poor organisational planning and implementation of HIT, and the potential for unintended adverse consequences, workarounds and risks to the quality and safety of patient care. The EEOC framework aims to account for the complex range of contextual

  3. Understanding the social organisation of maternity care systems: midwifery as a touchstone.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Cecilia; Wrede, Sirpa; Bourgeault, Ivy; Sandall, Jane; De Vries, Raymond; van Teijlingen, Edwin R

    2005-09-01

    Theories of professions and healthcare organisation have difficulty in explaining variation in the organisation of maternity services across developed welfare states. Four countries - the United Kingdom, Finland, the Netherlands and Canada - serve as our case examples. While sharing several features, including political and economic systems, publicly-funded universal healthcare and favourable health outcomes, these countries nevertheless have distinct maternity care systems. We use the profession of midwifery, found in all four countries, as a 'touchstone' for exploring the sources of this diversity. Our analysis focuses on three key dimensions: (1) welfare state approaches to legalising midwifery and negotiating the role of the midwife in the division of labour; (2) professional boundaries in the maternity care domain; and (3) consumer mobilisation in support of midwifery and around maternity issues.

  4. Narrative organisation at encoding facilitated children's long-term episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory.

  5. Building organisational cyber resilience: A strategic knowledge-based view of cyber security management.

    PubMed

    Ferdinand, Jason

    The concept of cyber resilience has emerged in recent years in response to the recognition that cyber security is more than just risk management. Cyber resilience is the goal of organisations, institutions and governments across the world and yet the emerging literature is somewhat fragmented due to the lack of a common approach to the subject. This limits the possibility of effective collaboration across public, private and governmental actors in their efforts to build and maintain cyber resilience. In response to this limitation, and to calls for a more strategically focused approach, this paper offers a knowledge-based view of cyber security management that explains how an organisation can build, assess, and maintain cyber resilience.

  6. How is cyber threat evolving and what do organisations need to consider?

    PubMed

    Borrett, Martin; Carter, Roger; Wespi, Andreas

    Organisations and members of the public are becoming accustomed to the increasing velocity, frequency and variety of cyber-attacks that they have been facing over the last few years. In response to this challenge, it is important to explore what can be done to offer commercial and private users a reliable and functioning environment. This paper discusses how cyber threats might evolve in the future and seeks to explore these threats more fully. Attention is paid to the changing nature of cyber-attackers and their motivations and what this means for organisations. Finally, useful and actionable steps are provided, which practitioners can use to understand how they can start to address the future challenges of cyber security.

  7. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    PubMed

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-05

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach.

  8. Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis complicated by a central peribronchial pattern of organising pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Maria M; Ahmed, Asia; Carpenter, Ben; Brown, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    We present five cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurring in patients after recent T cell deplete allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). These cases were complicated by an organising pneumonia (during the recovery period) with a predominantly central peribronchial pattern. All patients presented with evidence of active CMV pneumonitis which was treated successfully with anti-viral therapy but was followed by persistent severe dyspnoea, cough and hypoxia. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging showed widespread central peribronchial consolidation with traction bronchiectasis. There was a marked clinical and physiological improvement after treatment with systemic corticosteroids. However, in all patients the lung function remained abnormal and in some cases imaging revealed a fibrosing lung disease. These cases represent a previously undescribed central peribronchial pattern of organising pneumonia complicating CMV pneumonitis that can result in chronic lung damage.

  9. Learning organisations: the challenge of finding a safe space in a climate of accountability.

    PubMed

    McKee, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The effects of health policy reforms over a twenty-five year period have changed the NHS as a place in which to work and learn. Some of these changes have had unintentional consequences for learning in the workplace. A recent King's Fund contribution to quality improvement debates included an extensive review of NHS policies encouraging change 'from within' the NHS and renewed calls to develop learning organisations there. I draw upon an action research project designed to develop learning organisations in primary care to locate quality improvement debates amid the realities of practice. The project identified key challenges primary care practices encountered to protect time and space for this form of work based learning, even when they recognised the need for it and wanted to engage in it. Implications for policy makers, primary care practices and health professional educationalists are identified.

  10. The relationship between the World Trade Organisation and the Office International des Epizooties.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    1997-04-01

    The provisions of the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures are designed to extend the liberalisation of trade, without increasing the risk to public, animal or plant health. The international standards set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) will be used as a benchmark by World Trade Organisation panels and committees when evaluating national sanitary-based regulations. For a significant liberalisation of trade to be achieved, Member Countries are faced with a dual mandate: a) each country must put these concepts into practice when making import/export decisions; and b) each country must make the commitment to support the OIE in its efforts to develop and review sanitary standards. Of equal importance to the application of standards is the cultural change that trade and regulatory communities must undergo. The author examines the role of Member Countries and the OIE in the implementation of this important agreement.

  11. Cytoplasmic streaming emerges naturally from hydrodynamic self-organisation of a microfilament suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Francis; Goldstein, Raymond

    2013-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is the ubiquitous phenomenon of deliberate, active circulation of the entire liquid contents of a plant or animal cell by the walking of motor proteins on polymer filament tracks. Its manifestation in the plant kingdom is particularly striking, where many cells exhibit highly organised patterns of flow. How these regimented flow templates develop is biologically unclear, but there is growing experimental evidence to support hydrodynamically-mediated self-organisation of the underlying microfilament tracks. Using the spirally-streaming giant internodal cells of the characean algae Chara and Nitella as our prototype, we model the developing sub-cortical streaming cytoplasm as a continuum microfilament suspension subject to hydrodynamic and geometric forcing. We show that our model successfully reproduces emergent streaming behaviour by evolving from a totally disordered initial state into a steady characean ``conveyor belt'' configuration as a consequence of the cell geometry, and discuss applicability to other classes of steadily streaming plant cells.

  12. Brain sex differences and the organisation of juvenile social play behaviour.

    PubMed

    Auger, A P; Olesen, K M

    2009-06-01

    Juvenile social play behaviour is one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviour in rodents. Juvenile social play behaviour is sexually dimorphic, with males exhibiting higher levels compared to females, making it a useful model to study both social development and sexual differentiation of the brain. As with most sexually dimorphic behaviour, juvenile play behaviour is organised by neonatal steroid hormone exposure. The developmental organisation of juvenile play behaviour also appears to be influenced by the early maternal environment. This review will focus briefly on why and how rats play, some brain regions controlling play behaviour, and how neurotransmitters and the social environment converge within the developing brain to influence sexual differentiation of juvenile play behaviour.

  13. Future Research in Agile Systems Development: Applying Open Innovation Principles Within the Agile Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conboy, Kieran; Morgan, Lorraine

    A particular strength of agile approaches is that they move away from ‘introverted' development and intimately involve the customer in all areas of development, supposedly leading to the development of a more innovative and hence more valuable information system. However, we argue that a single customer representative is too narrow a focus to adopt and that involvement of stakeholders beyond the software development itself is still often quite weak and in some cases non-existent. In response, we argue that current thinking regarding innovation in agile development needs to be extended to include multiple stakeholders outside the business unit. This paper explores the intra-organisational applicability and implications of open innovation in agile systems development. Additionally, it argues for a different perspective of project management that includes collaboration and knowledge-sharing with other business units, customers, partners, and other relevant stakeholders pertinent to the business success of an organisation, thus embracing open innovation principles.

  14. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Gallay, Steve A.; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P.

    2016-10-01

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  15. The role of the organisational psychologist in disasters and emergency situations.

    PubMed

    San Juan Guillén, César

    2011-04-01

    Interventions in extreme situations, such as natural or technological disasters, terrorist attacks or emergencies in general, take place in settings of great uncertainty and are always accompanied by extraordinary circumstances. For this reason, there are various processes related to implementing intervention protocols that must be carefully examined, including an evaluation of work scenarios, personnel selection, within-group relationships in work teams, decision-making processes, or certain peculiarities of burnout among emergency personnel. In the view of this author, an ad hoc review of the role of the organisational psychologist can highlight interesting analysis and performance possibilities that could make work in emergency and disasters contexts more effective. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of the organisational psychologist pre-and post-disaster. Furthermore, it supports the idea that professional profiles must be designed that take into account specific knowledge and skills, as well as certain aptitudes and values.

  16. Electronic patient information systems and care pathways: the organisational challenges of implementation and integration.

    PubMed

    Dent, Mike; Tutt, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Our interest here is with the 'marriage' of e-patient information systems with care pathways in order to deliver integrated care. We report on the development and implementation of four such pathways within two National Health Service primary care trusts in England: (a) frail elderly care, (b) stroke care, (c) diabetic retinopathy screening and (d) intermediate care. The pathways were selected because each represents a different type of information and data 'couplings', in terms of task interdependency with some pathways/systems reflecting more complex coordinating patterns than others. Our aim here is identify and explain how health professionals and information specialists in two organisational National Health Service primary care trusts organisationally construct and use such systems and, in particular, the implications this has for issues of professional and managerial control and autonomy. The article is informed by an institutionalist analysis.

  17. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach

    PubMed Central

    MONTANO, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  18. Tools, techniques, organisation and culture of the CADD group at Sygnature Discovery.

    PubMed

    St-Gallay, Steve A; Sambrook-Smith, Colin P

    2016-10-31

    Computer-aided drug design encompasses a wide variety of tools and techniques, and can be implemented with a range of organisational structures and focus in different organisations. Here we outline the computational chemistry skills within Sygnature Discovery, along with the software and hardware at our disposal, and briefly discuss the methods that are not employed and why. The goal of the group is to provide support for design and analysis in order to improve the quality of compounds synthesised and reduce the timelines of drug discovery projects, and we reveal how this is achieved at Sygnature. Impact on medicinal chemistry is vital to demonstrating the value of computational chemistry, and we discuss the approaches taken to influence the list of compounds for synthesis, and how we recognise success. Finally we touch on some of the areas being developed within the team in order to provide further value to the projects and clients.

  19. Update of KEYnet: a gene and protein names database for biosequences functional organisation.

    PubMed

    Catalano, D; Licciulli, F; D'Elia, D; Attimonelli, M

    2000-01-01

    KEYnet is a database where gene and protein names are hierarchically structured. Particular care has been devoted to the search and organisation of synonyms. The structuring is based on biological criteria in order to assist the user in data search and to minimise the risk of information loss. Links to the EMBL data library by the entry name and the accession number are implemented. KEYnet is available through the WWW at the following site: http://www.ba.cnr.it/keynet.html

  20. Social Capacity Assessment for communities and organisations in the CapHaz-Net context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begg, C.; Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.; Luther, J.

    2012-04-01

    Instead of focusing on physical conditions of a hazard, CapHaz-Net regards the occurrence of a disaster as a result of people, communities and organisations lacking capacities to anticipate, cope with and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. Therefore, the CapHaz-Net project has pooled together knowledge surrounding six topics relating to the social side of natural hazards. These theoretical topics, which include social capacity building, risk governance, social vulnerability, risk perception, risk communication and risk education have been reviewed in terms of how they relate to and how we can improve actions relating to natural hazards. One of the results of this work has been the development of capacities typology that relates to the abilities and resources available to organisations and communities in regards to a future hazard event. It is from this typology we have developed two social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. The final outcome of the project is to develop recommendations. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. Most importantly, the assessment process is designed to be a self-assessment, completed by members of the community/organisation with the help of a facilitator. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  1. How reliable are clinical systems in the UK NHS? A study of seven NHS organisations

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; Moorthy, Krishna; Cooke, Matthew W; Vincent, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that many healthcare systems have poor reliability; however, the size and pervasiveness of this problem and its impact has not been systematically established in the UK. The authors studied four clinical systems: clinical information in surgical outpatient clinics, prescribing for hospital inpatients, equipment in theatres, and insertion of peripheral intravenous lines. The aim was to describe the nature, extent and variation in reliability of these four systems in a sample of UK hospitals, and to explore the reasons for poor reliability. Methods Seven UK hospital organisations were involved; each system was studied in three of these. The authors took delivery of the systems' intended outputs to be a proxy for the reliability of the system as a whole. For example, for clinical information, 100% reliability was defined as all patients having an agreed list of clinical information available when needed during their appointment. Systems factors were explored using semi-structured interviews with key informants. Common themes across the systems were identified. Results Overall reliability was found to be between 81% and 87% for the systems studied, with significant variation between organisations for some systems: clinical information in outpatient clinics ranged from 73% to 96%; prescribing for hospital inpatients 82–88%; equipment availability in theatres 63–88%; and availability of equipment for insertion of peripheral intravenous lines 80–88%. One in five reliability failures were associated with perceived threats to patient safety. Common factors causing poor reliability included lack of feedback, lack of standardisation, and issues such as access to information out of working hours. Conclusions Reported reliability was low for the four systems studied, with some common factors behind each. However, this hides significant variation between organisations for some processes, suggesting that some organisations have managed to create

  2. From genes to genomes: universal scale-invariant properties of microbial chromosome organisation.

    PubMed

    Audit, Benjamin; Ouzounis, Christos A

    2003-09-19

    The availability of complete genome sequences for a large variety of organisms is a major advance in understanding genome structure and function. One attribute of genome structure is chromosome organisation in terms of gene localisation and orientation. For example, bacterial operons, i.e. clusters of co-oriented genes that form transcription units, enable functionally related genes to be expressed simultaneously. The description of genome organisation was pioneered with the study of the distribution of genes of the Escherichia coli partial genetic map before the full genome sequence was known. Deploying powerful techniques from circular statistics and signal processing, we revisit the issue of gene localisation and orientation using 89 complete microbial chromosomes from the eubacterial and archaeal domains. We demonstrate that there is no characteristic size pertinent to the description of chromosome structure, e.g. there does not exist any single length appropriate to describe gene clustering. Our results show that, for all 89 chromosomes, gene positions and gene orientations share a common form of scale-invariant correlations known as "long-range correlations" that we can reveal for distances from the gene length, up to the chromosome size. This observation indicates that genes tend to assemble and to co-orient over any scale of observation greater than a few kilobases. This unexpected property of chromosome structure can be portrayed as an operon-like organisation at all scales and implies that a complete scale range extending over more than three orders of magnitudes of chromosome segment lengths is necessary to properly describe prokaryotic genome organisation. We propose that this pattern results from the effects of the superhelical context on gene expression coupled with the structure and dynamics of the nucleoid, possibly accommodating the diverse gene expression profiles needed during the different stages of cellular life.

  3. Adsorption, Mobility and Organisation of Organic Molecules at Clay Surfaces Probed by Photophysics and Photochemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    unambiguous. The time-dependent fluorescence of the organo - clay systems, has also been studied. Several functions have been used to describe the...ADSORPTION, MOBILITY AND ORGANISATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AT CLAY SURFACES PROBED BY PHOTOPHYSICS AND Lfl PHOTOCHEMISTRY C~%I SIXTH INTERIM REPORT...CONTENTS A.-iluster formation of detergents on the clay surface. B. kdsorption of aromatic compounds on colloidal silica C.-ttudy of the fluorescence decay

  4. Learning from the implementation of inter-organisational web-based care planning and coordination.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rae; Blacker, Vivian; Pandita, Linda; Close, Jacky; Mason, Wendy; Watson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In Victoria, despite strong policy support, e-care planning and coordination is poorly developed. The action research project discussed here was developed to overcome organisational and worker-level barriers to change. The project outcomes highlighted the need for work on the building blocks of e-care coordination that enhance workers' knowledge and skills, and provide permission and support for appropriate collaborative system and services coordination practices.

  5. Bring It On, Complexity! Present and Future of Self-Organising Middle-Out Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammen, Sebastian Von; Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp

    The following sections are included: * The Great Complexity Challenge * Self-Organising Middle-Out Abstraction * Optimising Graphics, Physics and Artificial Intelligence * Emergence and Hierarchies in a Natural System * The Technical Concept of SOMO * Observation of interactions * Interaction pattern recognition and behavioural abstraction * Creating and adjusting hierarchies * Confidence measures * Execution model * Learning SOMO: parameters, knowledge propagation, and procreation * Current Implementations * Awareness Beyond Virtuality * Integration and emergence * Model inference * SOMO net * SOMO after me * The Future of SOMO

  6. Training Drivers, Competitive Strategy and Clients' Needs: Case Studies of Three Business Process Outsourcing Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that drive a firm's decision to invest in training in India's IT-enabled services/business process outsourcing (ITeS/BPO) sector. It aims to consider a much-neglected area and an often-cited need to consider external factors, especially the needs of an organisation's clients in a firm's…

  7. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  8. The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alex B

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting.

  9. [GPs' self-perception of their own role compared with hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians].

    PubMed

    Daghio, Maria Monica; Gaglianò, Giuseppe; Bevini, Massimo; Cadioli, Tiziano; Delvecchio, Carlo; Guidetti, Patrizia; Lorenzetti, Manuela; Fattori, Giuseppe; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria

    2005-05-01

    Aim of the present study was to explore how the 76 general practitioners (GPs) - serving Carpi district (90,000 residents) - value their own role compared with the hospital, ambulatory, academic, and health organisation physicians'. GPs had a positive self-image only in comparison with health organisation doctors (7 vs 7 grades). GPs disappointed with themselves when comparing their role with ambulatory (-1.6 grades), academic (-1.9 grades) and hospital doctors (-2.2 grades). Secondarily, GPs perceived patients' valuing their professional role mostly 'subordinate' to the other physicians', except health organisation colleagues'.

  10. Nuclear organisation in totipotent human nuclei and its relationship to chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Finch, Katie A; Fonseka, Gothami; Ioannou, Dimitris; Hickson, Nicholas; Barclay, Zoe; Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Mantzouratou, Anna; Handyside, Alan; Delhanty, Joy; Griffin, Darren K

    2008-03-01

    Studies of nuclear organisation, most commonly determining the nuclear location of chromosome territories and individual loci, have furthered our understanding of nuclear function, differentiation and disease. In this study, by examining eight loci on different chromosomes, we tested hypotheses that: (1) totipotent human blastomeres adopt a nuclear organisation akin to that of committed cells; (2) nuclear organisation is different in chromosomally abnormal blastomeres; and (3) human blastomeres adopt a ;chromocentre' pattern. Analysis of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) conceptuses permits valuable insight into the cell biology of totipotent human nuclei. Here, extrapolations from images of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cases were used to make comparisons between totipotent blastomeres and several committed cells, showing some differences and similarities. Comparisons between chromosomally abnormal nuclei and those with no detected abnormality (NDA) suggest that the former display a significant non-random pattern for all autosomal loci, but there is a less distinct, possibly random, pattern in 'NDA' nuclei. No evidence was found that the presence of an extra chromosome is accompanied by an altered nuclear location for that chromosome. Centromeric loci on chromosomes 15 and 16 normally seen at the nuclear periphery were mostly centrally located in aneuploid cells, providing some evidence of a 'chromocentre'; however, the chromosome-18 centromere was more peripheral, similar to committed cells. Our results provide clues to the nature of totipotency in human cells and might have future applications for preimplantation diagnosis and nuclear transfer.

  11. Defining the hierarchical organisation of collagen VI microfibrils at nanometre to micrometre length scales.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Alan R F; Starborg, Tobias; Sherratt, Michael J; Roseman, Alan M; Baldock, Clair

    2016-12-10

    Extracellular matrix microfibrils are critical components of connective tissues with a wide range of mechanical and cellular signalling functions. Collagen VI is a heteromeric network-forming collagen which is expressed in tissues such as skin, lung, blood vessels and articular cartilage where it anchors cells into the matrix allowing for transduction of biochemical and mechanical signals. It is not understood how collagen VI is arranged into microfibrils or how these microfibrils are arranged into tissues. Therefore we have characterised the hierarchical organisation of collagen VI across multiple length scales. The frozen hydrated nanostructure of purified collagen VI microfibrils was reconstructed using cryo-TEM. The bead region has a compact hollow head and flexible tail regions linked by the collagenous interbead region. Serial block face SEM imaging coupled with electron tomography of the pericellular matrix (PCM) of murine articular cartilage revealed that the PCM has a meshwork-like organisation formed from globular densities ∼30nm in diameter. These approaches can characterise structures spanning nanometer to millimeter length scales to define the nanostructure of individual collagen VI microfibrils and the micro-structural organisation of these fibrils within tissues to help in the future design of better mimetics for tissue engineering.

  12. [Patient-centred care in rare diseases. A patient organisations' perspective].

    PubMed

    Reimann, A; Bend, J; Dembski, B

    2007-12-01

    Patients living with rare diseases have special common needs. Although the 5,000-6,000 rare diseases are very different, many patients share the experience of a time-consuming and sometimes frustrating journey towards diagnosis, the lack of established standards of care and foremost the search for competent physicians. Because of their complexity, rare diseases mostly demand an interdisciplinary and cross-sectional medical care. The model of the "patient-centred health-care value chain" explains how primary (prevention, diagnosis, treatment) and secondary activities (exchange of information, quality management, identification of unmet needs, research and development) contribute to the patient benefit applying a holistic approach. This model thereby prevents an isolated view from the perspective of single health-care providers. A survey to which 21 German patient-organisations in the rare-disease field contributed, was performed to obtain insight into preferred medical care concepts and preferences in the way that care is provided. The results clearly suggest that the patient organisations have a clear view on how disease-specific care should be delivered; however, in reality those preferences seem to be met to a minor extent in Germany at present. According to patient organisations, rare-disease patient care should always be a patient- centred, interdisciplinary and holistic effort. The solidaric health-care system in Germany provides an excellent basis for this kind of medical care. However, a new patient- rather than system-oriented approach is needed to make it work in reality.

  13. Individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors of healthcare conflict: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Bochatay, Naike; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Buttrick, Elizabeth; Amdahl, Chris; Kim, Laura; Frans, Elise; Mossanen, Matthew; Khandekar, Azhar; Fehr, Ryan; Lee, Young-Mee

    2017-02-22

    Unresolved conflicts among healthcare professionals can lead to difficult patient care consequences. This scoping review examines the current healthcare literature that reported sources and consequences of conflict associated with individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors. We identified 99 articles published between 2001 and 2015 from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Excerpta Medical Database. Most reviewed studies relied on healthcare professionals' perceptions and beliefs associated with conflict sources and consequences, with few studies reporting behavioural or organisational change outcomes. Individual conflict sources included personal traits, such as self-focus, self-esteem, or worldview, as well as individuals' conflict management styles. These conflicts posed threats to one's physical, mental, and emotional health and to one's ability to perform at work. Interpersonal dynamics were hampered by colleagues' uncivil behaviours, such as low degree of support, to more destructive behaviours including bullying or humiliation. Perceptions of disrespectful working environment and weakened team collaboration were the main interpersonal conflict consequences. Organisational conflict sources included ambiguity in professional roles, scope of practice, reporting structure, or workflows, negatively affecting healthcare professionals' job satisfactions and intent to stay. Future inquiries into healthcare conflict research may target the following: shifting from research involving single professions to multiple professions; dissemination of studies via journals that promote interprofessional research; inquiries into the roles of unconscious or implicit bias, or psychological capital (i.e., resilience) in healthcare conflict; and diversification of data sources to include hospital or clinic data with implications for conflict sources.

  14. Cortical microtubule nucleation can organise the cytoskeleton of Drosophila oocytes to define the anteroposterior axis

    PubMed Central

    Khuc Trong, Philipp; Doerflinger, Hélène; Dunkel, Jörn; St Johnston, Daniel; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    Many cells contain non-centrosomal arrays of microtubules (MTs), but the assembly, organisation and function of these arrays are poorly understood. We present the first theoretical model for the non-centrosomal MT cytoskeleton in Drosophila oocytes, in which bicoid and oskar mRNAs become localised to establish the anterior-posterior body axis. Constrained by experimental measurements, the model shows that a simple gradient of cortical MT nucleation is sufficient to reproduce the observed MT distribution, cytoplasmic flow patterns and localisation of oskar and naive bicoid mRNAs. Our simulations exclude a major role for cytoplasmic flows in localisation and reveal an organisation of the MT cytoskeleton that is more ordered than previously thought. Furthermore, modulating cortical MT nucleation induces a bifurcation in cytoskeletal organisation that accounts for the phenotypes of polarity mutants. Thus, our three-dimensional model explains many features of the MT network and highlights the importance of differential cortical MT nucleation for axis formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06088.001 PMID:26406117

  15. Management matters: the link between hospital organisation and quality of patient care

    PubMed Central

    West, E.

    2001-01-01

    Some hospital trusts and health authorities consistently outperform others on different dimensions of performance. Why? There is some evidence that "management matters", as well as the combined efforts of individual clinicians and teams. However, studies that have been conducted on the link between the organisation and management of services and quality of patient care can be criticised both theoretically and methodologically. A larger, and arguably more rigorous, body of work exists on the performance of firms in the private sector, often conducted within the disciplines of organisational behaviour or human resource management. Studies in these traditions have focused on the effects of decentralisation, participation, innovative work practices, and "complementarities" on outcome variables such as job satisfaction and performance. The aim of this paper is to identify a number of reviews and research traditions that might bring new ideas into future work on the determinants of hospital performance. Ideally, future research should be more theoretically informed and should use longitudinal rather than cross sectional research designs. The use of statistical methods such as multilevel modelling, which allow for the inclusion of variables at different levels of analysis, would enable estimation of the separate contribution that structure and process make to hospital outcomes. Key Words: hospital organisation; hospital performance; management; quality of care PMID:11239143

  16. An internet survey of breeders' and cat rescue organisations' opinions about early castration of cats.

    PubMed

    Pernestål, Karin; Axnér, Eva

    2012-12-01

    There has been concern that early castration of pedigree kittens may lead to a depletion of gene pools. Web-based questionnaires on early castration were distributed to breeders and cat rescue organisations. One of the reasons that breeders used early castration was to counteract what they considered irresponsible breeding, such as overuse of strains within the breed or production of cross-breeds. Of all pedigree kittens, 45.1% were kept intact while 54.9% were neutered before re-homing. Nineteen (65.5%) of the cat rescue organisations believed that early castration could be beneficial in reducing the number of homeless cats, but only six (20.6%) had applied early castration. Three organisations replied that their veterinarian declined to do early castration and two believed that it was not safe for the kittens. There does not, necessarily, seem to be conflicting interests between keeping genetic variation in pedigree breeds and the possibility of limiting the population of homeless cats.

  17. Influencing organisational change in the NHS: lessons learned from workplace wellness initiatives in practice.

    PubMed

    Blake, Holly; Lloyd, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the key issues in influencing organisational change in NHS settings, in the development of workplace wellness interventions to improve employee health and wellbeing. To tackle poor public health and associated rising healthcare costs, there must be a focus on the root cause of many preventable diseases - unhealthy lifestyle choices. Workplace wellness initiatives are now an important prevention strategy adopted by socially responsible organisations to target the health and wellbeing of working age adults. Lessons learned from initiatives in secondary care suggest that effective implementation requires change in organisational 'health culture', through a combination of education, behaviour change intervention, needs-based facilities, and services and strategies for developing supportive and health-promoting work environments. Most of all, employers must demonstrate a commitment to health and wellness that is fully integrated with their mission, values and long-term vision, paving the way for sustainable lifestyle changes. Evaluation systems must be in place to measure the impact and outcomes of wellness schemes.

  18. Self-organisation and communication in groups of simulated and physical robots.

    PubMed

    Trianni, Vito; Dorigo, Marco

    2006-09-01

    In social insects, both self-organisation and communication play a crucial role for the accomplishment of many tasks at a collective level. Communication is performed with different modalities, which can be roughly classified into three classes: indirect (stigmergic) communication, direct interactions and direct communication. The use of stigmergic communication is predominant in social insects (e.g. the pheromone trails in ants), where, however, direct interactions (e.g. antennation in ants) and direct communication (e.g. the waggle dance in honey bees) can also be observed. Taking inspiration from insect societies, we present an experimental study of self-organising behaviours for a group of robots, which exploit communication to coordinate their activities. In particular, the robots are placed in an arena presenting holes and open borders, which they should avoid while moving coordinately. Artificial evolution is responsible for the synthesis in a simulated environment of the robot's neural controllers, which are subsequently tested on physical robots. We study different communication strategies among the robots: no direct communication, handcrafted signalling and a completely evolved approach. We show that the latter is the most efficient, suggesting that artificial evolution can produce behaviours that are more adaptive than those obtained with conventional design methodologies. Moreover, we show that the evolved controllers produce a self-organising system that is robust enough to be tested on physical robots, notwithstanding the huge gap between simulation and reality.

  19. Counting organised sport injury cases: evidence of incomplete capture from routine hospital collections.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Finch, Caroline; Boufous, Soufiane

    2010-05-01

    Organised sports are a popular form of physical activity, but unfortunately, participation can result in injury. Despite this, there have been surprisingly few studies that have reported the population rate of sports injury. Data from the 2005 New South Wales (NSW, Australia) Population Health Survey were analysed to describe self-reported injury experiences during participation in organised sports activities and the source of treatment for such injuries during a 12-month period in a population representative sample of adults aged 16+ years. At interview, 2414 respondents stated that they had participated in organised sport in the previous 12 months and just under one-third (30.9%) reported that they had been injured during this participation. Half of all injuries required formal treatment from a health or medical practitioner. Physiotherapists most commonly provided treatment for sports injury (26.6% of cases) followed by general practitioners (15.6%). Only 2.8% of all injured sports participants were admitted to hospital for their injury and a further 6.1% received treatment in an emergency department. This corresponds to at most only 8.9% of all treated sports injuries receiving treatment in a hospital setting. Population-based estimates of the rate and burden of sports injuries that rely solely on routine hospital data collections are likely to grossly underestimate the size of the problem, as very few cases are treated in a hospital setting.

  20. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology. PMID:21078158

  1. Leadership and the medical registrar: how can organisations support these unsung heroes?

    PubMed

    Blake, Tim; Whallett, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Medical registrars have been described as the 'workhorses' of National Health Service hospitals, being at the interface of acute and chronic health services. They are expected to demonstrate effective leadership skills. There are concerns from the Royal College of Physicians that medical registrars are being overwhelmed and unsupported by organisations, and are struggling in their ability to provide safe, high-quality patient care. Junior colleagues are also being deterred by general medical specialties by the prospect of becoming the 'Med Reg'. There is a growing need to support medical registrars in several key aspects of training, not least medical leadership. Thus far, there has been a distinct disparity in the provision of medical leadership training for junior doctors in the UK that has adversely affected the standard of care given to patients. Recent landmark reviews and initiatives, principally the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, have raised awareness of leadership competencies for all doctors and the need for their incorporation into undergraduate and postgraduate curricula. It is hoped that interactive strategies to engage medical registrars in leadership training will lead to positive results including improvements in interdisciplinary communication, patient outcomes and fulfilment of curriculum competencies. Organisations have a duty to improve the quality of medical leadership training so that doctors feel equipped to influence change throughout their careers and be tomorrow's leaders. This review outlines the deficiencies in training, the importance of developing leadership skills in medical registrars and educational strategies that could be implemented by organisations in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Turning around low-performing private universities in China: A perspective of organisational ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofan

    2012-12-01

    While China has a long history of private institutions of higher learning, they disappeared almost entirely after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and did not re-emerge until the 1980s. Their reappearance is one of the ramifications of economic marketisation and privatisation in China. But private higher education institutions are now facing new challenges and competition in the education system. Approximately 500 of them were shut down between 2000 and 2009 for financial, legal or other reasons. Looking through the theoretical lens of organisational ecology - a sociological theory that applies ecological principles to organisational studies - this paper traces how the social and economic environment induced the re-emergence of private universities in China and how it has had an impact on their non-linear pattern of development. Using a number of relevant theory fragments from the overarching framework of organisational ecology as tools, the author then explores possible strategies for turning around low-performing private universities in China.

  3. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows: From microscopic principles to self-organised macroscopic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogendoorn, Serge P.; van Wageningen-Kessels, Femke L. M.; Daamen, Winnie; Duives, Dorine C.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of pedestrian flows can be captured in a continuum modelling framework. However, compared to vehicular flow, this is a much more challenging task. In particular the integration of flow propagation and path choice are known to be problematic. Furthermore, pedestrian flow is characterised by different self-organised phenomena, such as the formation of dynamic lanes and diagonal stripes, which have not yet been captured in a continuum modelling framework. This contribution puts forward a novel multi-class continuum model that captures some of the key features of pedestrian flows. It considers path choice behaviour on both the strategic (pre-trip) and tactical (en-route) level. To achieve this, we present a methodology to derive a continuum model from a microscopic walker model, in this case the social forces model. In doing so, we show that the interaction term present in the social forces model introduces a local path choice component in the equilibrium velocity. Having derived the model, we analyse its properties both by means of mathematical analyses and simulation studies. This reveals the general behaviour of the model, as well as the ability of the model to reproduce self-organised structures, and phase transitions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first continuum model that is able to reproduce these self-organised structures.

  4. Organised crime and the efforts to combat it: a concern for public health.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucy; McKee, Martin

    2010-11-15

    This paper considers the public health impacts of the income-generating activities of organised crime. These range from the traditional vice activities of running prostitution and supplying narcotics, to the newer growth areas of human trafficking in its various forms, from international supply of young people and children as sex workers through deceit, coercion or purchase from family, through to smuggling of migrants, forced labour and the theft of human tissues for transplant, and the sale of fake medications, foodstuffs and beverages, cigarettes and other counterfeit manufactures. It looks at the effect of globalisation on integrating supply chains from poorly-regulated and impoverished source regions through to their distant markets, often via disparate groups of organised criminals who have linked across their traditional territories for mutual benefit and enhanced profit, with both traditional and newly-created linkages between production, distribution and retail functions of cooperating criminal networks from different cultures. It discusses the interactions between criminals and the structures of the state which enable illegal and socially undesirable activities to proceed on a massive scale through corruption and subversion of regulatory mechanisms. It argues that conventional approaches to tackling organised crime often have deleterious consequences for public health, and calls for an evidence-based approach with a focus on outcomes rather than ideology.

  5. Association between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes: systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, J; Herkes, J; Ludlow, K; Lamprell, G; Testa, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite widespread interest in the topic, no current synthesis of research is available analysing the linkages between organisational or workplace cultures on the one hand, and patient outcomes on the other. This protocol proposes a systematic review to analyse and synthesise the literature to date on this topic. The resulting review will discuss characteristics of included studies in terms of the type of healthcare settings researched, the measurements of organisational and workplace culture, patient outcomes measured and the influence of these cultures on patient outcomes. Methods and analysis A systematic review will be conducted aiming to examine the associations between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes, guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. An English language search of abstracts will be executed using the following academic databases: CINAHL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycINFO. The review will include relevant peer-reviewed articles from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, controlled before and after studies, interrupted time series studies, cross-sectional analyses, qualitative studies and mixed-method studies. Multiple researchers will be involved in assessing the quality of articles for inclusion in the review. This protocol documents a detailed search strategy, including terms and inclusion criteria, which will form the basis of the subsequent systematic review. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PMID:27909040

  6. A case of the birth and death of a high reliability healthcare organisation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K H; Madsen, P; Desai, V; Van Stralen, D

    2005-06-01

    High reliability organisations (HROs) are those in which errors rarely occur. To accomplish this they conduct relatively error free operations over long periods of time and make consistently good decisions resulting in high quality and reliability. Some organisational processes that characterise HROs are process auditing, implementing appropriate reward systems, avoiding quality degradation, appropriately perceiving that risk exists and developing strategies to deal with it, and command and control. Command and control processes include migrating decision making, redundancy in people or hardware, developing situational awareness, formal rules and procedures, and training. These processes must be tailored to the specific organisation implementing them. These processes were applied to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) where care was derived from problem solving methodology rather than protocol. After a leadership change, the unit returned to the hierarchical medical model of care. Important outcome variables such as infant mortality, patient return to the PICU after discharge, days on the PICU, air transports, degraded. Implications for clinical practice include providing caregivers with sufficient flexibility to meet changing situations, encouraging teamwork, and avoiding shaming, naming, and blaming.

  7. Beyond the organisational accident: the need for "error wisdom" on the frontline.

    PubMed

    Reason, J

    2004-12-01

    Complex, well defended, high technology systems are subject to rare but usually catastrophic organisational accidents in which a variety of contributing factors combine to breach the many barriers and safeguards. To the extent that healthcare institutions share these properties, they too are subject to organisational accidents. A detailed case study of such an accident is described. However, it is important to recognise that health care possesses a number of characteristics that set it apart from other hazardous domains. These include the diversity of activity and equipment, a high degree of uncertainty, the vulnerability of patients, and a one to one or few to one mode of delivery. Those in direct contact with patients, particularly nurses and junior doctors, often have little opportunity to reform the system's defences. It is argued that some organisational accident sequences could be thwarted at the last minute if those on the frontline had acquired some degree of error wisdom. Some mental skills are outlined that could alert junior doctors and nurses to situations likely to promote damaging errors.

  8. Organisational simplification and secondary complexity in health services for adults with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Bob; Swain, John; Gillman, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role of complexity and simplification in the delivery of health care for adults with learning disabilities, drawing upon qualitative data obtained in a study carried out in NE England. It is argued that the requirement to manage complex health needs with limited resources causes service providers to simplify, standardise and routinise care. Simplified service models may work well enough for the majority of clients, but can impede recognition of the needs of those whose characteristics are not congruent with an adopted model. The data were analysed in relation to the core category, identified through thematic analysis, of secondary complexity arising from organisational simplification. Organisational simplification generates secondary complexity when operational routines designed to make health complexity manageable cannot accommodate the needs of non-standard service users. Associated themes, namely the social context of services, power and control, communication skills, expertise and service inclusiveness and evaluation are explored in relation to the core category. The concept of secondary complexity resulting from organisational simplification may partly explain seemingly irrational health service provider behaviour.

  9. Management of change in health care organisations and human resource role.

    PubMed

    Carignani, V

    2000-01-01

    The paper is focused on the analysis of the most relevant factors necessary to manage change in health care organisations. The approach suggested is the Stakeholder one. According to this approach, the hospital's managers seem to be successful if they are able to satisfy people (internal and external stakeholders) that have a stake in the health care institution. The attention of the author is mainly focused on the internal forces that make the health care sector competitive and successful. In order to motivate internal human resources to accept change and to achieve the organisational targets two main methods can be suggested. The former is based on tangible variables and in particular on a fair reward system; the latter is built on intangible elements e.g. communication, negotiation, contracting, and organisational values sharing. Moreover, in order to cope with change it is important to develop the information technology management and to reengineer delivery processes, taking into consideration both the costs and benefits of these kinds of innovations.

  10. The organisation of paediatric renal care in different European countries: results of the PAC project.

    PubMed

    Knoll, J; Demol, A; Elseviers, M; Harrington, M; De Vos, J Y; Zampieron, A; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The Paediatric Access Care (PAC) project, organised by the Research Board of EDTNA/ERCA, aimed to study the organisation of paediatric renal care in Europe and to investigate the practice of access care for both haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) paediatric patients. This paper reports on the organisation of paediatric renal care. The majority of paediatric renal care units were located in specific paediatric units of university hospitals. Most of the centres had offered HD, PD and transplantation (Tx) for more than 20 years. Half of nursing staff had qualifications in paediatric and renal nursing. Most of the centres offered an extended multidisciplinary team approach with the family actively involved in the care of the patient. PD and HD were equally used. Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) was offered as the standard PD treatment in 2 out of 3 centres. The HD schedule mostly utilised was 3 x 4 hours a week. Half of the patients were on the Tx waiting list and one third of registered patients were transplanted in 2004.

  11. Health activism and the logic of connective action. A case study of rare disease patient organisations

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Stefania; Cappai, Franco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This exploratory work investigates the role of digital media in expanding health discourse practices in a way to transform traditional structures of agency in public health. By focusing on a sample of rare disease patient organisations as representative of contemporary health activism, this study investigates the role of digital communication in the development of (1) bottom-up sharing and co-production of health knowledge, (2) health public engagement dynamics and (3) health information pathways. Findings show that digital media affordances for patient organisations go beyond the provision of social support for patient communities; they ease one-way, two-way and crowdsourced processes of health knowledge sharing, exchange and co-production, provide personalised routes to health public engagement and bolster the emergence of varied pathways to health information where experiential knowledge and medical authority are equally valued. These forms of organisationally enabled connective action can help the surfacing of personal narratives that strengthen patient communities, the bottom-up production of health knowledge relevant to a wider public and the development of an informational and eventually cultural context that eases patients’ political action. PMID:27499676

  12. Capacity of AIDS service organisations in Connecticut to respond to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Prust, Margaret L; Mellor-Crummey, Lauren; Sullivan, Tami P; Lang, Shawn; Hansen, Nathan B

    2017-03-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among women living with HIV and negatively impacts their health, few studies have examined the ability of AIDS service organisations (ASOs) to address IPV. This study used a qualitative approach to identify facilitators of and barriers to addressing IPV in female clients of ASOs in the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted between March and August 2011 with 20 ASO staff members and 19 female clients who reported a current or past history of IPV. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method. These data identify barriers to addressing IPV at the organisation, provider and client levels, and include suggestions from both clients and providers about improving access to care. Client and provider suggestions differed in some areas. While providers emphasised structural changes such as increased training on IPV provided by their organisation, clients highlighted the importance of trusting personal relationships with staff to increase client disclosure of IPV experiences. Given the differing opinions of clients and staff, ASOs should consider involving women with histories of IPV in the process of programme and policy development. ASOs have the unique opportunity to provide comprehensive and holistic care by addressing IPV. The extent to which ASOs are able to recognise and address IPV and strategies for increasing this ability warrant greater attention from funders, ASO administrators and researchers.

  13. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver.

  14. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2005-08-15

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin receptor, Enigma and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin cytoskeleton organisation, expression of Enigma alone led to the formation of F-actin clusters. Similar alteration in actin cytoskeleton organisation was observed in cells expressing both Enigma and APS with a mutation in the NPTY motif. These results identify Enigma as a novel APS-binding protein and suggest that the APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organisation.

  15. Organising Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Chairman Associate Professor Sr Dr Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff Secretariat Dr Ahmad Fikri Abdullah Dr Farrah Melissa Muharram Normalina Jamaluddin Siti Nooradzah Adam Members Professor Dr Shattri Mansor, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Professor Sr Dr Mazlan Bin Hashim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Professor Dr Ruslan Ruainis, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Associate Professor Dr Norzailawati Mohd Nor, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Associate Professor Dr Biswajeet Pradhan, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Associate Professor Dr Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Associate Professor Dr Siva K Balasundram, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Muhamad Radzali Mispan, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Dr Siti Khairunnisa Bejo, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Dr Ali Ariapour, Islamic Azad University Dr Eran Sadek Said Md Sadek, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Dr Dinesh Sathyamoorthy, Science & Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE) Sr Mokhtar Azizi Mohd Din, Universiti Malaya Noor Azawani Wahap, National Space Agency Mohd Azahari Faidi, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) Abdul Munir Hafizy Ladoni, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) Kay Thoan San, TSKAY Technology Sdn Bhd Kumar Veliayudam, Geo Spatial Solutions Sdn Bhd Muhammad Zakri Tarmidi, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Zailani Khuzaimah, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Saleh Abdullahi, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Mohd Amiruddin, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Siti Sarah Emran, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Sarah Hanim Samsudin, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) Maizatul Akma Mohamad, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)

  16. Organisational development.

    PubMed

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the NHS Improvement national leadership and improvement strategy is to encourage leaders at all levels to develop leadership skills in their staff and themselves. It focuses on fostering compassionate, collaborative and inclusive leadership.

  17. Of floods, sandbags and simulations: Urban resilience to natural disasters and the performance of disaster management organisations under change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Gunnar; Mueller, Birgit; Frank, Karin; Kuhlicke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Natural disasters and in particular floods have become a strong threat to urban communities in the last decades. In just eleven years (2002, 2013) two centenary river floods have hit Eastern Germany, causing damages of 9.1 billion € (2002) and 6.7 billion € (2013, first estimate), making them the most costly flood events in German history. Many cities in the Free State of Saxony that were strongly hit by both floods are additionally challenged by demographic change with an ageing society and outmigration leading to population shrinkage. This also constrains the coping capacity of disaster management services, especially those of volunteer-based disaster management organisations such as fire brigades, leading to an increased vulnerability of the community at risk. On the other hand, new technologies such as social media have led to rapid information spread and self-organisation of tremendous numbers of civil volunteers willing to help. How do responsible organisations deal with the challenges associated with demographic change, as well as with expected increases in flood frequency and intensity, and what strategies could enhance their performance in the future? To explore these questions, we developed an agent-based simulation model. It is based on socio-demographic settings of the community, communication and coordination structures of disaster management as well as transportation infrastructure for resources and emergency forces. The model is developed in exchange with relevant stakeholders including experts of local disaster management organisations and authority representatives. The goal of the model is to a) assess the performance of disaster management organisations and determine performance limits with respect to forecast lead times and respective coping times of disaster management organisations and b) use it as a discussion tool with these organisations and authorities to identify weak points as well as new options and strategies to ensure protection

  18. Monitoring fibrous scaffold guidance of three-dimensional collagen organisation using minimally-invasive second harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Delaine-Smith, Robin M; Green, Nicola H; Matcher, Stephen J; MacNeil, Sheila; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2014-01-01

    The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, electrospun fibres with a random or high degree of orientation, mimicking two types of tissue architecture found in the body, were used to culture human fibroblasts for controlling cell alignment. The minimally-invasive technique of second harmonic generation was used with the aim of monitoring and profiling the deposition and organisation of collagen at different construct depths over time while construct mechanical properties were also determined over the culture period. It was seen that scaffold fibre organisation affected cell migration and orientation up to 21 days which in turn had an effect on collagen organisation. Collagen in random fibrous constructs was deposited in alternating configurations at different depths however a high degree of organisation was observed throughout aligned fibrous constructs orientated in the scaffold fibre direction. Three-dimensional second harmonic generation images showed that deposited collagen was more uniformly distributed in random constructs but aligned constructs were more organised and had higher intensities. The tensile properties of all constructs increased with increasing collagen deposition and were ultimately dictated by collagen organisation. This study highlights the importance of scaffold architecture for controlling the development of well-organised tissue engineered constructs and the usefulness of second harmonic generation imaging for monitoring collagen maturation in a minimally invasive manner.

  19. Linking hospital workers' organisational work environment to depressive symptoms: A mediating effect of effort-reward imbalance? The ORSOSA study.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Anne; Caroly, Sandrine; Ehlinger, Virgine; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Delpierre, Cyrille; Balducci, Franck; Sobaszek, Annie; De Gaudemaris, Régis; Lang, Thierry

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have analysed the association between the organisational work environment and depression in hospital workers and we still have little understanding of how processes in the practice environment are related to depressive disorders. However, individual perception of an imbalance between efforts made and expected rewards has been associated with incident depression. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that some organisational constraints at the work-unit level may be related to depressive symptoms in hospital workers, either directly or through individual perceptions of effort-reward imbalance (ERI). In 2006, 3316 female registered nurses and nursing aids working in 190 work units in seven French university hospitals, recruited from the baseline screening of an epidemiological cohort study (the ORSOSA study), responded in 2006 to valid self-report questionnaires (CES-D, ERI). The organisational work environment was assessed with the self-rated Nursing Work Index - Extended Organisation (NWI-EO) aggregated at the work unit level. Multilevel models were used. We found that poor relations between workers within work units were associated with higher CES-D score, independently of perceived ERI. Low level of communication between workers in the unit was associated with individual perceptions of ERI and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms. Understaffing and non-respect of planned days off and vacations were associated with perceived ERI but these organisational constraints were not associated with depressive symptoms. Our study allowed us to identify and quantify organisational factors that have a direct effect on hospital workers' depressive symptoms, or an indirect effect through perceived ERI. Better understanding of the effect of organisational factors on health through perceived ERI would provide targets for successful interventions. Organisational approaches may be more effective in improving mental health at work and may also

  20. A critical review of classification of organisations in relation to the voluntary implementation of environmental management systems.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Paul A; Batty, William J; Longhurst, Phil J; Drew, Gillian H

    2012-12-30

    The need and ability of an organisation to manage and control its impact on the environment has been hotly debated in recent times. However, the uptake of certificated environmental management systems (EMS), specifically BS EN ISO 14001 (ISO 14001) (British Standards Institution, 2004), is becoming more prevalent, even though evidence of the individual benefits is less clear. Furthermore, reports are often limited and anecdotal in their discussion of the true barriers that organisations experience during the certification and management of their EMS. Presently organisations are commonly classified simply according to size and the barriers they experience when implementing an EMS successfully. This system of classification is not sufficient to understand the multifaceted environments within which modern organisations operate. This paper reviews existing classification methodologies relevant to environmental management so as to determine whether opportunities exist for their practical application in this sector. It begins with an introduction to EMS and existing discussions regarding implementation is provided before a more detailed consideration of organisational size, the integration and development of environmental management within an organisation, then cladistics and quality management systems (QMS) are reviewed as potential opportunities for classification. This shows that whilst numerous methods are available, none function beyond the theoretical, or that the classes provided restrain the description of the complex tasks. Central to differences faced by organisations are insights to the true hurdles that each experience when implementing an EMS. It is shown here how the manipulation of techniques from the more mature field of Energy Management may offer a direction for the development of robust classes. A valuable outcome is that these methods produce classifications that are fit for purpose to better support organisations through the implementation and

  1. Evolutionary Connectionism: Algorithmic Principles Underlying the Evolution of Biological Organisation in Evo-Devo, Evo-Eco and Evolutionary Transitions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L; Kouvaris, Kostas; Jackson, Adam; Powers, Simon T; Cox, Chris; Tudge, Simon; Davies, Adam; Kounios, Loizos; Power, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation. However, current evolutionary theory is poorly equipped to describe how these organisations change over evolutionary time and especially how that results in adaptive complexes at successive scales of organisation (the key problem is that evolution is self-referential, i.e. the products of evolution change the parameters of the evolutionary process). Here we first reinterpret the central open questions in these domains from a perspective that emphasises the common underlying themes. We then synthesise the findings from a developing body of work that is building a new theoretical approach to these questions by converting well-understood theory and results from models of cognitive learning. Specifically, connectionist models of memory and learning demonstrate how simple incremental mechanisms, adjusting the relationships between individually-simple components, can produce organisations that exhibit complex system-level behaviours and improve the adaptive capabilities of the system. We use the term "evolutionary connectionism" to recognise that, by functionally equivalent processes, natural selection acting on the relationships within and between evolutionary entities can result in organisations that produce complex system-level behaviours in evolutionary

  2. Monitoring Fibrous Scaffold Guidance of Three-Dimensional Collagen Organisation Using Minimally-Invasive Second Harmonic Generation

    PubMed Central

    Delaine-Smith, Robin M.; Green, Nicola H.; Matcher, Stephen J.; MacNeil, Sheila; Reilly, Gwendolen C.

    2014-01-01

    The biological and mechanical function of connective tissues is largely determined by controlled cellular alignment and therefore it seems appropriate that tissue-engineered constructs should be architecturally similar to the in vivo tissue targeted for repair or replacement. Collagen organisation dictates the tensile properties of most tissues and so monitoring the deposition of cell-secreted collagen as the construct develops is essential for understanding tissue formation. In this study, electrospun fibres with a random or high degree of orientation, mimicking two types of tissue architecture found in the body, were used to culture human fibroblasts for controlling cell alignment. The minimally-invasive technique of second harmonic generation was used with the aim of monitoring and profiling the deposition and organisation of collagen at different construct depths over time while construct mechanical properties were also determined over the culture period. It was seen that scaffold fibre organisation affected cell migration and orientation up to 21 days which in turn had an effect on collagen organisation. Collagen in random fibrous constructs was deposited in alternating configurations at different depths however a high degree of organisation was observed throughout aligned fibrous constructs orientated in the scaffold fibre direction. Three-dimensional second harmonic generation images showed that deposited collagen was more uniformly distributed in random constructs but aligned constructs were more organised and had higher intensities. The tensile properties of all constructs increased with increasing collagen deposition and were ultimately dictated by collagen organisation. This study highlights the importance of scaffold architecture for controlling the development of well-organised tissue engineered constructs and the usefulness of second harmonic generation imaging for monitoring collagen maturation in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:24587017

  3. Improving the Organisational Effectiveness of Coalition Operations (Amelioration de l’efficacite structurelle des operations en coalition)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    integration and dissatisfaction with increasing cultural diversity, which in turn negatively impacts the team’s effectiveness [42],[57],[82]. Thus...integration problems, low cohesion, and dissatisfaction , which in turn can affect the team’s effectiveness negatively [42],[82]. An organisational culture...peacekeeping, thereby possibly affecting the HQ’s working processes and division of labour . Drawing on other organisational research, what is considered

  4. Organisational Effectiveness in Military Organisations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH UNIT NBH 3-39 11. Office/ Position responsible for - NORTHBOURNE HOUSE Sponsor...a positive relationship between a set of 11 management interventions and perceived effectiveness and a stronger correlation between familiarity with...issue by DPSYCH-A S.M.RICHARDSON Lieutenant Colonel CocmwndixM Off icer Ist Psycological Research Unit NBH 3-43 Northbourne House ISSN 0156-8817 TUfN

  5. Investigating the importance of various individual, interpersonal, organisational and demographic variables when predicting job burnout in disability support workers.

    PubMed

    Vassos, Maria V; Nankervis, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted that factors such as large workload, role ambiguity, lack of support from colleagues, and challenging behaviour are associated with higher levels of burnout within the disability support worker (DSW) population. The aim of this research was to investigate which factors contribute the most to the prediction of the three facets of burnout--feeling exhausted and overextended by one's work (emotional exhaustion), detached and callous responses towards work (depersonalisation) and a lack of achievement and productivity within one's role (personal accomplishment). The factors chosen for analysis within this research were analysed within four categories linked to theories of burnout development (individual, interpersonal, organisational and demographic). A sample of 108 DSWs completed a questionnaire booklet that contained standardised measures of burnout and job stressors related to disability work. Results highlighted the importance of predictors such as challenging behaviour (interpersonal), workload (individual), supervisor support (individual), work-home conflict (individual), job feedback (individual), role ambiguity (organisational), low job status (organisational), role conflict (organisational), gender (demographic) and work hours (demographic) when predicting one or more of the facets of burnout. In conclusion, disability services and organisations may benefit from focusing on remodelling their staff-related organisational practices in order to prevent the development of burnout in their DSWs (e.g., increase supervision and support practices).

  6. Implementing medical revalidation in the United Kingdom: Findings about organisational changes and impacts from a survey of Responsible Officers

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed ‘designated bodies’) from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the ‘Responsible Officer’). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less ‘one size fits all’ and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well. PMID:28084166

  7. Modelling the Emergence and Dynamics of Perceptual Organisation in Auditory Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Robert W.; Bőhm, Tamás M.; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives—a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the

  8. The serial organisation of behaviour by non-human primates; an evaluation of experimental paradigms.

    PubMed

    De Lillio, C

    1996-11-01

    On close examination of research programs which focus, either implicitly or explicitly, on the problem of the organisation of serial order in non-human primates, it is possible to detect some limitations in the paradigms conventionally used. Serial learning studies, which focus on the acquisition of arbitrary lists of unconnected elements point towards a distinction between the representation of ordered series formed by monkeys and pigeons. However, the use of unconnected items prevents an assay of the degree to which primates might be able to impose a structure over the list to be reported. The study of transitive reasoning has been implemented by means of a paradigm where the order of a series is conveyed be presenting a common item in pairs of binary discriminations. Animals tested with this paradigm develop control strategies using more information than that provided by reward contingencies alone. A restriction of this paradigm is that, in its binary form, it does not allow a differentiation between the performance of monkeys and pigeons and even simple models account for a transitive bias in the task. On the basis of these observations it is proposed that novel paradigms which go beyond the binary context, feature multiple connected items, and accord a high degree of spontaneity to the subjects might allow better than traditional ones to uncover qualitative different ways in which different organisms serially organise their behaviour. Some recent research programs based on such rationale, and implemented as search tasks, are then outlined and compared with other approaches to the study of search behaviour. Preliminary results obtained from these studies indicate that the spontaneous serial organisation of multiple connected items might uncover new dimensions of promising comparative relevance.

  9. Self-Organisation, Thermotropic and Lyotropic Properties of Glycolipids Related to their Biological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Garidel, Patrick; Kaconis, Yani; Heinbockel, Lena; Wulf, Matthias; Gerber, Sven; Munk, Ariane; Vill, Volkmar; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Glycolipids are amphiphilic molecules which bear an oligo- or polysaccharide as hydrophilic head group and hydrocarbon chains in varying numbers and lengths as hydrophobic part. They play an important role in life science as well as in material science. Their biological and physiological functions are quite diverse, ranging from mediators of cell-cell recognition processes, constituents of membrane domains or as membrane-forming units. Glycolipids form an exceptional class of liquid-crystal mesophases due to the fact that their self-organisation obeys more complex rules as compared to classical monophilic liquid-crystals. Like other amphiphiles, the supra-molecular structures formed by glycolipids are driven by their chemical structure; however, the details of this process are still hardly understood. Based on the synthesis of specific glycolipids with a clearly defined chemical structure, e.g., type and length of the sugar head group, acyl chain linkage, substitution pattern, hydrocarbon chain lengths and saturation, combined with a profound physico-chemical characterisation of the formed mesophases, the principles of the organisation in different aggregate structures of the glycolipids can be obtained. The importance of the observed and formed phases and their properties are discussed with respect to their biological and physiological relevance. The presented data describe briefly the strategies used for the synthesis of the used glycolipids. The main focus, however, lies on the thermotropic as well as lyotropic characterisation of the self-organised structures and formed phases based on physico-chemical and biophysical methods linked to their potential biological implications and relevance. PMID:26464591

  10. Big-pharmaceuticalisation: clinical trials and Contract Research Organisations in India.

    PubMed

    Sariola, Salla; Ravindran, Deapica; Kumar, Anand; Jeffery, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The World Trade Organisation's Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights [TRIPS] agreement aimed to harmonise intellectual property rights and patent protection globally. In India, the signing of this agreement resulted in a sharp increase in clinical trials since 2005. The Indian government, along with larger Indian pharmaceutical companies, believed that they could change existing commercial research cultures through the promotion of basic research as well as attracting international clinical trials, and thus create an international level, innovation-based drug industry. The effects of the growth of these outsourced and off-shored clinical trials on local commercial knowledge production in India are still unclear. What has been the impact of the increasing scale and commercialisation of clinical research on corporate science in India? In this paper we describe Big-pharmaceuticalisation in India, whereby the local pharmaceutical industry is moving from generic manufacturing to innovative research. Using conceptual frameworks of pharmaceuticalisation and innovation, this paper analyses data from research conducted in 2010-2012 and describes how Contract Research Organisations (CROs) enable outsourcing of randomised control trials to India. Focussing on twenty-five semi-structured interviews CRO staff, we chart the changes in Indian pharmaceutical industry, and implications for local research cultures. We use Big-pharmaceuticalisation to extend the notion of pharmaceuticalisation to describe the spread of pharmaceutical research globally and illustrate how TRIPS has encouraged a concentration of capital in India, with large companies gaining increasing market share and using their market power to rewrite regulations and introduce new regulatory practices in their own interest. Contract Research Organisations, with relevant, new, epistemic skills and capacities, are both manifestations of the changes in commercial research cultures, as well as the vehicles to

  11. New insights into the organisation and intracellular localisation of the two subunits of glucose-6-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Soty, Maud; Chilloux, Julien; Casteras, Sylvie; Grichine, Alexeï; Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2012-03-01

    Glucose-6 phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of glucose homeostasis, catalyses the hydrolysis of glucose-6 phosphate (G6P) to glucose and inorganic phosphate. A deficiency in G6Pase activity causes type 1 glycogen storage disease (GSD-1), mainly characterised by hypoglycaemia. Genetic analyses of the two forms of this rare disease have shown that the G6Pase system consists of two proteins, a catalytic subunit (G6PC) responsible for GSD-1a, and a G6P translocase (G6PT), responsible for GSD-1b. However, since their identification, few investigations concerning their structural relationship have been made. In this study, we investigated the localisation and membrane organisation of the G6Pase complex. To this aim, we developed chimera proteins by adding a fluorescent protein to the C-terminal ends of both subunits. The G6PC and G6PT fluorescent chimeras were both addressed to perinuclear membranes as previously suggested, but also to vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. We demonstrated that both proteins strongly colocalised in perinuclear membranes. Then, we studied G6PT organisation in the membrane. We highlighted FRET between the labelled C and N termini of G6PT. The intramolecular FRET of this G6PT chimera was 27%. The coexpression of unlabelled G6PC did not modify this FRET intensity. Finally, the chimera constructs generated in this work enabled us for the first time to analyze the relationship between GSD-1 mutations and the intracellular localisation of both G6Pase subunits. We showed that GSD1 mutations did neither alter the G6PC or G6PT chimera localisation, nor the interaction between G6PT termini. In conclusion, our results provide novel information on the intracellular distribution and organisation of the G6Pase complex.

  12. Self-organised criticality in the evolution of a thermodynamic model of rodent thermoregulatory huddling

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self-organisation

  13. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.

  14. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, D.; Borga, M.; Viglione, A.; Chirico, G. B.; Blöschl, G.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall") quantifying the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. These statistics describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of catchment-scale storm velocity. The concept of the catchment-scale storm velocity takes into account the role of relative catchment orientation and morphology with respect to storm motion and kinematics. The paper illustrates the derivation of the statistics from an analytical framework recently proposed in literature and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by applying them to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002-2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide useful information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  15. Spatial moments of catchment rainfall: rainfall spatial organisation, basin morphology, and flood response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoccatelli, D.; Borga, M.; Viglione, A.; Chirico, G. B.; Blöschl, G.

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides a general analytical framework for assessing the dependence existing between spatial rainfall organisation, basin morphology and runoff response. The analytical framework builds upon a set of spatial rainfall statistics (termed "spatial moments of catchment rainfall") which describe the spatial rainfall organisation in terms of concentration and dispersion statistics as a function of the distance measured along the flow routing coordinate. The introduction of these statistics permits derivation of a simple relationship for the quantification of storm velocity at the catchment scale. The paper illustrates the development of the analytical framework and explains the conceptual meaning of the statistics by means of application to five extreme flash floods occurred in various European regions in the period 2002-2007. High resolution radar rainfall fields and a distributed hydrologic model are employed to examine how effective are these statistics in describing the degree of spatial rainfall organisation which is important for runoff modelling. This is obtained by quantifying the effects of neglecting the spatial rainfall variability on flood modelling, with a focus on runoff timing. The size of the study catchments ranges between 36 to 982 km2. The analysis reported here shows that the spatial moments of catchment rainfall can be effectively employed to isolate and describe the features of rainfall spatial organization which have significant impact on runoff simulation. These statistics provide essential information on what space-time scales rainfall has to be monitored, given certain catchment and flood characteristics, and what are the effects of space-time aggregation on flood response modeling.

  16. Rapid self-organised initiation of ad hoc sensor networks close above the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsnes, Reinert

    2010-07-01

    This work shows potentials for rapid self-organisation of sensor networks where nodes collaborate to relay messages to a common data collecting unit (sink node). The study problem is, in the sense of graph theory, to find a shortest path tree spanning a weighted graph. This is a well-studied problem where for example Dijkstra’s algorithm provides a solution for non-negative edge weights. The present contribution shows by simulation examples that simple modifications of known distributed approaches here can provide significant improvements in performance. Phase transition phenomena, which are known to take place in networks close to percolation thresholds, may explain these observations. An initial method, which here serves as reference, assumes the sink node starts organisation of the network (tree) by transmitting a control message advertising its availability for its neighbours. These neighbours then advertise their current cost estimate for routing a message to the sink. A node which in this way receives a message implying an improved route to the sink, advertises its new finding and remembers which neighbouring node the message came from. This activity proceeds until there are no more improvements to advertise to neighbours. The result is a tree network for cost effective transmission of messages to the sink (root). This distributed approach has potential for simple improvements which are of interest when minimisation of storage and communication of network information are a concern. Fast organisation of the network takes place when the number k of connections for each node ( degree) is close above its critical value for global network percolation and at the same time there is a threshold for the nodes to decide to advertise network route updates.

  17. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2

    PubMed Central

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key “trade talk” terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalisation treaties. PMID:16905715

  18. Patient and organisational variables associated with pressure ulcer prevalence in hospital settings: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association of ward-level differences in the odds of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) with selected ward organisational variables and patient risk factors. Design Multilevel approach to data from 2 cross-sectional studies. Settings 4 hospitals in Norway were studied. Participants 1056 patients at 84 somatic wards. Primary outcome measure HAPU. Results Significant variance in the odds of HAPUs was found across wards. A regression model using only organisational variables left a significant variance in the odds of HAPUs across wards but patient variables eliminated the across-ward variance. In the model including organisational and patient variables, significant ward-level HAPU variables were ward type (rehabilitation vs surgery/internal medicine: OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.66)), use of preventive measures (yes vs no: OR 2.02 (95% CI 1.12 to 3.64)) and ward patient safety culture (OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.99)). Significant patient-level predictors were age >70 vs <70 (OR 2.70 (95% CI 1.54 to 4.74)), Braden scale total score (OR 0.73 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.80)) and overweight (body mass index 25–29.99 kg/m2) (OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.62)). Conclusions The fact that the odds of HAPU varied across wards, and that across-ward variance was reduced when the selected ward-level variables entered the explanatory model, indicates that the HAPU problem may be reduced by ward-level organisation of care improvements, that is, by improving the patient safety culture and implementation of preventive measures. Some wards may prevent pressure ulcers better than other wards. The fact that ward-level variation was eliminated when patient-level HAPU variables were included in the model indicates that even wards with the best HAPU prevention will be challenged by an influx of high-risk patients. PMID:26316647

  19. The effect of an organisational model on the standard of care.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Janice; Shepherd, Mark; Ronald, Tracey

    An Australian hospital was experiencing a long-term nursing staff shortage (in common with many hospitals throughout the world). The shortage led to concerns that patient care and supervision of less-experienced nursing staff was compromised. A survey was undertaken to ascertain which organisational models were used in the hospital, and how well these enabled nurses to provide a high standard of care. The findings suggest that the patient-allocation model should be maintained where practical and that team nursing should be trialled where poor numbers and skill-mix demand a greater degree of supervision and support.

  20. The Research & Technology Organisation (RTO) and The NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    The Research & Technology Organisation (RTO) The NATO Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) NATO - OTAN Briefing to the MSG-079 Workshop...Participating to M&S related events – ITEC, I/ITSEC – SISO International Workshops – National M&S Conferences (IberSIM 09, USMOS 09) … NATO - OTAN NMSG...Deadline for abstracts 30 May 2010 C-BML presence in the NMSG Events NMSG: MS3 M&S Standardisation in NATO OTAN - NATO NMSG M&S Standards Activity