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Sample records for organisms behaviour development

  1. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  2. Behaviour change communication targeting four health behaviours in developing countries: a review of change techniques.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances

    2012-08-01

    Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies.

  3. The role of error in organizing behaviour*

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, J

    2003-01-01

    

 During recent years the significance of the concept of human error has changed considerably. The reason for this has partly been an increasing interest of psychological research in the analysis of complex real life phenomena, and partly the changes of modern work conditions caused by advanced information technology. Consequently, the topic of the present contribution is not a definition of the concept or a proper taxonomy. Instead, a review is given of two professional contexts for which the concept of error is important. Three cases of analysis of human–system interaction are reviewed: (1) traditional task analysis and human reliability estimation; (2) causal analysis of accidents after the fact, and (3) design of reliable work conditions in modern sociotechnical systems. It is concluded that "errors" cannot be studied as a separate category of behaviour fragments; the object of study should be cognitive control of behaviour in complex environments. PMID:14532371

  4. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  5. Breed differences in behavioural development in kittens.

    PubMed

    Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2009-03-23

    Differences in behaviour of pure breed cats have been suggested but not wholly investigated. Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens (n=43) were weekly compared with Norwegian Forest (NFO) kittens (n=39) from the 4th to the 10th week of age in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT) paradigm. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) before and after the test, and behavioural responses during the OFT were recorded. Behaviours registered were analysed by focal animal sampling. Significant breed differences were found; cats of the northern zones (NFO) seem to develop earlier thermoregulatory abilities. Precocious opening of eyes, higher locomotion scores and longer time spent standing, observed in OSA kittens may indicate an earlier neurological development. Inter breed differences recorded for exploration and locomotion seem to indicate coping style divergences: in the OFT challenging situation OSA kittens presented higher emotional tachycardia and performed more passively, with a faster decline in exploration and locomotion scores. NFO kittens exerted a more active behaviour as they spent more time exploring the arena and in escape attempts. Notwithstanding OSA and NFO cat selection was mainly aimed to improve divergent morphological traits, some different behavioural and physiological traits seem to have been maintained or co-selected within each breed.

  6. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based.

  7. Translating teamwork behaviours from aviation to healthcare: development of behavioural markers for neonatal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E J; Sexton, J B; Helmreich, R L

    2004-10-01

    Improving teamwork in healthcare may help reduce and manage errors. This paper takes a step toward that goal by (1) proposing a set of teamwork behaviours, or behavioural markers, for neonatal resuscitation; (2) presenting a data form for recording observations about these markers; and (3) comparing and contrasting different sets of teamwork behaviours that have been developed for healthcare. Data from focus groups of neonatal providers, surveys, and video recordings of neonatal resuscitations were used to identify some new teamwork behaviours, to translate existing aviation team behaviours to this setting, and to develop a data collection form. This behavioural marker audit form for neonatal resuscitation lists and defines 10 markers that describe specific, observable behaviours seen during the resuscitation of newborn infants. These markers are compared with those developed by other groups. Future research should determine the relations among these behaviours and errors, and test their usefulness in measuring the impact of team training interventions.

  8. Organization Development. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers on organization development and human resources. "Identification of Key Predictors of Rapid Change Adaptation in a Service Organization" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Carol Hansen) reports on the results of an exploratory study, which suggests that rapid change adaptation will be more likely to occur in…

  9. Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

  10. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  11. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-09-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for

  12. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L J; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop colour-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies. Performance on behavioural tests was analysed using multiple linear regression with solvent concentration as an independent variable. Other relevant demographic variables were also considered for inclusion. No significant (p greater than 0.05) relation between solvent concentration and impairment on any of the 10 behavioural variables was observed after controlling for

  13. Collagen in organ development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know whether microgravity will adversely affect developmental processes. Collagens are macromolecular structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which may be altered by perturbations in gravity. Interstitial collagens have been shown to be necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis in some embryonic organs, and in the mouse salivary gland, the biosynthetic pattern of these molecules changes during development. Determination of the effects of microgravity on epithelial organ development must be preceded by crucial ground-based studies. These will define control of normal synthesis, secretion, and deposition of ECM macromolecules and the relationship of these processes to morphogenesis.

  14. The scope and practice of behaviour change communication to improve infant and young child feeding in low- and middle-income countries: results of a practitioner study in international development organizations.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; Van Liere, Marti; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    We describe features of the landscape of behaviour change communication (BCC) practice devoted to infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in low- and middle-income countries by practitioners in international development organizations. We used an iterative, snowball sampling procedure to identify participants, and the self-administered questionnaire contained pre-coded questions and open-ended questions, relying primarily on content analysis to derive generalizations. Highlights of findings include (i) IYCF-specific BCC is usually delivered within the context of other public health messages and programmes; (ii) technical assistance with programme development and implementation are primary activities, and evaluation-related work is also common; and (iii) formative research and evaluation is universal, but process evaluation is not. With respect to scaling up nutrition: (i) use of mass media and digital technology generally play only a minor role in BCC activities and are not currently an integral part of BCC programming strategies and (ii) only 58% of the participants report activities related to communication with policy makers. The individuals who comprise the community of BCC leaders in the area of IYCF are a diverse group from the perspective of academic backgrounds and nationalities. In addition to nutrition, public health, agriculture and adult learning are common disciplinary backgrounds. In our view, this diversity is a source of strength. It facilitates continuing growth and maturation in the field by assuring inputs of different perspectives, theoretical orientations and experiences.

  15. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  16. Current Developments in Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Using published findings and by further analyses of existing data, the structure, validity and utility of the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC) is critically considered. Validity is primarily assessed through the scale's relationship with other existing scales as well as by looking for predicted differences. The utility of the ABC scale…

  17. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities.

  18. Organization of rescue behaviour sequences in ants, Cataglyphis cursor, reflects goal-directedness, plasticity and memory.

    PubMed

    Duhoo, Thierry; Durand, Jean-Luc; Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise

    2017-02-12

    The experimental study of rescue behaviour in ants, behaviour in which individuals help entrapped nestmates in distress, has revealed that rescuers respond to victims with very precisely targeted behaviour. In Cataglyphis cursor, several different components of rescue behaviour have been observed, demonstrating the complexity of this behaviour, including sand digging and sand transport to excavate the victim, followed by pulling on the victim's limbs as well as the object holding the victim in place, behaviour that serves to free the victim. Although previous work suggested that rescue was optimally organized, first to expose and then to extricate the victim under a variety of differing circumstances, experimental analysis of that organization has been lacking. Here, using experimental data, we characterize the pattern of individual rescue behaviour in C. cursor by analysing the probabilities of transitions from one behavioural component to another. The results show that the execution of each behavioural component is determined by the interplay of previous acts. In particular, we show not only that ants move sand away from the victim in an especially efficient sequence of behaviour that greatly minimizes energy expenditure, but also that ants appear to form some kind of memory of what they did in the past, a memory that directs their future behaviour.

  19. Development and Validation of Supervisory Behaviour Description Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale which will describe how education supervisors' behaviours are perceived. Four separate studies have been conducted in order to develop the scale. In the first study the scale that was developed is applied to a working group consisting of 704 teachers. The factor structure of the scale is examined by…

  20. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  1. Phenotypic variability in unicellular organisms: from calcium signalling to social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vogel, David; Nicolis, Stamatios C; Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand; Sumpter, David J T; Dussutour, Audrey

    2015-11-22

    Historically, research has focused on the mean and often neglected the variance. However, variability in nature is observable at all scales: among cells within an individual, among individuals within a population and among populations within a species. A fundamental quest in biology now is to find the mechanisms that underlie variability. Here, we investigated behavioural variability in a unique unicellular organism, Physarum polycephalum. We combined experiments and models to show that variability in cell signalling contributes to major differences in behaviour underpinning some aspects of social interactions. First, following thousands of cells under various contexts, we identified distinct behavioural phenotypes: 'slow-regular-social', 'fast-regular-social' and 'fast-irregular-asocial'. Second, coupling chemical analysis and behavioural assays we found that calcium signalling is responsible for these behavioural phenotypes. Finally, we show that differences in signalling and behaviour led to alternative social strategies. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the emergence of variability in living organisms.

  2. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  3. Emotional and Behavioural Development in Glasgow Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Rachel; Nowek, Gail; Neill, Cróna; Minnis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the well-being of British children find that about 5-10% are at risk of developing problems. This study aimed to examine the emotional and behavioural development of six to eight year olds in an area of socio-economic deprivation in Glasgow (Scotland) and compare this with UK norms. Furthermore, it aimed to look at overlap…

  4. Development of Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and Cognitive and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Burgess, Paul W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2008-01-01

    Information on the development and functions of rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC), or Brodmann area 10, has been gathered from different fields, from anatomical development to functional neuroimaging in adults, and put forward in relation to three particular cognitive and behavioural disorders. Rostral PFC is larger and has a lower cell density in…

  5. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  6. Developing Organizations: Diagnosis and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Paul R.; Lorsch, Jay W.

    This book represent s a personal statement of the authors' evolving experience as collaborators in the work of developing organizations. Focus is on three critical interfaces: the organization-environment, the group-group, and the individual organization. Close attention is paid to the attainment both of organizational goals and of individual…

  7. Self-organized adaptation of a simple neural circuit enables complex robot behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingrube, Silke; Timme, Marc; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2010-03-01

    Controlling sensori-motor systems in higher animals or complex robots is a challenging combinatorial problem, because many sensory signals need to be simultaneously coordinated into a broad behavioural spectrum. To rapidly interact with the environment, this control needs to be fast and adaptive. Present robotic solutions operate with limited autonomy and are mostly restricted to few behavioural patterns. Here we introduce chaos control as a new strategy to generate complex behaviour of an autonomous robot. In the presented system, 18 sensors drive 18 motors by means of a simple neural control circuit, thereby generating 11 basic behavioural patterns (for example, orienting, taxis, self-protection and various gaits) and their combinations. The control signal quickly and reversibly adapts to new situations and also enables learning and synaptic long-term storage of behaviourally useful motor responses. Thus, such neural control provides a powerful yet simple way to self-organize versatile behaviours in autonomous agents with many degrees of freedom.

  8. Development of Planning Behaviour and Decision Making Ability of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    Decision making, a complex mental activity underlying the act of choosing from among the alternatives in attaining a goal constitutes the core component of planning, a higher order cognitive process as per the PASS theory of intelligence. An attempt, therefore, has been made in the present study to examine the development of planning behaviour in…

  9. Training Comprehensiveness: Construct Development and Relation with Role Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Anugamini Priya; Dhar, Rajib Lochan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop the scale for perception of training comprehensiveness and attempts to examine the influence of perception of training comprehensiveness on role behaviour: teachers' efficacy as a mediator and job autonomy as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach: Through the steps for a generation, refinement, purification…

  10. Changing dietary behaviour: the role and development of practitioner communication.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Kirsten

    2015-05-01

    The need to support people to change diet-related behaviour is widely advocated and how to do this effectively in practice is an expanding area of research. Important factors to consider are how healthcare practitioners communicate with their patients and how that communication may affect diet-related behaviour change and subsequent outcomes. The aim of the present paper is to discuss communication skills for behaviour change (CSBC), focusing predominantly on registered dietitians who are required to communicate effectively and have an important role in supporting patients to change diet-related behaviour. The views of dietitians in relation to CSBC have been investigated and respondents have consistently reported that they perceive these skills to be of vital importance in practice. Patient views have reiterated the importance of good CSBC in one-to-one consultations. However, pre-qualification training of dietitians is thought to deliver practitioners who are competent at a minimum level. The need for ongoing continuous professional development (CPD) in relation to CSBC has been recognised but currently most CPD focuses on updating knowledge rather than improving these essential skills. Measuring CSBC in a consistent and objective manner is difficult and an assessment tool, DIET-COMMS, has been developed and validated for this purpose. DIET-COMMS can be used to support CSBC development, but concerns about logistical challenges and acceptability of implementing this in practice have been raised. Although a suitable assessment tool now exists there is a need to develop ways to facilitate assessment of CSBC in practice.

  11. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. PMID:27581484

  12. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans.

  13. Assessing pharmacokinetic variability directly induced by drug intake behaviour through development of a feeding behaviour-pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Petit-Jetté, C E; Gohore Bi, D; Fenneteau, F; Del Castillo, J R E; Nekka, F

    2008-04-07

    Variability in drug intake is increasingly recognized as a major source of variability in drug response. The non-uniform access to medicated feed, influenced by swine individual feeding behaviour, is a determinant of antibiotic exposure, recalling the intrinsic similarity with human compliance to drug regimens. In this paper, we developed a feeding behaviour-pharmacokinetic (FBPK) model of in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) and established, in a definite way, the effect of feeding behaviour and its induced pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. Based on reported animal behaviour, we mathematically formulated swine feeding behaviour by incorporating its main characteristics: intense feeding periods that repeat on a daily basis and random feeding periods of free access to feed, along with growth stage factors. This behaviour model was then integrated into a PK model of CTC. Moreover, we analysed the effect of each feeding behaviour component and assessed the corresponding PK variability. We have been able to delineate the impact of different feeding behaviour components and characterize the induced PK variability. We have compared different therapeutic assumptions to our model and shown that random features underlying the feeding behaviour have dramatic influence on the PK variability. A practical tool to adopt the dosing regimen in terms of dose and age has been proposed. The method developed here can be generalized to other therapeutic contexts and incorporated into medical practice, particularly to make long-term projections of drug-intake behaviour, to explain possible treatment failure and guide practitioners in adjusting the dosing regimen.

  14. Contamination sensitivity and the development of disease-avoidant behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Michael; Fadda, Roberta; Overton, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to their developing cognitive abilities and their limited knowledge about the biological basis of illness, children often have less expertise at disease avoidance than adults. However, affective reactions to contaminants through the acquisition of disgust and the social and cultural transmissions of knowledge about contamination and contagion provide impetus for children to learn effective disease-avoidant behaviours early in their development. In this article, we review the ontogenetic development of knowledge about contamination and contagion with particular attention to the role of socialization and culture. Together with their emerging cognitive abilities and affective reactions to contaminants, informal and formal cultural learning shape children's knowledge about disease. Through this process, the perceptual cues of contamination are linked to threats of disease outcomes and can act as determinants of disease-avoidant behaviours. PMID:22042919

  15. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  16. Quantification of the passive and active biaxial mechanical behaviour and microstructural organization of rat thoracic ducts.

    PubMed

    Caulk, Alexander W; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna V; Shaw, Ryan; Dixon, J Brandon; Gleason, Rudolph L

    2015-07-06

    Mechanical loading conditions are likely to play a key role in passive and active (contractile) behaviour of lymphatic vessels. The development of a microstructurally motivated model of lymphatic tissue is necessary for quantification of mechanically mediated maladaptive remodelling in the lymphatic vasculature. Towards this end, we performed cylindrical biaxial testing of Sprague-Dawley rat thoracic ducts (n = 6) and constitutive modelling to characterize their mechanical behaviour. Spontaneous contraction was quantified at transmural pressures of 3, 6 and 9 cmH2O. Cyclic inflation in calcium-free saline was performed at fixed axial stretches between 1.30 and 1.60, while recording pressure, outer diameter and axial force. A microstructurally motivated four-fibre family constitutive model originally proposed by Holzapfel et al. (Holzapfel et al. 2000 J. Elast. 61, 1-48. (doi:10.1023/A:1010835316564)) was used to quantify the passive mechanical response, and the model of Rachev and Hayashi was used to quantify the active (contractile) mechanical response. The average error between data and theory was 8.9 ± 0.8% for passive data and 6.6 ± 2.6% and 6.8 ± 3.4% for the systolic and basal conditions, respectively, for active data. Multi-photon microscopy was performed to quantify vessel wall thickness (32.2 ± 1.60 µm) and elastin and collagen organization for three loading conditions. Elastin exhibited structural 'fibre families' oriented nearly circumferentially and axially. Sample-to-sample variation was observed in collagen fibre distributions, which were often non-axisymmetric, suggesting material asymmetry. In closure, this paper presents a microstructurally motivated model that accurately captures the biaxial active and passive mechanical behaviour in lymphatics and offers potential for future research to identify parameters contributing to mechanically mediated disease development.

  17. The Paradox of Teacher Professional Development Programs for Behaviour Management: Comparing Program Satisfaction alongside Changes in Behaviour Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Hayes, Louise

    2007-01-01

    A teacher professional development program using applied behavioural techniques was delivered to primary school teachers. Teachers (N = 78) rated the program highly and reported improved knowledge and skills in managing disruptive student behaviour. Objective measures of teacher (n = 32) pre- and post-workshop data revealed significant changes in…

  18. Hospital development and the performance of organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    McKinney, M M; Begun, J W; Ozcan, Y A

    1998-06-01

    With more than 56,000 patients on the national waiting list for organ transplants and relatively little growth in the number of donors, organ procurement organizations now recognize the need to aggressively market their services and the range of donor procurement opportunities to hospital personnel. This study examines the types and levels of hospital development activities being conducted by organ procurement organizations, the characteristics of organ procurement organizations that are more involved in hospital development, and the relationship between hospital development and organ procurement. Results from a national survey indicate that, as of the mid-1990s, organ procurement organizations had not made major investments in hospital development despite an increased recognition of the importance of these activities. Organ procurement organizations whose directors were more committed to hospital development exhibited higher levels of hospital development activity. Efforts to formalize hospital development activities through the establishment of a hospital development department and evaluation standards were associated with more organs procured per donor.

  19. Mapping behavioural evolution onto brain evolution: the strategic roles of conserved organization in individuals and species

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Barbara L.; Hinz, Flora; Darlington, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of individual variation in brain component structure in pigs, minks and laboratory mice is very similar to variation across species in the same components, at a reduced scale. This conserved pattern of allometric scaling resembles robotic architectures designed to be robust to changes in computing power and task demands, and may reflect the mechanism by which both growing and evolving brains defend basic sensory, motor and homeostatic functions at multiple scales. Conserved scaling rules also have implications for species-specific sensory and social communication systems, motor competencies and cognitive abilities. The role of relative changes in neuron number in the central nervous system in producing species-specific behaviour is thus highly constrained, while changes in the sensory and motor periphery, and in motivational and attentional systems increase in probability as the principal loci producing important changes in functional neuroanatomy between species. By their nature, these loci require renewed attention to development and life history in the initial organization and production of species-specific behavioural abilities. PMID:21690129

  20. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  1. Phenotypic variability in unicellular organisms: from calcium signalling to social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, David; Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand; Sumpter, David J. T.; Dussutour, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Historically, research has focused on the mean and often neglected the variance. However, variability in nature is observable at all scales: among cells within an individual, among individuals within a population and among populations within a species. A fundamental quest in biology now is to find the mechanisms that underlie variability. Here, we investigated behavioural variability in a unique unicellular organism, Physarum polycephalum. We combined experiments and models to show that variability in cell signalling contributes to major differences in behaviour underpinning some aspects of social interactions. First, following thousands of cells under various contexts, we identified distinct behavioural phenotypes: ‘slow–regular–social’, ‘fast–regular–social’ and ‘fast–irregular–asocial’. Second, coupling chemical analysis and behavioural assays we found that calcium signalling is responsible for these behavioural phenotypes. Finally, we show that differences in signalling and behaviour led to alternative social strategies. Our results have considerable implications for our understanding of the emergence of variability in living organisms. PMID:26609088

  2. The behaviour of tributyl phosphate in an organic diluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leay, Laura; Tucker, Kate; Del Regno, Annalaura; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Sharrad, Clint A.; Masters, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as a complexing agent in the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) liquid-liquid phase extraction process for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear reactor fuel. Here, we address the molecular and microstructure of the organic phases involved in the extraction process, using molecular dynamics to show that when TBP is mixed with a paraffinic diluent, the TBP self-assembles into a bi-continuous phase. The underlying self-association of TBP is driven by intermolecular interaction between its polar groups, resulting in butyl moieties radiating out into the organic solvent. Simulation predicts a TBP diffusion constant that is anomalously low compared to what might normally be expected for its size; experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies also indicate an extremely low diffusion constant, consistent with a molecular aggregation model. Simulation of TBP at an oil/water interface shows the formation of a bilayer system at low TBP concentrations. At higher concentrations, a bulk bi-continuous structure is observed linking to this surface bilayer. We suggest that this structure may be intimately connected with the surprisingly rapid kinetics of the interfacial mass transport of uranium and plutonium from the aqueous to the organic phase in the PUREX process.

  3. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores. PMID:26838467

  4. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  5. Crowning: a novel Escherichia coli colonizing behaviour generating a self-organized corona

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Encased in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composed of flagella, adhesins, amyloid fibers (curli), and exopolysaccharides (cellulose, β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer-PGA-, colanic acid), the bacteria Escherichia coli is able to attach to and colonize different types of biotic and abiotic surfaces forming biofilms and colonies of intricate morphological architectures. Many of the biological aspects that underlie the generation and development of these E. coli’s formations are largely poorly understood. Results Here, we report the characterization of a novel E. coli sessile behaviour termed "crowning" due to the bacterial generation of a new 3-D architectural pattern: a corona. This bacterial pattern is formed by joining bush-like multilayered "coronal flares or spikes" arranged in a ring, which self-organize through the growth, self-clumping and massive self-aggregation of cells tightly interacting inside semisolid agar on plastic surfaces. Remarkably, the corona’s formation is developed independently of the adhesiveness of the major components of E. coli’s EPS matrix, the function of chemotaxis sensory system, type 1 pili and the biofilm master regulator CsgD, but its formation is suppressed by flagella-driven motility and glucose. Intriguingly, this glucose effect on the corona development is not mediated by the classical catabolic repression system, the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. Thus, corona formation departs from the canonical regulatory transcriptional core that controls biofilm formation in E. coli. Conclusions With this novel "crowning" activity, E. coli expands its repertoire of colonizing collective behaviours to explore, invade and exploit environments whose critical viscosities impede flagella driven-motility. PMID:24568619

  6. Self-Organized Criticality, Plasticity and Sensorimotor Coupling. Explorations with a Neurorobotic Model in a Behavioural Preference Task

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Miguel; Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Bedia, Manuel G.; Seron, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic) and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a) non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b) internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c) strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized critically includes

  7. Self-organized criticality, plasticity and sensorimotor coupling. Explorations with a neurorobotic model in a behavioural preference task.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Miguel; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Bedia, Manuel G; Seron, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic) and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a) non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b) internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c) strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized critically includes

  8. Whole-Organ analysis of calcium behaviour in the developing pistil of olive (Olea europaea L.) as a tool for the determination of key events in sexual plant reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pistil is a place where multiple interactions between cells of different types, origin, and function occur. Ca2+ is one of the key signal molecules in plants and animals. Despite the numerous studies on Ca2+ signalling during pollen-pistil interactions, which constitute one of the main topics of plant physiology, studies on Ca2+ dynamics in the pistil during flower formation are scarce. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contents and in situ localization of Ca2+ at the whole-organ level in the pistil of olive during the whole course of flower development. Results The obtained results showed significant changes in Ca2+ levels and distribution during olive pistil development. In the flower buds, the lowest levels of detectable Ca2+ were observed. As flower development proceeded, the Ca2+ amount in the pistil successively increased and reached the highest levels just after anther dehiscence. When the anthers and petals fell down a dramatic but not complete drop in calcium contents occurred in all pistil parts. In situ Ca2+ localization showed a gradual accumulation on the stigma, and further expansion toward the style and the ovary after anther dehiscence. At the post-anthesis phase, the Ca2+ signal on the stigmatic surface decreased, but in the ovary a specific accumulation of calcium was observed only in one of the four ovules. Ultrastructural localization confirmed the presence of Ca2+ in the intracellular matrix and in the exudate secreted by stigmatic papillae. Conclusions This is the first report to analyze calcium in the olive pistil during its development. According to our results in situ calcium localization by Fluo-3 AM injection is an effective tool to follow the pistil maturity degree and the spatial organization of calcium-dependent events of sexual reproduction occurring in developing pistil of angiosperms. The progressive increase of the Ca2+ pool during olive pistil development shown by us reflects the degree of pistil maturity

  9. Characterization of suicidal behaviour with self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Murillo, José M; López-Castromán, Jorge; Baca-García, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The study of the variables involved in suicidal behavior is important from a social, medical, and economical point of view. Given the high number of potential variables of interest, a large population of subjects must be analysed in order to get conclusive results. In this paper, we describe a method based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) for finding the most relevant variables even when their relation to suicidal behavior is strongly nonlinear. We have applied the method to a cohort with more than 8,000 subjects and 600 variables and discovered four groups of variables involved in suicidal behavior. According to the results, there are four main groups of risk factors that characterize the population of suicide attempters: mental disorders, alcoholism, impulsivity, and childhood abuse. The identification of specific subpopulations of suicide attempters is consistent with current medical knowledge and may provide a new avenue of research to improve the management of suicidal cases.

  10. [Organic agriculture and sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Gang

    2004-12-01

    Basing on the research and practice of organic agriculture at home and abroad, this paper discussed the objectives of developing green food and the principles that must be persisted in the practice in China. In the light of the arguments concerning with sustainable agriculture, we also discussed the significance of "alternative agriculture" in theory and practice. Compared with conventional high-intensity agriculture, the production approaches of organic alternatives can improve soil fertility and have fewer detrimental effects on the environment. It is unclear whether conventional agriculture can be sustained because of the shortcomings presented in this paper, and it has taken scientists approximately one century to research and practice organic farming as a representative of alternative agriculture. The development of green food in China has only gone through more than ten years, and there would be some practical and theoretical effects on the development of China's green food if we exploit an environment-friendly production pattern of organic agriculture which majors in keeping human health and maintaining sustainable agriculture.

  11. Key parameters for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste: A case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Huong, Luong Thi Mai

    2017-03-01

    Proper management of food waste, a major component of municipal solid waste (MSW), is needed, especially in developing Asian countries where most MSW is disposed of in landfill sites without any pretreatment. Source separation can contribute to solving problems derived from the disposal of food waste. An organic waste source separation and collection programme has been operated in model areas in Hanoi, Vietnam, since 2007. This study proposed three key parameters (participation rate, proper separation rate and proper discharge rate) for behaviour related to source separation of household organic waste, and monitored the progress of the programme based on the physical composition of household waste sampled from 558 households in model programme areas of Hanoi. The results showed that 13.8% of 558 households separated organic waste, and 33.0% discharged mixed (unseparated) waste improperly. About 41.5% (by weight) of the waste collected as organic waste was contaminated by inorganic waste, and one-third of the waste disposed of as organic waste by separators was inorganic waste. We proposed six hypothetical future household behaviour scenarios to help local officials identify a final or midterm goal for the programme. We also suggested that the city government take further actions to increase the number of people participating in separating organic waste, improve the accuracy of separation and prevent non-separators from discharging mixed waste improperly.

  12. Professional Development and Learning by General Teachers Implementing Functional Behavioural Assessment in Thai Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is identified as a research-based approach used in many Western schools to support student behaviour. This study aimed to assist Thai classroom teachers by providing a professional development and learning programme in FBA to develop an effective and efficient process to address behaviour problems and allow…

  13. Paternal influences on offspring development: behavioural and epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Champagne, F A

    2014-10-01

    Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes.

  14. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, K. Fell, C. J.; Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-12-07

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects.

  15. Predicting behavioural responses to novel organisms: state-dependent detection theory.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Pete C; Ehlman, Sean M; Sih, Andrew

    2017-01-25

    Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT). We focus on behavioural and fitness outcomes when animals continue to use formerly adaptive thresholds following environmental change. In a simple example, we show that exposure to novel animals which appear dangerous-but are actually safe-(e.g. ecotourists) can have catastrophic consequences for 'prey' (organisms that respond as if the new organisms are predators), significantly increasing mortality even when the novel species is not predatory. SDDT also reveals that the effect on reproduction can be greater than the effect on lifespan. We investigate factors that influence the effect of novel organisms, and address the potential for behavioural adjustments (via evolution or learning) to recover otherwise reduced fitness. Although effects of environmental change are often difficult to predict, we suggest that SDDT provides a useful route ahead.

  16. A new laboratory radio frequency identification (RFID) system for behavioural tracking of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops' grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals' behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  17. Supporting School Improvement: The Development of a Scale for Assessing Pupils' Emotional and Behavioural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimley, Michael; Morris, Sue; Rayner, Stephen; Riding, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the construction of a teacher rating instrument designed to monitor the social and emotional development of school age children and young people (4-17 years). The instrument was developed by reviewing previously implemented checklists to build an extensive list of behavioural and emotional criteria and through the use of focus…

  18. Predictors of Internet Use for the Professional Development of Teachers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Kamile

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teachers' internet use behaviour for professional development using the theory of planned behaviour. Data for this study were collected via a survey of 221 teachers who completed self-reported measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention, and behaviour. The planned behaviour model was…

  19. A Screen for Genes Expressed in the Olfactory Organs of Drosophila melanogaster Identifies Genes Involved in Olfactory Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Tunstall, Narelle E.; Herr, Anabel; de Bruyne, Marien; Warr, Coral G.

    2012-01-01

    Background For insects the sense of smell and associated olfactory-driven behaviours are essential for survival. Insects detect odorants with families of olfactory receptor proteins that are very different to those of mammals, and there are likely to be other unique genes and genetic pathways involved in the function and development of the insect olfactory system. Methodology/Principal Findings We have performed a genetic screen of a set of 505 Drosophila melanogaster gene trap insertion lines to identify novel genes expressed in the adult olfactory organs. We identified 16 lines with expression in the olfactory organs, many of which exhibited expression of the trapped genes in olfactory receptor neurons. Phenotypic analysis showed that six of the lines have decreased olfactory responses in a behavioural assay, and for one of these we showed that precise excision of the P element reverts the phenotype to wild type, confirming a role for the trapped gene in olfaction. To confirm the identity of the genes trapped in the lines we performed molecular analysis of some of the insertion sites. While for many lines the reported insertion sites were correct, we also demonstrated that for a number of lines the reported location of the element was incorrect, and in three lines there were in fact two pGT element insertions. Conclusions/Significance We identified 16 new genes expressed in the Drosophila olfactory organs, the majority in neurons, and for several of the gene trap lines demonstrated a defect in olfactory-driven behaviour. Further characterisation of these genes and their roles in olfactory system function and development will increase our understanding of how the insect olfactory system has evolved to perform the same essential function to that of mammals, but using very different molecular genetic mechanisms. PMID:22530061

  20. Behavioural development, fat reserves and their association with productivity in Lasius flavus founding queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, V. C.; Pamminger, T.; Hughes, W. O. H.

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction-related behaviours are key components determining individual fitness. Many behavioural traits are linked, and such trait associations often affect fitness. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological data during two critical time points of founding queens (early and late nest-founding stage) in the claustral ant Lasius flavus to assess how these factors affect their initial productivity. We show that most behavioural traits, except brood care behaviour, are plastic during queen development and demonstrate that there are alternative behavioural pathways to achieve high productivity under standardised conditions. These results indicate that queens can utilise multiple behavioural trait combinations to maximise reproductive output at the earliest, and arguably most critical, time of colony foundation.

  1. The development of spatial behaviour and the hippocampal neural representation of space

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas J.; Muessig, Laurenz; Cacucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The role of the hippocampal formation in spatial cognition is thought to be supported by distinct classes of neurons whose firing is tuned to an organism's position and orientation in space. In this article, we review recent research focused on how and when this neural representation of space emerges during development: each class of spatially tuned neurons appears at a different age, and matures at a different rate, but all the main spatial responses tested so far are present by three weeks of age in the rat. We also summarize the development of spatial behaviour in the rat, describing how active exploration of space emerges during the third week of life, the first evidence of learning in formal tests of hippocampus-dependent spatial cognition is observed in the fourth week, whereas fully adult-like spatial cognitive abilities require another few weeks to be achieved. We argue that the development of spatially tuned neurons needs to be considered within the context of the development of spatial behaviour in order to achieve an integrated understanding of the emergence of hippocampal function and spatial cognition. PMID:24366148

  2. Emotional Development among Early School-Age Children: Gender Differences in the Role of Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to…

  3. Parenting Behaviours and Children's Development from Infancy to Early Childhood: Changes, Continuities and Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Feinstein, Leon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated trajectories of parenting behaviours and children's development from infancy to early childhood, associations between parenting behaviours and children's development and how these associations vary according to socioeconomic indicators. Mothers and children were examined from an ongoing longitudinal study of families…

  4. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, L.J.; Walaker, N.; Waszczuk, M.A.; McAdams, T.A.; Eley, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research. PMID:28337341

  5. Fronto-striatal organization: Defining functional and microstructural substrates of behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Laurel S.; Kundu, Prantik; Dowell, Nicholas; Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Favre, Pauline; Irvine, Michael A.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Daw, Nathaniel; Bullmore, Edward T.; Harrison, Neil A.; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Discrete yet overlapping frontal-striatal circuits mediate broadly dissociable cognitive and behavioural processes. Using a recently developed multi-echo resting-state functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) sequence with greatly enhanced signal compared to noise ratios, we map frontal cortical functional projections to the striatum and striatal projections through the direct and indirect basal ganglia circuit. We demonstrate distinct limbic (ventromedial prefrontal regions, ventral striatum – VS, ventral tegmental area – VTA), motor (supplementary motor areas – SMAs, putamen, substantia nigra) and cognitive (lateral prefrontal and caudate) functional connectivity. We confirm the functional nature of the cortico-striatal connections, demonstrating correlates of well-established goal-directed behaviour (involving medial orbitofrontal cortex – mOFC and VS), probabilistic reversal learning (lateral orbitofrontal cortex – lOFC and VS) and attentional shifting (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – dlPFC and VS) while assessing habitual model-free (SMA and putamen) behaviours on an exploratory basis. We further use neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to show that more goal-directed model-based learning (MBc) is also associated with higher mOFC neurite density and habitual model-free learning (MFc) implicates neurite complexity in the putamen. This data highlights similarities between a computational account of MFc and conventional measures of habit learning. We highlight the intrinsic functional and structural architecture of parallel systems of behavioural control. PMID:26673945

  6. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  7. Development of Composite Indices to Measure the Adoption of Pro-Environmental Behaviours across Canadian Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, Magalie; Abdous, Belkacem; Bélanger, Diane; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The adoption of pro-environmental behaviours reduces anthropogenic environmental impacts and subsequent human health effects. This study developed composite indices measuring adoption of pro-environmental behaviours at the household level in Canada. Methods The 2007 Households and the Environment Survey conducted by Statistics Canada collected data on Canadian environmental behaviours at households' level. A subset of 55 retained questions from this survey was analyzed by Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to develop the index. Weights attributed by MCA were used to compute scores for each Canadian province as well as for socio-demographic strata. Scores were classified into four categories reflecting different levels of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours. Results Two indices were finally created: one based on 23 questions related to behaviours done inside the dwelling and a second based on 16 questions measuring behaviours done outside of the dwelling. British Columbia, Quebec, Prince-Edward-Island and Nova-Scotia appeared in one of the two top categories of adoption of pro-environmental behaviours for both indices. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland-and-Labrador were classified in one of the two last categories of pro-environmental behaviours adoption for both indices. Households with a higher income, educational attainment, or greater number of persons adopted more indoor pro-environmental behaviours, while on the outdoor index, they adopted fewer such behaviours. Households with low-income fared better on the adoption of outdoors pro-environmental behaviours. Conclusion MCA was successfully applied in creating Indoor and Outdoor composite Indices of pro-environmental behaviours. The Indices cover a good range of environmental themes and the analysis could be applied to similar surveys worldwide (as baseline weights) enabling temporal trend comparison for recurring themes. Much more than voluntary measures, the study shows that

  8. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  9. Human Behaviour and Development under High-Altitude Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Garrido, Eduardo; Javierre, Casimiro; Kloezeman, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Although we are far from a universally accepted pattern of impaired function at altitude, there is evidence indicating motor, perceptual, memory and behavioural deficits in adults. Even relatively low altitudes (2500 m) may delay reaction time, and impair motor function. Extreme altitude exposure (greater than 5000 m) may result in more pronounced…

  10. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H.; Elliott, James A.

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  11. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids.

    PubMed

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-10-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures.

  12. High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Andrew; Murawski, Caroline; Pulver, Stefan R.; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today’s mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 mW.mm‑2) to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V). In Drosophila melanogaster third instar larvae expressing ChR2(H134R) in motor neurons, we found that pulsed illumination from blue and green OLEDs triggered robust and reversible contractions in animals. This response was temporally coupled to the timing of OLED illumination. With blue OLED illumination, the initial rate and overall size of the behavioural response was strongest. Green OLEDs achieved roughly 70% of the response observed with blue OLEDs. Orange OLEDs did not produce contractions in larvae, in agreement with the spectral response of ChR2(H134R). The device configuration presented here could be modified to accommodate other small model organisms, cell cultures or tissue slices and the ability of OLEDs to provide patterned illumination and spectral tuning can further broaden their utility in optogenetics experiments.

  13. High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Andrew; Murawski, Caroline; Pulver, Stefan R.; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today’s mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 mW.mm−2) to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V). In Drosophila melanogaster third instar larvae expressing ChR2(H134R) in motor neurons, we found that pulsed illumination from blue and green OLEDs triggered robust and reversible contractions in animals. This response was temporally coupled to the timing of OLED illumination. With blue OLED illumination, the initial rate and overall size of the behavioural response was strongest. Green OLEDs achieved roughly 70% of the response observed with blue OLEDs. Orange OLEDs did not produce contractions in larvae, in agreement with the spectral response of ChR2(H134R). The device configuration presented here could be modified to accommodate other small model organisms, cell cultures or tissue slices and the ability of OLEDs to provide patterned illumination and spectral tuning can further broaden their utility in optogenetics experiments. PMID:27484401

  14. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-01-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. PMID:27877720

  15. Exposure to a maternal cafeteria diet changes open-field behaviour in the developing offspring.

    PubMed

    Speight, Abigail; Davey, William G; McKenna, Emily; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2017-04-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, little is currently known about the behavioural effects of feeding a hyper-energetic cafeteria diet (CD) during the lactational period when offspring behaviour is tested during early adolescence. To this end, 23days old offspring from dams (Wistar) fed on CD during lactation were tested in either the open-field or the elevated plus-maze for exploration and anxiety-related behaviour. On postnatal day 9, maternal behaviour and non-maternal behaviour of the dam was assessed. It was hypothesized that lactational CD feeding would reduce anxiety in the offspring. CD-fed dams had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of sugars and fats. When offspring from these dams were exposed to the open field after weaning, their locomotor activity was increased. They entered the more aversive inner zone of the open-field after a shorter latency, made more entries into and spent more time in the inner zone. Anxiety-related behaviour was not affected upon exposure to the elevated plus maze, suggesting anxiolysis in the open-field only. Increased maternal licking/grooming behaviour could possibly contribute to the anxiolytic phenotype as observed in the offspring from the CD group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that lactational overfeeding impacts on the development of behaviour in the early adolescent rat.

  16. Critical role of the embryonic mid-hindbrain organizer in the behavioural response to amphetamine and methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Hadas; Kofman, Ora; Nashelsky, Limor; Livneh, Uri; Roz, Netta; Sillaber, Inge; Biegon, Anat; Rehavi, Moshe; Brodski, Claude

    2009-01-01

    The embryonic mid-hindbrain organizer, which is composed of a transient cell population in the brainstem, controls the development of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Different genes determining the position and activity of this embryonic structure have been implicated in dopamine and serotonin associated disorders. Mouse mutants with a caudally shifted mid-hindbrain organizer, are hyperactive, show increased numbers of dopaminergic neurons and a reduction in serotonergic cells. In the present study we used these mutants to gain insights into the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying motor activity and the response to psychostimulants. To this end we studied the motor activity of these animals after exposure to methylphenidate and amphetamine and characterized their dopaminergic and serotonergic innervation. Saline-treated mutants showed increased locomotion, more stereotypic behaviour and a decrease in rearing compared to wild-type mice. This baseline level of activity was similar to behaviours observed in wild-type animals treated with high doses of psychostimulants. In mutants methylphenidate (5 or 30 mg/kg) or amphetamine (2 or 4 mg/kg) did not further increase activity or even caused a decrease of locomotor activity, in contrast to wild-type mice. Fluoxetine (5 mg or 10 mg/kg) reduced hyperactivity of mutants to levels observed in wild-types. Transmitter measurements, dopamine and serotonin transporter binding assays and autoradiography, indicate a subtle increase in striatal dopaminergic innervation and a marked general decrease of serotonergic innervation in mutants. Taken together, our data suggest that mice with an aberrantly positioned mid-hindbrain organizer show altered sensitivity to psychostimulants and that an increase of serotonergic neurotransmission reverses their hyperactivity. We conclude that the mid-hindbrain organizer, by orchestrating the formation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons, is an essential developmental

  17. Emotional development among early school-age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Lisa K; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul

    2016-09-13

    There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences exist between boys and girls in relation to social and emotional competences, which could affect the relative success of such programmes. This article is based on cross-sectional data collected from 749 four- to six-year-olds and their teachers. The findings generally supported the hypothesised relationships between social and emotional development variables and prosocial behaviour (including internalising behaviour) for boys and girls. However, some gender differences were noted in externalising behaviour, which teachers often consider to be most significant due to its potentially disruptive nature in the classroom.

  18. Emotional development among early school-age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences exist between boys and girls in relation to social and emotional competences, which could affect the relative success of such programmes. This article is based on cross-sectional data collected from 749 four- to six-year-olds and their teachers. The findings generally supported the hypothesised relationships between social and emotional development variables and prosocial behaviour (including internalising behaviour) for boys and girls. However, some gender differences were noted in externalising behaviour, which teachers often consider to be most significant due to its potentially disruptive nature in the classroom. PMID:27570322

  19. A cross-species socio-emotional behaviour development revealed by a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Mimura, Koki; Shirakawa, Yuka; Karino, Genta; Obara, Saya; Ozawa, Shinpei; Sekihara, Hitomi; Fukushima, Yuta; Ueda, Toyotoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Yui, Kunio; Nakamura, Shun

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in affective neuroscience and social neurobiology has been propelled by neuro-imaging technology and epigenetic approach in neurobiology of animal behaviour. However, quantitative measurements of socio-emotional development remains lacking, though sensory-motor development has been extensively studied in terms of digitised imaging analysis. Here, we developed a method for socio-emotional behaviour measurement that is based on the video recordings under well-defined social context using animal models with variously social sensory interaction during development. The behaviour features digitized from the video recordings were visualised in a multivariate statistic space using principal component analysis. The clustering of the behaviour parameters suggested the existence of species- and stage-specific as well as cross-species behaviour modules. These modules were used to characterise the behaviour of children with or without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We found that socio-emotional behaviour is highly dependent on social context and the cross-species behaviour modules may predict neurobiological basis of ASDs.

  20. The Development of Prosocial Behaviour in Children and Adolescents: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scourfield, Jane; John, Bethan; Martin, Neilson; McGuffin, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Background: Childhood psychopathology is associated with both high and low levels of prosocial behaviour. It has been proposed that the development of prosocial behaviour shows emerging and consolidating individual differences as children grow older. The influences on these individual differences have not previously been examined in children and…

  1. Developing Outcome Measures for a Family Intensive Support Service for Children Presenting with Challenging Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Bethany; John, Mary; Coombes, Rachel; Singh, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Seven per cent of individuals with learning disabilities also display challenging behaviour ("Challenging behaviour: analysis and intervention in people with severe intellectual disabilities," 2001, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press), which has an effect on the whole family. Services need to be developed to support and reflect this…

  2. Innovative Work Behaviour in Vocational Colleges: Understanding How and Why Innovations Are Developed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2011-01-01

    In workplaces, innovative products and processes are required to address emerging problems and challenges. Therefore, understanding of employees' innovative work behaviour, including the generation, promotion, and realisation of ideas as components of this behaviour is important. In particular, what fosters innovation development and what triggers…

  3. Families: Influences in Children's Development and Behaviour, from Parents and Teachers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Figueiredo, Claudia Rodrigues Sequeira; Dias, Filomena Valadao

    2012-01-01

    Family plays a very important role in infant's development and behaviour, being that the parents' divorce can be a very stressful experience. This is an exploratory and comparative study that aims at identifying the differences in children's behaviour with divorced parents (or separated) and married parents (or living together), based on the…

  4. Accelerated behavioural development changes fine-scale search behaviour and spatial memory in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Perry, Clint J; Cheng, Ken; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Normally, worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) begin foraging when more than 2 weeks old as adults, but if individual bees or the colony is stressed, bees often begin foraging precociously. Here, we examined whether bees that accelerated their behavioural development to begin foraging precociously differed from normal-aged foragers in cognitive performance. We used a social manipulation to generate precocious foragers from small experimental colonies and tested their performance in a free-flight visual reversal learning task, and a test of spatial memory. To assess spatial memory, bees were trained to learn the location of a small sucrose feeder within an array of three landmarks. In tests, the feeder and one landmark were removed and the search behaviour of the bees was recorded. Performance of precocious and normal-aged foragers did not differ in a visual reversal learning task, but the two groups showed a clear difference in spatial memory. Flight behaviour suggested normal-aged foragers were better able to infer the position of the removed landmark and feeder relative to the remaining landmarks than precocious foragers. Previous studies have documented the cognitive decline of old foragers, but this is the first suggestion of a cognitive deficit in young foragers. These data imply that worker honey bees continue their cognitive development during the adult stage. These findings may also help to explain why precocious foragers perform quite poorly as foragers and have a higher than normal loss rate.

  5. Developing risk management behaviours for nurses through medication incident analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Tran, Duong Thuy; Young, Helen

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define risk management behaviours related to medication safety. Mixed methods were used to analyze 318 nursing related medication incidents reported in an Australian metropolitan hospital. Most incidents did not result in patient harm (93%). Omission of medications was the most frequent often related to patient absences from the unit or nurses failing to sign for medications. Thematic analysis resulted in the Medication Safety Subscales including 29 behavioural statements within three domains-administering medications, storage and management of medications, managing adverse events related to medications. The Medication Safety Subscales can be used by managers, educators and clinicians to reinforce the importance of medication safety. Early action by nurses may reduce patient injury.

  6. Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Biosca, Mireia; Moreno, Luis A

    2008-03-01

    Sedentary lifestyle patterns in children and adolescents, i.e. playing digital games, using computers and especially watching television, have been associated with obesity. However, not all sedentary behaviour has shown the same relevance to, and relationship with, obesity. Therefore, we conducted a review including published studies found in PubMed and other medical journals, dated between January 1990 and April 2007. The ages of the children and adolescents who were the object of the study ranged between 2 and 18 years. For the purpose of this paper, we selected cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies. Sufficient evidence exists to recommend setting a limit to the time spent watching TV, especially for younger children. However, video games and computers do not represent such a high risk compared to watching TV, when they do not replace physical activity too much. In fact, there is no evidence to suggest that sedentary behaviour displaces physical activity levels. Mechanisms that explain the link between sedentariness and obesity are also discussed. Finally, future studies should take into account important mediators such as socioeconomic status and family structure.

  7. Development of a Behavioural Algorithm for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radice, G.

    manner with the environment through the use of sensors and actuators. As such, there is little computational effort required to implement such an approach, which is clearly of great benefit for limited micro-satellites. Rather than using complex world models, which have to be updated, the agent is allowed to exploit the dynamics of its environment for cues as to appropriate actions to take to achieve mission goals. The particular artificial agent implementation used here has been borrowed from studies of biological systems, where it has been used successfully to provide models of motivation and opportunistic behaviour. The so called "cue-deficit" action selection algorithm considers the micro-spacecraft to be a non linear dynamical system with a number of observable states. Using optimal control theory rules are derived which determine which of a finite repertoire of behaviours the satellite should select and perform. It will also be shown that in the event of hardware failures the algorithm will resequence the spacecraft actions to ensure survival while still meeting the mission goals, albeit in a degraded manner.

  8. Factors associated with attitude and hypothetical behaviour regarding brain death and organ transplantation: comparison between medical and other university students.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, Kazuhiro; Yano, Eiji; Shirouzu, Makiko; Kobayashi, Aya; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi; Tamura, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors, including knowledge, that determine an individual's attitudes and behaviours regarding brain death and organ transplantation using questionnaires among medical and other university students. A total of 522 students (388 medical and 134 other) answered a questionnaire. The survey included the individual's knowledge about brain death, attitudes towards brain death and organ transplantation, and hypothetical behaviours assuming their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Medical students were more likely to have knowledge about brain death and to accept brain death and organ transplantation compared with other students, while there was no difference in their willingness to donate their own or their family's organs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of various factors on the attitudes and behaviours. In both medical and other students, confidence in brain-death diagnosis by doctors was independently associated with their willingness to donate their own organs after the adjustment for other factors, including knowledge (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 2.97 and OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 1.01 to 24.39, respectively). An increase in knowledge may cause positive attitudes towards brain death and organ transplant. Meanwhile, reducing uncertainty about the brain-death diagnostic process might have a beneficial effect on the willingness to donate organs.

  9. Behavioural methods used in rodent models of autism spectrum disorders: current standards and new developments.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, Markus; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2013-08-15

    Autism is a behaviourally defined disorder including attenuated or abnormal social interaction and communication, as well as aberrant repetitive behaviour, with symptoms emerging early in childhood. Although the cause of autism has not been discovered, several data strongly support the role of genetic factors in autism aetiology. For this reason, preclinical research is now focusing on generating transgenic and knockout mice, and more recently also rats, with mutations in genes identified in autistic children, with the main aim of understanding the role of those genes in autism aetiology, discovering the biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviours detected in these mutant lines and evaluating potential treatments. Over the last years, a huge number of behavioural phenotyping assays for rodent models of autism and related disorders have been designed. In the first part of our review, we focus on current standards, i.e. state-of-the-art behavioural phenotyping tasks to assess autism core symptoms in rodent models. The second part is devoted to some few, in our view, very promising examples of new developments, namely an autism severity score, scent marking behaviour as an additional, ethologically valid measure for communication, plus a number of new developments in the behavioural domains of social facilitation, observational learning, and empathy. Finally, we will highlight the huge potential impact of newly generated rat knockout models of autism.

  10. Organic Rankine cycle receiver development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The selected receiver concept is a direct-heated, once-through, monotube boiler operated at supercritical pressure. The cavity is formed by a cylindrical copper shell and backwall, with stainless steel tubing brazed to the outside surface. This core is surrounded by lightweight refractory insulation, load-bearing struts, and an outer case. The aperture plate is made of copper to provide long life by conduction and reradiation of heat away from the aperture lip. The receiver thermal efficiency is estimated to be 97 percent at rated conditions (energy transferred to toluene divided by energy incident on aperture opening). Development of the core manufacturing and corrosion protection methods is complete.

  11. How Somatic Adult Tissues Develop Organizer Activity.

    PubMed

    Vogg, Matthias C; Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The growth and patterning of anatomical structures from specific cellular fields in developing organisms relies on organizing centers that instruct surrounding cells to modify their behavior, namely migration, proliferation, and differentiation. We discuss here how organizers can form in adult organisms, a process of utmost interest for regenerative medicine. Animals like Hydra and planarians, which maintain their shape and fitness thanks to a highly dynamic homeostasis, offer a useful paradigm to study adult organizers in steady-state conditions. Beside the homeostatic context, these model systems also offer the possibility to study how organizers form de novo from somatic adult tissues. Both extracellular matrix remodeling and caspase activation play a key role in this transition, acting as promoters of organizer formation in the vicinity of the wound. Their respective roles and the crosstalk between them just start to be deciphered.

  12. Repetitive behaviour and play in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Honey, Emma; Leekam, Sue; Turner, Michelle; McConachie, Helen

    2007-07-01

    The view of a triad of impairments [(Wing and Gould (1979). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11-30] in which impaired imagination is linked with repetitive behaviour is widely accepted. However this categorisation differs from the international classification systems, which link imagination to communication impairments rather than to repetitive behaviours. To investigate this relationship, the Activities and Play Questionnaire-Revised was completed by 196 parents of 2-8-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typical development. Results showed that repetitive behaviours were associated with play in ASD but not in typical development, supporting Wing and Gould's triad. However there was also an association between play, repetitive behaviour and language, confirming the international classification systems description of imagination as a component of language and communication difficulties.

  13. The development and assessment of behavioural markers to support counter-IED training.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Jim; Leggatt, Andrew; Campbell, James

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the method used to develop and test a checklist of behavioural markers designed to support UK military forces during Counter-Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) training. IEDs represent a significant threat to UK and allied forces. Effective C-IED procedures and techniques are central to reducing risk to life in this safety critical role. Behavioural markers have been developed to characterise and assess non-technical skills which have been shown to be important in maintaining high performance in other safety critical domains. The aims of this study were two-fold. Firstly to develop a method which could be used to capture and assess operationally relevant behavioural markers for use in C-IED training relating primarily to non-technical skills. Secondly, to test the user acceptance of the behavioural marker checklist during military training activities. Through engagement with military subject matter experts, operationally relevant and observable behaviours seen in C-IED training have been identified and their links to stronger and weaker performance have been established. Using a card-sort technique, the content validity of each of the markers was assessed in addition to their detectability in an operational context. Following this assessment, a selection of the most operationally relevant and detectable behaviours were assimilated into a checklist and this checklist was tested in C-IED training activities. The results of the study show that the method used was effective in generating and assessing the behavioural markers using military subject matter experts. The study also broadly supports the utility and user-acceptance of the use of behavioural markers during training activities. The checklist developed using this methodology will provide those responsible for delivering instruction in C-IED techniques and procedures with a straightforward process for identifying good and poor performance with respect to non-technical skills. In addition

  14. Organizational Termination as an Organization Development Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, David

    1982-01-01

    Addresses the subject of organizational termination, suggesting it is an appropriate concern for the field of organization development, and that present methodologies are inadequate to deal with it. Describes a consulting experience with one dying organization and experimental intervention strategies. Describes behavioral reactions of staff to…

  15. Organization Development in Schools: Contemporary Conceptual Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.

    When school psychologists adopt an organization development perspective they are acting on a cluster of related concepts: (1) that because schools are social organizations, school effectiveness depends on the school's organizational culture; (2) that attempts to institute educational reforms only work when the reforms and the school culture mesh;…

  16. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-04-25

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  17. The development of the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders

    PubMed Central

    First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M; Hyman, Steven E; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization is in the process of preparing the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), scheduled for presentation to the World Health Assembly for approval in 2017. The International Advisory Group for the Revision of the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders made improvement in clinical utility an organizing priority for the revision. The uneven nature of the diagnostic information included in the ICD-10 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG), especially with respect to differential diagnosis, is a major shortcoming in terms of its usefulness to clinicians. Consequently, ICD-11 Working Groups were asked to collate diagnostic information about the disorders under their purview using a standardized template (referred to as a “Content Form”). Using the information provided in the Content Forms as source material, the ICD-11 CDDG are being developed with a uniform structure. The effectiveness of this format in producing more consistent clinical judgments in ICD-11 as compared to ICD-10 is currently being tested in a series of Internet-based field studies using standardized case material, and will also be tested in clinical settings. PMID:25655162

  18. Vertebrate Endoderm Development and Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, Aaron M.; Wells, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms; including frog, fish, chick, and mouse; have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models. PMID:19575677

  19. Developing leadership talent in healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Wells, Wendy; Hejna, William

    2009-01-01

    Effective initiatives for developing and retaining leadership talent are built around five supporting elements: Identification of key leader competencies. Effective job design. A strong focus on leadership recruitment, development, and retention. Leadership training and development throughout all levels of the organization. Ongoing leadership assessment and performance management.

  20. Adolescent Lifestyle and Behaviour: A Survey from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Qidwai, Waris; Ishaque, Sidra; Shah, Sabeen; Rahim, Maheen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents form two-thirds of our population. This is a unique group of people with special needs. Our survey aims to identify the lifestyle and behavioral patterns in this group of people and subsequently come up with issues that warrant special attention. Methods A survey was performed in various schools of Karachi. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 12–19 years of age. Results Most adolescents with lifestyle issues fell in the age group of 16–18 years. Females were more depressed than males and had more sleep problems. Substance abuse and other addictions were documented more in males. Watching television or listening to music was stated as the most common late night activity (61.8%) and therefore was also referred to as the contributory factor for less than eight hours of sleep each day. (58.9%) of the respondents are getting less than eight hours of sleep daily. (41.5%) of the respondents who felt depressed sought treatment for it. Quite a few of them were also indulged in substance abuse and other addictions. Only (16.8%) of the respondents opined that physical activity is essential for health. Thirty-five adolescents out of all the respondents were smoking cigarettes currently, whereas 7% of the respondents chewed paan (areca nut). Peer pressure was the most common reason (37.1%) to start smoking. Conclusion Adolescents need to be treated as a distinct segment of our population and it is important to realize and address their health and lifestyle problems. Inadequate sleep, depression and smoking were the leading unhealthy behaviours among the respondents. Families can play an important role to help these adolescents live a healthier life. Further research studies should be carried out to highlight issues of concern and their possible solutions in this population. PMID:20886001

  1. Investigating the annual behaviour of submicron secondary inorganic and organic aerosols in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Green, D. C.; Flynn, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Yin, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS) located at a UK urban background site in North Kensington, London. We show that secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden and that high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season. Furthermore, we demonstrate that on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) oxidation, as defined by the oxygen content, irrespective of amount. This result is surprising given the changes in precursor emissions and contributions as well as photochemical activity throughout the year; however it may make the characterisation of SOA in urban environments more straightforward than previously supposed. Organic species, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, and chloride were measured during 2012 with average concentrations (±1 standard deviation) of 4.32 (±4.42), 2.74 (±5.00), 1.39 (±1.34), 1.30 (±1.52), and 0.15 (±0.24) μg m-3, contributing 44, 28, 14, 13, and 2 % to the total non-refractory submicron mass (NR-PM1) respectively. Components of the organic aerosol fraction are determined using positive matrix factorisation (PMF), in which five factors are identified and attributed as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), solid fuel OA (SFOA), type 1 oxygenated OA (OOA1), and type 2 oxygenated OA (OOA2). OOA1 and OOA2 represent more and less oxygenated OA with average concentrations of 1.27 (±1.49) and 0.14 (±0.29) μg m-3 respectively, where OOA1 dominates the SOA fraction (90%). Diurnal, monthly, and seasonal trends are observed in all organic and inorganic species due to meteorological conditions, specific nature of the aerosols, and availability of precursors. Regional and transboundary pollution as well as other individual

  2. Investigating the annual behaviour of submicron secondary inorganic and organic aerosols in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. E.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Green, D. C.; Flynn, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Yin, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Coe, H.

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS) located at a UK urban background site in North Kensington, London. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden and that high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season. Furthermore, we demonstrate that on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) oxidation, as defined by the oxygen content, irrespective of amount. This result is surprising given the changes in precursor emissions and contributions as well as photochemical activity throughout the year; however it may make the characterisation of SOA in urban environments more straightforward than previously supposed. Organic species, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, and chloride were measured during 2012 with average concentrations (±one standard deviation) of 4.32 (±4.42), 2.74 (±5.00), 1.39 (±1.34), 1.30 (±1.52) and 0.15 (±0.24) μg m-3, contributing 43, 28, 14, 13 and 2% to the total submicron mass, respectively. Components of the organic aerosol fraction are determined using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) where five factors are identified and attributed as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), solid fuel OA (SFOA), type 1 oxygenated OA (OOA1), and type 2 oxygenated OA (OOA2). OOA1 and OOA2 represent more and less oxygenated OA with average concentrations of 1.27 (±1.49) and 0.14 (±0.29) μg m-3, respectively, where OOA1 dominates the SOA fraction (90%). Diurnal, monthly, and seasonal trends are observed in all organic and inorganic species, due to meteorological conditions, specific nature of the aerosols, and availability of precursors. Regional and transboundary pollution as well as other individual pollution events influence London

  3. Development of a novel approach towards predicting the milling behaviour of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Chih Chi; Chen, Yong Qi; Ding, Yu Long; Papadopoulos, Dimitris G; Bentham, A Craig; Ghadiri, Mojtaba

    2004-12-01

    A novel approach has been developed for evaluating the milling behaviour of pharmaceutical powders based on their material and mechanical properties obtained by single particle impact testing. Milling behaviour of two widely used pharmaceutical excipients, namely microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-lactose monohydrate has been analysed in an oscillatory single ball mill. It is found that the milling behaviour of these two powders can be described by analogy with a first-order rate process except for alphaLM at 18Hz of milling frequency. At the same time, single particle impact testing has been used to infer the material properties that are related to breakage. The milling rate of these powders is found to correlate well with the parameter representing the material properties including the particle size, density, hardness and critical stress intensity factor. This provides the basis for a novel approach towards analyzing the milling behaviour of a material based on a simple and reliable approach.

  4. A Mixture of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid Induces Similar Behavioural Responses, but Different Gene Expression Profiles in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khezri, Abdolrahman; Fraser, Thomas W. K.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Berg, Vidar; Zimmer, Karin E.; Ropstad, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread in the environment and some may be neurotoxic. As we are exposed to complex mixtures of POPs, we aimed to investigate how a POP mixture based on Scandinavian human blood data affects behaviour and neurodevelopment during early life in zebrafish. Embryos/larvae were exposed to a series of sub-lethal doses and behaviour was examined at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). In order to determine the sensitivity window to the POP mixture, exposure models of 6 to 48 and 48 to 96 hpf were used. The expression of genes related to neurological development was also assessed. Results indicate that the POP mixture increases the swimming speed of larval zebrafish following exposure between 48 to 96 hpf. This behavioural effect was associated with the perfluorinated compounds, and more specifically with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). The expression of genes related to the stress response, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotoninergic, cholinergic systems and neuronal maintenance, were altered. However, there was little overlap in those genes that were significantly altered by the POP mixture and PFOS. Our findings show that the POP mixture and PFOS can have a similar effect on behaviour, yet alter the expression of genes relevant to neurological development differently. PMID:28146072

  5. A strong genetic correlation underlying a behavioural syndrome disappears during development because of genotype–age interactions

    PubMed Central

    Class, Barbara; Brommer, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In animal populations, as in humans, behavioural differences between individuals that are consistent over time and across contexts are considered to reflect personality, and suites of correlated behaviours expressed by individuals are known as behavioural syndromes. Lifelong stability of behavioural syndromes is often assumed, either implicitly or explicitly. Here, we use a quantitative genetic approach to study the developmental stability of a behavioural syndrome in a wild population of blue tits. We find that a behavioural syndrome formed by a strong genetic correlation of two personality traits in nestlings disappears in adults, and we demonstrate that genotype–age interaction is the likely mechanism underlying this change during development. A behavioural syndrome may hence change during organismal development, even when personality traits seem to be strongly physiologically or functionally linked in one age group. We outline how such developmental plasticity has important ramifications for understanding the mechanistic basis as well as the evolutionary consequences of behavioural syndromes. PMID:26041348

  6. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  7. Significance of epigenetics for understanding brain development, brain evolution and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Keverne, E B

    2014-04-04

    Two major environmental developments have occurred in mammalian evolution which have impacted on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of brain development. The first of these was viviparity and development of the placenta which placed a considerable burden of time and energy investment on the matriline, and which resulted in essential hypothalamic modifications. Maternal feeding, maternal care, parturition, milk letdown and the suspension of fertility and sexual behaviour are all determined by the maternal hypothalamus and have evolved to meet foetal needs under the influence of placental hormones. Viviparity itself provided a new environmental variable for selection pressures to operate via the co-existence over three generations of matrilineal genomes (mother, developing offspring and developing oocytes) in one individual. Also of importance for the matriline has been the evolution of epigenetic marks (imprint control regions) which are heritable and undergo reprogramming primarily in the oocyte to regulate imprinted gene expression according to parent of origin. Imprinting of autosomal genes has played a significant role in mammalian evolutionary development, particularly that of the hypothalamus and placenta. Indeed, many imprinted genes that are co-expressed in the placenta and hypothalamus play an important role in the co-adapted functioning of these organs. Thus the action and interaction of two genomes (maternal and foetal) have provided a template for transgenerational selection pressures to operate in shaping the mothering capabilities of each subsequent generation. The advanced aspects of neocortical brain evolution in primates have emancipated much of behaviour from the determining effects of hormonal action. Thus in large brain primates, most of the sexual behaviour is not reproductive hormone dependent and maternal care can and does occur outside the context of pregnancy and parturition. The neocortex has evolved to be adaptable and while the adapted

  8. Developmental programming of early brain and behaviour development and mental health: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2011-09-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis studies the short- and long-term consequences of the conditions of the developmental environment for phenotypic variations in health and disease. Central to this hypothesis is the idea of interdependence of developmental influences, genes, and environment. Developmental programming effects are mediated by alterations in fundamental life functions, and the most enduring effects seem to occur if the main regulatory instances of the organ - the (epi)genome and the brain - are affected. Some new insights in the role of chromatin, in cellular development and differentiation, and neural plasticity from the field of epigenetics are introduced, followed by a section on epigenetics and brain development. It is proposed to extend the DOHaD hypothesis into the 'Developmental Origins of Behaviour, Health, and Disease' (DOBHaD) concept. Pregnancy and the early postnatal period are times of both great opportunity and considerable risk, and their influence can extend over a lifetime. The DOBHaD hypothesis opens fundamental new perspectives on preventing diseases and disorders.

  9. Behaviour of water bound in bone marrow cells affected by organic solvents of different polarity.

    PubMed

    Turov, Vladimir V; Kerus, Sergey V; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2009-08-01

    The behaviour of intracellular water affected by organic solvents of different polarity in partially dehydrated marrow cells obtained from tubular bones of broiler chickens was studied using (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 210-290K. The (1)H NMR spectra of intracellular water include two signals which can be assigned to strongly (SAW, chemical shift of the proton resonance delta(H)=4-5ppm) and weakly (WAW, delta(H)=1.2-1.7ppm) associated waters which can be also divided into weakly (WBW, frozen at 250-0.8kJ/mol) and strongly (SBW, unfrozen at T<250K, DeltaG<-0.8kJ/mol) bound intracellular waters. Solvents of different polarity such as dimethylsulfoxide-d(6) (Me(2)SO-d(6)), acetonitrile-d(3), and chloroform-d differently affect structure, Gibbs free energy, and molecular mobility of intracellular water. A maximal fraction of SBW in WAW and a minimal fraction of SBW in SAW are observed on absorption of acetonitrile (0.8g/g) by cells. The opposite results are on addition of Me(2)SO (0.8g/g) which strongly changes organisation of intracellular water and enhances the freezing point depression of SBW.

  10. Socially Driven Consistent Behavioural Differences during Development in Common Ravens and Carrion Crows

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachael; Laskowski, Kate L.; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour, or ‘personality’, are likely to be influenced by development, social context, and species ecology, though few comparative, longitudinal studies exist. Here, we investigated the role of development and social context on personality variation in two identically reared, social corvids: common ravens and carrion crows. We repeatedly presented subjects with a variety of novel food and objects, while alone and in a primarily sibling subgroup, from fledging to sub-adulthood. We predicted that consistent individual differences would emerge later in development, and that conspecific presence would facilitate behavioural similarities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that individuals of both species were highly inconsistent in their behavioural responses throughout the development period. In line with our predictions, though in the ravens only, conspecific presence promoted behavioural similarities as individuals were strongly shaped by their subgroup, and it is likely that these effects were driven by social context rather than relatedness. We discuss these findings in relation to developmental steps and the role of social relations in these species. Overall, our findings highlight that these two species are highly adaptable in their behaviour, and the ravens in particular are strongly influenced by their social environment, which may facilitate cooperation and social learning. PMID:26848954

  11. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H.; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans. PMID:26366861

  12. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida) do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001). We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  13. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M.; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-01-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice. PMID:27249678

  14. Development of a Scale for Measuring Teachers' Attitudes toward Students' Inappropriate Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malak, Md. Saiful; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes of primary schoolteachers toward inappropriate student behaviour. A systematic approach was used to develop the scale. Results provide preliminary evidence that the new instrument (consisting of 13 items on a six-point Likert type scale) meets the standards for…

  15. Joint Attention Behaviours and Vocabulary Development in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampini, L.; Salvi, A.; D'Odorico, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of their difficulties in language development, various studies have focussed on the precursors of linguistic skills in children with Down syndrome. However, data on the predictive role of joint attention on language development in this population are inconsistent. The present study aimed to analyse attention behaviours in a…

  16. Instructional Development in Higher Education: Impact on Teachers' Teaching Behaviour as Perceived by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Coertjens, Liesje; Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although instructional development has become an important topic in higher education, little is known about the impact on teaching practice. In this study we investigate the impact of instructional development on teachers' teaching behaviour as perceived by students. Quantitative student data were assembled for 15 experimental and 12 control…

  17. Survival implications of the development of behavioural responsiveness and awareness in different groups of mammalian young.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J; Lentle, R G

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the development of behaviours that are critical for the survival of newborn and juvenile mammals of veterinary and wider biological interest. It provides an updated, integrated and comparative analysis of how postnatal maturation of sensory, motor and perceptual capacities support and constrain behavioural interactions between mammalian young and the mother, any littermates and the environment. Young that are neurologically exceptionally immature, moderately immature and mature at birth are compared, and include, for example, marsupial joeys, rodent pups and ruminant offspring. Mothers in these three groups exhibit distinctive patterns of birthing and postnatal care behaviours. To secure survival of the young, maternal care must compensate for behavioural inadequacies imposed by the limited sensory capacities the young possess at each stage. These sensory capacities develop in a predictable sequence in most mammals such that before birth the sequence progresses to an extent that parallels the degree of neurological maturity reached at birth. The extent of neurological maturity is likewise reflected in how long it takes after birth for the necessary brain circuit connectivity to develop sufficiently to support cortically based cognitive modulation of behaviour. This takes several months, days-to-weeks or minutes-to-hours in young that are, respectively, neurologically exceptionally immature, moderately immature, or mature at birth. Once achieved, cognitive awareness confers a high degree of behavioural flexibility that allows the young to respond more effectively to the unpredictability of their postnatal environments. It is shown that the onset of this cognitively based flexibility in the young of each group coincides with their first exposure to a variable environment that requires such behavioural flexibility.

  18. Rules and Reciprocity in Behavioural Development: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateson, P. P. G.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the potential value of two bodies of thought arising from work on animals in connection with rehabilitating abnormal behavior. One deals with the processes of catch-up and self-regulation, the other with optional periods of learning in development. (MP)

  19. Organization Development. Symposium 16. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on organization development (OD) consists of three presentations. "A Study of Gender Management Preferences as Related to Predicted Organizational Management Paradigms for the Twenty-First Century" (Cathy Bolton McCullough) reports a study that found that access to diverse management preferences and the manner in which the…

  20. Aligning product development and user perspectives: social-behavioural dimensions of multipurpose prevention technologies.

    PubMed

    Brady, M; Tolley, E

    2014-10-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies provide a compelling response to the multiple and reinforcing sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women globally. To ensure that this potential is realised, product-specific characteristics and their social-behavioural correlates must be considered early in the product development process. This paper provides an overview of the key user-related social and behavioural dimensions of three broad categories of multipurpose prevention technologies: 1) sustained release vaginal rings, 2) pericoital vaginal products, and 3) co-formulated or co-administered injectables. The authors build upon the broad parameters of Target Product Profiles for such products, aligning them with user perspective considerations.

  1. Moral Development and Behaviour under the Spotlight of the Neurobiological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narvaez, Darcia; Vaydich, Jenny L.

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, neuroscience is providing a new perspective on human behaviour. Many areas of psychology have recognised and embraced the new technologies, methodologies and relevant findings. But how do the tools of neuroscience affect the fields of moral development and moral education?…

  2. Towards the Development of Self-Regulation in Pupils Experiencing Social and Emotional Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowat, Joan Gaynor

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses upon the development of self-regulation as it pertains to pupils experiencing social and emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBD) within the context of a case study evaluating an intervention, designed and implemented by the author, to support such pupils within a Scottish secondary school situated in an area of multiple…

  3. The Relationship between Language Development and Behaviour Problems in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…

  4. Engaging with the Self: Mirror Behaviour in Autism, Down Syndrome and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Williams, Emma; Costantini, Cristina; Lan, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism achieve mirror self-recognition appropriate to developmental age, but are nonetheless reported to have problems in other aspects of a sense of self. We observed behaviour in the mirror in 12 pre-school children with autism, 13 pre-school children with Down syndrome (DS) and 13 typically developing (TD) toddlers. Reliable…

  5. The Influence of Information Behaviour on Information Sharing across Cultural Boundaries in Development Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Hester W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Sharing of information across cultural boundaries does not always live up to expectations. Information behaviour is an underlying factor, which can contribute to poor use or non-use of the information or information services at the disposal of indigenous people in a development context. Method: A literature study of information…

  6. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-01-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison…

  7. Brain and cognitive-behavioural development after asphyxia at term birth.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-07-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has been implicated in two different long-term outcomes, cognitive memory impairment and the psychiatric disorder schizophrenia. Factors in addition to the acute episode of asphyxia likely contribute to these specific outcomes, making prediction difficult. Future studies that better document long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome, quantitatively identify patterns of brain injury over development and consider additional variables that may modulate the impact of asphyxia on cognitive and behavioural function will forward the goals of predicting long-term outcome and understanding the mechanisms by which it unfolds.

  8. Coach behaviours and practice structures in youth soccer: implications for talent development.

    PubMed

    Cushion, Chris; Ford, Paul R; Williams, A Mark

    2012-01-01

    Coaches are central to talent development in youth soccer and what they say and do impacts on players' achievements and well-being. Researchers have systematically observed coach behaviour and practice activities within this setting (i.e. 'what coaches do'). We review this research in light of contemporary discussion that highlights a potential 'theory-practice' divide. Our main example focuses on the discrepancy between coaching behaviour and research from the sports science sub-discipline areas of motor learning and skill acquisition that relate to how best to design practice sessions and provide instruction (i.e., 'what coaches should probably do'). The underlying reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and recommendations made to address this disparity in research, education and coach behaviours.

  9. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-02-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  10. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  11. Brood size can influence maternal behaviour and chick's development in precocial birds.

    PubMed

    Aigueperse, Nadège; Pittet, Florent; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Nicolle, Céline; Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Variations of maternal behaviour can be due to numerous parameters, for instance costs are related to the size of a brood/litter, which in turn can influence the level of mothers' investment in each offspring. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. We compared two types of broods: small broods of three chicks (N=9) and large broods of six chicks (N=9). Behavioural tests assessed chicks' social and emotional traits. Mothers of large broods emitted more maternal vocalisations at the beginning of the mothering period, but at the end they assumed more non-covering postures and trampled chicks more than mothers of small broods. Chicks in large broods huddled up more whereas chicks in small broods rested alone more frequently. Moreover, the social motivation of chicks in large broods was higher than that of chicks in small broods, although their emotional reactivity levels were similar. Our results evidence the importance of brood size for maintaining family cohesion and the influence of brood size on chicks' interactions with their siblings. We evaluated the influence of mothers and siblings on chicks' behavioural development.

  12. Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder in the development of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Boeve, Bradley F

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with Lewy body disease pathology in central and peripheral nervous system structures. Although the cause of Parkinson's disease is not fully understood, clinicopathological analyses have led to the development of a staging system for Lewy body disease-associated pathological changes. This system posits a predictable topography of progression of Lewy body disease in the CNS, beginning in olfactory structures and the medulla, then progressing rostrally from the medulla to the pons, then to midbrain and substantia nigra, limbic structures, and neocortical structures. If this topography and temporal evolution of Lewy body disease does occur, other manifestations of the disease as a result of degeneration of olfactory and pontomedullary structures could theoretically begin many years before the development of prominent nigral degeneration and the associated parkinsonian features of Parkinson's disease. One such manifestation of prodromal Parkinson's disease is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder, which is a parasomnia manifested by vivid dreams associated with dream enactment behaviour during REM sleep. Findings from animal and human studies have suggested that lesions or dysfunction in REM sleep and motor control circuitry in the pontomedullary structures cause REM sleep behaviour disorder phenomenology, and degeneration of these structures might explain the presence of REM sleep behaviour disorder years or decades before the onset of parkinsonism in people who develop Parkinson's disease.

  13. The development of instruments to measure the work disability assessment behaviour of insurance physicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Variation in assessments is a universal given, and work disability assessments by insurance physicians are no exception. Little is known about the considerations and views of insurance physicians that may partly explain such variation. On the basis of the Attitude - Social norm - self Efficacy (ASE) model, we have developed measurement instruments for assessment behaviour and its determinants. Methods Based on theory and interviews with insurance physicians the questionnaire included blocks of items concerning background variables, intentions, attitudes, social norms, self-efficacy, knowledge, barriers and behaviour of the insurance physicians in relation to work disability assessment issues. The responses of 231 insurance physicians were suitable for further analysis. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were used to form scale variables and homogeneity analysis was used to form dimension variables. Thus, we included 169 of the 177 original items. Results Factor analysis and reliability analysis yielded 29 scales with sufficient reliability. Homogeneity analysis yielded 19 dimensions. Scales and dimensions fitted with the concepts of the ASE model. We slightly modified the ASE model by dividing behaviour into two blocks: behaviour that reflects the assessment process and behaviour that reflects assessment behaviour. The picture that emerged from the descriptive results was of a group of physicians who were motivated in their job and positive about the Dutch social security system in general. However, only half of them had a positive opinion about the Dutch Work and Income (Capacity for Work) Act (WIA). They also reported serious barriers, the most common of which was work pressure. Finally, 73% of the insurance physicians described the majority of their cases as 'difficult'. Conclusions The scales and dimensions developed appear to be valid and offer a promising basis for future research. The results suggest that the underlying ASE model, in

  14. Aquatic surface respiration and swimming behaviour in adult and developing zebrafish exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Sara J; Thomas, Benjamin S; Jonz, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    Severe hypoxia elicits aquatic surface respiration (ASR) behaviour in many species of fish, where ventilation of the gills at the air-water interface improves O2 uptake and survival. ASR is an important adaptation that may have given rise to air breathing in vertebrates. The neural substrate of this behaviour, however, is not defined. We characterized ASR in developing and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ascertain a potential role for peripheral chemoreceptors in initiation or modulation of this response. Adult zebrafish exposed to acute, progressive hypoxia (PO2 from 158 to 15 mmHg) performed ASR with a threshold of 30 mmHg, and spent more time at the surface as PO2 decreased. Acclimation to hypoxia attenuated ASR responses. In larvae, ASR behaviour was observed between 5 and 21 days postfertilization with a threshold of 16 mmHg. Zebrafish decreased swimming behaviour (i.e. distance, velocity and acceleration) as PO2 was decreased, with a secondary increase in behaviour near or below threshold PO2 . In adults that underwent a 10-day intraperitoneal injection regime of 10 μg g(-1) serotonin (5-HT) or 20 μg g(-1) acetylcholine (ACh), an acute bout of hypoxia (15 mmHg) increased the time engaged in ASR by 5.5 and 4.9 times, respectively, compared with controls. Larvae previously immersed in 10 μmol l(-1) 5-HT or ACh also displayed an increased ASR response. Our results support the notion that ASR is a behavioural response that is reliant upon input from peripheral O2 chemoreceptors. We discuss implications for the role of chemoreceptors in the evolution of air breathing.

  15. Hypogonadism predisposes males to the development of behavioural and neuroplastic depressive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Steven R; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of depression is 2-3× higher in women particularly during the reproductive years, an occurrence that has been associated with levels of sex hormones. The age-related decline of testosterone levels in men corresponds with the increased acquisition of depressive symptoms, and hormone replacement therapy can be efficacious in treating depression in hypogonadal men. Although it is not possible to model depression in rodents, it is possible to model some of the symptoms of depression including a dysregulated stress response and altered neuroplasticity. Among animal models of depression, chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) is a common paradigm used to induce depressive-like behaviours in rodents, disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and decrease hippocampal neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hypogonadism, produced by gonadectomy, on the acquisition of depressive-like behaviours and changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 21-day unpredictable CMS protocol was used on gonadectomised (GDX) and sham-operated males which produced an attenuation of weight gain in the GDX males receiving CMS treatment (GDX-CMS). Behavioural analysis was carried out to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours. The combination of GDX and CMS produced greater passive behaviours within the forced swim test than CMS exposure alone. Similarly, hippocampal cell proliferation, neurogenesis and the expression of the neuroplastic protein polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) were all significantly reduced in the GDX-CMS group compared to all other treatment groups. These findings indicate that testicular hormones confer resiliency to chronic stress in males therefore reducing the likelihood of developing putative physiological, behavioural or neurological depressive-like phenotypes.

  16. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice.

  17. The Integrated Development of Sensory Organization

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis The natural environment provides a flux of concurrent stimulation to all our senses, and the integration of information from different sensory systems is a fundamental feature of perception and cognition. How information from the different senses is integrated has long been of concern to several scientific disciplines, including psychology, cognitive science, and the neurosciences, each with different questions and methodologies. In recent years, a growing body of evidence drawn from these various disciplines suggests that the development of early sensory organization is much more plastic and experience-dependent than was previously realized. In this article, I briefly explore some of these recent advances in our understanding of the development of sensory integration and organization and discuss implications of these advances for the care and management of the preterm infant. PMID:22107892

  18. Recent developments in high temperature organic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in high temperature organic polymers during the last 5 years with major emphasis on polyimides and poly(arylene ether)s are discussed. Specific polymers or series of polymers have been selected to demonstrate unique properties or the effect chemical structure has upon certain properties. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive review of high temperature polymer advancements during the last 5 years.

  19. Family as a child development context and smoking behaviour among schoolchildren in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Granado Alcon, M C; Pedersen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Smoking among greenlandic schoolchildren is considered a major health hazard. Greenland is a modern society susceptible to social changes, including changes in family structure. The objective was to investigate if changes in the family, as a child development context, were affecting schoolchildren's smoking behaviour. The survey was carried out in February 1998 in all schools in Greenland in the context of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. 3081 questionnaires were received, which gave a response rate of 68% of the total study population. The present sample from the HBSC study consists of 1648 students, 826 boys and 822 girls in the age groups 11, 13 and 15 years old. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model were applied. The results were that smoking prevalence among Greenlandic schoolchildren increased with age and was lower in boys than in girls. Daily smoking prevalence among 15 year olds was high, namely 50% among boys and 56% among girls. With regard to family structure, it was found that the odds ratio for smoking was higher when the child was living in an broken/restructured family versus living in a biological family. The influence of socio-economic class on smoking behaviour was weak and statistically insignificant, and age proved to be the strongest predictor of prevalence in smoking behaviour.

  20. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety.

  1. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  2. Supporting and Developing Self-Regulatory Behaviours in Early Childhood in Young Children with High Levels of Impulsive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in self-regulatory skills underlie or contribute to a range of adverse developmental problems and disorders, including ADHD (Barkley, 1997), eating disorders (Attie & Brooks-Gunn, 1995) and risk -taking behaviour (Cantor & Sanderson 1998; Eisenberg et al., 2005). Self-regulation has been recognised as an important factor in aiding…

  3. Gender differences in the effects of prenatal stress on brain development and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Marta

    2007-10-01

    An increased incidence of anxiety, depression and attention deficits in children has been linked to psychological stress during pregnancy. Subjection of a pregnant rat to stress at a time when the foetal limbic and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axes develop results in anxiogenic and depressive behaviour and learning and attention deficits in the offspring, which depend on its gender, intensity and timing of the maternal stress and behaviour being tested. Maternal stress increases corticosterone levels in the foetal brain, decreases foetal testosterone and brain aromatase activity in males, and alters brain catecholamine activity to that in females. Learning deficits, reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis, LTP and dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex are more readily seen in prenatally-stressed males, while anxiety, depression and increased response of the HPA axis to stress are more prevalent in females. Genders may differ in the sensitivity of developing brain areas to stress hormones.

  4. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia

    2008-02-01

    The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control.

  5. Schooling behaviour of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis depends on their vision development.

    PubMed

    Torisawa, S; Fukuda, H; Suzuki, K; Takagi, T

    2011-11-01

    The effects of vision development and light intensity on schooling behaviour during growth in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were investigated using both behavioural and histological approaches. The schooling behaviour of three age groups [25, 40 and 55 days post hatching (dph)] of juvenile T. orinetalis were examined under various light intensities. Subsequently, schooling variables, such as the nearest neighbour distance (D(NN) ) and the separation swimming index (I(SS) ), were also measured under different light intensities. Furthermore, retinal indices of light adaptation in juvenile fish at each experimental light intensity and visual acuities in six stages (25-55 dph) of juveniles were examined histologically. During growth, the light intensity thresholds of I(SS) decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx, and D(NN) under light conditions (>300 lx) also decreased from 9·2 times the standard length (L(S) ) to 1·2 times L(S) . The thresholds of light intensities for the light adaptation of retinas in juveniles (25-55 dph) similarly decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx with growth. In addition, the visual acuities of juveniles developed from 0·04 to 0·17 with decreasing D(NN) . These data clearly indicate that the characteristics of schooling behaviour strongly correspond to the degree of vision development. Juvenile T. orinetalis also appear to be more dependent on cone rather than rod cells under low light intensity conditions, resulting in a relatively high light intensity threshold for schooling. These results suggest that juveniles can adapt to darker conditions during growth by developing improved visual capabilities.

  6. Genome Duplication: The Heartbeat of Developing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism that duplicates the nuclear genome during the trillions of cell divisions required to develop from zygote to adult is the same throughout the eukarya, but the mechanisms that determine where, when and how much nuclear genome duplication occur regulate development and differ among the eukarya. They allow organisms to change the rate of cell proliferation during development, to activate zygotic gene expression independently of DNA replication, and to restrict nuclear DNA replication to once per cell division. They allow specialized cells to exit their mitotic cell cycle and differentiate into polyploid cells, and in some cases, to amplify the number of copies of specific genes. It is genome duplication that drives evolution, by virtue of the errors that inevitably occur when the same process is repeated trillions of times. It is, unfortunately, the same errors that produce age-related genetic disorders such as cancer. PMID:26970621

  7. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impairs Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In this study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29, and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various end-points studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29, but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 63 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization.

  8. Simulink based behavioural modelling of a pulse oximeter for deployment in rapid development, prototyping and verification.

    PubMed

    Shokouhian, M; Morling, R C S; Kale, I

    2012-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a well-known device for measuring the level of oxygen in blood. Since their invention, pulse oximeters have been under constant development in both aspects of hardware and software; however there are still unsolved problems that limit their performance [6], [7]. Many fresh algorithms and new design techniques are being suggested every year by industry and academic researchers which claim that they can improve accuracy of measurements [8], [9]. With the lack of an accurate computer-based behavioural model for pulse oximeters, the only way for evaluation of these newly developed systems and algorithms is through hardware implementation which can be both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents an accurate Simulink based behavioural model for a pulse oximeter that can be used by industry and academia alike working in this area, as an exploration as well as productivity enhancement tool during their research and development process. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new computer-based behavioural model which provides a simulation environment from which new ideas can be rapidly evaluated long before the real implementation.

  9. Behavioural Patterns of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment in Comparison with Boys with Typical Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Laura; Jansson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Tomas; Hedenbro, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment (LI) experience social difficulties, including conflict management. This paper is therefore motivated to examine behavioural processes guiding preschool peer conflict progression, which ultimately contributes to overall development. Aims: To describe behavioural sequences in conflicts between children…

  10. Maternal Stress and Young Children's Behavioural Development: A Prospective Pilot Study from 8 to 36 Months in a Finnish Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapsamo, Helena; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel A.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Larinen, Katja; Soini, Hannu; Moilanen, Irma

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal parenting stress and infant/toddler behavioural development was examined in a longitudinal pilot study. Fifty mothers reported parenting stress via the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form when their infants were eight months old. Parents subsequently rated their children's emotional and behavioural problems with the…

  11. Computer vision and driver distraction: developing a behaviour-flagging protocol for naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Charlton, Judith L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M

    2014-11-01

    Naturalistic driving studies (NDS) allow researchers to discreetly observe everyday, real-world driving to better understand the risk factors that contribute to hazardous situations. In particular, NDS designs provide high ecological validity in the study of driver distraction. With increasing dataset sizes, current best practice of manually reviewing videos to classify the occurrence of driving behaviours, including those that are indicative of distraction, is becoming increasingly impractical. Current statistical solutions underutilise available data and create further epistemic problems. Similarly, technical solutions such as eye-tracking often require dedicated hardware that is not readily accessible or feasible to use. A computer vision solution based on open-source software was developed and tested to improve the accuracy and speed of processing NDS video data for the purpose of quantifying the occurrence of driver distraction. Using classifier cascades, manually-reviewed video data from a previously published NDS was reanalysed and used as a benchmark of current best practice for performance comparison. Two software coding systems were developed - one based on hierarchical clustering (HC), and one based on gender differences (MF). Compared to manual video coding, HC achieved 86 percent concordance, 55 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 69 percent of target behaviour not previously identified through manual review. MF achieved 67 percent concordance, a 75 percent reduction in processing time, and classified an additional 35 percent of target behaviour not identified through manual review. The findings highlight the improvements in processing speed and correctly classifying target behaviours achievable through the use of custom developed computer vision solutions. Suggestions for improved system performance and wider implementation are discussed.

  12. Clinical supervision in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy: development of a model for mental health nursing through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Townend, M

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a cognitive behavioural model of supervision for mental health nurses. The study utilized a grounded theory approach with cognitive behavioural psychotherapy training course directors. The aim was to more fully understand cognitive behavioural supervision from the perspective of expert supervisors, and develop a model of supervision for mental health nurses who are also cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. For this purpose, 16 course directors were interviewed in-depth, with data analysis taking place after each interview. Through a process of inductive reasoning, core categories were identified from the participants themselves. The relationships between the categories are described. The findings are discussed in terms of a new model that can be used to underpin cognitive behavioural psychotherapy supervision in mental health nursing.

  13. Photoelectrochemical behaviour of anatase nanoporous films: effect of the nanoparticle organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana-Villarreal, Teresa; Mao, Yuanbing; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Gómez, Roberto

    2010-09-01

    The photoelectrochemical behaviour of anatase thin films with different nanoarchitectures and the same active surface area (or thickness) has been studied in acidic media in the absence and in the presence of formic acid. The electrodes were composed of either wire-like nanocrystal aggregates or commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry in the dark reveals a larger trap concentration in the band gap for the nanoparticulate (NP) electrodes, which can be ascribed to a larger number of intergrain boundaries. Also under illumination, the behaviour for both types of anatase structures significantly differs: water photooxidation arises at more negative potentials for the nanocolumnar (NC) electrodes. In the presence of an efficient hole acceptor such as HCOOH, significantly larger photocurrents were noted for the NC films as compared with those for the NP electrodes, with the photocurrent onset also shifted towards more positive potentials for the latter. These results point to a diminished electron recombination, which can be related with a smaller concentration of intergrain boundaries, together with a more efficient HCOOH hole transfer for the wire-like nanocrystal aggregate architecture. In addition, the oxygen reduction reaction is also favoured in the case of NC electrodes.The photoelectrochemical behaviour of anatase thin films with different nanoarchitectures and the same active surface area (or thickness) has been studied in acidic media in the absence and in the presence of formic acid. The electrodes were composed of either wire-like nanocrystal aggregates or commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry in the dark reveals a larger trap concentration in the band gap for the nanoparticulate (NP) electrodes, which can be ascribed to a larger number of intergrain boundaries. Also under illumination, the behaviour for both types of anatase structures significantly differs: water photooxidation arises at more negative potentials for the nanocolumnar

  14. Students' and teachers' perceptions of aggressive behaviour in adolescents with intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Miroslav; Zunić-Pavlović, Vesna; Glumbić, Nenad

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated aggressive behaviour in Serbian adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) compared to typically developing peers. The sample consisted of both male and female adolescents aged 12-18 years. One hundred of the adolescents had ID, and 348 adolescents did not have ID. The adolescents were asked to complete the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and their teachers provided ratings of aggression for the adolescents using the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive-Proactive (C-SHARP). Results indicated that adolescents reported a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than their teachers. Reactive aggression was more prevalent than proactive aggression in both subsamples. In the subsample of adolescents with ID, there were no sex or age differences for aggression. However, in the normative subsample, boys and older adolescents scored significantly higher on aggression. According to adolescent self-reports the prevalence of aggression was higher in adolescents without ID, while teachers perceived aggressive behaviour to be more prevalent in adolescents with ID. Scientific and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  16. Direct transfer of learned behaviour via cell fusion in non-neural organisms.

    PubMed

    Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey

    2016-12-28

    Cell fusion is a fundamental phenomenon observed in all eukaryotes. Cells can exchange resources such as molecules or organelles during fusion. In this paper, we ask whether a cell can also transfer an adaptive response to a fusion partner. We addressed this question in the unicellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum, in which cell-cell fusion is extremely common. Slime moulds are capable of habituation, a simple form of learning, when repeatedly exposed to an innocuous repellent, despite lacking neurons and comprising only a single cell. In this paper, we present a set of experiments demonstrating that slime moulds habituated to a repellent can transfer this adaptive response by cell fusion to individuals that have never encountered the repellent. In addition, we show that a slime mould resulting from the fusion of a minority of habituated slime moulds and a majority of unhabituated ones still shows an adaptive response to the repellent. Finally, we further reveal that fusion must last a certain time to ensure an effective transfer of the behavioural adaptation between slime moulds. Our results provide strong experimental evidence that slime moulds exhibit transfer of learned behaviour during cell fusion and raise the possibility that similar phenomena may occur in other cell-cell fusion systems.

  17. Chelicerae as male grasping organs in scorpions: sexual dimorphism and associated behaviour.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Patricia C; Mattoni, Camilo I; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2009-01-01

    Specialised structures that enable males to grasp females during sexual interactions are highly susceptible to selection and thus diverge relatively rapidly over evolutionary time. These structures are often used to test hypotheses regarding sexual selection such as sexually antagonistic co-evolution and sexual selection by female choice. In the present study, we determine whether there is a relationship between a novel record of scorpion sexual dimorphism, the sexual dimorphism of chelicerae (CSD), and the presence of the mating behaviour termed "cheliceral grip" (CG). The presence of both traits in the order Scorpiones is also reviewed from a phylogenetic perspective. The results confirm a strong relationship between CSD and the presence of CG. The morphological and behavioural patterns associated with "CSD-CG" are opposed to the predictions postulated by the hypothesis of sexually antagonistic co-evolution. However, if the female shows resistance after the deposition of the spermatophore, the possibility that the male exerts pressure as a "cryptic form" of coercion to prevent the interruption of mating cannot be ruled out completely. Female choice by "mechanical fit" could be another explanation for some aspects of the CG's contact zone. The possibility that the "CG-CSD" complex has evolved under natural selection in order to ensure sperm transfer is also considered.

  18. Perceptions and behaviours of infectious diseases physicians when managing urinary tract infections due to MDR organisms

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Sergio E.; Babcock, Hilary M.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Lane, Michael A.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Polgreen, Philip M.; Marschall, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to attain a better understanding of infectious diseases (ID) physicians' experience with MDR organism (MDRO) urinary tract infections (UTIs) by means of a survey on disease perception, diagnostic management and treatment preferences. Methods A nine-question survey was developed and distributed to members of the North American Emerging Infections Network (EIN) in September 2013. Results Seven hundred and fourteen out of 1461 EIN members responded to the survey (49%). The responses of 603 responders were studied. Most providers perceived an increase in the incidence of MDRO UTIs over the past 3 years (75% of adult ID responders and 63% of paediatric ID responders). One hundred and thirty-four (22%) responders prefer intravenous over oral administration of antimicrobials when both are available, 171 (28%) prefer longer durations of therapy when comparing an MDRO with a susceptible isolate of the same species and 142 (24%) order a repeat urine culture as ‘proof of cure’ after treating an MDRO UTI. Nevertheless, 530 (88%) responders perceived MDRO UTIs to be of similar severity as non-MDRO UTIs. Fifty-five percent of providers prescribed fosfomycin for MDRO UTI at least once; the most common prescribing pattern (among a wide spectrum of approaches) was a single dose (16%). Conclusions Future studies on MDRO UTIs should clarify the role of resistance in patient outcomes and the comparative efficacy of different antimicrobials. Of particular interest is fosfomycin, which is unrelated to other antibiotic classes and may take a more prominent role in treating MDRO cystitis. PMID:26349519

  19. Nature and dynamic behaviour of organic surface layer deposits during dry weather.

    PubMed

    Oms, C; Gromaire, M C; Chebbo, G

    2005-01-01

    In-situ observations were performed at two different spatial and temporal scales, in order to get a better identification of the nature of the organic layer situated at the water-sediment interface, and which had previously been identified as major of combined sewer overflows organic loads. Its composition and its build up mechanisms during dry weather periods are presented. Results showed that the concept of dry weather accumulation and more generally the way organic sewer sediments are modelled needs to be reconsidered.

  20. Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: part 2, nitrogen dynamic.

    PubMed

    de Guardia, A; Mallard, P; Teglia, C; Marin, A; Le Pape, C; Launay, M; Benoist, J C; Petiot, C

    2010-03-01

    This paper aimed to compare household waste, separated pig solids, food waste, pig slaughterhouse sludge and green algae regarding processes ruling nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three composting simulations were performed in parallel in three similar reactors (300 L), each one under a constant aeration rate. The aeration flows applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the compost were characterized through the measurements of their contents in dry matter, total carbon, Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate. Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate were measured in leachates and in condensates too. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions were monitored in continue. The cumulated emissions in ammonia and in nitrous oxide were given for each waste and at each aeration rate. The paper focused on process of ammonification and on transformations and transfer of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The parameters of nitrous oxide emissions were not investigated. The removal rate of total Kjeldahl nitrogen was shown being closely tied to the ammonification rate. Ammonification was modelled thanks to the calculation of the ratio of biodegradable carbon to organic nitrogen content of the biodegradable fraction. The wastes were shown to differ significantly regarding their ammonification ability. Nitrogen balances were calculated by subtracting nitrogen losses from nitrogen removed from material. Defaults in nitrogen balances were assumed to correspond to conversion of nitrate even nitrite into molecular nitrogen and then to the previous conversion by nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The pool of total ammoniacal nitrogen, i.e. total ammoniacal nitrogen initially contained in waste plus total ammoniacal nitrogen released by ammonification, was calculated for each experiment. Then, this pool was used as the referring amount in the calculation of the rates of accumulation, stripping and

  1. Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: Part 2, nitrogen dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Guardia, A. de; Mallard, P.; Teglia, C.; Marin, A.; Le Pape, C.; Launay, M.; Benoist, J.C.; Petiot, C.

    2010-03-15

    This paper aimed to compare household waste, separated pig solids, food waste, pig slaughterhouse sludge and green algae regarding processes ruling nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three composting simulations were performed in parallel in three similar reactors (300 L), each one under a constant aeration rate. The aeration flows applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the compost were characterized through the measurements of their contents in dry matter, total carbon, Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate. Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate were measured in leachates and in condensates too. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions were monitored in continue. The cumulated emissions in ammonia and in nitrous oxide were given for each waste and at each aeration rate. The paper focused on process of ammonification and on transformations and transfer of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The parameters of nitrous oxide emissions were not investigated. The removal rate of total Kjeldahl nitrogen was shown being closely tied to the ammonification rate. Ammonification was modelled thanks to the calculation of the ratio of biodegradable carbon to organic nitrogen content of the biodegradable fraction. The wastes were shown to differ significantly regarding their ammonification ability. Nitrogen balances were calculated by subtracting nitrogen losses from nitrogen removed from material. Defaults in nitrogen balances were assumed to correspond to conversion of nitrate even nitrite into molecular nitrogen and then to the previous conversion by nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The pool of total ammoniacal nitrogen, i.e. total ammoniacal nitrogen initially contained in waste plus total ammoniacal nitrogen released by ammonification, was calculated for each experiment. Then, this pool was used as the referring amount in the calculation of the rates of accumulation, stripping and

  2. Development of a Tool to Stage Households’ Readiness to Change Dietary Behaviours in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Daivadanam, Meena; Ravindran, T. K. Sundari; Thankappan, K. R.; Sarma, P. S.; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions and existing health behaviour theories are centred on individuals; therefore, none of the available tools are applicable to households for changing dietary behaviour. The objective of this pilot study was to develop a practical tool that could be administered by community volunteers to stage households in rural Kerala based on readiness to change dietary behaviour. Such a staging tool, comprising a questionnaire and its algorithm, focusing five dietary components (fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar and oil) and households (rather than individuals), was finalised through three consecutive pilot validation sessions, conducted over a four-month period. Each revised version was tested with a total of 80 households (n = 30, 35 and 15 respectively in the three sessions). The tool and its comparator, Motivational Interviewing (MI), assessed the stage-of-change for a household pertaining to their: 1) fruit and vegetable consumption behaviour; 2) salt, sugar and oil consumption behaviour; 3) overall readiness to change. The level of agreement between the two was tested using Kappa statistics to assess concurrent validity. A value of 0.7 or above was considered as good agreement. The final version was found to have good face and content validity, and also a high level of agreement with MI (87%; weighted kappa statistic: 0.85). Internal consistency testing was performed using Cronbach’s Alpha, with a value between 0.80 and 0.90 considered to be good. The instrument had good correlation between the items in each section (Cronbach’s Alpha: 0.84 (fruit and vegetables), 0.85 (salt, sugar and oil) and 0.83 (Overall)). Pre-contemplation was the most difficult stage to identify; for which efficacy and perceived cooperation at the household level were important. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first staging tool for households. This tool represents a new concept in community-based dietary interventions. The tool can be easily administered by lay

  3. Qualitative adaptation of child behaviour problem instruments in a developing-country setting.

    PubMed

    Khan, B; Avan, B I

    2014-07-08

    A key barrier to epidemiological research on child behaviour problems in developing countries is the lack of culturally relevant, internationally recognized psychometric instruments. This paper proposes a model for the qualitative adaptation of psychometric instruments in developing-country settings and presents a case study of the adaptation of 3 internationally recognized instruments in Pakistan: the Child Behavior Checklist, the Youth Self-Report and the Teacher's Report Form. This model encompassed a systematic procedure with 6 distinct phases to minimize bias and ensure equivalence with the original instruments: selection, deliberation, alteration, feasibility, testing and formal approval. The process was conducted in collaboration with the instruments' developer. A multidisciplinary working group of experts identified equivalence issues and suggested modifications. Focus group discussions with informants highlighted comprehension issues. Subsequently modified instruments were thoroughly tested. Finally, the instruments' developer approval further validated the qualitative adaptation. The study proposes a rigorous and systematic model to effectively achieve cultural adaptation of psychometric instruments.

  4. The development of cascadable microdrives with muscle-like operating behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Thomas; Schilling, Cornelius

    1998-09-01

    The different microdrives used today generate forces and displacements within the microrange. Owing to these action qualities only such fields of application are possible. Cascading several microdrives to one macrodrive allows a multiplication of action quantities. However, increasing action qualities do not automatically result in new fields of application that have not been occupied by macrodrives yet. The potential of cascaded drives compared to macrodrives is demonstrated in detail by means of the structure and the excitation of biological muscular drives. The linkage of cascaded microdrives of differentiated behaviour and the strategies of excitation of biological muscular drives lead to a new generation of drives with new fields of application. These drives are characterized by the power and sensitivity of biological organs of movement such as an elephant's trunk. Based on stationary operating characteristics the electrodynamical principle of energy conversion, which is suitable for miniaturization, is selected, and a cascaded drive is set up with common microtechnology.

  5. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E.; Pattison, Helen M.; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  6. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  7. Relationship between repetitive behaviour and fear across normative development, autism spectrum disorder, and down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uljarević, Mirko; Evans, David W

    2017-03-01

    The present study had two aims: first to compare levels of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) across two groups of typically developing (TD) children, and two disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Down syndrome (DS), and second to explore the relationship between fear and repetitive behaviours in these four groups. Parents of 41 offspring with ASD (Mage  = 123.39 months, SDage  = 27.67), 38 offspring with DS (Mage  = 125.37 months, SDage  = 45.71), 45 typically developing children matched to the mental age (MA) of the DS group (TD MA; Mage  = 51.13 months, SDage  = 22.1), and 42 chronological age (TD CA; Mage  = 117.93 months, SDage  = 22.91) matched TD children, completed measures of RRB and fear. ANOVAs revealed differences across the four groups on the RRB subscale scores: "Just Right" F(3,162) = 16.62, P < 0.001; Rigid Routines F(3,162) = 52.76, P < 0.001; Sensory behaviours F(3,162) = 23.26, P < 0.001. Post-hoc comparisons revealed that children with ASD had the highest RRB levels followed by DS, TD MA, and TD CA children. In children with ASD, higher levels of fear were related to higher RRB levels. Similar, albeit less strong, patterns of associations was found among DS and TD MA children but not in older TD CA children. This study provided evidence of a fear-RRB association in children with ASD, DS, and two groups of TD children. Autism Res 2017, 10: 502-507. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM): links with food intake among children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-report questionnaire to explore parental modelling of eating behaviours and then to use the newly developed measure to investigate associations between parental modelling with healthy and unhealthy food intake in both mothers and their children. Mothers (n = 484) with a child aged between 18 months and 8 years completed the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM), a new, self-report measure of modelling, as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis of the PARM identified 15 items grouped into three subscales: verbal modelling (modelling through verbal communication); unintentional modelling (UM) (children adopting eating behaviours that parents had not actively modelled); and behavioural consequences (children's eating behaviours directly associated with parental modelling). The PARM subscales were found to be differentially related to food intake. Maternally perceived consequences of behavioural modelling were related to increased fruit and vegetable intake in both mothers and children. UM was related to higher levels of savoury snack intake in both mothers and their children. This study has highlighted three distinct aspects of parental modelling of eating behaviours. The findings suggest that mothers may intentionally model healthy food intake while unintentionally acting as role models for their children's less healthy, snack food intake.

  9. World Health Organization approaches for surveys of health behaviour among schoolchildren and for health-promoting schools.

    PubMed

    Honkala, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait.

  10. 22 CFR 203.12 - Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). 203.12 Section 203.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.12 Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). CDOs are not PVOs...

  11. 22 CFR 203.12 - Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). 203.12 Section 203.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.12 Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). CDOs are not PVOs...

  12. The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Roy; Riley, Barbara L; Campbell, H Sharon; Manske, Stephen; Lamers-Bellio, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described.

  13. The development of organic super electron donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengze; Farwaha, Hardeep; Murphy, John A

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, a host of exceptionally strong organic electron donors has been designed and prepared; their redox potentials are more negative than any previous neutral organic donors and extend beyond E(1/2) = -1 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Their ability to reduce a wide range of organic functional groups has been demonstrated and this article provides an overview of the main advances in the area and the guiding principles for the design of these reagents.

  14. The effects of surfing behaviour on the development of external auditory canal exostosis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, V; Lau, A; Beaumont, E; Hope, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine how individual surfing behaviour affects the development of external auditory canal exostosis and to produce a model to predict exostosis severity. A standardised questionnaire was completed and each participant underwent an otoscopic examination. Surfers were recruited from August to October 2011 from surfing competitions and from colleges in the South West of England. 207 surfers were included, 53 % had evidence of external auditory canal; exostosis: grade 1, 23%; grade 2, 16%, grade 3, 16%. This risk of exostosis significantly increased with (1) surfing for 6 or more years, (2) surfing in the winter months, (3) surfing five or more times per month in the winter and (4) reported ear symptoms. Interestingly, participation in other water sports and wearing earplugs or a hood reduced the risk of developing exostosis. Surfers who surf in England are at significant risk of exostosis. A probability model was designed, incorporating different surfing behaviours and ear symptoms, the first of its kind in exostosis research. This model will be a useful tool for raising awareness of external ear canal exostosis in the surfing community and in assessing individual need for surgical intervention.

  15. Development and validation of brief scales to measure emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate brief scales to measure common emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents in the examination-oriented education system and collectivistic culture of China. Setting Middle schools in Hunan province. Participants 5442 middle school students aged 11–19 years were sampled. 4727 valid questionnaires were collected and used for validation of the scales. The final sample included 2408 boys and 2319 girls. Primary and secondary outcome measures The tools were assessed by the item response theory, classical test theory (reliability and construct validity) and differential item functioning. Results Four scales to measure anxiety, depression, study problem and sociality problem were established. Exploratory factor analysis showed that each scale had two solutions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable to good model fit for each scale. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of all scales were above 0.7. Item response theory showed that all items had acceptable discrimination parameters and most items had appropriate difficulty parameters. 10 items demonstrated differential item functioning with respect to gender. Conclusions Four brief scales were developed and validated among adolescents in middle schools of China. The scales have good psychometric properties with minor differential item functioning. They can be used in middle school settings, and will help school officials to assess the students’ emotional/behavioural problems. PMID:28062469

  16. Reproductive and sexual behaviour development of dam or artificially reared male lambs.

    PubMed

    Damián, Juan Pablo; Beracochea, Florencia; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if artificially reared male lambs differ from those reared by their mothers in their reproductive development and sexual behaviour during the first breeding season and in their serum testosterone to a GnRH challenge at the end of the first breeding season. Lambs were assigned to two experimental groups: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36h after birth (Week 0) and fed sheep milk until 10weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Reproductive parameters and sexual behaviour were recorded from Weeks 9 to 39. The GnRH challenge was performed on Week 40. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentration and sperm parameters were unaffected by group, but increased with age (P<0.0001). Lambs reared by their mothers had greater values of gonado-somatic index on Weeks 9, 16 and 19 (P<0.05), and tended to reach puberty earlier than AR (22.9±0.7 vs. 25.1±1.1weeks, respectively, P=0.087). Lambs reared by their mothers presented more lateral approaches and mount attempts than AR (P<0.05), and DR lambs presented more mounts on Weeks 32 and 39 than AR (P<0.05). Blood testosterone concentrations 3.5 and 4h after the GnRH challenge were higher in AR than in DR lambs (P<0.05). In conclusion mother rearing promoted sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of male lambs.

  17. Developments in addressing the organ donor shortage.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Michelle; Parker, Andrea; Willis, Sean

    Non-heartbeating donation is not a new concept but it is one that has been out of vogue for many years. However, increasing shortage of organs for transplantation has led to its increased use as a viable source of organs. This article outlines the rationale for its re-emergence and the challenges it poses for health care professionals.

  18. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous.

  19. Learning Organizations. Developing Cultures for Tomorrow's Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Sarita, Ed.; Renesch, John, Ed.

    This anthology contains 32 essays: "Beginner's Mind" (Sarita Chawla);"Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations" (Fred Kofman, Peter Senge); "Managing the Dream" (Charles Handy); "Ahead of the Wave: Valuing Gender Perspective in Learning Cultures" (Marilynne Anderson); "Mastering…

  20. ON DEVELOPING CLEANER ORGANIC UNIT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic waste products, potentially harmful to the human health and the environment, are primarily produced in the synthesis stage of manufacturing processes. Many such synthetic unit processes, such as halogenation, oxidation, alkylation, nitration, and sulfonation are common to...

  1. Using longitudinal mixed methods to study the development of professional behaviours during pharmacy work-based training.

    PubMed

    Jee, Samuel D; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Noyce, Peter R

    2016-10-06

    Recent longitudinal investigations of professional socialisation and development of professional behaviours during work-based training are lacking. Using longitudinal mixed methods, this study aimed to explore the development of professional behaviours during a year of intensive work-based (pre-registration) training in pharmacy. Twenty trainee pharmacists and their tutors completed semi-structured interview and professional behaviour questionnaires at four time points during 2011/2012: months 1, 4 and 9 during training and 4 months after registration; tutors participated in months 1 and 9. Interviews were analysed thematically using template analysis, and questionnaires were analysed using ANOVA and t-tests. Self-assessed (trainee) and tutor ratings of all elements of professional behaviours measured in questionnaires (appearance, interpersonal/social skills, responsibility, communication skills) increased significantly from the start of pre-registration training to post-registration. Some elements, for example, communication skills, showed more change over time compared with others, such as appearance, and continued to improve post-registration. Qualitative findings highlighted the changing roles of trainees and learning experiences that appeared to facilitate the development of professional behaviours. Trainees' colleagues, and particularly tutors, played an essential part in trainees' development through offering support and role modelling. Trainees noted that they would have benefited from more responsibilities during training to ease the transition into practising as a responsible pharmacist. Longitudinal mixed methods can unpack the way in which professional behaviours develop during work-based training and allow researchers to examine changes in the demonstration of professional behaviours and how they occur. Identifying areas less prone to change allows for more focus to be given to supporting trainees in areas where there is a development need, such as

  2. An Ethnographic Study of a Developing Virtual Organization in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Stephanie R.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study answers calls for research into the ways that virtual organizations (or innovation-driven collaborative teams) form and develop, what supports and constraints their development, and the leadership models that support the organizations' work. The study examines how a virtual organization emerged from an intersegmental…

  3. Self-organizing behaviour of glycosteroidal bolaphiles: insights into lipidic microsegregation.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Ali-Rachedi, F; Xavier, N M; Chambert, S; Ferkous, F; Queneau, Y; Cowling, S J; Davis, E J; Goodby, J W

    2015-01-21

    In this article we describe work on the synthesis of bolaphile biomimics composed of glucose head groups and steroidal units linked together by a methylene chain of varying length. The condensed phases formed by self-organization of the products as a function of temperature were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal polarized light microscopy. The results of these studies show that the thermal stabilities of the lamellar mesophases formed vary linearly as a function of increasing aliphatic composition, which reflects a linear hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance with respect to transition temperatures.

  4. Recent Research on Aetiology, Development and Phenomenology of Self-Injurious Behaviour in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, F.; Biswas, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Behavioural interventions conceptualise self-injurious behaviour (SIB) as developing from early repetitive behaviours through acquisition of homeostatic functions in regulating stimulation and subsequent shaping into SIB through socially mediated or automatic operant reinforcement. Despite high success rates, such interventions rarely…

  5. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of low-molecular organic acids is a major mechanism involved and show that germinating seeds and young seedlings of limestone plants exude considerably more di- and tricarboxylic acids than calcifuges, which mainly exude monocarboxylic acids. The tricarboxylic citric acid is a powerful extractor of Fe, and the dicarboxylic oxalic acid a very effective extractor of phosphate from limestone soils. Monocarboxylic acids are very weak in these respects. The study is based on ten species from limestone soils and ten species from acid silicate soils. PMID:21247915

  6. Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: the reasoned action approach as a case study.

    PubMed

    Head, Katharine J; Noar, Seth M

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the question: what are barriers to health behaviour theory development and modification, and what potential solutions can be proposed? Using the reasoned action approach (RAA) as a case study, four areas of theory development were examined: (1) the theoretical domain of a theory; (2) tension between generalisability and utility, (3) criteria for adding/removing variables in a theory, and (4) organisational tracking of theoretical developments and formal changes to theory. Based on a discussion of these four issues, recommendations for theory development are presented, including: (1) the theoretical domain for theories such as RAA should be clarified; (2) when there is tension between generalisability and utility, utility should be given preference given the applied nature of the health behaviour field; (3) variables should be formally removed/amended/added to a theory based on their performance across multiple studies and (4) organisations and researchers with a stake in particular health areas may be best suited for tracking the literature on behaviour-specific theories and making refinements to theory, based on a consensus approach. Overall, enhancing research in this area can provide important insights for more accurately understanding health behaviours and thus producing work that leads to more effective health behaviour change interventions.

  7. Physiological, Morphological and Behavioural Responses of Self-Feeding Precocial Chicks Copying with Contrasting Levels of Water Salinity during Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Afonso R.; Silva, Rita; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Masero, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Combined physiological and behavioural responses to salt loads during development have rarely been studied in air-breathing vertebrates able to inhabit hypersaline habitats, but they may be of particular importance in understanding, for example, the differences among species in patterns of habitat use or ontogenetic diet switches. Here, we compared the physiological and behavioural responses of self-feeding precocial chicks developed in contrasting levels of water salinity. The model species was the Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) a precocial shorebird that breeds in a range of habitats from freshwater to hypersaline wetlands. Specifically, we compared resting metabolic rate (RMR), heat shock proteins (Hsp70), plasma ions, hematocrit, body mass, body size, growth rate and head-shaking behaviour of captive-reared Black-winged Stilt fledglings developed under fresh (0 ‰), saline (20 ‰), and hypersaline (60 ‰) water. Contrary to expectations, none of the physiological and morphological variables measured differed significantly among treatments. Likewise, the RMR of wild and captive-reared fledglings was similar. Surprisingly, the saltgland mass of wild fledglings from freshwater and those from hypersaline habitats was also similar. However, head-shaking, a behavioural response associated to minimize salt intake and to expel the secretions of salt glands, differed according to salinity source: head-shaking rate increased with increasing salinity. The results of this study support the key role of behavioural osmoregulation in avoiding salt stress during development. PMID:27788200

  8. Metallo-Organic Decomposition (MOD) film development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J.

    1986-01-01

    The processing techniques and problems encountered in formulating metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) films used in contracting structures for thin solar cells are described. The use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques performed at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in understanding the decomposition reactions lead to improvements in process procedures. The characteristics of the available MOD films were described in detail.

  9. Effects of an Intervention Programme with Teachers on the Development of Positive Behaviours in Spanish Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Calvo, Tomás; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Leo, Francisco Miguel; Amado, Diana; Pulido, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Background: The physical education (PE) context has been emphasised as an ideal environment for developing positive behaviours among students. Under the Positive Youth Development paradigm, various initiatives have been conducted with the aim of promoting personal and social responsibility among adolescents. Self-Determination Theory has been…

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Questionnaire Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Behaviour: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulana, Ridwan; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the development of a measure tapping students' perceptions of (pre-service) teachers' teaching behaviour to explore the practical value of such a measure in teacher education and teacher professional development programs. From a sample of 1,635 students of 91 pre-service teachers teaching in secondary education in The…

  11. Heterochromatin and nucleolus-organizer-region behaviour at male pachytene of Sus scrofa domestica.

    PubMed

    Schwarzacher, T; Mayr, B; Schweizer, D

    1984-01-01

    In the domestic pig (2n = 38) two types of constitutive heterochromatin can be differentiated by fluorescence counterstaining techniques. All 24 biarmed autosomes and the X chromosome have chromomycin A3-positive centromeric C-bands, whereas all 12 acrocentric chromosomes exhibit DA-DAPI-positive centromeric heterochromatin. Fluorescence analysis of male pachytene nuclei revealed that the DA-DAPI-positive C-bands form one or two large chromocentres per cell, while the chromomycin A3-bright C-material is well scattered. Hence, the bivalents formed by the acrocentric chromosome pairs are centromerically associated, whilst the submetacentric bivalents are not. Counce-Meyer spreading techniques were used to study the structure of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) both by light and electron microscopy. In general, the SCs of the domestic pig resemble those described for other mammals. The SC formed by the X and the Y may include up to 94.5% of the Y chromosome. In silver-stained microspreads each of the bivalents (nos. 8 and 10) bearing the nucleolus-organizer-regions (NORs) is connected to a pair of nucleoli, indicating that all four NORs are active during early meiotic stages. By contrast, in the majority of mitotic metaphases of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes only one pair (no. 10) exhibited Ag-NOR staining. The significance of the chromosome disposition in the pachytene nucleus is discussed with regard to heterochromatin composition and karyotype evolution.

  12. Essay Development and Organization for the GED Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubman, Alan

    Developed as a teaching aid for a General Educational Development (GED) preparation class, this essay writing guide gives students the tools they need to develop and organize ideas for writing an essay with confidence. By following a sequential procedure in this very structured approach, students learn to turn out a well-organized essay. The…

  13. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths.

  14. A modeling approach to evaluate the uncertainty in estimating the evaporation behaviour and volatility of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, E.; McFiggans, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this study a kinetic evaporation-condensation model was applied to assess the uncertainty in determining the volatility behaviour of organic particles from thermodenuder experiments, at conditions relevant to both ambient and laboratory measurements. A comprehensive theoretical parametric analysis showed that re-condensation in thermodenuder experiments is highly case-dependent, being strongly determined by the combined effects of aerosol mass loading, particle size and the kinetics of condensation. Because of this dependence it is possible to find cases with either negligible or significant levels of re-condensation at high organic mass loadings, thus accounting for the diverging degrees of re-condensation reported in previous experimental and modeling studies. From this analysis it was concluded that gas denudation should generally be applied in experiments with aerosol mass loading >30 μg m-3. However, thermograms may be lowered in the region below 45 °C as a result of the evaporation induced by denuders for compounds with saturation concentration C* > 1 μg m-3. A calibration curve relating C* (saturation concentration) and T50 (temperature at which 50% of aerosol mass evaporates) was theoretically derived and tested to infer volatility distributions from experimental thermograms. While this approach was found to hold at equilibrium, significant underestimation of the particle volatility was found under kinetically-controlled evaporation conditions. Because thermograms obtained at ambient aerosol loading levels are most likely to show departure from equilibrium, the application of a kinetic evaporation model is more suitable for inferring volatility properties of atmospheric samples than the calibration curve approach; however, this method implies significant uncertainty, due to the sensitivity of the kinetic model to the assumption of "effective" accommodation coefficient. Predictions of the evaporation-condensation behaviour of α-pinene SOA exhibited a

  15. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-08

    in April 2009, the G-20 leaders indicated that they were adopting measures to curtail tax havens and to target “non-cooperative jurisdictions.” In...7 See The OECD’s Crocodile Tears at http://www.flyingfish.org.uk/articles/oecd/tears.htm The...financing of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations; • Freeze and confiscate funds or other assets of terrorists, adopt measures which allow

  16. Organic Binder Developments for Solid Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Mobasher, Amir A.

    2003-01-01

    A number of rapid prototyping techniques are under development at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) National Center for Advanced Manufacturing Rapid Prototyping Laboratory. Commercial binder developments in creating solid models for rapid prototyping include: 1) Fused Deposition Modeling; 2) Three Dimensional Printing; 3) Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). This document describes these techniques developed by the private sector, as well as SLS undertaken by MSFC.

  17. Influence of Surface-Based Stable Layer Development on Asian Dust Behaviour Over Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Iwai, Hironori; Ishii, Shoken; Yasui, Motoaki; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Mizutani, Kohei

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between local meteorological fields and the behaviour of airborne Asian dust that arrived in the Tokyo metropolitan area on 1 April 2007 with the passage of a synoptic-scale cold front has been investigated through Doppler lidar observations, experiments using a regional atmospheric numerical model, and analyses of surface and upper-air meteorological observations. Results of the Doppler lidar observations showed that the Asian dust passed above the metropolitan area with strong south-westerly winds with speeds of 15-26 m s-1. Meteorological fields reproduced by the numerical experiments showed the development of a surface-based stable layer in the metropolitan area caused by nocturnal radiational cooling near the ground surface and south-westerly warm air advection at upper levels. The blocking effect of the mountainous region located to the west of the metropolitan area induced an area of stagnant air inside the metropolitan area and promoted the stable layer development. Although strong downdrafts prevailed in the upper air, the airborne Asian dust did not spread to the ground when the stable layer was formed. These results strongly indicate that the developed stable layer prevented strong downdrafts from spreading to the ground, acting as an obstacle to the transport of the Asian dust particles from the upper air towards the ground. This is considered to be one of the main causes of the low appearance frequency of Asian dust phenomena near the ground in the Tokyo metropolitan area and eastern Japan.

  18. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  19. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  20. The Research and Development in Organisations Approach and the Evaluation of a Mainstream Behaviour Support Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmins, Paul; Shepherd, Deborah; Kelly, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a local authority behaviour support initiative that involved the re-location of four behaviour support teachers from pupil referral units into three mainstream secondary schools to work with pupils at risk of exclusion. The evaluation was largely illuminative (Parlett, 1981) and focused on the effect of…

  1. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  2. Tackling Behaviour and Attendance Issues in Schools in Wales: Implications for Training and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Welsh Assembly Government published its Report on the review of behaviour and attendance in schools in Wales. The National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) in Wales was chaired by the author of this paper. Both the Review and the Welsh Assembly Government's response contained recommendations related to the training and…

  3. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  4. The role of pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Chey, Tien; Bauman, Adrian E; Brown, Wendy J

    2011-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates approximately 3-11% of pregnancies and increases the risk on prenatal morbidity and later development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are thought to play a role in the development of GDM, independent of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and the development of GDM using a population-based prospective cohort study. Data from the youngest (1973-1978) cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (n=2913) were used to determine the influences of self-reported physical activity, and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 on the development of GDM over subsequent three year periods, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. In this cohort of Australian women, physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 2000 and 2003 were not associated with the development of GDM in the subsequent three years. In adjusted models, odds ratios for the development of GDM were 1.92 (95% CI 1.25-2.96) for overweight women (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) and 3.11 (1.92-5.03) for obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) compared with normal weight women. Those with lower education and women born in an Asian country also had higher risk of developing GDM than more highly educated and Australian born women, respectively. In conclusion, pre-pregnancy physical activity and sedentary behaviour appear to be less important in the development of GDM in this cohort than overweight and obesity.

  5. Organization of human hypothalamus in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Koutcherov, Yuri; Mai, Jürgen K; Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, George

    2002-05-13

    The organization of the human hypothalamus was studied in 33 brains aged from 9 weeks of gestation (w.g.) to newborn, using immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, neurophysin, growth-associated protein (GAP)-43, synaptophysin, and the glycoconjugate 3-fucosyl- N-acetyl-lactosamine. Developmental stages are described in relation to obstetric trimesters. The first trimester (morphogenetic periods 9-10 w.g. and 11-14 w.g.) is characterized by differentiating structures of the lateral hypothalamic zone, which give rise to the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and posterior hypothalamus. The PeF differentiates at 18 w.g. from LH neurons, which remain anchored in the perifornical position, whereas most of the LH cells are displaced laterally. A transient supramamillary nucleus was apparent at 14 w.g. but not after 16 w.g. As the ventromedial nucleus differentiated at 13-16 w.g., three principal parts, the ventrolateral part, the dorsomedial part, and the shell, were revealed by distribution of calbindin, calretinin, and GAP43 immunoreactivity. The second trimester (morphogenetic periods 15-17 w.g., 18-23 w.g., and 24-33 w.g.) is characterized by differentiation of the hypothalamic core, in which calbindin- positive neurons revealed the medial preoptic nucleus at 16 w.g. abutted laterally by the intermediate nucleus. The dorsomedial nucleus was clearly defined at 10 w.g. and consisted of compact and diffuse parts, an organization that was lost after 15 w.g. Differentiation of the medial mamillary body into lateral and medial was seen at 13-16 w.g. Late second trimester was marked by differentiation of periventricular zone structures, including suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and paraventricular nuclei. The subnuclear differentiation of these nuclei extends into the third trimester. The use of chemoarchitecture in the human fetus permitted the identification of interspecies nuclei homologies, which otherwise remain concealed in the cytoarchitecture.

  6. The Essential Resilience Scale: Instrument Development and Prediction of Perceived Health and Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-12-01

    Further advancement in stress and health research calls for better tools to assess resilience. In this study, we developed the Essential Resilience Scale (ERS) and investigated the association between ERS scores and several health and behaviour measures. We developed the ERS with an operationalized definition of resilience-an individual's capability to anticipate, be flexible with and bounce back from three types of traumatic and adverse events (physical, emotional and social). The 15-item ERS was assessed using survey data from a diverse sample (n = 238, aged 18-45 years, 76 rural-to-urban migrants, 85 rural residents, 77 urban residents) recruited in Wuhan, China. Results showed a high reliability of the ERS (α = 0.94). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a satisfactory fit of the proposed second-order ERS measurement model (goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06, chi-square/df = 1.75). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that ERS scores significantly predicted perceived health status, stress, anxiety, depression and cigarette smoking after controlling for important covariates. Findings of this study indicate high reliability and validity of the scale and its potential use in advancing stress and health research. Further studies are implied to provide additional support for the ERS and its relations with other health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Children's Food and Drink Purchasing Behaviour "Beyond the School Gate": The Development of a Survey Module.

    PubMed

    Wills, Wendy J; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Bromley, Catherine; Craig, Leone; McNeill, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Many children eat a diet which supplies a higher than recommended amount of nonmilk extrinsic sugars and saturated fatty acids. The school setting is often targeted for nutrition intervention as many children consume food at school. In Scotland, attempts have been made to improve the nutritional content of food in schools and attention has now turned to food and drink available "beyond the school gate." This paper describes the development of a module on food and drink purchasing behaviour. The Food Purchasing Module was designed to collect data, for the first time, from a representative sample of children aged 8-16 years about food and drinks purchased on the way to/from school, during break time/free periods, and at lunchtime, from outlets around schools. Cognitive testing of the module highlighted that younger children find self-completion questionnaires problematic. Older children have fewer problems with self-completion questionnaires but many do not follow question routing, which has implications for the delivery of future surveys. Development of this survey module adds much needed evidence about effectively involving children in surveys. Further research exploring food and drinks purchased beyond the school gate is needed to continue to improve the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  8. A new therapeutic community: development of a compassion-focussed and contextual behavioural environment.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Gilbert, Paul; Wheatley, Jon; Naismith, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships and communities provide the context and impetus for a range of psychological developments, from genetic expression to the development of core self-identities. This suggests a need to think about the therapeutic changes and processes that occur within a community context and how communities can enable therapeutic change. However, the 'therapeutic communities' that have developed since the Second World War have been under-researched. We suggest that the concept of community, as a change process, should be revisited within mainstream scientific research. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of therapeutic communities and critically evaluates their current theory, practice and outcomes in a systematic review. Attention is drawn to recent research on the nature of evolved emotion regulation systems, the way these are entrained by social relationships, the importance of affiliative emotions in the regulation of threat and the role of fear of affiliative emotions in psychopathology. We draw on concepts from compassion-focussed therapy, social learning theory and functional analytical psychotherapy to consider how members of a therapeutic community can be aware of each other's acts of courage and respond using compassion. Living in structured and affiliative-orientated communities that are guided by scientific models of affect and self-regulation offers potential therapeutic advantages over individual outpatient therapy for certain client groups. This conclusion should be investigated further. Key Practitioner Message Current therapeutic community practice is not sufficiently evidence based and may not be maximizing the potential therapeutic value of a community. Compassion-focussed therapy and social learning theory offer new approaches for a therapeutic environment, involving an understanding of the role, nature and complexities of compassionate and affiliative relationships from staff and members, behavioural change guided by

  9. Supporting Behaviour Support: Developing a Model for Leading and Managing a Unit for Teenagers Excluded from Mainstream School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mike; Thomas, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, mainstream schools can decide to exclude students because of their behaviour. Students are then placed in pupil referral units (PRUs, sometimes known as short-stay schools) until their needs can be more thoroughly assessed so that they can then be placed appropriately. This article outlines the development of one particular approach to…

  10. The Role of National Strategy Behaviour and Attendance Consultants with Regard to Training and Professional Development in Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The year 2003 saw Behaviour and Attendance (B&A) consultants beginning work across the country, supporting (mostly) mainstream secondary schools. They are part of an extensive advisory team which is instrumental in improving standards in schools through the Government's Secondary National Strategy. Their brief was to develop and improve the…

  11. Developing Resiliency in Students with Behavioural Problems in Hong Kong Secondary Schools: Teachers' Narratives from a School Guidance Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak

    2011-01-01

    Hong Kong schools are concerned about how students with behavioural problems could be supported. This article reports the findings of a study investigating teachers' constructs of students' resilience. Specifically it examines how it could be promoted through school guidance and factors affecting the development of students' resilient capability.…

  12. Development of Self-Produced Locomotion in the First Year: Changes in Parent Perceptions and Infant Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Rebecca R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Self-produced locomotion is regarded as a setting event for other developmental transitions in infancy with important implications for socioemotional development and parent-child interaction. Using an age-held-constant design, this study examined changes in reported infant behaviour and maternal proactive/reactive control and compared them with…

  13. Sustained Attention Development during the Toddlerhood to Preschool Period: Associations with Toddlers' Emotion Regulation Strategies and Maternal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of maternal behaviour and toddlers' emotion regulation strategies in the development of children's sustained attention abilities. Participants for this study included 447 children (232 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. When the children were 2…

  14. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  15. Early Professional Development in the Scottish Context: Pre-Service High School Teachers and the Management of Behaviour in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an exploratory piece of research focused on understanding more fully the nature of pre-service teachers' developing approaches to classroom behaviour management on a one-year postgraduate teacher education programme in the Scottish context. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews as well as journaling of…

  16. Behaviour-Changing Ingredients in Soft Drinks: An Experiment Developed by School Children in Partnership with a Research Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sarah; Delgaty, Laura; Broughton, Mark; Dyter, Laura; Grimes, Callum; Metcalf, James; Nicholson, Rose; Pennock, Erin; Jankowski, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A team of six children (13-14 years old) developed and conducted an experiment to assess the behaviour of the planarian flatworm, an invertebrate animal model, before, during and after exposure to chemicals. The aim of the project was to engage children in pharmacology and toxicology research. First, the concept that exposure to chemicals can…

  17. A Social Psychological View of Morality: Why Knowledge of Situational Influences on Behaviour Can Improve Character Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Steven M.; Casebeer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Results from research in social psychology, such as findings about the fundamental attribution error and other situational influences on behaviour, are often used to justify attacking the existence of character traits. From this perspective, character development is an illusion, an impossibility, or both. We offer a different interpretation of how…

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Behaviour of Staff: A First Attempt in the Development of an Observation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, Wietske M. W. J.; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Sohier, Jody

    2011-01-01

    It is common to use questionnaires and interviews to assess the emotions of staff who serve clients with intellectual disabilities. Remarkably, observations of actual staff behaviour and assessments of nonverbal expressions are usually not involved. In the present study, we have made a first start in the development of an observation instrument…

  19. Can Reflection Boost Competences Development in Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nansubuga, Florence; Munene, John C.; Ntayi, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gaps in some existing competence frameworks and investigate the power of reflection on one's behavior to improve the process of the competences development. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a correlational design and a quasi-experimental non-equivalent group design involving a…

  20. Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-22

    thin film devices were discussed. In order to get defect-free films from the spin coating process, the effects of solvent nature, spinning parameters...for device development. Examples of these fabrication techniques include spin coating and molding into acceptable structures for evaluation and device...72 5.2 Fabrication Techniques ............................................................ 74 5.2.1 Spin Coating ......................................................................... 74

  1. Mechanisms in the Development of Emotional Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2002-01-01

    Advances debate on the causal mechanism involved in the link between marital conflict and children's development by addressing three issues: (1) identifying basic processes in emotion; (2) operationalizing theories in order to differentiate between their predictions; and (3) designing research to identify causal mechanisms. Asserts that Davies and…

  2. Order-disorder phase transition and multiferroic behaviour in a metal organic framework compound (CH3)2NH2Co(HCOO)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ruchika; Swain, Diptikanta; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated the multiferroic and glassy behaviour of metal-organic framework (MOF) material (CH3)2NH2Co(CHOO)3. The compound has perovskite-like architecture in which the metal-formate forms a framework. The organic cation ( CH3 ) 2 NH2 + occupies the cavities in the formate framework in the framework via N-H...O hydrogen bonds. At room temperature, the organic cation is disordered and occupies three crystallographically equivalent positions. Upon cooling, the organic cation is ordered which leads to a structural phase transition at 155 K. The structural phase transition is associated with a para-ferroelectric phase transition and is revealed by dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Further, a PE hysteresis loop below 155 K confirms the ferroelectric behaviour of the material. Analysis of dielectric data reveal large frequency dispersion in the values of dielectric constant and tanδ which signifies the presence of glassy dielectric behaviour. The material displays a antiferromagnetic ordering below 15 K which is attributed to the super-exchange interaction between Co2+ ions mediated via formate linkers. Interestingly, another magnetic transition is also found around 11 K. The peak of the transition shifts to lower temperature with increasing frequency, suggesting glassy magnetism in the sample.

  3. Mechanical control of tissue and organ development

    PubMed Central

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Ingber, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    Many genes and molecules that drive tissue patterning during organogenesis and tissue regeneration have been discovered. Yet, we still lack a full understanding of how these chemical cues induce the formation of living tissues with their unique shapes and material properties. Here, we review work based on the convergence of physics, engineering and biology that suggests that mechanical forces generated by living cells are as crucial as genes and chemical signals for the control of embryological development, morphogenesis and tissue patterning. PMID:20388652

  4. Biochemical, histological and behavioural aspects of visual function during early development of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carvalho, Paulo S. M.; Noltie, Douglas B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Retinal structure and concentration of retinoids involved in phototransduction changed during early development of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, correlating with improvements in visual function. A test chamber was used to evaluate the presence of optokinetic or optomotor responses and to assess the functionality of the integrated cellular, physiological and biochemical components of the visual system. The results indicated that in rainbow trout optomotor responses start at 10 days post-hatch, and demonstrated for the first time that increases in acuity, sensitivity to low light as well as in motion detection abilities occur from this stage until exogenous feeding starts. The structure of retinal cells such as cone ellipsoids increased in length as photopic visual acuity improved, and rod densities increased concurrently with improvements in scotopic thresholds (2.2 log10 units). An increase in the concentrations of the chromophore all-trans-retinal correlated with improvements of all behavioural measures of visual function during the same developmental phase. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Prenatal light exposure affects development of behavioural lateralization in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The existence of individual differences in handedness and other lateralized functions is an unresolved problem. Genetic factors account for only a small proportion of the variance but the contribution of environmental influences is still largely unexplored. In chicks and zebrafish the amount of environmental light reaching embryos during development greatly influences the lateralization of adults. To investigate whether a similar effect is present in livebearers, we measured behavioural lateralization in ten-day-old goldbelly topminnows born from females that have been maintained at high or low light intensities during pregnancy. Fish from high-light treatment were significantly lateralized in both visual and motor tests while fish exposed to low light intensities were not. As observed in chicks and zebrafish, the main consequence of light exposure was the alignment of the laterality of different individuals in the same direction. Lateralization is known to affect a number of fitness-related traits in topminnow and we suggest that light influence may be part of an adaptive mechanism allowing to adjust the developmental trajectories of offspring to the prevailing environmental conditions.

  6. Development of Ceramics with Highly Organized Microstructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    controlled by tape thicknesses, dopant concentrations, with a TiO2 sol - gel surface coating. and characteristics of the thermal treatment. 7.3. 2-2 Single...sample that was surface-doped with a TiO 2 sol - gel coating. It was clear that the grain size transition was quite sharp, approaching step- like. This...by heating to I 00C for 1 min, exposed to UV light for 6 seconds through the mask, and developed for 40 seconds ( CD -26). Nickel was then electroplated

  7. A modeling approach to evaluate the uncertainty in estimating the evaporation behaviour and volatility of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, E.; McFiggans, G.

    2012-04-01

    The uncertainty in determining the volatility behaviour of organic particles from thermograms using calibration curves and a kinetic model has been evaluated. In the analysis, factors such as re-condensation, departure from equilibrium and analysis methodology were considered as potential sources of uncertainty in deriving volatility distribution from thermograms obtained with currently used thermodenuder designs. The previously found empirical relationship between C* (saturation concentration) and T50 (temperature at which 50% of aerosol mass evaporates) was theoretically interpreted and tested to infer volatility distributions from experimental thermograms. The presented theoretical analysis shows that this empirical equation is in fact an equilibrium formulation, whose applicability is lessened as measurements deviate from equilibrium. While using a calibration curve between C* and T50 to estimate volatility properties was found to hold at equilibrium, significant underestimation was obtained under kinetically-controlled evaporation conditions. Because thermograms obtained at ambient aerosol loading levels are most likely to show departure from equilibrium, the application of a kinetic evaporation model is more suitable for inferring volatility properties of atmospheric samples than the calibration curve approach; however, the kinetic model analysis implies significant uncertainty, due to its sensitivity to the assumption of "effective" net kinetic evaporation and condensation coefficients. The influence of re-condensation on thermograms from the thermodenuder designs under study was found to be highly dependent on the particular experimental condition, with a significant potential to affect volatility estimations for aerosol mass loadings >50 μg m-3 and with increasing effective kinetic coefficient for condensation and decreasing particle size. These results show that the geometry of current thermodenuder systems should be modified to prevent re-condensation.

  8. Growth and Development in Chinese Pre-Schoolers with Picky Eating Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M. Y.; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers’ growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Methods Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers’ socio-demographic information and children’s anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. Results The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents’ perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Conclusions Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals. PMID:25875004

  9. Development of Johnston’s organ in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    EBERL, DANIEL F.; BOEKHOFF-FALK, GRACE

    2012-01-01

    Hearing is a specialized mechanosensory modality that is refined during evolution to meet the particular requirements of different organisms. In the fruitfly, Drosophila, hearing is mediated by Johnston’s organ, a large chordotonal organ in the antenna that is exquisitely sensitive to the near-field acoustic signal of courtship songs generated by male wing vibration. We summarize recent progress in understanding the molecular genetic determinants of Johnston’s organ development and discuss surprising differences from other chordotonal organs that likely facilitate hearing. We outline novel discoveries of active processes that generate motion of the antenna for acute sensitivity to the stimulus. Finally, we discuss further research directions that would probe remaining questions in understanding Johnston’s organ development, function and evolution. PMID:17891726

  10. How does pollen chemistry impact development and feeding behaviour of polylectic bees?

    PubMed

    Vanderplanck, Maryse; Moerman, Romain; Rasmont, Pierre; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Bernard; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michez, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia) to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i) Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae), (ii) weight of pollen collected, (iii) pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected) and (iv) syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors) and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional "theme" seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the degree of

  11. How Does Pollen Chemistry Impact Development and Feeding Behaviour of Polylectic Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Rasmont, Pierre; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Bernard; Wattiez, Ruddy; Michez, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Larvae and imagos of bees rely exclusively on floral rewards as a food source but host-plant range can vary greatly among bee species. While oligolectic species forage on pollen from a single family of host plants, polylectic bees, such as bumblebees, collect pollen from many families of plants. These polylectic species contend with interspecific variability in essential nutrients of their host-plants but we have only a limited understanding of the way in which chemicals and chemical combinations influence bee development and feeding behaviour. In this paper, we investigated five different pollen diets (Calluna vulgaris, Cistus sp., Cytisus scoparius, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia) to determine how their chemical content affected bumblebee colony development and pollen/syrup collection. Three compounds were used to characterise pollen content: polypeptides, amino acids and sterols. Several parameters were used to determine the impact of diet on micro-colonies: (i) Number and weight of larvae (total and mean weight of larvae), (ii) weight of pollen collected, (iii) pollen efficacy (total weight of larvae divided by weight of the pollen collected) and (iv) syrup collection. Our results show that pollen collection is similar regardless of chemical variation in pollen diet while syrup collection is variable. Micro-colonies fed on S. aucuparia and C. scoparius pollen produced larger larvae (i.e. better mates and winter survivors) and fed less on nectar compared to the other diets. Pollen from both of these species contains 24-methylenecholesterol and high concentrations of polypeptides/total amino acids. This pollen nutritional “theme” seems therefore to promote worker reproduction in B. terrestris micro-colonies and could be linked to high fitness for queenright colonies. As workers are able to selectively forage on pollen of high chemical quality, plants may be evolutionarily selected for their pollen content, which might attract and increase the degree of

  12. Role of dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and overweight on the longitudinal development of childhood constipation: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; de Vries, Jeanne H; Escher, Johanna C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein; Moll, Henriette A

    2013-10-01

    The influence of childhood nutrition on the development of constipation beyond the period of weaning and breastfeeding is relatively understudied. In addition, eating patterns in childhood can be highly correlated with overweight and sedentary behaviour, which may also have an influence on constipation. The aim of this study was to assess whether common dietary patterns, sedentary behaviour and childhood overweight are associated with constipation in childhood. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective birth cohort. Information on dietary intake was obtained by a food frequency questionnaire at the child's age of 14 months (n = 2420). The adherence scores on a 'Health conscious' and 'Western-like' diet were extracted from principal component analysis. At the age of 24, 36 and 48 months, information on constipation and sedentary behaviour, and weight and height was obtained by parental-derived questionnaires and from the child health centres, respectively. Adherence to a 'Western-like' dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of constipation up to 48 months [adjusted odds ratio (aOR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39; 1.02-1.87], which was not mediated by overweight or sedentary behaviour. Adherence to a 'Health Conscious' dietary pattern was only associated at short term, with a lower prevalence of constipation at 24 months (aOR; 95%CI: 0.65; 0.44-0.96). No association was found between overweight, sedentary behaviour and constipation. Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns in early childhood could be associated with higher or lower risks for constipation, but these effects are time-dependent. Overweight and sedentary behaviour seem to not have a major role on constipation in childhood.

  13. Altering the trajectory of early postnatal cortical development can lead to structural and behavioural features of autism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Autism is a behaviourally defined neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. Recent studies in autistic children consistently point to neuropathological and functional abnormalities in the temporal association cortex (TeA) and its associated structures. It has been proposed that the trajectory of postnatal development in these regions may undergo accelerated maturational alterations that predominantly affect sensory recognition and social interaction. Indeed, the temporal association regions that are important for sensory recognition and social interaction are one of the last regions to mature suggesting a potential vulnerability to early maturation. However, direct evaluation of the emerging hypothesis that an altered time course of early postnatal development can lead to an ASD phenotype remains lacking. Results We used electrophysiological, histological, and behavioural techniques to investigate if the known neuronal maturational promoter valproate, similar to that in culture systems, can influence the normal developmental trajectory of TeA in vivo. Brain sections obtained from postnatal rat pups treated with VPA in vivo revealed that almost 40% of cortical cells in TeA prematurely exhibited adult-like intrinsic electrophysiological properties and that this was often associated with gross cortical hypertrophy and a reduced predisposition for social play behaviour. Conclusions The co-manifestation of these functional, structural and behavioural features suggests that alteration of the developmental time course in certain high-order cortical networks may play an important role in the neurophysiological basis of autism. PMID:20723245

  14. Nongovernmental Organizations and the Development of China's Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunlan, He

    2006-01-01

    The confluence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with the development of China's education is not a mere chance encounter. On August 27, 2004, the author took part in the designing of a meeting held in Beijing by the Twenty First Century Education Salon that received support from the Ford Foundation. Jointly organized by the Twenty-first…

  15. Professional Development in National Organizations: Insights from Girls Incorporated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Heather Johnston; Houchin, Susan; Stegall, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Whether staff members are working in urban, rural, or suburban branches, for many years national organizations have been committed to preparing them to work effectively with young people. Over the past couple of decades, national organizations have sought and received strong funding to develop targeted, comprehensive professional development…

  16. Teacher Activist Organizations and the Development of Professional Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Rand; Carl, Nicole Mittenfelner

    2015-01-01

    Teacher professional agency refers to the ability of teachers to control their work within structural constraints. In this paper, we show how teacher activist organizations can assist in the development of professional agency. We focus on a teacher activist organization in a large urban district in the United States and identify three…

  17. Use of Graphic Organizers in a Language Teachers' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Starting from 2009 academic year, the instructional coaches in a school district in a northwest American city began to provide Workshop II (pseudonym) to elementary school English teachers. This study aims to discuss the use of graphic organizers in English teachers' professional development. Different types of graphic organizers such as…

  18. Organ donation in China: current status, challenges, and future development.

    PubMed

    Sui, Weiguo; Zheng, Can; Yang, Ming; Dai, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Development of effective immunosuppressive agents and advances in surgical practice are the main reasons for the success of transplantation in China. In some key areas such as liver, lung, and kidney transplants, Chinese transplant success rates are similar to the rates in developed countries. Organ donation also has developed rapidly. However, China is facing a serious organ shortage that restricts clinical treatment and medical research. This shortage is due to imperfect laws and improper management of organ donation, as well as Chinese traditional ethics. Finding an efficient way to make the number of donated organs keep pace with the need for organ transplants and to optimize allocation of organ resources is a long-term and arduous task. In some ways, Chinese organ donation nowadays is constrained more by legal issues than by medical issues. The current status of and challenges facing organ donation in China are analyzed with respect to ethics, management, laws, and policy, and the future development of transplantation in China is discussed.

  19. Southern Extension Leadership Development: Leadership Development through a Virtual Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladewig, Howard; Rohs, F. Richard

    This paper describes the formation of the Southern Extension Leadership Development (SELD) program. The program was developed in response to the growing need for understanding and coping with the many changes currently and potentially affecting Cooperative Extension Systems (CES). Two of the biggest changes affecting CES are the changing nature of…

  20. Sex-dimorphic behaviour development in the human: prenatal hormone administration and postnatal socialization.

    PubMed

    Green, R

    An interdisciplinary integrative approach must be utilized in the study of psychosexual differentiation. The approach must capitalize on data derived from non-human models, from experiments of nature, and from experiments of nurture. Studies from non-human primates strongly suggest the influence of prenatal sex hormone levels on postnatal sexually dimorphic behaviours. Starting from this basis we have studied sixty young adult men whose mothers received, during pregnancy, diethylstilboestrol, diethylstilboestrol and natural progesterone, natural progesterone, or synthetic progesterone. They have been compared with matched controls not exposed in utero to exogenous hormones. Studies of socialization patterns must document the differential developmental experiences, if any, of children with atypical and typical sex-typed behaviours. To this end, we are studying 60 boys whose behaviour before puberty was decidedly feminine, and their parents, and contrasting them with masculine boys and their parents. We are also studying 50 girls whose behaviour before puberty was 'masculine', and contrasting them with 'feminine' girls. Additionally, we are studying the sexually dimorphic behaviour of children of sexually atypical parents. The parents have either undergone sex-change surgery (male-to-female or female-to-male) or are homosexual. Data from the three studies are presented. A call is made to researchers working with non-human primates to test and extend these findings.

  1. Dissecting obesogenic behaviours: the development and application of a test battery for targeting prescription for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Egger, G; Pearson, S; Pal, S; Swinburn, B

    2007-11-01

    There are limited practical tools to help clinicians or public health workers manage obesity in their patients. We have previously developed a scanning technique for diagnosing environments leading to obesity (Analysis Grid for Environments/Elements Leading to Obesity). Here we describe the development of a tool for identifying behaviours in an individual most likely to lead to obesity. A questionnaire battery of five tests called the DAB-Q (Diet, Activity and Behaviour Questionnaire) was developed, piloted and internally validated with overweight women from a commercial weight loss programme. Outcome from the tests, which are available free on the Internet, provides clinicians with a simple, effective and time-saving tool for ranking foods, drinks and activities likely to be most effectively targeted for weight loss in an individual. This is based on total scores derived from measures of frequency, potential for change and potency of each item as a potential contributor to overweight.

  2. Towards Healthy Organizations: The Use of Organization Development in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsch, Janet H.; Baughman, M. Sue

    2010-01-01

    Two surveys assess use of organization development (OD) in Association of Research Libraries. Analysis presents organizational, deans', and staff professionals' perspectives on OD use. The study is the first broad analysis of academic library OD use and supports the concept of the "healthy organization." (Contains 12 tables.)

  3. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess dogs’ personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18–24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18–24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs’ personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds. PMID:28184101

  4. Organic proxies in speleothems - New developments, advantages and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, Alison J.; Hartland, Adam; Baker, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Research into organic matter in speleothems has progressed recently to encompass new analytical approaches and applications, which offer increased potential in areas such as palaeo-temperature reconstruction and high-resolution palaeo-environmental records from the Quaternary. Here we review three major areas of relevance for future work in the field - the origin, transport and transformation of the organic matter which is ultimately preserved in speleothems; the types of proxies currently available for use or in development, and their advantages and issues; and the recently developed prospect of high-resolution organic matter records derived from the analysis of organic/trace elements complexes. The continuing extension of work in these research areas offers excellent potential for organic speleothem proxies to grow as a valuable tool in palaeoenvironmental research.

  5. Smith River Rancheria's Development of an Energy Organization Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    W.G Buehler & Associates

    2007-08-27

    Smith River Rancheria (SRR), for some time, has had a strong commitment to attaining energy selfsufficiency, to reduce overall energy costs and concurrently initiate economic development within the community. Early on it was recognized that the development of an energy organization was important and for this reason was made part of the SRR's strategic review not only for economic development but also the reduction of energy costs. Towards this end, SRR retained Werner G. Buehler of W.G. Buehler & Associates to investigate the many phases or steps required to establish such an energy organization and determine, if in fact, it could benefit the Tribe. The basic phases are delineated as: (1) Identify potential sources of wholesale power and transmission paths; (2) Evaluating the various forms of energy organizations; (3) Determining the benefits (and disadvantages) of each form of organization; (4) Gathering costs to organize and operate the selected form or energy organization; (5) Performing an economic analysis of forming and operating an energy organization; and (6) Develop an implementation plan.

  6. Development of a training programme for primary care providers to counsel patients with risky lifestyle behaviours in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob; Everett-Murphy, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Background We are facing a global epidemic of non-communicable disease (NCDs), which has been linked with four risky lifestyle behaviours. It is recommended that primary care providers (PCPs) provide individual brief behaviour change counselling (BBCC) as part of everyday primary care, however currently training is required to build capacity. Local training programmes are not sufficient to achieve competence. Aim This study aimed to redesign the current training for PCPs in South Africa, around a new model for BBCC that would offer a standardised approach to addressing patients’ risky lifestyle behaviours. Setting The study population included clinical nurse practitioners and primary care doctors in the Western Cape Province. Methods The analyse, design, develop, implement and evaluate (ADDIE) model provided a systematic approach to the analysis of learning needs, the design and development of the training programme, its implementation and initial evaluation. Results This study designed a new training programme for PCPs in BBCC, which was based on a conceptual model that combined the 5As (ask, alert, assess, assist and arrange) with a guiding style derived from motivational interviewing. The programme was developed as an eight-hour training programme that combined theory, modelling and simulated practice with feedback, for either clinical nurse practitioners or primary care doctors. Conclusion This was the first attempt at developing and implementing a best practice BBCC training programme in our context, targeting a variety of PCPs, and addressing different risk factors. PMID:26245608

  7. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Binns, Colin W.; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. PMID:26247963

  8. Development and Use of an Adaptive Learning Environment to Research Online Study Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Anna Helga; Jakobsdottir, Audbjorg; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a system for research on the behaviour of students taking online drills. The system is accessible and free to use for anyone with web access. Based on open source software, the teaching material is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The system has been used for computer-assisted education in statistics, mathematics and…

  9. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  10. Repetitive Behaviour and Play in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honey, Emma; Leekam, Sue; Turner, Michelle; McConachie, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The view of a triad of impairments [(Wing and Gould (1979). "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9," 11-30] in which impaired imagination is linked with repetitive behaviour is widely accepted. However this categorisation differs from the international classification systems, which link imagination to communication impairments rather…

  11. The Development of Intrapersonal Intelligence in Pupils Experiencing Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowat, Joan Gaynor

    2011-01-01

    This article draws from an evaluative case study of a group work approach--Support Groups--designed by the author to support pupils perceived as having Social and Emotional Behavioural Difficulties within a Secondary school situated in an area of multiple deprivation in Scotland. The study, which is principally qualitative, draws from the accounts…

  12. Ecological Dynamics as a Theoretical Framework for Development of Sustainable Behaviours towards the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its…

  13. How Multi-Organ Microdevices Can Help Foster Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Mandy B.; Smith, Alec; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Sancho, Carlotta Oleaga; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-organ microdevices can mimic tissue-tissue interactions that occur as a result of metabolite travel from one tissue to other tissues in vitro. These systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a pro-drug to its effective metabolite as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side effects. Since tissue-tissue interactions in the human body can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, the development and use of multi-organ microdevices presents an opportunity to improve the drug development process. The goals are to predict potential toxic side effects with higher accuracy before a drug enters the expensive phase of clinical trials as well as to estimate efficacy and dose response. Multi-organ microdevices also have the potential to aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies by providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism (as opposed to animal models). Further, when operated with human biopsy samples, the devices could be a gateway for the development of individualized medicine. Here we review studies in which multi-organ microdevices have been developed and used in a ways that demonstrate how the devices’ capabilities can present unique opportunities for the study of drug action. We also discuss the challenges that are inherent in the development of multi-organ microdevices. Among these are how to design the devices, and how to create devices that mimic the human metabolism with high authenticity. Since single organ devices are testing platforms for tissues that can later be combined with other tissues within multi-organ devices, we will also mention single organ devices where appropriate in the discussion. PMID:24412641

  14. How multi-organ microdevices can help foster drug development.

    PubMed

    Esch, Mandy B; Smith, Alec S T; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Oleaga, Carlota; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2014-04-01

    Multi-organ microdevices can mimic tissue-tissue interactions that occur as a result of metabolite travel from one tissue to other tissues in vitro. These systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a pro-drug to its effective metabolite as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side effects. Since tissue-tissue interactions in the human body can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, the development and use of multi-organ microdevices present an opportunity to improve the drug development process. The devices have the potential to predict potential toxic side effects with higher accuracy before a drug enters the expensive phase of clinical trials as well as to estimate efficacy and dose response. Multi-organ microdevices also have the potential to aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies by providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism (as opposed to animal models). Further, when operated with human biopsy samples, the devices could be a gateway for the development of individualized medicine. Here we review studies in which multi-organ microdevices have been developed and used in a ways that demonstrate how the devices' capabilities can present unique opportunities for the study of drug action. We will also discuss challenges that are inherent in the development of multi-organ microdevices. Among these are how to design the devices, and how to create devices that mimic the human metabolism with high authenticity. Since single organ devices are testing platforms for tissues that can later be combined with other tissues within multi-organ devices, we will also mention single organ devices where appropriate in the discussion.

  15. Recent developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Bubun

    2017-03-01

    Mother Nature needs to be protected from ever increasing chemical pollutions associated with synthetic organic processes. The fundamental challenge for today's methodologists is to make their protocols more environmentally benign and sustainable by avoiding the extensive use of hazardous reagents and solvents, harsh reaction conditions, and toxic metal catalysts. However, the people of the twenty-first century are well aware about the side effects of those hazardous substances used and generated by the chemical processes. As a result, the last decade has seen a tremendous outburst in modifying chemical processes to make them 'sustainable' for the betterment of our environment. Catalysts play a crucial role in organic synthesis and thus they find huge applications and uses. Scientists' continuously trying to modify the catalysts to reduce their toxicity level, but the most benign way is to design an organic reaction without catalyst(s), if possible. It is worthy to mention that the involvement of ultrasound in organic synthesis is sometimes fulfilling this goal. In many occasions the applications of ultrasound can avoid the use of catalysts in organic reactions. Such beneficial features as a whole have motivated the organic chemists to apply ultrasonic irradiation in more heights and as a results, in recent past, there were immense applications of ultrasound in organic reactions for the synthesis of diverse organic scaffolds under catalyst-free condition. The present review summarizes the latest developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis reported so far.

  16. Role of nanotechnology in development of artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Teoh, G Z; Klanrit, P; Kasimatis, M; Seifalian, A M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in our understanding of the interactions between implants and cells have directed attention towards nanoscale technologies. To date, nanotechnology has played a helping hand in the development of synthetic artificial organs and regenerative medicine. This includes the production of smart nanocomposite materials; fluorescent nanoparticles like Quantum Dots (QD) and magnetic nano particles (MNP) for stem cell tracking; and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene for enhancement of material properties. The scope of this paper includes the role of nanoparticles in the development of nanomaterials; the chemical surface modifications possible to improve implant function and an overview of the performance of nano-engineered organs thus far. This includes implants developed for aesthetic purposes like nasal and auricular scaffolds, plastic and reconstructive surgical constructs (i.e. dermal grafts), hollow organs for cardiothoracic applications; and last but not least, orthopedic implants. The five-year outlook for nano-enhanced artificial organs is also discussed, highlighting the key research and development areas, available funds and the hurdles we face in accomplishing progression from prototypes on the laboratory bench to off-the-shelf products for the consumer market. Ultimately, this review aims to delineate the advantages of incorporating nanotechnology, as an individual entity or as a part of a construct for the development of tissue engineering scaffolds and/or artificial organs, and unravel the mechanisms of tissue cell-biomaterial interactions at the nanoscale, allowing for better progress in the development and optimization of unique nanoscale surface features for a wide range of applications.

  17. Helping organizations help others: organization development as a facilitator of social change.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Neil M

    2011-01-01

    This article explores organization development (OD) interventions and their likelihood of increasing social change outcomes in public agencies. The central argument of this work is that public and nonprofit organizations can deliver better social outcomes by systematically engaging in OD interventions. An in-depth survey was conducted in 3 agencies of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the end of the gubernatorial administration of Tom Ridge (1995-2002). During his administration, Governor Ridge led the agencies of Pennsylvania government through a large-scale change effort to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery to the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The change effort was a remarkable event for the Commonwealth because no other governor in the history of the state had attempted to conceptualize and deliver a comprehensive large-scale change management initiative. The successes and setbacks served as a fertile context to shed light on the following research question: Do OD interventions increase the likelihood that public organizations will deliver better social outcomes? This question is important in that public organizations may need to engage in organization development activities to improve their internal operations, which in turn may help them provide exemplary social outcomes to those whom they serve. In short, organization development interventions might allow public organizations to help themselves to help others.

  18. Affirmative action as organization development at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryman, Mfanya Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The role of affirmative actions is investigated as an interventionist Organization Development (OD) strategy for insuring equal opportunities at the NASA/Johnson Space Center. In doing so, an eclectic and holistic model is developed for the recruiting and hiring of minorities and females over the next five years. The strategy, approach, and assumptions for the model are quite different than those for JSC's five year plan. The study concludes that Organization development utilizing affirmative action is a valid means to bring about organizational change and renewal processes, and that an eclectic model of affirmative action is most suitable and rational in obtaining this end.

  19. Complexities of Organization Dynamics and Development: Leaders and Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the theoretical framework for understanding organizational dynamics and development - the change theory and subordinate relationships within contemporary organizations. The emphasis is on power strategies and the relationship to organizational dynamics and development. The integrative process broadens the understanding of…

  20. Development of photocatalysts for selective and efficient organic transformations.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shamsa; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Shah, Afzal

    2015-07-01

    One of the main goals of organic chemists is to find easy, environmentally friendly, and cost effective methods for the synthesis of industrially important compounds. Photocatalysts have brought revolution in this regard as they make use of unlimited source of energy (the solar light) to carry out the synthesis of organic compounds having otherwise complex synthetic procedures. However, selectivity of the products has been a major issue since the beginning of photocatalysis. The present article encompasses state of the art accomplishments in harvesting light energy for selective organic transformations using photocatalysts. Several approaches for the development of photocatalysts for selective organic conversions have been critically discussed with the objective of developing efficient, selective, environmental friendly and high yield photocatalytic methodologies.

  1. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  2. Professional education and hospital development for organ donation.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, N; Konaka, S; Kato, O; Ashikari, J

    2012-05-01

    Because of the strict Organ Transplantation Act, only 81 brain dead (BD) organ donations had been performed in Japan for 13 years since 1997. The Act was revised on July 17, 2010, allowing, organs to be donated after BD with consent from the family, if the subject had not denied organ donation previously. This act has lead to an expectation of a 6-7-fold increase in BD donation. The 82 organ procurement coordinators (OPC) in Japan include 32 belonging to the Japanese Organ Network (JOT) and the others to each administrative division. JOT has guideline manuals of standard roles and procedures of OPC during organ procurement from BD and cardiac death donors. To manage the increased organ donations after the revision of the act, we have modified the education system. First, we modified the guideline manuals for OPC to correspond to the revised Transplant Act and governmental guidelines. Second, all OPC gathered in a meeting room to learn the new organ procurement system to deal with the revised Transplant Act and guidelines. Third, a special education program for 2 months was provided for the 10 newcomers. Last, the practical training in each donor case for newcomers was performed by older OPC. Topics of the education program were the revised transplant act and guidelines, family approach to organ donation, BD diagnosis, donor evaluation and management, organ procurement and preservation, allocation system, hospital development and family care. In the future, each OPC will be divided into special categories, such as the donor family OPC, the donor management OPC, and the operating room OPC. Therefore, we need to construct separate special education programs for each category.

  3. A Conceptual framework of Strategy, Structure and Innovative Behaviour for the Development of a Dynamic Simulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis

    2007-12-01

    According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their failure to foster innovative behaviour by aligning business strategy and structure. From this point of view, the fit between strategy and structure is essential in order to facilitate firms' innovative behaviour. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Organizational structure is built on four dimensions (centralization, formalization, complexity and employees' initiatives to implement new ideas). Innovativeness is measured as product innovation, process and technological innovation. This study provides the necessary theoretical framework for the development of a dynamic simulation method, although the simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, considering that there are so many alternatives (not all well understood).

  4. Developing neuronal networks: self-organized criticality predicts the future.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiangbo; Gong, Hui; Li, Xiangning; Luo, Qingming

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized criticality emerged in neural activity is one of the key concepts to describe the formation and the function of developing neuronal networks. The relationship between critical dynamics and neural development is both theoretically and experimentally appealing. However, whereas it is well-known that cortical networks exhibit a rich repertoire of activity patterns at different stages during in vitro maturation, dynamical activity patterns through the entire neural development still remains unclear. Here we show that a series of metastable network states emerged in the developing and "aging" process of hippocampal networks cultured from dissociated rat neurons. The unidirectional sequence of state transitions could be only observed in networks showing power-law scaling of distributed neuronal avalanches. Our data suggest that self-organized criticality may guide spontaneous activity into a sequential succession of homeostatically-regulated transient patterns during development, which may help to predict the tendency of neural development at early ages in the future.

  5. What If It Happens in My Classroom? Developing Skills for Expert Behaviour Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sida-Nicholls, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Why can't I stop my students from being noisy as they leave my classroom? What can I do when a student is texting on their phone in my lesson? How can I stop a student from constantly tapping their pen while I am talking? Sound familiar? Chewing gum, dropping litter, swearing, late homework and disruptive behaviour in class are just a few of the…

  6. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F

    2016-12-20

    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  7. Development of a methodology examining the behaviours of VOCs source apportionment with micro-meteorology analysis in an urban and industrial area.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Delbarre, Hervé; Sauvage, Stéphane; Léonardis, Thierry; Fourmentin, Marc; Augustin, Patrick; Locoge, Nadine

    2012-03-01

    During summer 2009, online measurements of 25 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from C6 to C10 as well as micro-meteorological parameters were simultaneously performed in the industrial city of Dunkerque. With the obtained data set, we developed a methodology to examine how the contributions of different source categories depend on atmospheric turbulences, and the results provided identification of emission modes. Eight factors were resolved by using Positive Matrix Factorization model and three of them were associated with mixed sources. The observed behaviours of contributions with turbulences lead to attribute some factors with sources at ground level, and some other factors with sources in the upper part of surface layer. The impact of vertical turbulence on the pollutant dispersion is also affected by the distance between sources and receptor site.

  8. Gamification - Environmental and Sustainable Development Organizations Could Do More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Miller, C. A.; Kilaru, V.; French, R. A.; Costanza, R.; Brookes, A.

    2013-12-01

    The use of digital games to foster sustainable development and environmental goals has grown over the last 10 years. Innovative thinking and the origins of 'serious games,' 'games for change' and 'gamification' are partly rooted in movies and science fiction. Existing games illustrate a spectrum of approaches: for example, World Food Programme's FoodForce and University of Washington's Foldit. Environmental organizations globally (e.g. US EPA) have dabbled with game development and gamification, but have only touched the tip of the iceberg, particularly when compared to the success of the commercial gaming industry. We explore: 1) the intersection of environmental organization mission statements in the context of gamification efforts , 2) some examples of existing games, from simple to complex, 3) business model approaches (e.g. game development partnerships with academia, private industry, NGOs, etc.), 4) barriers, and 5) benefits of a more concerted and technologically-advanced approach to gamification for environmental organizations.

  9. Stimulation of ectodermal organ development by Ectodysplasin-A1.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tuija; Pispa, Johanna; Mikkola, Marja L; Pummila, Marja; Kangas, Aapo T; Pakkasjärvi, Leila; Jaatinen, Risto; Thesleff, Irma

    2003-07-01

    Organs developing as ectodermal appendages share similar early morphogenesis and molecular mechanisms. Ectodysplasin, a signaling molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family, and its receptor Edar are required for normal development of several ectodermal organs in humans and mice. We have overexpressed two splice forms of ectodysplasin, Eda-A1 and Eda-A2, binding to Edar and another TNF receptor, Xedar, respectively, under the keratin 14 (K14) promoter in the ectoderm of transgenic mice. Eda-A2 overexpression did not cause a detectable phenotype. On the contrary, overexpression of Eda-A1 resulted in alterations in a variety of ectodermal organs, most notably in extra organs. Hair development was initiated continuously from E14 until birth, and in addition, the transgenic mice had supernumerary teeth and mammary glands, phenotypes not reported previously in transgenic mice. Also, hair composition and structure was abnormal, and the cycling of hairs was altered so that the growth phase (anagen) was prolonged. Both hairs and nails grew longer than normal. Molar teeth were of abnormal shape, and enamel formation was severely disturbed in incisors. Furthermore, sweat gland function was stimulated and sebaceous glands were enlarged. We conclude that ectodysplasin-Edar signaling has several roles in ectodermal organ development controlling their initiation, as well as morphogenesis and differentiation.

  10. Intracerebroventricular losartan infusion modulates angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in the subfornical organ and drinking behaviour in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Walch, Joseph D; Carreño, Flávia Regina; Cunningham, J Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates haemodynamic changes, including peripheral vasodilatation and generalized oedema. Peripheral vasodilatation is hypothesized to activate compensatory mechanisms, including increased drinking behaviour and neurohumoral activation. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA and protein in the lamina terminalis are associated with BDL-induced hyposmolality in the rat. All rats received either BDL or sham-ligation surgery. The rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. Expression of AT(1)R in the lamina terminalis was assessed by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Average baseline water intake increased significantly in BDL rats compared with sham-operated rats, and upregulation of AT(1)R protein and AT(1a)R mRNA were observed in the subfornical organ of BDL rats. Separate groups of BDL and sham-ligated rats were instrumented with minipumps filled with either losartan (2.0 μg μl(-1)) or 0.9% saline for chronic intracerebroventricular or chronic subcutaneous infusion. Chronic intracerebroventricular losartan infusion attenuated the increased drinking behaviour and prevented the increased abundance of AT(1)R protein in the subfornical organ in BDL rats. Chronic subcutaneous infusion did not affect water intake or AT(1)R abundance in the subfornical organ. The data presented here indicate a possible role of increased central AT(1)R expression in the regulation of drinking behaviour during congestive cirrhosis.

  11. Recent developments of solution-processed organic photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verilhac, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-01

    Organic photodiodes (OPDs) are a new category of photodetecting devices that would be well suited for large-area electronic products on flexible substrates. Researches and developments in this field cover a large spectrum of scientific and technological domains such as chemistry of materials, physics of interfaces, physical chemistry of materials blends, electronic processes in organic semi-conductors, inks formulations and printing technologies. Even if organic photodetectors could rely on the recent achievements made in the field of organic photovoltaic (OPV), they have their own technical requirements and performances specifications. This paper gives an overview of the important aspects related to OPD. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  12. Signal complexity and modular organization of the courtship behaviours of two sibling species of wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    PubMed

    Chiarle, Alberto; Isaia, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we compare the courtship behaviours of Pardosa proxima and P. vlijmi, two species of wolf spiders up to now regarded as "ethospecies", by means of motion analysis methodologies. In particular, we investigate the features of the signals, aiming at understanding the evolution of the courtship and its role in species delimitation and speciation processes. In our model, we highlight a modular structure of the behaviours and the presence of recurring units and phases. According to other similar cases concerning animal communication, we observed one highly variable and one stereotyped phase for both species. The stereotyped phase is here regarded as a signal related to species identity or an honest signal linked directly to the quality of the signaler. On the contrary, the variable phase aims to facilitate signal detection and assessment by the female reducing choice costs or errors. Variable phases include cues arisen from Fisherian runaway selection, female sensory exploitation and remaining of past selections.

  13. Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS)

    PubMed Central

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Naismith, Iona; Pieta, Maria; Gilbert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The aims of the study were to develop a scale sensitive enough to measure the interpersonal processes within a therapeutic environment, and to explore whether the new scale was sensitive enough to detect differences between settings, including a community based on compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism. The Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS) were validated with 81 participants in three different settings: a specialist service for anxiety disorders, a specialist in-patient ward and a psychodynamic therapeutic community. Results TESS was found to be reliable and valid. Significant differences were seen between the services on the dimensions of compassion, belongingness, feeling safe, positive reinforcement of members' acts of courage, extinction and accommodation of unhelpful behaviours, inconsistency and high expressed emotion. These processes were over time associated with improved outcomes on a specialist service for anxiety disorders. Clinical implications The TESS offers a first step in exploring important interpersonal relationships in therapeutic environments and communities. An environment based on a compassionate mind and contextual behaviourism offers promise for the running of a therapeutic community. PMID:26958353

  14. Diagnosis as a social determinant: the development of prosocial behaviour before and after an autism spectrum diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ginny; Kelly, Susan E; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-11-01

    Jutel and Nettleton (2011) discuss diagnosis as not only a major classification tool for medicine but also an interactive social process that itself may have ramifications for health. Consideration of diagnosis as a social determinant of health outcomes led to the formulation of our research question: Can we detect a change in the development of prosocial symptoms before and after an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis? We examined the developmental trajectory of prosocial skills of children, as impairment in social skills is given as a core symptom for children with ASD. We used a validated scale measuring prosocial behaviour for a sample of 57 children where the measure was repeatedly recorded over ten years. We plotted the developmental trajectory of the prosocial trait in this sample who were enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study based in South West England. Multi-factorial fixed effect modelling suggests that the developmental trajectory of this measure of behaviour was not significantly altered by ASD diagnosis, or the consequences of diagnosis, either for better or worse. Further analysis was conducted on a subset of 33 of the children who had both pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis information, and the same result obtained. The results indicate that prosocial behaviours may be resistant to typical 'treatments': provision of educational and specialist health services triggered by a clinical ASD diagnosis. The implications of this for considering diagnosis as a social determinant are discussed.

  15. The evolution of robust development and homeostasis in artificial organisms.

    PubMed

    Basanta, David; Miodownik, Mark; Baum, Buzz

    2008-03-28

    During embryogenesis, multicellular animals are shaped via cell proliferation, cell rearrangement, and apoptosis. At the end of development, tissue architecture is then maintained through balanced rates of cell proliferation and loss. Here, we take an in silico approach to look for generic systems features of morphogenesis in multicellular animals that arise as a consequence of the evolution of development. Using artificial evolution, we evolved cellular automata-based digital organisms that have distinct embryonic and homeostatic phases of development. Although these evolved organisms use a variety of strategies to maintain their form over time, organisms of different types were all found to rapidly recover from environmental damage in the form of wounds. This regenerative response was most robust in an organism with a stratified tissue-like architecture. An evolutionary analysis revealed that evolution itself contributed to the ability of this organism to maintain its form in the face of genetic and environmental perturbation, confirming the results of previous studies. In addition, the exceptional robustness of this organism to surface injury was found to result from an upward flux of cells, driven in part by cell divisions with a stable niche at the tissue base. Given the general nature of the model, our results lead us to suggest that many of the robust systems properties observed in real organisms, including scar-free wound-healing in well-protected embryos and the layered tissue architecture of regenerating epithelial tissues, may be by-products of the evolution of morphogenesis, rather than the direct result of selection.

  16. English Teacher Candidates Developing Dialogically Organized Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughlan, Samantha; Juzwik, Mary M.; Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Kelly, Sean; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2013-01-01

    Although mounting research evidence suggests that dialogic teaching correlates with student achievement gains and with high levels of student engagement, little work in English education addresses the challenge of supporting new teachers in developing dialogically organized instructional practices. In a design-based study, we examine a curricular…

  17. Human Capital Development in the International Organization: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulvisaechana, Somboon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of the nature of corporate rhetoric in developing human capital and how it becomes embedded within a large international organization operating in the Nordic region. The qualitative case study aims to examine the sensemaking of individual managers, and how human capital rhetoric…

  18. Culturing Reality: How Organic Chemistry Graduate Students Develop into Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bodner, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one of the presumed aims of graduate training programs is to help students develop into practitioners of their chosen fields, very little is known about how this transition occurs. In the course of studying how graduate students learn to solve organic synthesis problems, we were able to identify some of the key factors in the epistemic…

  19. Welding technology. [technology transfer of NASA developments to commercial organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Welding processes which have been developed during NASA space program activities are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) welding with an electron gun, (2) technology of welding special alloys, and (3) welding shop techniques and equipment. The material presented is part of the combined efforts of NASA and the Small Business Administration to provide technology transfer of space-related developments to the benefit of commercial organizations.

  20. Analytical Development of an Experimental Paradigm for C(3) Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    INFORMATION AND DECISION SYSTEMS MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Cambridge, MA 02139 2 88 11 4009 ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL...organizations that is being developed at the MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (Levis 1984; 1988). Therefore, a project was undertaken in order...of a simple human decisionmaking processes and the analysis of information -processing systems . There are two quantities of primary interest in

  1. Organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, S.A.; Hoopes, V.; Rau, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the status of organic analyses and developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-103 (Tank 103-SY). The analytical data are to serve as an example of the status of methods development and application. Samples of the convective and nonconvective layers from Tank 103-SY were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The TOC value obtained for the nonconvective layer using the hot persulfate method was 10,500 {mu}g C/g. The TOC value obtained from samples of Tank 101-SY was 11,000 {mu}g C/g. The average value for the TOC of the convective layer was 6400 {mu}g C/g. Chelator and chelator fragments in Tank 103-SY samples were identified using derivatization. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic components were quantified using GC/flame ionization detection. Major components in both the convective and nonconvective-layer samples include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), succinic acid, nitrosoiminodiacetic acid (NIDA), citric acid, and ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (ED3A). Preliminary results also indicate the presence of C16 and C18 carboxylic acids in the nonconvective-layer sample. Oxalic acid was one of the major components in the nonconvective layer as determined by derivatization GC/flame ionization detection.

  2. Localized JNK signaling regulates organ size during development

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Helen Rankin; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Carlos Pastor-Pareja, José; Willsey, A Jeremy; Beachy, Philip A; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question of biology is what determines organ size. Despite demonstrations that factors within organs determine their sizes, intrinsic size control mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Drosophila wing size is regulated by JNK signaling during development. JNK is active in a stripe along the center of developing wings, and modulating JNK signaling within this stripe changes organ size. This JNK stripe influences proliferation in a non-canonical, Jun-independent manner by inhibiting the Hippo pathway. Localized JNK activity is established by Hedgehog signaling, where Ci elevates dTRAF1 expression. As the dTRAF1 homolog, TRAF4, is amplified in numerous cancers, these findings provide a new mechanism for how the Hedgehog pathway could contribute to tumorigenesis, and, more importantly, provides a new strategy for cancer therapies. Finally, modulation of JNK signaling centers in developing antennae and legs changes their sizes, suggesting a more generalizable role for JNK signaling in developmental organ size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11491.001 PMID:26974344

  3. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene on rate of behavioural development, foraging performance and navigation in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Chang, Lun-Hsien; Barron, Andrew B; Cheng, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Worker honey bees change roles as they age as part of a hormonally regulated process of behavioural development that ends with a specialised foraging phase. The rate of behavioural development is highly plastic and responsive to changes in colony condition such that forager losses, disease or nutritional stresses accelerate behavioural development and cause an early onset of foraging in workers. It is not clear to what degree the behavioural development of workers can be accelerated without there being a cost in terms of reduced foraging performance. Here, we compared the foraging performance of bees induced to accelerate their behavioural development by treatment with the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene with that of controls that developed at a normal rate. Methoprene treatment accelerated the onset of both flight and foraging behaviour in workers, but it also reduced foraging span, the total time spent foraging and the number of completed foraging trips. Methoprene treatment did not alter performance in a short-range navigation task, however. These data indicate a limitation to the physiological plasticity of bees, and a trade off between forager performance and the speed at which bees begin foraging. Chronic stressors will be expected to reduce the mean age of the foraging force, and therefore also reduce the efficiency of the foraging force. This interaction may explain why honey bee colonies react to sustained stressors with non-linear population decline.

  4. Attitudes and behaviours of students from the faculty of theology regarding organ donation: a study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Naçar, M; Cetinkaya, F; Baykan, Z; Poyrazoğlu, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of students from the Faculty of Theology of Erciyes University regarding organ donation. This study comprising all students (n = 264) showed that 51.6% of subjects to the kidney is an organ that may be donated; other organs were less known. 16.5% of the students thought that organ donation is not in accord with Islamic beliefs; 22.0% thought that it is permitted in Islam for Muslims to donate to non-Muslims, and 23.6% were willing to accept organs from non-Muslims. 23.6% of the students were willing to donate their organs, whereas 57.3% were undecided. None of the students had an organ donation card. Among students who did not consider donation or were undecided, 16.5% stated that it was "religiously inappropriate" and 13.3% stated that they did not "approve the loss of body integrity." Students declared that they had little knowledge regarding organ/tissue donation: 67.9% about the religious aspect, 78.9% about the legal aspect, and 80.5% about the scientific aspect. Only 24.6% of the group noted school education as their source of information, with 51.2% stating that they had been questioned about organ donation by society. With this study, we concluded that the student's knowledge regarding organ donation was not sufficient.

  5. Developing a Security Metrics Scorecard for Healthcare Organizations.

    PubMed

    Elrefaey, Heba; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In healthcare, information security is a key aspect of protecting a patient's privacy and ensuring systems availability to support patient care. Security managers need to measure the performance of security systems and this can be achieved by using evidence-based metrics. In this paper, we describe the development of an evidence-based security metrics scorecard specific to healthcare organizations. Study participants were asked to comment on the usability and usefulness of a prototype of a security metrics scorecard that was developed based on current research in the area of general security metrics. Study findings revealed that scorecards need to be customized for the healthcare setting in order for the security information to be useful and usable in healthcare organizations. The study findings resulted in the development of a security metrics scorecard that matches the healthcare security experts' information requirements.

  6. Positional changes of the ocular organs during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Miho; Ishikawa, Aoi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2017-03-13

    The present study aimed to describe the positional changes of the ocular organs during craniofacial development; moreover, we examined the relationships among the ocular organs and other internal structures. To do this, we traced the positions of the ocular organs in 56 human early fetal samples at different stages of development using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The eyes were located on the lateral side in the ventral view at Carnegie stage (CS) 16, and then changed their positions medially during development. The eyes remained in the neurocranium until CS17. However, the eyes changed their positions medially and caudally in the viscerocranium after CS18. The positional relationship between the eyes and pituitary gland changed in the lateral view as development progressed. Specifically, they were close to each other at CS17, but moved apart during the later stages of development. These positional changes were also demonstrated quantitatively with morphometric analyses. Based on the present data, the positional changes of the eyes can be categorized into phases, as follows: phase 1, dramatic positional changes (early fetal period until CS23); and phase 2, mild positional changes (stabilized; early fetal period after CS23). Notably, all absolute lengths measured in the present study linearly increased as the crown-rump length increased irrespective of the phase, while features of the measured angles and ratios differentially changed in phases 1 and 2. The present data may help improve our understanding of both the normal and abnormal development of the ocular organs and craniofacial area. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. ICE: Ionic contrast enhancement for organic solvent negative tone develop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Linda K.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Bozano, Luisa D.; Truong, Hoa D.; Sanchez, Martha I.; Goldfarb, Dario L.; Petrillo, Karen E.; Hinsberg, William D.

    2014-03-01

    The use of organic solvents in the development of chemically amplified (CA) resists has been known since the introduction of DUV lithography into manufacturing over twenty years ago [1,2]. In this approach a negative tone image is produced using an aqueous base developable positive tone resist developed in an organic solvent. Recently there has been an increased interest in negative tone imaging due to superior performance for specific masking levels such as narrow trenches and contact holes [3]. Negative tone imaging of this type is based on differences in the polarity between the exposed and unexposed regions of the resist film. The dissolution contrast can be optimized by selecting a solvent with the proper match of solubility parameters (polarity, hydrogen bonding and dispersion) to attain good solubility of the relatively nonpolar unexposed resist and poor solubility of the deprotected acidic exposed film. Another approach is to tune the properties of the resist polymer for a given solvent, creating a new optimized resist. We have explored a third methodology to achieve a high contrast solvent developable system without a need to modify resist or solvent. In this report we describe a process that exploits the differences in solubility between ionic and organic materials. In this method an ionic species is introduced into the resist film following post-exposure bake to alter the polarity in such way that the resist contrast can be improved in organic solvent development. We describe processes using pre-rinses and developers containing salts. Lithographic response, characterized using contrast curves and imaging, is presented for a variety of resist platforms. We show evidence for ionic incorporation into the resist film using SIMS, XPS, QCM and FTIR characterization. We demonstrate the practical applicability of this method to 248nm, 193nm, e-beam and EUV exposures.

  8. Development of a method of exposed characteristic points in activity pattern for rat behaviour classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefko, Kamil; Bukowski, Tomasz; Urbański, Michał

    2012-03-01

    A fast method for visual inspection and classification of massive locomotor activity data registered from laboratory rats is presented. Positions in the home cage of one hundred rats have been constantly recorded during 90 day period using photodiodes and beam crossing method with use of custom build system. Direct inspection and comparison of classic form of actograms did not bring information for fast and easy recognition of anomalies in daily behavioural cycle. A method of obtaining fast and easy to compare locomotor activity pattern is presented. The key point of proposed method is exposition of characteristic points in the activity diagram. About 9000 actograms were inspected and classified for investigation with use of ANOVA.

  9. Development of neuromuscular organization in the ctenophore Pleurobrachia bachei.

    PubMed

    Norekian, Tigran P; Moroz, Leonid L

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Ctenophora and the nature of ctenphore nervous systems are highly debated topics in modern evolutionary biology. However, very little is known about the organization of ctenophore neural and muscular systems, and virtually nothing has been reported about their embryogenesis. Here we have characterized the neural and muscular development of the sea gooseberry, Pleurobrachia bachei, starting from the cleavage stages to posthatching larvae. Scanning electron microscopy and immunochemistry were used to describe the formation of the embryonic mouth, tentacles, combs, aboral organ, and putative sensory cells. The muscles started their specification at the end of the first day of Pleurobrachia development. In contrast, neurons appeared 2 days after myogenesis, just before the hatching of fully formed cydippid larvae. The first tubulin-immunoreactive neurons, a small group of four to six cells with neuronal processes, was initially recognized at the aboral pole during the third day of development. Surprisingly, this observed neurogenesis occurred after the emergence of distinct behavioral patterns in the embryos. Thus, the embryonic behavior associated with comb cilia beatings and initial muscle organization does not require morphologically defined neurons and their elongated neurites. This study provides the first description of neuromuscular development in the enigmatic ctenophores and establishes the foundation for future research using emerging genomic tools and resources.

  10. Neuralized functions cell autonomously to regulate Drosophila sense organ development.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E; Zhou, L; Rudzik, N; Boulianne, G L

    2000-09-01

    Neurogenic genes, including Notch and Delta, are thought to play important roles in regulating cell-cell interactions required for Drosophila sense organ development. To define the requirement of the neurogenic gene neuralized (neu) in this process, two independent neu alleles were used to generate mutant clones. We find that neu is required for determination of cell fates within the proneural cluster and that cells mutant for neu autonomously adopt neural fates when adjacent to wild-type cells. Furthermore, neu is required within the sense organ lineage to determine the fates of daughter cells and accessory cells. To gain insight into the mechanism by which neu functions, we used the GAL4/UAS system to express wild-type and epitope-tagged neu constructs. We show that Neu protein is localized primarily at the plasma membrane. We propose that the function of neu in sense organ development is to affect the ability of cells to receive Notch-Delta signals and thus modulate neurogenic activity that allows for the specification of non-neuronal cell fates in the sense organ.

  11. Protocol for the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess concerning behaviours and mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale

    PubMed Central

    Santosh, Paramala; Tarver, Joanne; Gibbons, Felicity; Vitoratou, Silia; Simonoff, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Co-occurring psychiatric conditions and concerning behaviours are prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and are likely to be detrimental to functioning and long-term outcomes. The cognitive rigidity and deficits in emotional literacy and verbal behaviour that commonly occur in ASD can adversely affect clinicians’ confidence to identify concerning behaviours and mental health problems. There is a need to develop a measure that is tailored towards individuals with ASD, and differentiates between symptoms of psychopathology and core ASD symptoms. Furthermore, it should be modified to capture internalising symptoms that individuals with ASD may find difficult or be unable to verbalise. This protocol describes the intended development and validation of the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale. The ACB will aim to be a multidimensional measure of concerning behaviours in ASD incorporating self-report, parent/carer, teacher/employer and clinician report versions that can be used across the lifespan and spectrum of intellectual ability. Methods and analysis This study will be guided by the methods described in the US Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry Patient-reported Outcome Measures. A literature review, cognitive interviews and focus groups with individuals who have experience of working or living with ASDs will be used for item generation. A sample of children and adults with ASD will complete the ACB, in addition to other gold standard measures of concerning behaviour in order to establish the initial psychometric properties of the scale. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethical approval from the NHS Research Ethics Committee: London-Camden and King's Cross (ref: 15/LO/0085). Study findings will be disseminated to healthcare professionals and scientists in the field through publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. PMID:27006345

  12. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. DATA SOURCES All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. RESULTS Overall, trials included in this review (n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions

  13. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D; Morley, Erica L; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N

    2015-10-22

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width-length ratios. Larvae with lower body width-length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures.

  14. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale.

    PubMed

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William; Holstein, Bjørn; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias

    2008-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross-national levels in over 30 countries in Europe and North America. We present an overview of HBSC papers published to date that examine FAS-related socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour, using data from the HBSC study. Findings suggest consistent inequalities in self-reported health, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together with ideas for future development of the measure.

  15. Impacts of regular and random noise on the behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    PubMed Central

    Nedelec, Sophie L.; Simpson, Stephen D.; Morley, Erica L.; Nedelec, Brendan; Radford, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise impacts behaviour and physiology in many species, but responses could change with repeat exposures. As repeat exposures can vary in regularity, identifying regimes with less impact is important for regulation. We use a 16-day split-brood experiment to compare effects of regular and random acoustic noise (playbacks of recordings of ships), relative to ambient-noise controls, on behaviour, growth and development of larval Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Short-term noise caused startle responses in newly hatched fish, irrespective of rearing noise. Two days of both regular and random noise regimes reduced growth, while regular noise led to faster yolk sac use. After 16 days, growth in all three sound treatments converged, although fish exposed to regular noise had lower body width–length ratios. Larvae with lower body width–length ratios were easier to catch in a predator-avoidance experiment. Our results demonstrate that the timing of acoustic disturbances can impact survival-related measures during development. Much current work focuses on sound levels, but future studies should consider the role of noise regularity and its importance for noise management and mitigation measures. PMID:26468248

  16. Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Åse; Åse, Fagerlund; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Ilona, Autti-Rämö; Kalland, Mirjam; Mirjam, Kalland; Santtila, Pekka; Pekka, Santtila; Hoyme, H Eugene; Eugene, Hoyme H; Mattson, Sarah N; Sarah, Mattson N; Korkman, Marit; Marit, Korkman

    2012-04-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD.

  17. Adaptive behaviour in children and adolescents with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a comparison with specific learning disability and typical development

    PubMed Central

    Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kalland, Mirjam; Santtila, Pekka; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. PMID:22358422

  18. Morphology of non-sensory epithelium during post-natal development of the rabbit vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Elgayar, S A M; Eltony, S A; Othman, M A

    2014-08-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO), because of its ability to detect pheromones, has an important role in many social and sexual behaviours in mammals. It also mediates defensive behaviours through detection of protein pheromone homologues. A detailed morphological description of the post-natal development of the 'non-sensory' epithelium (NSE) of the female rabbit is recorded. Histological techniques were used to study the NSE of the VNO in post-natal development of female rabbits. The study focused on the following post-natal ages: newborn, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month (five animals each) beside to two adult animals. The rabbit VNO was surrounded externally by bony capsule and internally by cartilaginous capsule. NSE was pseudostratified columnar partially ciliated epithelium without goblet cells. In addition to basal cells, NSE contained ciliated and three types of non-ciliated columnar cells (dark, pale and light). At birth, dark cells may have primary cilia. By 1 month, the cytoplasm became lighter with less free ribosomes. The pale cells had electron-lucent cytoplasm, which contained a few organelles. Mitotic figures were observed in basal and columnar cells, particularly during the first 2 weeks of post-natal development. Light columnar cells were common during the first week. Numerous leucocytes and a few nerve endings were detected intra-epithelial. Scanning electron microscope revealed a gradual increase in height of microvilli of non-ciliated cells. Ciliated cells had cilia and microvilli. Cells were arranged singly, in clumps or in a dense population of cells. The rabbit VNO-NSE had a unique morphological structure.

  19. Qualification of biomarkers for drug development in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Burckart, Gilbert J; Amur, Shashi; Goodsaid, Federico M; Lesko, Lawrence J; Frueh, Felix W; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Cavaille-Coll, Marc W

    2008-02-01

    The drug development process is dependent upon having established end points for measuring drug efficacy and adverse effects. New drug development in organ transplantation suffers from having end points which are either outdated or which do not serve the purpose of addressing the current critical drug therapy problems. Numerous biomarkers have been examined in organ transplantation, but almost all would be classified as exploratory for drug development purposes. Some of the possible pathways out of this dilemma include investigator- or consortium-initiated research that would qualify the biomarkers as either probable or known valid biomarkers, help in identification of new end points in transplantation and their associated biomarkers, co-development of a new biomarker and drug for transplantation and the use of new clinical trial design methods which facilitate enriched or stratified transplant patient populations. With new biomarkers and new study design methodologies for drug development, improvement in the drug development process for transplantation is a real possibility that the transplant clinical and research community can help to bring about.

  20. Development and calibration of a model for biohydrogen production from organic waste.

    PubMed

    Boni, M R; Sbaffoni, S; Tuccinardi, L; Viotti, P

    2013-05-01

    Existing models for H2 production are capable of predicting digester failure caused by a specific disturbance. However, they are based on studies using simple sugars, while it is known that H2 production and fermentation kinetics vary with the composition and characteristics of the substrate used. Because the behaviour of biological processes may differ significantly when the digesting material is a complex matrix, such as organic waste, the aim of this study was to develop and calibrate a mathematical model for the prediction of hydrogen production on the basis of the results obtained from a laboratory scale experimental study using source-selected organic waste. The calibration was carried out for the most important kinetic parameters in mesophilic anaerobic digestion processes and also served as a sensitivity analysis for the influence of both the specific growth rate (μmax and the half velocity constant (k(s)), both of which are strongly dependant on the substrate used. High values of μmax led to a shorter lag-time and to an overestimate of the cumulative final H2 production relative to the experimentally measured production. Additionally, high values of ks associated with amino acid and sugar fermentation corresponded to a lower rate of substrate consumption and to a greater lag-time for growth of hydrogen-producing microorganisms. In this case, a lower final H2 production was predicted than that which was experimentally observed. Because the model development and calibration provided useful information concerning the role of the kinetic constants in the analysis of a fermentative H2 production process from organic wastes, they may also represent a good foundation for the analysis of fermentative H2 production from organic waste for pilot and full-scale applications.

  1. Calming cycle theory: the role of visceral/autonomic learning in early mother and infant/child behaviour and development.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G

    2016-11-01

    Results from a randomised controlled trial of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) showed significantly improved maternal behaviours and infant neurodevelopment and behaviour through 18 months, including a significantly reduced risk for autism. Preliminary results from a pilot study of FNI in preschool children found significant reduction in adverse behaviour.

  2. Development and organization of child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane; Lowes, Lesley

    Against the backdrop of involving children and families in their own care and the clear need to protect their interest, this article will consider care within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). Following a brief overview of the incidence and prevalence of mental health problems, the development and organization of CAMHS will be explored, giving consideration to some of the literature that discusses the effectiveness of services. A review of the literature revealed that, while there is some evidence of how children feel about the services they receive, there is not currently a significant amount of literature available. Nevertheless, these views are of value in relation to the development of service provision.

  3. Development of a Low-Cost Ecotoxicological Bioassay Based on the Feeding Behaviour of the Aquatic Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Álvaro; García-Periñán, Eder; Camargo, Julio A

    2016-11-01

    Conventional acute tests are not suited to assess the effects of toxicants, because they do not use the concentrations that are usually found in natural ecosystems. By contrast, nonlethal realistic concentrations may cause deleterious effects on animal fitness as a consequence of behaviour impairment. Behaviour is a good integrative variable of complex biochemical and physiological processes. Therefore, bioassays based on behaviour are a useful tool in ecotoxicology. In this study, two bioassays were conducted: (1) acute bioassay (48 h) of acetone on the aquatic snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and (2) video-recording behavioural bioassay with pulse exposures to acetone to assess its effects on feeding behaviour. In the latter, animals were exposed to three pulses of acetone (24 h each) with 6 days of postexposure after each pulse. This design allowed us to assess the degree of feeding behaviour recovery after exposure and the effects of repeated pulses. Our results show that postexposure periods have an important effect on the recovery of normal feeding behaviour and that this developed bioassay is an ecotoxicological tool with a relatively low-cost and a short-time consuming. The application of this new tool to different ecotoxicological requirements is discussed.

  4. Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dina; Solouk, Atefeh; Seifalian, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image. The image is sliced and printed using a specific material into thin layers, and successive layering of the material produces a 3D model. It has already been used for printing surgical models for preoperative planning and in constructing personalized prostheses for patients. The ultimate goal is to achieve the development of functional human organs and tissues, to overcome limitations of organ transplantation created by the lack of organ donors and life-long immunosuppression. We hypothesized a precision medicine approach to human organ fabrication using 3D printed technology, in which the digital volumetric data would be collected by imaging of a patient, i.e. CT or MRI images followed by mathematical modeling to create a digital 3D image. Then a suitable biocompatible material, with an optimal resolution for cells seeding and maintenance of cell viability during the printing process, would be printed with a compatible printer type and finally implanted into the patient. Life-saving operations with 3D printed implants were already performed in patients. However, several issues need to be addressed before translational application of 3D printing into clinical medicine. These are vascularization, innervation, and financial cost of 3D printing and safety of biomaterials used for the construct.

  5. Development and Mining of a Volatile Organic Compound Database

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Azian Azamimi; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Ono, Naoaki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Morita, Aki Hirai; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Muto, Ai; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are small molecules that exhibit high vapor pressure under ambient conditions and have low boiling points. Although VOCs contribute only a small proportion of the total metabolites produced by living organisms, they play an important role in chemical ecology specifically in the biological interactions between organisms and ecosystems. VOCs are also important in the health care field as they are presently used as a biomarker to detect various human diseases. Information on VOCs is scattered in the literature until now; however, there is still no available database describing VOCs and their biological activities. To attain this purpose, we have developed KNApSAcK Metabolite Ecology Database, which contains the information on the relationships between VOCs and their emitting organisms. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Ecology is also linked with the KNApSAcK Core and KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database to provide further information on the metabolites and their biological activities. The VOC database can be accessed online. PMID:26495281

  6. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  7. The Identification of Children with Behavioural Manifestations of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity, in Mainstream School: The Development of the Scope Classroom Observation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scope, Alison; Empson, Janet; McHale, Sue; Nabuzoka, Dabie

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the development and use of an observation checklist to identify typically developing children with behavioural manifestations associated with inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. This measure is termed the Scope Classroom Observation Checklist (SCOC). The SCOC was developed, assessed for reliability…

  8. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have

  9. Evolution and development of brain sensory organs in molgulid ascidians.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, William R

    2004-01-01

    The ascidian tadpole larva has two brain sensory organs containing melanocytes: the otolith, a gravity receptor, and the ocellus, part of a photoreceptor. One or both of these sensory organs are absent in molgulid ascidians. We show here that developmental changes leading to the loss of sensory pigment cells occur by different mechanisms in closely related molgulid species. Sensory pigment cells are formed through a bilateral determination pathway in which two or more precursor cells are specified as an equivalence group on each side of the embryo. The precursor cells subsequently converge at the midline after neurulation and undergo cell interactions that decide the fates of the otolith and ocellus. Molgula occidentalis and M. oculata, which exhibit a tadpole larva with an otolith but lacking an ocellus, have conserved the bilateral pigment cell determination pathway. Programmed cell death (PCD) is superimposed on this pathway late in development to eliminate the ocellus precursor and supernumerary pigment cells, which do not differentiate into either an otolith or ocellus. In contrast to molgulids with tadpole larvae, no pigment cell precursors are specified on either side of the M. occulta embryo, which forms a tailless (anural) larva lacking both sensory organs, suggesting that the bilateral pigment cell determination pathway has been lost. The bilateral pigment cell determination pathway and superimposed PCD can be restored in hybrids obtained by fertilizing M. occulta eggs with M. oculata sperm, indicating control by a zygotic process. We conclude that PCD plays an important role in the evolution and development of brain sensory organs in molgulid ascidians.

  10. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  11. Teacher Behaviours Related with Pupil Psychosocial Development in Physical Education: A Descriptive-Analytic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Observation of 20 English physical education teachers giving lessons showed that they frequently used behaviors associated with positive psychosocial development (positive reinforcement, encouragement, technical instruction) and infrequently used those associated with negative development (nonreinforcement, punishment, ignoring mistakes, keeping…

  12. Missing in the youth development literature: the organization as host, cage, and promise.

    PubMed

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Baizerman, Michael; Rana, Sheetal; Korum, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Good, high-quality youth development programs require effective youth organizations. While youth organizations are commonly understood as valuable and supportive of healthy youth development, attention and focus on youth organizations in both scholarship and practice are missing within the youth development field. The authors advocate for a more distinct and clearer focus on youth organizations to foster positive youth development.

  13. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach.

    PubMed

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-12

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv-NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv-Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org-NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org-Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org-Med and Conv-Med groups compared to the Conv-NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23-9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24-9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17-8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01-1.74) for the Org-Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28-0.60) for the Conv-NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org-Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34-11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain.

  14. Annotation: Development of Facial Expression Recognition from Childhood to Adolescence--Behavioural and Neurological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herba, Catherine; Phillips, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intact emotion processing is critical for normal emotional development. Recent advances in neuroimaging have facilitated the examination of brain development, and have allowed for the exploration of the relationships between the development of emotion processing abilities, and that of associated neural systems. Methods: A literature…

  15. The consequences of prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine exposure on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2015-12-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has become a popular drug of abuse in recent years not only in the general population but also amongst pregnant women. Although there is a growing body of preclinical investigations of MA exposure during pregnancy, there has been little investigation of the consequences of such exposure via the breast milk during the neonatal period. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the consequences of MA exposure during pregnancy and lactation on neurodevelopment and behaviour in the rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) once daily via oral gavage from gestation day 7-21, postnatal day 1-21 or gestation day 7- postnatal day 21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. Prenatal MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain, with a concomitant reduction in food intake. A significant increase in neonatal pup mortality was observed, being most marked in the prenatal/postnatal MA group. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were also evident in all MA treatment groups including somatic development (e.g. pinna unfolding, fur appearance, eye opening) and behavioural development (e.g. surface righting, inclined plane test, forelimb grip). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to MA during any of these exposure periods (prenatal and/or postnatal) can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, suggesting that regardless of the exposure period MA is associated with detrimental consequences in the offspring. These results indicate that in the clinical scenario, exposure during lactation needs to be considered when assessing the potential harmful effects of MA on offspring development.

  16. Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The project’s technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

  17. Communication and Organization in Software Development: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Carolyn B.; Basili, Victor R.

    1996-01-01

    The empirical study described in this paper addresses the issue of communication among members of a software development organization. The independent variables are various attributes of organizational structure. The dependent variable is the effort spent on sharing information which is required by the software development process in use. The research questions upon which the study is based ask whether or not these attributes of organizational structure have an effect on the amount of communication effort expended. In addition, there are a number of blocking variables which have been identified. These are used to account for factors other than organizational structure which may have an effect on communication effort. The study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. These methods include participant observation, structured interviews, and graphical data presentation. The results of this study indicate that several attributes of organizational structure do affect communication effort, but not in a simple, straightforward way. In particular, the distances between communicators in the reporting structure of the organization, as well as in the physical layout of offices, affects how quickly they can share needed information, especially during meetings. These results provide a better understanding of how organizational structure helps or hinders communication in software development.

  18. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Shackleton, M.; Furness, A. J.; Bekele, E.; Pearce, J.; Linge, K. L.; Busetti, F.; Spadek, T.; Toze, S.

    2011-03-01

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12 month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life < 1 day). Lag-times for the start of degradation of these compounds ranged from < 15 to 30 days. While iodipamide was persistent under aerobic conditions, artificial reductive geochemical conditions promoted via the addition of ethanol, resulted in rapid degradation (half life < 1 days). Pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and oxazepam) and disinfection by-products (NDMA and NMOR) did not degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic aquifer geochemical conditions (half life > 50 days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required.

  19. The Development of an Information Search and Recording System for Research and Development Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Judith Preuss; And Others

    This paper explains the development of an Information Search and Recording System (ISRS) for research and development organizations which require an efficient method of locating and recording stored information, including literature searches by staff members. The system will enable staff members to: (1) locate stored information by use of a…

  20. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  1. Does route of methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy have an impact on neonatal development and behaviour in rat offspring?

    PubMed

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Kelly, John P

    2016-04-01

    Many preclinical studies have aimed to elucidate the effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure during pregnancy on the offspring in recent years. However, the severity of effects on the neonate may be related to the subcutaneous (sc) route of administration of the drug that is often employed (88% of preclinical studies) and consequently the delivered dose that the foetus is exposed to. To date there is a paucity of comparative studies investigating different routes of administration for MA during pregnancy and it is not known how these different routes compare when it comes to neonatal outcome. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if the route of administration of MA (oral gavage or sc injection) during pregnancy at a pharmacological dose affects the magnitude of neurodevelopmental and behavioural effects in the resultant rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams (n=10 dams/group) received MA (3.75 mg/kg) or control (distilled water) via oral gavage or sc injection from gestation day 7-21. A range of well-recognised neurodevelopmental parameters were examined in the offspring. When administered sc, MA significantly reduced maternal weight gain and altered maternal behaviour; mothers spent less time in the nest with pups and spent less time nursing compared to controls. Significant impairments in neurodevelopmental parameters were evident in both MA treatment groups. Somatic development such as pinna unfolding, fur appearance and eye opening were all delayed after MA exposure but these impairments were more pronounced in the MA sc group. Other somatic parameters such as ano-genital distance and body length were only impeded by sc MA. Behavioural development in the surface righting, inclined plane and forelimb grip tests were also altered for both MA treatment groups. This study demonstrates that prenatal MA can have a profound effect on neonatal outcome, but this can be exacerbated if given via the subcutaneous route, as well as producing additional effects

  2. Using behavioural theories to optimise shared haemodialysis care: a qualitative intervention development study of patient and professional experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    continual review, may improve the implementation of SHC and be acceptable to stakeholders. Conclusions We have developed an intervention strategy to improve the implementation of SHC for patients and professionals. While this intervention strategy has been systematically developed using behavioural theory, it should be rigorously tested in a subsequent effectiveness evaluation study prior to implementation to ensure that shared haemodialysis care can be delivered equitably, efficiently and safely for all patients. PMID:24098920

  3. Phase development and sintering behaviour of biphasic HA-TCP calcium phosphate materials prepared from hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Behnamghader, A; Bagheri, N; Raissi, B; Moztarzadeh, F

    2008-01-01

    The composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) with 2.5 and 5 wt% of a double oxide (50 mol% CaO and 50 mol% P(2)O(5)) glass were prepared using the conventional powder mixing and sintering method. The addition of the glass significantly enhanced the decomposition process of HA into alpha tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) for bodies sintered at 1,300 and 1,350 degrees C and beta-TCP phases for the ones sintered at 1,200, 1,250 and 1,300 degrees C. Microstructural characteristics, phase development and thermal behaviour were studied by SEM, XRD and STA. The effects of TCP phase content and phase transformation from beta-TCP to alpha-TCP on the sintering are discussed. The characterizations revealed considerable content of TCP in the form of large semi-islands due to important reactions between the fine HA and the glass mixed powders.

  4. Developing effective physician leaders: changing cultures and transforming organizations.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Fisher, David; Heiser, Karen; Robbins, Darryl; Kelleher, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the problematic issue of transformational change in the face of cultural conflict between the worlds of clinical care and organizational leadership, and describe a case study of organizational cultural change facilitated through a physician leadership development program. A locally developed physician leadership program can be extremely effective at both improving physicians' leadership skills and increasing understanding of the strategic goals and direction of the organization. The transformational change required for physicians to develop and appreciate business and leadership skills can be supported and encouraged in a leadership development program that includes the components of careful curriculum design, program monitoring, and opportunities to apply new skills in practice. For Columbus Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, this organizational transformational change effort was successfully achieved when a new medical leadership development program helped academic and community physicians to become involved in organizational leadership. The authors describe the background and development of this program and provide results of their evaluation of the program, with discussion of future extensions to the program.

  5. Assessment of the Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet Combined with Organic Food Consumption: An Individual Behaviour Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seconda, Louise; Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Hamza, Oualid; Boizot-Szantai, Christine; Soler, Louis-Georges; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Mediterranean diets are promising sustainable food models and the organic food system may provide health and environmental benefits. Combining the two models could therefore be a favourable approach for food sustainability. The aim of this study was to draw up a comparative description of four diets differing in the level of organic foods consumption and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, using multidisciplinary indicators to assess the sustainability of these diets. Four groups of participants were defined and compared, combining the proportion of organic food in their diet (Org versus Conv) and the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Med versus NoMed). Conv–NoMed: Conventional consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Conv–Med: Conventional consumers and Mediterranean diet followers; Org–NoMed: Organic consumers and non-Mediterranean diet followers; Org–Med: Organic consumers and Mediterranean diet followers. The adherence to nutritional recommendations was higher among the Org–Med and Conv–Med groups compared to the Conv–NoMed group (using the mPNNS-GS (modified-Programme National nutrition santé guidelines score/13.5 points): 9.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.23–9.36) and 9.30 (95% CI = 9.24–9.35) versus 8.19 (95% CI = 8.17–8.22)) respectively. The mean plant/animal protein intake ratio was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.01–1.74) for the Org–Med group versus 0.44 (95% CI = 0.28–0.60) for the Conv–NoMed group. The average cost of the diet of Org–Med participants was the highest: 11.43 €/day (95% CI = 11.34–11.52). This study highlighted the importance of promoting the Mediterranean diet combined with organic food consumption for individual health and environmental aspects but challenges with regard to the cost remain. PMID:28085096

  6. Foraging behaviour, nutrient intake from pasture and performance of free-range growing pigs in relation to feed CP level in two organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, M; Kongsted, A G; Hermansen, J E

    2015-12-01

    In organic pig production one of the major challenges is to be able to fulfil amino acid requirements based on organic and locally grown protein feed crops. The pig is an opportunistic omnivore with a unique capacity for foraging above and below the soil surface. It is hypothesized that direct foraging in the range area can pose an important contribution in terms of fulfilling nutrient requirements of growing pigs. Foraging activity, lucerne nutrient intake and pig performance were investigated in 36 growing pigs, foraging on lucerne or grass and fed either a standard organic pelleted feed mixture (HP: high protein) or a grain mixture containing 48% less CP (LP: low protein) compared with the high protein feed mixture, from an average live weight of 58 kg to 90 kg in a complete block design in three replicates. The pigs were fed 80% of energy recommendations and had access to 4 m2 of pasture/pig per day during the 40 days experimental period from September to October 2013. Behavioural observations were carried out 12 times over the entire experimental period. For both crops, LP pigs rooted significantly more compared with HP pigs but the effect of CP level was more pronounced in grass (44% v. 19% of all observations) compared with lucerne (28% v. 16% of all observations). Feed protein level turned out not to have any significant effect on grazing behaviour but pigs foraging on lucerne grazed significantly more than pigs foraging on grass (10% v. 4% of all observations). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by feed protein and forage crop interactions. Compared to HP pigs, LP treated pigs had 33% lower daily weight gain (589 v. 878 g) and 31% poorer feed conversion ratio (3.75 v. 2.59 kg feed/kg weight gain) in grass paddocks, whereas in lucerne paddocks LP pigs only had 18% lower daily weight gain (741 v. 900 g) and a 14% poorer feed conversion ratio (2.95 v. 2.54 kg feed/kg weight gain) compared with HP pigs. LP pigs foraging on

  7. Behavioural Development of Early Adolescents by Dint of Positive School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Dharma Raja, B. William

    2011-01-01

    Early adolescence is the period where the transition from child to adult takes place gradually. A major physical and cognitive change during this period is accompanied by social and emotional development. The growth spurt in this period makes them stronger and plays an important role in developing self identities. The journey through this crucial…

  8. Child Care in the Preschool Years: Attachment, Behaviour Problems and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ramstein, Tatjana; Karmaniola, Athanassia; Halfon, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Considers the implications of nonparental care for cognitive development and behavior problems in Swiss young children. Finds that the effect of nonparental care on behavior problems was mediated by the pattern of attachment to the mother and that the effect on cognitive development was mediated by the quality of care. (DSK)

  9. Development of the human Achilles tendon enthesis organ.

    PubMed

    Shaw, H M; Vázquez, Osorio T; McGonagle, D; Bydder, G; Santer, R M; Benjamin, M

    2008-12-01

    The attachment of the Achilles tendon is part of an 'enthesis organ' that reduces stress concentration at the hard-soft tissue interface. The organ also includes opposing sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages, a bursa and Kager's fat pad. In addition, the deep crural and plantar fasciae contribute to Achilles stress dissipation and could also be regarded as components. Here we describe the sequence in which these various tissues differentiate. Serial sections of feet from spontaneously aborted foetuses (crown rump lengths 22-322 mm) were examined. All slides formed part of an existing collection of histologically sectioned embryological material, obtained under Spanish law and housed in the Universidad Complutense, Madrid. From the earliest stages, it was evident that the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia had a mutual attachment to the calcaneal perichondrium. The first components of the enthesis organ to appear (in the 45-mm foetus) were the retrocalcaneal bursa and the crural fascia. The former developed by cavitation within the mesenchyme that later gave rise to Kager's fat pad. The tip of the putative fat pad protruded into the developing bursa in the 110-mm foetus and fully differentiated adipocytes were apparent in the 17-mm foetus. All three fibrocartilages were first recognisable in the 332-mm foetus--at which time adipogenesis had commenced in the heel fat pad. The sequence in which the various elements became apparent suggests that bursal formation and the appearance of the crural fascia may be necessary to facilitate the foot movements that subsequently lead to fibrocartilage differentiation. The later commencement of adipogenesis in the heel than in Kager's pad probably reflects the non-weight environment in utero. The direct continuity between plantar fascia and Achilles tendon that is characteristic of the adult reflects the initial attachment of both structures to the calcaneal perichondrium rather than to the skeletal anlagen itself.

  10. Self-organized criticality in developing neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Christian; Okujeni, Samora; Egert, Ulrich; Wörgötter, Florentin; Butz, Markus

    2010-12-02

    Recently evidence has accumulated that many neural networks exhibit self-organized criticality. In this state, activity is similar across temporal scales and this is beneficial with respect to information flow. If subcritical, activity can die out, if supercritical epileptiform patterns may occur. Little is known about how developing networks will reach and stabilize criticality. Here we monitor the development between 13 and 95 days in vitro (DIV) of cortical cell cultures (n = 20) and find four different phases, related to their morphological maturation: An initial low-activity state (≈19 DIV) is followed by a supercritical (≈20 DIV) and then a subcritical one (≈36 DIV) until the network finally reaches stable criticality (≈58 DIV). Using network modeling and mathematical analysis we describe the dynamics of the emergent connectivity in such developing systems. Based on physiological observations, the synaptic development in the model is determined by the drive of the neurons to adjust their connectivity for reaching on average firing rate homeostasis. We predict a specific time course for the maturation of inhibition, with strong onset and delayed pruning, and that total synaptic connectivity should be strongly linked to the relative levels of excitation and inhibition. These results demonstrate that the interplay between activity and connectivity guides developing networks into criticality suggesting that this may be a generic and stable state of many networks in vivo and in vitro.

  11. The Training Process of the Organization Development and Training Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Melissa S.

    2004-01-01

    The Organization Development and Training Office provides training and development opportunities to employees at NASA Glenn Research Center, as a division of the Office of Human Resources and Workforce Planning. Center-wide required trainings, new employee trainings, workshops and career development programs are organized by the OD&TO staff. They also arrange all academic, non-academic, headquarters, fellowship and learning center sponsored courses. They also service organizations wishing to work more effectively by facilitating teambuilding exercises. Equal Opportunity programs and upward mobility programs such as the STEP and GO programs for administrative staff. In working with my mentor I am very involved with Cuyahoga Community College classes, mandatory supervisory training and administrative staff workshops. My largest tasks are in the secretarial training category. The Supporting Organizations And Relationships workshop for administrative personnel, commonly known as SOAR, began last year and continued this summer with follow-up workshops. Months before a workshop or class is brought to Glenn, a need has to be realized. In this case, administrative staff did not feel they had an opportunity to receive relevant training and develop skills through teambuilding, networking and communication. A Statement of work is then created as several companies are contacted about providing the training. After the company best suited to meet the target group s needs is selected, the course is announced with an outline of all pertinent information. A reservation for a facility is made and applications or nominations, depending on the announcement s guidelines, are received from interested employees. Confirmations are sent to participants and final preparations are made but there are still several concluding steps. A training office staff member also assists the facilitator with setting up the facility and introducing the class. After the class, participants evaluations are

  12. Role of bacteria in the oviposition behaviour and larval development of stable flies.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Broce, A; Zurek, L

    2006-03-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are the most important pests of cattle in the United States. However, adequate management strategies for stable flies, especially for pastured cattle, are lacking. Microbial/symbiont-based approaches offer novel venues for management of insect pests and/or vector-borne human and animal pathogens. Unfortunately, the fundamental knowledge of stable fly-microbial associations and their effect on stable fly biology is lacking. In this study, stable flies laid greater numbers of eggs on a substrate with an active microbial community (> 95% of total eggs oviposited) than on a sterilized substrate. In addition, stable fly larvae could not develop in a sterilized natural or artificial substrate/medium. Bacteria were isolated and identified from a natural stable fly oviposition/developmental habitat and their individual effect on stable fly oviposition response and larval development was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Of nine bacterial strains evaluated in the oviposition bioassays, Citrobacter freundii stimulated oviposition to the greatest extent. C. freundii also sustained stable fly development, but to a lesser degree than Serratia fanticola. Serratia marcescens and Aeromonas spp. neither stimulated oviposition nor supported stable fly development. These results demonstrate a stable fly bacterial symbiosis; stable fly larval development depends on a live microbial community in the natural habitat, and stable fly females are capable of selecting an oviposition site based on the microbially derived stimuli that indicate the suitability of the substrate for larval development. This study shows a promising starting point for exploiting stable fly-bacterial associations for development of novel approaches for stable fly management.

  13. Human chondrocyte migration behaviour to guide the development of engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grace D; Tan, Andrea R; Cui, Victoria; Bulinski, J Chloe; Cook, James L; Attur, Mukundan; Abramson, Steven B; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2017-03-01

    Tissue-engineering techniques have been successful in developing cartilage-like tissues in vitro using cells from animal sources. The successful translation of these strategies to the clinic will likely require cell expansion to achieve sufficient cell numbers. Using a two-dimensional (2D) cell migration assay to first identify the passage at which chondrocytes exhibited their greatest chondrogenic potential, the objective of this study was to determine a more optimal culture medium for developing three-dimensional (3D) cartilage-like tissues using human cells. We evaluated combinations of commonly used growth factors that have been shown to promote chondrogenic growth and development. Human articular chondrocytes (AC) from osteoarthritic (OA) joints were cultured in 3D environments, either in pellets or encapsulated in agarose. The effect of growth factor supplementation was dependent on the environment, such that matrix deposition differed between the two culture systems. ACs in pellet culture were more responsive to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP2) alone or combinations containing BMP2 (i.e. BMP2 with PDGF or FGF). However, engineered cartilage development within agarose was better for constructs cultured with TGFβ3. These results with agarose and pellet culture studies set the stage for the development of conditions appropriate for culturing 3D functional engineered cartilage for eventual use in human therapies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Supporting the transition from weight loss to maintenance: development and optimisation of a face-to-face behavioural intervention component.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Cleland, Claire L; Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley; Batterham, Alan; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Gellert, Paul; Hill, Moira; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Scott, Dawn; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin; Araújo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    After weight loss, most individuals regain lost weight. Interventions to support the transition from successful loss to weight loss maintenance (WLM), regardless of the method of prior weight loss, are needed. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a face-to-face behavioural intervention session to support overweight and obese individuals who have recently lost a clinically significant amount of weight in the transition to WLM; (2) to assess the single-session intervention for acceptability and feasibility prior to its use in a larger, 12-month, multi-component trial; and (3) to optimise the intervention session for future use based on participant feedback. Participants with a Body Mass Index of ≥25 kg/m(2) prior to a ≥5% weight loss in the previous 12 months were recruited via the local government authority and community-based advertisements. Each attended the one-hour session with a trained facilitator, which focused on setting maintenance-relevant weight, eating, and physical activity goals. Semi-structured interviews were carried out immediately post-session to obtain feedback on the acceptability of this intervention component. Data were used to generate recommendations for changes to the session, which were discussed by the team, and used to optimise the session. Seventeen participants (13 female; median WL = 13%) were recruited. All participants evaluated the intervention session positively; 11 participants suggested improvements including reducing information provision in favour of greater focus on identifying and coping with barriers, and the inclusion of practical examples. The systematic refinement and optimisation process resulted in an acceptable and feasible face-to-face behavioural intervention session (described here), which will be tested as part of a multi-component intervention. We anticipate the session could be used to supplement existing support including online services, and has the potential to benefit people who have lost a

  15. Supporting the transition from weight loss to maintenance: development and optimisation of a face-to-face behavioural intervention component

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Kirby; Cleland, Claire L.; Evans, Elizabeth H.; Adamson, Ashley; Batterham, Alan; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Gellert, Paul; Hill, Moira; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Scott, Dawn; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin; Araújo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT After weight loss, most individuals regain lost weight. Interventions to support the transition from successful loss to weight loss maintenance (WLM), regardless of the method of prior weight loss, are needed. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a face-to-face behavioural intervention session to support overweight and obese individuals who have recently lost a clinically significant amount of weight in the transition to WLM; (2) to assess the single-session intervention for acceptability and feasibility prior to its use in a larger, 12-month, multi-component trial; and (3) to optimise the intervention session for future use based on participant feedback. Participants with a Body Mass Index of ≥25 kg/m2 prior to a ≥5% weight loss in the previous 12 months were recruited via the local government authority and community-based advertisements. Each attended the one-hour session with a trained facilitator, which focused on setting maintenance-relevant weight, eating, and physical activity goals. Semi-structured interviews were carried out immediately post-session to obtain feedback on the acceptability of this intervention component. Data were used to generate recommendations for changes to the session, which were discussed by the team, and used to optimise the session. Seventeen participants (13 female; median WL = 13%) were recruited. All participants evaluated the intervention session positively; 11 participants suggested improvements including reducing information provision in favour of greater focus on identifying and coping with barriers, and the inclusion of practical examples. The systematic refinement and optimisation process resulted in an acceptable and feasible face-to-face behavioural intervention session (described here), which will be tested as part of a multi-component intervention. We anticipate the session could be used to supplement existing support including online services, and has the potential to benefit people who have

  16. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of an organic single crystal: Quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohana, J.; Ahila, G.; Bharathi, M. Divya; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Organic single crystals of quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (QN) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol and water as a mixed solvent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. The functional groups present in the crystallized material confirmed its molecular structure. The optical transparency range and the lower cutoff wavelength were identified from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants were determined by UV-visible transmission spectrum at normal incidence, measured over the 200-700 nm spectral range. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occur within the molecule. Electronic excitation properties were discussed within the framework of two level model on the basis of an orbital analysis. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) of QN was measured by Z-scan technique and reported here. Thermal stability of QN was determined using TGA/DSC curves. Vicker's microhardness studies were carried out on the (1 1 ̅0) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The microhardness measurements showed a Vickers hardness value as 18.4 kg/mm2 which is comparable to well-known organic crystal, urea.

  17. Early Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, Michael L.; Gao, Wenyuan; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Parker, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Most animals have organs that sense gravity. These organs use dense stones (called otoliths or statoconia), which rest on the sensitive hairs of specialized gravity- and motion-sensing cells. The weight of the stones bends the hairs in the direction of gravitational pull. The cells in turn send a coded representation of the gravity or motion stimulus to the central nervous system. Previous experiments, in which the eggs or larvae of a marine mollusk (Aplysia californica, the sea hare) were raised on a centrifuge, demonstrated that the size of the stones (or test mass) was reduced in a graded manner as the gravity field was increased. This suggests that some control mechanism was acting to normalize the weight of the stones. The experiments described here were designed to test the hypothesis that, during their initial development, the mass of the stones is regulated to achieve a desired weight. If this is the case, we would expect a larger-than-normal otolith would develop in animals reared in the weightlessness of space. To test this, freshwater snails and swordtail fish were studied after spaceflight. The snails mated in space, and the stones (statoconia) in their statocysts developed in microgravity. Pre-mated adult female swordtail fish were flown on the Space Shuttle, and the developing larvae were collected after landing. Juvenile fish, where the larval development had taken place on the ground, were also flown. In snails that developed in space, the total volume of statoconia forming the test mass was 50% greater than in size-matched snails reared in functionally identical equipment on the ground. In the swordtail fish, the size of otoliths was compared between ground- and flight-reared larvae of the same size. For later-stage larvae, the growth of the otolith was significantly greater in the flight-reared fish. However, juvenile fish showed no significant difference in otolith size between flight- and ground-reared fish. Thus, it appears that fish and snails

  18. Risk Diagnosis for the Development of Social Behaviour Disorders in Pre-school Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butollo, W.

    This paper is a summary of a study concerned with identification of risk variables which affect the development of social and emotional behavior in young children. Families with pre-schoolers responded to a questionnaire designed to screen children who might be considered high risk. The screening results were validated with behavior observations…

  19. Development of Social Relationships, Interactions and Behaviours in Early Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kington, Alison; Gates, Peter; Sammons, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Recent research and policy regarding the advantages of early years provision has focused largely on the enhancement and development of cognitive skills for preschoolers. This study, based in the United Kingdom, focuses on a range of cognitive and social skills and identifies beneficial characteristics of a government pilot scheme for 2-year-olds…

  20. A Unified Model of Knowledge Sharing Behaviours: Theoretical Development and Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chennamaneni, Anitha; Teng, James T. C.; Raja, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Research and practice on knowledge management (KM) have shown that information technology alone cannot guarantee that employees will volunteer and share knowledge. While previous studies have linked motivational factors to knowledge sharing (KS), we took a further step to thoroughly examine this theoretically and empirically. We developed a…

  1. Doing Right in Business: Can Action Learning Develop Moral Sensitivity and Promote Ethical Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Cheryl; Christy, Gill

    2013-01-01

    The question addressed in this paper is whether action learning as a management development technique can be more effective in promoting ethical decision-making than more traditional approaches. Recent examples of moral failures which have emerged in both corporate and public sector organisations in the UK during recent years have prompted a…

  2. The Study of Behavioural Development in Brazil: Contemporary Research, Teaching and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti Ferreira, Maria Clotilde

    1985-01-01

    Discusses present trends in research, teaching, and practice in the field of behavioral development. Describes behaviorism and cognitivism as two basic theoretical influences on research in Brazil. An action-oriented approach prevails, including work with underprivileged and mentally retarded children. However, the number of published scientific…

  3. Learning To Be Violent: The Role of the School in Developing Adolescent Gendered Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    Examines role of schools and peer group culture in constructing male and female identity among adolescents in the context of gender violence. Discusses a United Kingdom Department for International Development funded study of abuse of girls in Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Ghana. Reveals contemplative sexual socialization processes in which male violence…

  4. Finite element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Norton, Joanna L.; Bright, Jen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal joint morphogenesis is linked to clinical conditions such as Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) and to osteoarthritis (OA). Muscle activity is known to be important during the developmental process of joint morphogenesis. However, less is known about how this mechanical stimulus affects the behaviour of joint cells to generate altered morphology. Using zebrafish, in which we can image all joint musculoskeletal tissues at high resolution, we show that removal of muscle activity through anaesthetisation or genetic manipulation causes a change to the shape of the joint between the Meckel's cartilage and Palatoquadrate (the jaw joint), such that the joint develops asymmetrically leading to an overlap of the cartilage elements on the medial side which inhibits normal joint function. We identify the time during which muscle activity is critical to produce a normal joint. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), to model the strains exerted by muscle on the skeletal elements, we identify that minimum principal strains are located at the medial region of the joint and interzone during mouth opening. Then, by studying the cells immediately proximal to the joint, we demonstrate that biomechanical strain regulates cell orientation within the developing joint, such that when muscle-induced strain is removed, cells on the medial side of the joint notably change their orientation. Together, these data show that biomechanical forces are required to establish symmetry in the joint during development. PMID:26253758

  5. Developing Behavioural Training Services to Meet Defined Standards within an Australian Statewide Disability Service System and the Associated Client Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crates, Nicola; Spicer, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: LaVigna, Christian, and Willis (2005) reported on a project where Institute for Applied Behaviour Analysis (IABA) staff trained a professional team in New Zealand (NZ) to provide behavioural services that met defined criteria. The NZ team was then trained to train other practitioners to meet the same professional standards. However, no…

  6. Evidence-Based Training in Cognitive-Behavioural Coaching: Can Personal Development Bring Less Distress and Better Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Oana A.; Cobeanu, Oana

    2016-01-01

    Coaching has become during the past years an emergent guidance profession. Cognitive-behavioural coaching (CBC) emphasises the importance of enhancing the emotion-regulation abilities of clients and replacing their non-productive behaviours. Qualified professionals are needed in order to effectively facilitate the desired changes in their clients.…

  7. The Effects of a Short-Term Professional Development Program on Physical Education Teachers' Behaviour and Students' Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Vasiliadou, Olga; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthymis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short-term training programme ?n in-service physical education teachers' behaviour and students' engagement in learning. Teachers (n = 32) were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. Each teacher's behaviour was observed in six lessons; two for each measurement (pre, post and retention) and…

  8. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES... partnership established by the Food and Agriculture Organization, World Organization for Animal Health,...

  9. doublesex functions early and late in gustatory sense organ development.

    PubMed

    Mellert, David J; Robinett, Carmen C; Baker, Bruce S

    2012-01-01

    Somatic sexual dimorphisms outside of the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster are largely controlled by the male- and female-specific Doublesex transcription factors (DSX(M) and DSX(F), respectively). The DSX proteins must act at the right times and places in development to regulate the diverse array of genes that sculpt male and female characteristics across a variety of tissues. To explore how cellular and developmental contexts integrate with doublesex (dsx) gene function, we focused on the sexually dimorphic number of gustatory sense organs (GSOs) in the foreleg. We show that DSX(M) and DSX(F) promote and repress GSO formation, respectively, and that their relative contribution to this dimorphism varies along the proximodistal axis of the foreleg. Our results suggest that the DSX proteins impact specification of the gustatory sensory organ precursors (SOPs). DSX(F) then acts later in the foreleg to regulate gustatory receptor neuron axon guidance. These results suggest that the foreleg provides a unique opportunity for examining the context-dependent functions of DSX.

  10. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated.

  11. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  12. A review of health behaviour theories: how useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Swart, Tanya; Volmink, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Background Suboptimal treatment adherence remains a barrier to the control of many infectious diseases, including tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, which contribute significantly to the global disease burden. However, few of the many interventions developed to address this issue explicitly draw on theories of health behaviour. Such theories could contribute to the design of more effective interventions to promote treatment adherence and to improving assessments of the transferability of these interventions across different health issues and settings. Methods This paper reviews behaviour change theories applicable to long-term treatment adherence; assesses the evidence for their effectiveness in predicting behaviour change; and examines the implications of these findings for developing strategies to improve TB and HIV/AIDS medication adherence. We searched a number of electronic databases for theories of behaviour change. Eleven theories were examined. Results Little empirical evidence was located on the effectiveness of these theories in promoting adherence. However, several models have the potential to both improve understanding of adherence behaviours and contribute to the design of more effective interventions to promote adherence to TB and HIV/AIDS medication. Conclusion Further research and analysis is needed urgently to determine which models might best improve adherence to long-term treatment regimens. PMID:17561997

  13. Geochemical behaviour of palladium in soils and Pd/PdO model substances in the presence of the organic complexing agents L-methionine and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Vang, My; Albers, Peter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Schindl, Roland; Leopold, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessments of platinum group metal (PGE) emissions, notably those of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), have been mostly based on data regarding the metallic forms used in vehicular exhaust converters, known to be virtually biologically inert and immobile. To adequately assess the potential impacts of PGE, however, data on the chemical behaviour of these metals under ambient conditions post-emission is needed. Complexing agents with a high affinity for metals in the environment are hypothesized to contribute to an increased bioaccessibility of PGE. The purpose of this study is to examine the modulating effects of the organic complexing agents, L-methionine and citric acid, on the geochemical behavior of Pd in soils and model substances (Pd black and PdO). Batch experimental tests were conducted with soils and model substances to examine the impacts of the concentration of complexing agents, pH and length of extraction period on Pd solubility and its chemical transformation. Particle surface chemistry was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on samples treated with solutions under various conditions, including low and high O2 levels. Pd was observed to be more soluble in the presence of organic complexing agents, compared to Pt and Rh. Pd in soils was more readily solubilized with organic complexing agents compared to the model substances. After 7 days of extraction, L-methionine (0.1 M) treated soil and Pd black samples, for instance, had mean soluble Pd fractions of 12.4 ± 5.9% and 0.554 ± 0.024%, respectively. Surface chemistry analyses (XPS) confirmed the oxidation of metallic Pd surfaces when treated with organic complexing agents. The type of organic complexing agent used for experimental purposes was observed to be the most important factor influencing solubility, followed by solution pH and time of extraction. The results demonstrate that metallic Pd can be transformed into more bioaccessible species in the presence of

  14. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different stages of development. In order of appearance, these behaviours are: spontaneous motor activity (SMA), reflexes, and coordinated behaviours, such as locomotion. The goal of our model is to address in silico four hypotheses that are currently hard to verify in vivo: First, the hypothesis that spinal reflex circuits can be self-organized from the sensor and motor activity induced by SMA. Second, the hypothesis that supraspinal systems can modulate reflex circuits to achieve coordinated behaviour. Third, the hypothesis that, since SMA is observed in an organism throughout its entire lifetime, it provides a mechanism suitable to maintain the reflex circuits aligned with the musculoskeletal system, and thus adapt to changes in body morphology. And fourth, the hypothesis that by changing the modulation of the reflex circuits over time, one can switch between different coordinated behaviours. Our model is tested in a simulated musculoskeletal leg actuated by six muscles arranged in a number of different ways. Hopping is used as a case study of coordinated behaviour. Our results show that reflex circuits can be self-organized from SMA, and that, once these circuits are in place, they can be modulated to achieve coordinated behaviour. In addition, our results show that our model can naturally adapt to different morphological changes and perform behavioural transitions. PMID:25057775

  15. Organized for sex – steroid hormones and the developing hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Kathryn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid hormones of gonadal origin act on the neonatal brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to produce sex differences that underlie copulatory behavior. Neuroanatomical sex differences include regional volume, cell number, connectivity, morphology, physiology, neurotransmitter phenotype and molecular signaling, all of which are determined by the action of steroid hormones, particularly by estradiol in males, and are established by diverse downstream effects. Sex differences in distinct hypothalamic regions can be organized by the same steroid hormone, but the direction of a sex difference is often specific to one region or cell type, illustrating the wide range of effects that steroid hormones have on the developing brain. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the downstream mechanisms through which gonadal hormones sexually differentiate the brain, but gaps remain in establishing the precise relationship between changes in neuronal morphology and behavior. A complete understanding of sexual differentiation will require integrating the diverse mechanisms across multiple brain regions into a functional network that regulates behavioral output. PMID:21143664

  16. Current developments in optical data storage with organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Heinz; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Bressau, Volker

    2006-03-20

    The main motivation for the development of digital data storage has been the improvement in play-back quality and the increase in storage capacity. In 1982 Philips and Sony introduced the first technically and economically successful system based on this-the compact disc (CD) and a compatible player. A very broad diversity of optical data recording formats are available today, and a difference is drawn between prerecorded, recordable, and rewritable media. This Review gives an overview of the systems used, the main features of production, and then concentrates on the properties of the organic dyes that are used in recordable systems. Dyestuffs chemistry has gained the reputation of having become a mature field of activity. Is this prejudice or a justified swan song for dyestuffs chemistry? When applications in optical data storage are considered, it is evident that even today progresses such as CD-R and DVD/R would not be feasible without functional dyes.

  17. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change

    PubMed Central

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change. PMID:27535821

  18. Development of the juxta-oral organ in rat embryo.

    PubMed

    Velasco, J R Mérida; De La Cuadra Blanco, C; Velasco, J A Mérida

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify the development and morphology of the juxta-oral organ (JOO) in rat embryos from Day (E)14 to 19. Furthermore, in the region of the JOO, an analysis was made of the expression of the monoclonal antibody HNK-1, which recognizes cranial neural-crest cells. In this study, we report that JOO develops from an epithelial condensation at the end of the transverse groove of the primitive mouth at E14. During E15, it invaginates and is disconnected from the oral epithelium. At E16, the JOO forms an solid epithelial cord with three parts (anterior, middle, and posterior) and is related to the masseter, temporal, medial pterygoid, and tensor veli palatini muscles. During E17-19, no significant changes were detected in their position. Both the mesenchyme caudal to the anlage of the JOO at E14, as well as the mesenchyme that surrounds the bud of the JOO at E15, expressed positivity for HNK-1. Our results suggest that the mesenchyme surrounding the JOO at E15 could emit some inductive signal for the JOO to reach its position at E16. This work shows for the first time that the cranial neural-crest-derived mesenchyme participates in the development of the JOO.

  19. Development of an analytical model for organic-fluid fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Watkinson, A.P.

    1994-10-01

    The research goal of this project is to determine ways to effectively mitigate fouling in organic fluids: hydrocarbons and derived fluids. The fouling research focuses on the development of methodology for determining threshold conditions for fouling. Initially, fluid containing chemicals known to produce foulant is analyzed; subsequently, fouling of industrial fluids is investigated. The fouling model developed for determining the effects of physical parameters is the subject of this report. The fouling model is developed on the premise that the chemical reaction for generation of precursor can take place in the bulk fluid, in the thermal-boundary layer, or at the fluid/wall interface, depending upon the interactive effects of fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and the controlling chemical reaction. In the analysis, the experimental data are examined for fouling deposition of polyperoxide produced by autoxidation of indene in kerosene. The effects of fluid and wall temperatures for two flow geometries are analyzed. The results show that the relative effects of physical parameters on the fouling rate differ for the three fouling mechanisms. Therefore, to apply the closed-flow-loop data to industrial conditions, the controlling mechanism must be identified.

  20. Female leg 4 development in Laophontidae (Harpacticoida): a juvenile adaptation to precopulatory behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiers, F.

    1998-06-01

    Development of postmaxillipedal appendages in harpacticoid copepods is in general identical in both sexes. Exceptions are minor and result merely in secondary sexually dimorphic structures of the endopodites. From the third copepodid stage on, females of several laophontid species develop an entirely different leg 4 exopodite than in males. Whereas the male leg has a normal morphology, the female leg appears as a large flattened and sturdily sclerified structure. This structure remains present until copepodid V but is drastically reshaped during the terminal moult resulting in a normally ornamented and segmented adult leg. Thus far, the family Laophontidae is the only harpacticoid taxon of which it is known that adult males clasp the 4th or 5th leg of subadult females during mate guarding. The curious shape of leg 4 in subadult females is considered as a juvenile adaptation of the original developmental pattern to facilitate clasping by the adult males. Within the family this juvenile adaptation evolved from a simple anchorage for the male antennulae to a highly advanced morphological complex indicating that it functions as a specific mate recognition system (SMRS).

  1. The human vomeronasal organ. Part II: prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, TIMOTHY D.; BHATNAGAR, KUNWAR P.

    2000-01-01

    During the 20th century, the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been controversial regarding its structure, function, and even identity. Despite reports that provide evidence for its presence throughout prenatal and postnatal ontogeny, some studies and numerous textbooks declare its absence in late fetal and postnatal humans. To that end, the present study was designed to establish firmly whether the human VNO is homologous with that of other mammals and whether it degenerates (partially or completely) or persists throughout prenatal development. Fifty human embryos and fetuses (33 d to 32 wk fertilisation age) and 2 neonates were examined by light microscopy. Four embryonic primates (mouse lemurs) were examined for a comparison of VNO embryogenesis. The presence or absence and structural characteristics of the VNO and supporting tissues are described. The first appearance of the VNO was in the form of bilateral epithelial thickenings of the nasal septum, the vomeronasal primordium. The primordia invaginated between 37 and 43 d of age and formed the tubular VNO. The tubular VNO was located dorsally at a variable distance from, but was always spatially separated from the paraseptal cartilages. The mouse lemurs examined in this study and other reports from the literature indicate that the human VNO resembles that of primates having functional VNOs until just after a tubular VNO is formed. Examination of the VNO and adjacent tissues suggested that the VNO may lose receptor cells and corresponding vomeronasal nerves and become a ciliated, pseudostratified epithelium between ∼ 12 and 14 wk of age. Our findings indicate the prenatal human VNO goes through 3 successive stages: early morphogenesis, transformation (of the epithelium), and growth. These observations indicated that (1) all embryonic humans develop a vomeronasal organ which is homologous with the VNOs of other mammals, but which has become displaced and highly variable in relative location during

  2. Cognitive Development and Learning in the Pediatric Organ Transplant Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Steven A.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews studies evaluating neurocognitive changes following organ transplantation in pediatric end-stage renal and liver disease. Findings suggest possible neurocognitive benefits associated with organ transplantation. Recommendations are made for methodological improvements in future research. (DB)

  3. Advance Organizers: Their Construction and Use in Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, John

    This chapter presents a review of the latest research on advance organizers, and provides instructions for constructing and using them. The theoretical background of the advance organizers research is presented, beginning with the work of Ausubel, and this work is related to the writings of Piaget. An outline of advance organizer research is then…

  4. Development of Methodology to Assess the Failure Behaviour of Bamboo Single Fibre by Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. Saiful; Gulshan, Fahmida; Ahsan, Qumrul; Wevers, Martine; Pfeiffer, Helge; van Vuure, Aart-Willem; Osorio, Lina; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2017-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used as a tool for detecting, evaluating and for better understanding of the damage mechanism and failure behavior in composites during mechanical loading. Methodology was developed for tensile test of natural fibres (bamboo single fibre). A series of experiments were performed and load drops (one or two) were observed in the load versus time graphs. From the observed AE parameters such as amplitude, energy, duration etc. significant information corresponding to the load drops were found. These AE signals from the load drop occurred from such failure as debonding between two elementary fibre or from join of elementary fibre at edge. The various sources of load at first load drop was not consistent for the different samples (for a particular sample the value is 8 N, stress: 517.51 MPa). Final breaking of fibre corresponded to saturated level AE amplitude of preamplifier (99.9 dB) for all samples. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the exact AE energy value for final breaking. Same methodology was used for tensile test of three single fibres, which gave clear indication of load drop before the final breaking of first and second fibre.

  5. Development of Methodology to Assess the Failure Behaviour of Bamboo Single Fibre by Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md. Saiful; Gulshan, Fahmida; Ahsan, Qumrul; Wevers, Martine; Pfeiffer, Helge; van Vuure, Aart-Willem; Osorio, Lina; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used as a tool for detecting, evaluating and for better understanding of the damage mechanism and failure behavior in composites during mechanical loading. Methodology was developed for tensile test of natural fibres (bamboo single fibre). A series of experiments were performed and load drops (one or two) were observed in the load versus time graphs. From the observed AE parameters such as amplitude, energy, duration etc. significant information corresponding to the load drops were found. These AE signals from the load drop occurred from such failure as debonding between two elementary fibre or from join of elementary fibre at edge. The various sources of load at first load drop was not consistent for the different samples (for a particular sample the value is 8 N, stress: 517.51 MPa). Final breaking of fibre corresponded to saturated level AE amplitude of preamplifier (99.9 dB) for all samples. Therefore, it was not possible to determine the exact AE energy value for final breaking. Same methodology was used for tensile test of three single fibres, which gave clear indication of load drop before the final breaking of first and second fibre.

  6. Social learning and the development of individual and group behaviour in mammal societies.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2011-04-12

    As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive use of social information in learning to avoid predation and obtain food. Where individual learning is costly or opportunities are lacking, as in the acquisition of prey-handling skills, adults play an active role in promoting learning through teaching. Social learning can also cause information to spread through groups, but our data suggest that this does not necessarily result in homogeneous, group-wide traditions. Moreover, traditions are commonly eroded by individual learning. We suggest that traditions will only persist where there are high costs of deviating from the group norm or where skill development requires extensive time and effort. Persistent traditions could, theoretically, modify selection pressures and influence genetic evolution. Further empirical studies of social learning in natural populations are now urgently needed to substantiate theoretical claims.

  7. Development and application of a mark-recapture model incorporating predicted sex and transitory behaviour

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become ' untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.

  8. Development and application of a mark-recapture model incorporating predicted sex and transitory behaviour

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Hines, J.E.; Domenech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We developed an extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber models to handle a complex mark-recapture problem in which (a) the sex of birds cannot be determined prior to first moult, but can be predicted on the basis of body measurements, and (b) a significant portion of captured birds appear to be transients (i.e. are captured once but leave the area or otherwise become 'untrappable'). We applied this methodology to a data set of 4184 serins (Serinus serinus) trapped in northeastern Spain during 1985-96, in order to investigate age-, sex-, and time-specific variation in survival rates. Using this approach, we were able to successfully incorporate the majority of ringings of serins. Had we eliminated birds not previously captured (as has been advocated to avoid the problem of transience) we would have reduced our sample sizes by >2000 releases. In addition, we were able to include 1610 releases of birds of unknown (but predicted) sex; these data contributed to the precision of our estimates and the power of statistical tests. We discuss problems with data structure, encoding of the algorithms to compute parameter estimates, model selection, identifiability of parameters, and goodness-of-fit, and make recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies facing similar problems.

  9. Some conceptual problems with the classical theory of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    Behaviour is usually assumed to depend on the reach of a critical intensity--termed reactivity threshold--by its motivation. This view represents a simple, predictive theoretical framework in ethology and animal psychology. However, it is here argued that only the influence of an isolated motivation on behaviour can be explained that way; that such a view fails to account for behaviour when several motivations are jointly activated. Upon analysis, the classical theory of behaviour (CTB) proves to be under-specified and thus leads to three conceptual problems that make it logically inconsistent for the study of multiple motivations. A revision of the CTB, called anticipatory dynamics model (ADM), is then developed in order to bring a theoretical solution to these conceptual problems. The ADM hypothesizes that an organism's motivational interactions are due to the limitation of the organism's attentional resources.

  10. Understanding the Effects of One's Actions upon Hidden Objects and the Development of Search Behaviour in 7-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Richard J.; Russell, James

    2015-01-01

    Infants' understanding of how their actions affect the visibility of hidden objects may be a crucial aspect of the development of search behaviour. To investigate this possibility, 7-month-old infants took part in a two-day training study. At the start of the first session, and at the end of the second, all infants performed a search task with a…

  11. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  12. Foundations of Character: Methodological Aspects of a Study of Character Development in Three- to Six-Year-Old Children with a Focus on Sharing Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Powell, Sacha; Lin, Hsing-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on methodological issues arising in a study of character development, using illustrations of "sharing behaviours." Based primarily in six early years settings in southeast England the research records naturalistic observations of peer interactions for 55 children aged three to six years. Applying grounded theory to…

  13. Posting Behaviour Patterns in an Online Smoking Cessation Social Network: Implications for Intervention Design and Development

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Online Cessation Support Networks (OCSNs) are associated with increased quit success rates, but few studies have examined their use over time. We identified usage patterns in New Zealand's largest OCSN over two years and explored implications for OCSN intervention design and evaluation. Methods We analysed metadata relating to 133,096 OCSN interactions during 2011 and 2012. Metrics covered aggregate network activity, user posting activity and longevity, and between-user commenting. Binary logistic regression models were estimated to investigate the feasibility of predicting low user engagement using early interaction data. Results Repeating periodic peaks and troughs in aggregate activity related not only to seasonality (e.g., New Year), but also to day of the week. Out of 2,062 unique users, 69 Highly Engaged Users (180+ interactions each) contributed 69% of all OCSN interactions in 2012 compared to 1.3% contributed by 864 Minimally Engaged Users (< = 2 items each). The proportion of Highly Engaged Users increased with network growth between 2011 and 2012 (with marginal significance), but the proportion of Minimally Engaged Users did not decline substantively. First week interaction data enabled identification of Minimally Engaged Users with high specificity and sensitivity (AUROC  = 0.94). Implications Results suggest future research should develop and test interventions that promote activity, and hence cessation support, amongst specific user groups or at key time points. For example, early usage information could help identify Minimally Engaged Users for tests of targeted messaging designed to improve their integration into, or re-engagement with, the OCSN. Furthermore, although we observed strong growth over time on varied metrics including posts and comments, this change did not coincide with large gains in first-time user persistence. Researchers assessing intervention effects should therefore examine multiple measures when evaluating

  14. Developments in solar photocatalysis for destruction of organics in water

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E. ); Carwile, C. ); Magrini, K.A.; Mehos, M. )

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a process that has the potential to destroy a wide range of organic contaminants in water using solar energy and a titanium dioxide photocatalyst, TiO{sub 2}. Contaminated water flows through a reactor on which sunlight is focused to activate the catalyst forming hydroxyl radicals and super oxide ions. These reactive species readily attack and decompose organics in solution producing only water, CO{sub 2} and halo acids. Tests have been conducted at three levels: at a benchtop scale (liter), with a small outdoor trough (100 liters) and with a large outdoor parabolic trough (2000 liters). The experimental variables examined include ultraviolet light intensity, catalyst loading, the effect of adding hydrogen peroxide, and the performance of catalyst supports. The intensity of ultraviolet irradiation significantly affected decomposition rates of a chlorinated solvent, trichloroethylene (TCE) yielding faster reaction rates at higher intensities. The amount of catalyst in suspension affected the destruction rate of trichloroethylene; the rate increased as the amount of catalyst was increased from 0.01 to 0.1 wt%. Hydrogen peroxide used in conjunction with TiO{sub 2} significantly enhanced the photocatalytic decomposition rate of a model compound, salicylic acid, by as much as 8 times over the rate with TiO{sub 2} alone. Supported TiO{sub 2} on silica glass beads performed less effectively compared to suspended TiO{sub 2} for TCE decomposition with simulated sunlight as did TiO{sub 2} on alumina ceramic frits for decomposing salicylic acid in natural sunlight. TiO{sub 2} on fiberglass mesh performed about as well as the ceramic frits. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. How does the modular organization of entorhinal grid cells develop?

    PubMed Central

    Pilly, Praveen K.; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal system plays a crucial role in spatial cognition and navigation. Since the discovery of grid cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), several types of models have been proposed to explain their development and operation; namely, continuous attractor network models, oscillatory interference models, and self-organizing map (SOM) models. Recent experiments revealing the in vivo intracellular signatures of grid cells (Domnisoru et al., 2013; Schmidt-Heiber and Hausser, 2013), the primarily inhibitory recurrent connectivity of grid cells (Couey et al., 2013; Pastoll et al., 2013), and the topographic organization of grid cells within anatomically overlapping modules of multiple spatial scales along the dorsoventral axis of MEC (Stensola et al., 2012) provide strong constraints and challenges to existing grid cell models. This article provides a computational explanation for how MEC cells can emerge through learning with grid cell properties in modular structures. Within this SOM model, grid cells with different rates of temporal integration learn modular properties with different spatial scales. Model grid cells learn in response to inputs from multiple scales of directionally-selective stripe cells (Krupic et al., 2012; Mhatre et al., 2012) that perform path integration of the linear velocities that are experienced during navigation. Slower rates of grid cell temporal integration support learned associations with stripe cells of larger scales. The explanatory and predictive capabilities of the three types of grid cell models are comparatively analyzed in light of recent data to illustrate how the SOM model overcomes problems that other types of models have not yet handled. PMID:24917799

  16. How does the modular organization of entorhinal grid cells develop?

    PubMed

    Pilly, Praveen K; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The entorhinal-hippocampal system plays a crucial role in spatial cognition and navigation. Since the discovery of grid cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), several types of models have been proposed to explain their development and operation; namely, continuous attractor network models, oscillatory interference models, and self-organizing map (SOM) models. Recent experiments revealing the in vivo intracellular signatures of grid cells (Domnisoru et al., 2013; Schmidt-Heiber and Hausser, 2013), the primarily inhibitory recurrent connectivity of grid cells (Couey et al., 2013; Pastoll et al., 2013), and the topographic organization of grid cells within anatomically overlapping modules of multiple spatial scales along the dorsoventral axis of MEC (Stensola et al., 2012) provide strong constraints and challenges to existing grid cell models. This article provides a computational explanation for how MEC cells can emerge through learning with grid cell properties in modular structures. Within this SOM model, grid cells with different rates of temporal integration learn modular properties with different spatial scales. Model grid cells learn in response to inputs from multiple scales of directionally-selective stripe cells (Krupic et al., 2012; Mhatre et al., 2012) that perform path integration of the linear velocities that are experienced during navigation. Slower rates of grid cell temporal integration support learned associations with stripe cells of larger scales. The explanatory and predictive capabilities of the three types of grid cell models are comparatively analyzed in light of recent data to illustrate how the SOM model overcomes problems that other types of models have not yet handled.

  17. Strength Development of Lime Treated Artificial Organic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, S. W.; Ling, F. N. L.; Sulaeman, A.; Low, V. S.; Toh, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In over many years, considerable research has been carried out on organic soils which consists of various components of organic matter but the effect of particular organic matter is less reported. Thus, some of contributing factors for each organic matter are not fully understood yet. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of organic acid concentration on the strength of artificial organic soil. There are four types of artificial organic soil created by mixing kaolin (inorganic matter) and organic acid (a kind of humified organic matter) in different concentrations. Unconfined Compressive Strength test (UCT) was carried out for all soil samples after being cured for 7 and 28 days under room temperature and 50°C. Soil samples shows highest strength when cured for 28 days under 50°C compared to those cured under room temperature. However, when the organic acid concentration decrease, the strength increased for soil 2 after 7 and 28 days cured under room temperature and 50°C. Apart from this, soil 3 and soil 4 that were cured under room temperature shows decrease in strength when the organic acid concentration decreasing but different result shown for both samples when cured under 50°C.

  18. Selective action of an atypical neuroleptic on the mechanisms related to the development of cocaine addiction: a pre-clinical behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Eduardo A V; Oliveira-Lima, Alexandre J; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Santos, Renan; Baldaia, Marilia A; Hollais, André W; Longo, Beatriz M; Berro, Laís F; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    An increased function in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system has been extensively associated with the rewarding effects of both natural stimuli and drugs of abuse. Thus, dopamine receptor blockers, such as neuroleptic drugs, can be proposed as candidates for potential therapeutic approaches to treat drug dependence. Notwithstanding, this therapeutic potential of neuroleptics critically depends on a selective action on the specific mechanisms related to the development of addiction. We compared the effects of different doses of haloperidol, ziprasidone and aripiprazole (first-, second- and third-generation neuroleptics, respectively) on spontaneous locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment, hyperlocomotion induced by acute cocaine administration and cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization by a two-injection protocol. Whereas high doses of haloperidol abolished the three behavioural paradigms without selectivity, low doses of ziprasidone selectively abolished the development of the behavioural sensitization phenomenon. Finally, low doses of aripiprazole inhibited acute cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and behavioural sensitization without modifying spontaneous locomotor activity. Thus, aripiprazole at lower doses was the most selective antipsychotic drug concerning the inhibition of the development of behavioural sensitization to cocaine. Because locomotor sensitization in rodents has been proposed to share plastic mechanisms with drug addiction in humans, our data provide relevant suggestions to the clinical practice.

  19. Natural organic matter alters size-dependent effects of nanoCuO on the feeding behaviour of freshwater invertebrate shredders.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arunava; Geraldes, Paulo; Seena, Sahadevan; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle size and the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) may influence the toxicity of nanoCuO to aquatic biota, but their interactive effects have been poorly investigated. We examined the feeding behaviour of the invertebrate shredder Allogamus ligonifer when exposed to sublethal concentrations of nanoCuO (50 and 100 mg L(-1)) with three particle sizes (12, 50 and 80 nm) in the absence or presence of humic acid (HA, 100 mg L(-1)) as a proxy of NOM. We further examined the ability of invertebrates to recover from the stressors. In the absence of nanoCuO and HA, the feeding rate of shredders was 0.416 mg leaf DM mg(-1 )animal DM day(-1). The exposure to increased nanoCuO concentrations inhibited the feeding rate and effects were stronger as nanoparticle size decreased (up to 83.3% inhibition for 12 nm particles). The exposure to HA alone inhibited the feeding activity by 52.7%. However, the co-exposure to nanoCuO and HA alleviated the inhibitory effects promoted by smaller and medium sized nanoCuO (up to 29.5%). The recovery of feeding activity by the shredders after stress removal was very low; maximum recovery (16.7%) was found for invertebrates rescued from pre-exposure to lower concentration of nanoCuO with larger size.

  20. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  1. Maternal discrimination and the development of sex differences in exploratory behaviour in infant spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus).

    PubMed

    Birke, L I; Sadler, D

    1991-11-01

    The present paper reports sex differences in exploratory behaviour by infant Spiny Mice, Acomys cahirinus, that may, in part, be related to differences in maternal behaviour towards pups; like some other rodents, mother Acomys differentiate behaviourally between male and female pups. In Experiment 1 infant Acomys were allowed to explore a novel arena. This experiment showed that even by Day 3 (the day of birth = Day 1) female Acomys explored a novel environment more than males; they entered the arena sooner than males and spent more time in contact with a novel object. Experiment 2 showed that infant females were more active than males when observed in the home cage in the presence of their parents and made more approaches to the mother. Mothers, on the other hand, directed more licking behaviour towards males. Experiment 3 focused on the exploratory behaviour of individual pups in the presence of the mother. Given access to a large, complex arena, female pups explored more than males. The results also showed that mothers direct more of their social interactions towards sons than daughters, particularly when pups are about a week old. Some mothers appear to "direct" the movement of their offspring, by blocking their forward movement; this was done more often to male than to female pups. The data suggest that the previously observed changes in exploratory behaviour at this time, and the emergence of sex differences in exploration, may in part depend upon the mothers' reactions to pups by sex.

  2. Missing in the Youth Development Literature: The Organization as Host, Cage, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Baizerman, Michael; Rana, Sheetal; Korum, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Good, high-quality youth development programs require effective youth organizations. While youth organizations are commonly understood as valuable and supportive of healthy youth development, attention and focus on youth organizations in both scholarship and practice are missing within the youth development field. The authors advocate for a more…

  3. Discovery and Development of Organic Super-Electron-Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Based on simple ideas of electron-rich alkenes, exemplified by tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethene, TDAE, and on additional driving force associated with aromatization, families of very powerful neutral organic super-electron-donors (SEDs) have been developed. In the ground state, they carry out metal-free reductions of a range of functional groups. Iodoarenes are reduced either to aryl radicals or, with stronger donors, to aryl anions. Reduction to aryl radicals allows the initiation of very efficient transition-metal-free coupling of haloarenes to arenes. The donors also reduce alkyl halides, arenesulfonamides, triflates, and triflamdes, Weinreb amides, and acyloin derivatives. Under photoactivation at 365 nm, they are even more powerful and reductively cleave aryl chlorides. They reduce unactivated benzenes to the corresponding radical anions and display original selectivities in preferentially reducing benzenes over malonates or cyanoacetates. Additionally, they reductively cleave ArC–X, ArX–C (X = N or O) and ArC–C bonds, provided that the two resulting fragments are somewhat stabilized. PMID:24605904

  4. Development of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Nishida, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawashita, M.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a new type of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials such as octane and ethanol, which consists of a capillary type of nozzle, an ionizer, a mass-separator and a substrate holder. Ion current extracted after ionization was 430 μA for octane and 200 μA for ethanol, respectively. The mass-analysis was realized using a compact E × B mass filter, and the mass-analyzed ion beams were transferred toward the substrate. The ion current density at the substrate was a few μA/cm2 for the mass-separated ion species. Interactions of polyatomic ion beams with silicon (Si) surfaces were investigated by utilizing the ellipsometry measurement. It was found that the damaged layer thickness irradiated by the polyatomic ions with a mass number of about 40 was smaller than that by Ar ion irradiation at the same incident energy and ion fluence. The result indicated that the rupture of polyatomic ions occurred upon its impact on the Si surface with an incident energy larger than a few keV. In addition, the chemical modification of Si surfaces such as wettability could be achieved by adjusting the incident energy for the ethanol ions, which included all the fragment ions.

  5. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  6. Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high g. Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in microgravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in microgravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in microgravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  7. Developing sustainable management practices for organic rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organically produced rice has been increasing with up to 50,000 acres now produced in the USA. Although acreage of conventional rice production has decreased in Texas by 36% during the last 15 years, it is now home to some 15,000 acres of organic rice, which has brought new vitality to ot...

  8. Danger and Development: The Organization of Self-Protective Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crittenden, Patricia McKinsey

    1999-01-01

    Considers alternative ways of conceptualizing patterns of attachment, arguing that danger prompts organization of protective strategies in children. Discusses issues of what is normal versus atypical; complex organization versus disorganization; neurological disorders and temperament; assessment of patterns of attachment and analysis of attachment…

  9. Developing Learning Organizations at the Small Unit Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the After Action Review (AAR) is another highlighted success in its holistic attempts to become a learning organization. In his Harvard Business Review article...reexamined/index.html. Garvin, David A., Edmondson, Amy C. & Gino Francesca (2008). Is Yours a Learning Organization? Harvard Business Review . www.hbr.org

  10. The Effect of a Mutation in the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) on Development, Behaviour and TH Levels in Domesticated Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Svemer, Frida; Eriksson, Jonas; Darras, Veerle M.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) has been suggested to be a “domestication locus” in the chicken, due to a strong selective sweep over the gene found in domesticated chickens, differentiating them from their wild ancestor the Red Junglefowl (RJF). We investigated the effect of the mutation on development (incubation time), behaviour and thyroid hormone levels in intercross chickens homozygous for the mutation (d/d), wild type homozygotes (w/w) or heterozygotes (d/w). This allowed an assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus against a random mix of RJF and WL genotypes throughout the rest of the genome, controlling for family effects. The d/d genotype showed a longer incubation time, less fearful behaviours, lower number of aggressive behaviours and decreased levels of the thyroid hormone T4, in comparison to the w/w genotype. The difference between TSHR genotypes (d/d vs. w/w) in these respects mirrors the differences in development and behaviour between pure domesticated White Leghorns and pure RJF chickens. Higher individual T3 and T4 levels were associated with more aggression. Our study indicates that the TSHR mutation affects typical domestication traits, possibly through modifying plasma levels of thyroid hormones, and may therefore have been important during the evolution of the domestic chicken. PMID:26053744

  11. Tribal organizations and energy development: Recognized sovereignty, regulations, and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Amy James

    Tribal governments' capacity to implement land use controls within their Nations is limited by the United States Constitution and federal law; however, tribal governments have inherent sovereignty to protect, guide, and govern the lands under their jurisdiction to protect and enhance the safety, health, and welfare of their members. The aim of this thesis was to investigate and identify (1) the extent to which tribal Nations have sovereignty over their lands and authority to regulate land use within their jurisdiction and (2) the present status and extent to which Native American tribal governments use their sovereignty over land use development concerning oil and natural gas development within their jurisdiction. The study was qualitative in nature and focused on a comprehensive archival review and a one-case case study. Constitutional law, federal Indian law, environmental law, and tribal law were considered. The thesis first examines the results of the archival review, which demonstrates that tribes, while limited by federal law, have sovereignty and authority to control land use within their territories. The Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation were also examined. The Tribes were chosen based on location, level of oil and natural gas production, and accessibility of information. The most current information available was used for the study. The data for the study was obtained from the Internet. The research suggests that tribes are implementing land use controls and participating in land use and comprehensive planning; however, they are not doing so to the extent of their sovereignty. This study demonstrates that tribal governments do indeed have authority over their lands and resources and cannot fully take advantage of their sovereignty without practicing self-governance over their natural, built, and human environments. Questions remain regarding the reasons that tribal governments are not implementing land use controls and engaging in

  12. Development and characterization of an equine behaviour chamber and the effects of amitraz and detomidine on spontaneous locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harkins, J D; Queiroz-Neto, A; Mundy, G D; West, D; Tobin, T

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the development of a behaviour chamber and the validation of the chamber of measure locomotor activity of a horse. Locomotor activity was detected by four Mini-beam sensors and recorded on a data logger every 5 min for 22 h. Horses were more active during daytime than in the evening, which was at least partially related to human activity in their surroundings. To validate the ability of the chambers to detect changes in activity, fentanyl citrate and xylazine HCl, agents well-characterized as a stimulant and a depressant, respectively, were administered to five horses. Fentanyl citrate (0.016 mg/kg) significantly increased locomotor activity which persisted for 30 min. Xylazine HCl (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced locomotor activity for 90 min. Amitraz produced a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity, lasting 75 min for the 0.05 mg/kg dose, 120 min for the 0.10 mg/kg dose, and 180 min for the 0.15 mg/kg dose. In a separate experiment, yohimbine administration immediately reversed the sedative effect of amitraz. This suggests there is a similarity in the mode of action of amitraz, xylazine and detomidine, as yohimbine acts primarily by blocking central alpha 2 -adrenoceptors that are stimulated by agents like xylazine. There was also a significant decrease in locomotor activity following injection of detomidine (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg) for 1.5, 3.5 and 5.0 h, respectively. The locomotor chamber is a useful, sensitive and highly reproducible tool for measuring spontaneous locomotor activity in the horse, which allows investigators to determine an agent's average time of onset, duration and intensity of effect on movement.

  13. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.

  14. Development and study of the thermal and electrical behaviour of TGDDS epoxy nanocomposites for high-performance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shree Meenakshi, K.; Pradeep Jaya Sudhan, E.

    2011-07-01

    The present work focuses on a comparative study of the thermal and electrical behaviour of N,N'-tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenylsulphone (TGDDS) denoted as `B' to find the suitability for its use in high-performance applications. The synthesis of the tetraglycidyl epoxy was done and they were characterized by FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectra) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Nanoclay and POSS-amine nanoreinforcements denoted as N1 and N2 were incorporated into the synthesized epoxy resins. Curing was done using diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) and bis(3-aminophenyl)phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO) curing agents denoted as X and Y, respectively. The thermal behaviour of the tetraglycidyl resins and their corresponding nanocomposites was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrical behaviour, namely dielectric strength, comparative tracking index (CTI), volume resistivity, surface resistivity and arc resistance of the nanocomposites were also studied and the interesting results obtained are discussed.

  15. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-04-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.

  16. Development and application of human virtual excitable tissues and organs: from premature birth to sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Holden, Arun V

    2010-12-01

    The electrical activity of cardiac and uterine tissues has been reconstructed by detailed computer models in the form of virtual tissues. Virtual tissues are biophysically and anatomically detailed, and represent quantitatively predictive models of the physiological and pathophysiological behaviours of tissue within an isolated organ. The cell excitation properties are quantitatively reproduced by equations that describe the kinetics of a few dozen proteins. These equations are derived from experimental measurements of membrane potentials, ionic currents, fluxes, and concentrations. Some of the measurements were taken from human cells and human ion channel proteins expressed in non-human cells, but they were mostly taken from cells of other animal species. Data on tissue geometry and architecture are obtained from the diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of ex vivo or post mortem tissue, and are used to compute the spread of current in the tissue. Cardiac virtual tissues are well established and reproduce normal and pathological patterns of cardiac excitation within the atria or ventricles of the human heart. They have been applied to increase the understanding of normal cardiac electrophysiology, to evaluate the candidate mechanisms for re-entrant arrhythmias that lead to sudden cardiac death, and to predict the tissue level effects of mutant or pharmacologically-modified ion channels. The human full-term virtual uterus is still in development. This virtual tissue reproduces the in vitro behaviour of uterine tissue biopsies, and provides possible mechanisms for premature labour.

  17. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2015-07-15

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (σ) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, σ(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (θ) in porous media, with k(θ) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe σ(fm).

  18. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta Hansen, Pernille Reimar; Boberg, Julie; Bonnichsen, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Hass, Ulla

    2008-10-01

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T{sub 4} during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T{sub 4} may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity.

  19. The intellectual development, mental and behavioural disorders in children from Belarus exposed in utero following the chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Igumnov, S; Drozdovitch, V

    2000-06-01

    The study examined psychological development in 250 children at the age of 6-7 and 10-12 years who had been exposed in the prenatal period at the time of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. These children were compared to a control group of 250 children of the same age from non- and slightly contaminated areas of Belarus. The examination included psychiatric examination and intellectual assessment as well as the estimation of thyroid exposure in utero. The mean value of thyroid doses from (131)I 0.39 Gy was estimated for the prenatal exposed children. The children of the exposed group had a lower mean full-scale IQ compared to the control group (89.6 +/- 10.2 vs 92.1 +/- 10.5 at the age of 6-7 years, P = 0.007; and 94. 3 +/- 10.4 vs 95.8 +/- 10.9 at the age of 10-12 years, P = 0.117). Average IQ for the subgroup of highly exposed children (thyroid doses more than 1 Gy) was lower in comparison with average IQ for the whole exposed group (85.7 +/- 6.4 vs 89.6 +/- 10.2 at the age of 6-7 years, P = 0.014; 89.1 +/- 7.1 vs 94.3 +/- 10.4 at age 10-12 years, P = 0.003). No statistically significant distinctions in average IQ were found between the different subgroups of children in relation to the gestational age at the time of the Chernobyl accident. We notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of children and the educational level of their parents (in exposed group - mothers: r = 0.50, P < 0.01 and fathers: r = 0.52, P < 0.01; in control group - mothers: r = 0.41, P < 0.05 and fathers: r = 0.42, P < 0.05). There was a moderate correlation between high personal anxiety in parents and emotional disorders in children (for mothers r = 0.38, P < 0.05; for fathers r = 0.43, P < 0.01). The relative risk of mental and behavioural disorders has been estimated for emotional disorders OR = 2.67, P < 0.001. The frequency of the formation of mental retardation, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioural disorders in children from both groups was approximately the

  20. Structural characteristics and development of ampullary organs in Acipenser naccarii.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Susana; Ostos, Maria Del Valle; Llorente, José Ignacio; Sanz, Ana; García, Manuel; Domezain, Alberto; Carmona, Ramón

    2007-09-01

    Ampullary organs of Acipenser naccarii sturgeons were examined by optical and electronic microscopy (transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) from hatching until 1 month later when the juvenile phase is completely established. It was observed that, when A. naccarii begins to feed actively, the ultrastructural characteristics of ampullary organs already correspond to those of adult animals. These organs may, therefore, be functional and, together with taste buds, facilitate food search after exhaustion of yolk sac food reserves. Mature ampullary organs of A. naccarii are formed by an ampulla that communicates with the exterior by means of a short channel. These ampullae correspond to the sensory portion of these receptors and are formed by two cell types: receptor cells and support cells. Receptor cells present a kinocilium on their free surface and establish ribbon synapses with axon nerve endings that arise from the underlying conjunctive tissue. Support cells enclose receptor cells, bear stereocilia and occasional cilia, and are of a secretory nature. The mucus associated with ampullary organs mainly comprises neutral mucopolysaccharides, whereas mucopolysaccharides are usually acid in other fish groups.

  1. Developing Teaching Assistants' Skills in Positive Behaviour Management: An Application of Video Interaction Guidance in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Ben; Richardson, Sally; Hindle, Sarah; Grayson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an action research project in a school in the UK designed to investigate the impact of a brief Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) intervention in promoting skills of non-teaching staff in positive behaviour management. A summary of the literature in relation to VIG is provided before describing the project and data collected. Ten…

  2. Fair Pairs and Three Part Praise--Developing the Sustained Use of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    A training course of two after-school sessions was run for teaching assistants (TAs) in a UK inner city primary school. The subject of the training was classroom use of a version of differential reinforcement of alternative behaviours (DRAs) known as Fair Pairs. The training introduced the concept of "Three Part Praise" within Fair…

  3. Shared Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Jordanian Public Universities: Developing a Global Workforce for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of shared leadership on organizational citizenship behaviour among faculty members in Jordanian public universities. A sample of 558 faculty members employed by three public universities in Jordan participated in the study. The results indicated that shared leadership is moderately practised…

  4. Developing Relationships between Language and Behaviour in Preschool Children from the Early Language in Victoria Study: Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Lesley; Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Cini, Eileen; Eadie, Patricia; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Following a biopsychosocial model, the study investigated the role of child factors (gender, IQ), maternal factors (psychological distress, maternal education and vocabulary, maternal distress) and environmental factors (SES) in the relationship between language impairment and behaviour problems in preschool children. Participants were drawn from…

  5. Development of a Short-Form Version of the Physical Education Classroom Instrument: Measuring Secondary Pupils' Disruptive Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krech, Paul R.; Kulinna, Pamela H.; Cothran, Donetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective classroom management is the cornerstone of successful teaching. Behavioural issues affect the classroom climate as well as the time available for learning. Pupil misbehaviours can also contribute to teacher stress and burn out resulting in teachers leaving the profession. It is important for us to understand more about pupil…

  6. Torpedo electromotor system development: neuronal cell death and electric organ development in the fourth branchial arch.

    PubMed

    Fox, G Q; Richardson, G P; Kirk, C

    1985-06-08

    The fourth branchial arch of Torpedo marmorata has been examined at the light and electron microscopic level during development. Of interest was the determination of the extent of electric organ tissue reported to be present in this arch and its possible relationship to electromotoneuron cell death in the electric lobes. The main electric organ of the torpedo is derived from the hyoid and first three branchial arches and is innervated by four major electromotor nerves. Extensive electromotoneuron cell death occurs in the electric lobes and most notably in the posterior poles. This feature could be due to a tendency for these neurons to innervate the fourth branchial arch where little or no electric tissue is formed. Our findings support this conclusion but are not entirely consistent with the idea that a population mismatch has occurred. This is because cell death precedes the genesis of the target cells. The presence of innervated differentiated electric tissue in this arch is also reported, leading to the conclusion that Torpedo marmorata possesses an accessory electric organ.

  7. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  8. OD (Organization Development) Interventions that Enhance Equal Opportunity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    aide to aaesam mod Identify by week nim obe) Socialization process Socialization model Self - esteem Organization form and structure Equal Opportunity... self - esteem and a positive self -image. iACSion For Unannm ,niced Just ifi; .t i On _ _ Av oo ilbtit Cd va nd/or Dit Special I so...\\ _ . S,, 0102. LF...around the organization’s con- cerns for operational readiness and the individual’s need for self - esteem and a positive self -image. 4 ~.4I4 ! TABLE OF

  9. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  10. WOWBugs: Materials Development and Classroom Implementation of a Novel Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; And Others

    The purpose of the WOWBug project was to promote "Melittobia digitata," a fruit-fly sized wasp, as a new organism for life science instruction and to determine the potential usefulness of the wasp to teach fundamental life science concepts. Fifty-five middle school teachers were introduced to the WOWBug and practiced with prototype…

  11. Development Causal Structures of Organism-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labouvie, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    Proposes an extension of multivariate, structural analyses for studying organism-environment interactions. Based on characteristics of the assumed feedback mechanisms between behavioral and environmental systems, it appears possible to analyze longitudinally ordered sequences in terms of recursive versus nonrecursive and distal versus proximal…

  12. Lymphatic vessels in the development of tissue and organ rejection.

    PubMed

    Hos, Deniz; Cursiefen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vascular system-amongst other tasks-is critically involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses as it provides an important route for APC trafficking to secondary lymphatic organs. In this context, the cornea, which is the transparent and physiologically avascular "windscreen" of the eye, has served as an excellent in vivo model to study the role of the blood and lymphatic vasculature in mediating allogenic immune responses after transplantation. Especially the mouse model of high-risk corneal transplantation, where corneal avascularity is abolished by a severe inflammatory stimulus prior to keratoplasty, allows for comparison to other transplantations performed in primarily vascularized tissues and solid organs. Using this model, we recently demonstrated that especially lymphatic vessels, but not blood vessels, define the high-risk status of vascularized corneas and that anti(lymph)angiogenic treatment significantly promotes corneal allograft survival. Since evidence for lymphangiogenesis and its potential association with graft rejection is nowadays also present in solid organ transplantation, studies are currently addressing the potential benefits of anti(lymph)angiogenic treatment as a novel therapeutic concept also in solid organ grafting with promising initial results.

  13. Organization Development in One Large Urban School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derr, C. Brooklyn

    1970-01-01

    Paper read at the American Educational Research Association Convention, Minneapolis, Minnesota, March 2-6, 1970. Describes an approach to planned organizational change in school systems built on the effective features of both the open-systems approach to understanding organizations, and the T-Group-Consultant school of small group methods. (JM)

  14. Symbolism and Survival in Developing Organizations: Regional Colleges in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamson, Zelda F.; And Others

    The origins and early history of a system of regional colleges in Israel are analyzed in the context of an emerging postsecondary system, based on the work of John Meyer and others who look at the institutional side of organization. It is argued that the terms used to define legitimacy, as well as who defines it, are crucial issues in the…

  15. Developing organ offer and acceptance measures: when 'good' organs are turned down.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, R A; LaPorte, F B; Rodgers, A M; Roys, E C; Fant, G; Leichtman, A B

    2007-01-01

    Turndowns of offers of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation can contribute to inefficiencies in the organ distribution system and inequality in access to donated organs. Match run data were obtained for 4967 'good' kidneys placed and transplanted in 2005 after fewer than 50 offers. These kidneys were not recovered from donation after cardiac death or expanded criteria donors, or from donors with a history of substance abuse. On average, these good kidneys were not accepted until after seven offers to candidates and after offers to 2.4 programs. Models for the likelihood of acceptance found several donor and candidate characteristics to be significantly related to acceptance rates (p < 0.05). After accounting for these variables, there remained 2- to 3-fold differences among transplant programs in acceptance rates. These models could be used to identify kidney transplant centers with exceptional acceptance practices. Several strategies might be employed to increase acceptance rates for good organs.

  16. The Construction and Development of Indicators of Learning Organization at Higher Educational Institutions Emphasizing Graduate Production and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanrin, Chanwit; Sri-Amphai, Pissamai; Ruangmontri, Karn; Namwan, Tharinthorn

    2011-01-01

    The Purposes of this research were to construct and develop indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasize graduate production and social development, and to test the congruence of the structural model of the indicators of learning organization at higher educational institutions emphasizing graduate production and…

  17. Twenty-Five Years in Organization Development: A Conversation with Richard Schmuck and Philip Runkel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vojtek, Rosie O'Brien

    1994-01-01

    Two professors in the University of Oregon's College of Education reflect upon their consultation and research experiences and share their insights about organization development in education. They discuss such areas in organization development as self-study, value systems, budget, peer cadres, teamwork, conflict management, and staff development.…

  18. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042

  19. Neglected organization and management issues in mental health systems development.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R

    1992-10-01

    Fragmented and often uncoordinated public services for the more severely mentally ill are often characteristic of the current U.S. mental health system. The creation of local mental health authorities has been promoted as part of a solution, as has happened in Wisconsin at the county level and is championed in the ongoing Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded innovative service sites for severely mentally ill adults. There are indications that these innovative mental health authorities will fall short of fulfilling their promise. Basic principles from the management and organizations literature are used to identify several organization and management issues that may have been neglected. These include resource management, attention to system goals, monitoring and feedback, and the promotion of desirable interorganizational cultures.

  20. DEVELOP NEW TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON/SPECIFIC UV ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this project is to provide a total organic carbon (TOC)/specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) method that will be used by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) to support monitoring requirements of the Stage 2 Disinfectant/Disinfection By-products (D/DBP) Rule. The Stage 2 Rule requires that enhanced water treatment be used if the source water is high in aquatic organic matter prior to the application of a disinfectant. Disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, etc.) are used in the production of drinking water in order to reduce the risk of microbial disease. These disinfectants react with the organic material that is naturally present in the source water to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Exposure to some of these by-products may pose a long term health risk. The number and nature of DBPs make it impossible to fully characterize all of the by-products formed during the treatment of drinking water and it is more cost effective to reduce formation of DBPs than to remove them from the water after they are formed. Two measurements (TOC and SUVA) are believed to be predictive of the amount of by-products that can be formed during the disinfection of drinking water and are considered to be surrogates for DBP precursors. SUVA is calculated as the ultraviolet absorption at 254nm (UV254) in cm-1 divided by the mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (measured after filtration of the water through a 0.45um pore-diameter filte

  1. StopApp: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to Develop an App to Increase Uptake and Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Emily Anne; Brown, Katherine E; Kwah, Kayleigh L; Wild, Sue

    2016-06-08

    Smokers who attend NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are four times more likely to stop smoking; however, uptake has been in decline. We report the development of an intervention designed to increase uptake of SSS, from a more motivated self-selected sample of smokers. In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and Phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis, as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. Relevant Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) were identified in order to address these, informing the content of the StopApp intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the StopApp. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers to attending SSS, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at SSS (Capability); the belief that SSS is not easy to access (Opportunity); that there would be 'scare tactics' or 'nagging'; and not knowing anyone who had been and successfully quit (Motivation). The 'StopApp' is in development and will link in with the commissioned SSS booking system. Examples of the content and functionality of the app are outlined. The next phase will involve a full trial to test effectiveness.

  2. Recognising moulting behaviour in trilobites by examining morphology, development and preservation: Comment on Błażejowski et al. 2015

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Allison C.

    2016-01-01

    A 365 million year‐old trilobite moult‐carcass assemblage was described by Błażejowski et al. (2015) as the oldest direct evidence of moulting in the arthropod fossil record. Unfortunately, their suppositions are insufficiently supported by the data provided. Instead, the morphology, configuration and preservational context of the highly fossiliferous locality (Kowala Quarry, Poland) suggest that the specimen consists of two overlapping, queued carcasses. The wider fossil record of moulting actually extends back 520 million years, providing an unparalleled opportunity to study behaviour, ecology and development in early animals. Taking cues from modern analogues, it is possible to quantify precise details about moulting behaviour to determine broad‐scale evolutionary trends, ontogenetic sequences and morphological selection pressures. In this review, we argue that this rich source of data has been underused in evolutionary studies, though has great potential for investigating the life history and evolution of arthropods in deep time. PMID:27545417

  3. A Cross “Ethnical” Comparison of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) in an Economically Fast Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Verjee, Mohamud; Dafeeah, Elnour E.; Yousafzai, Mohammad T.; Mari, Sundus; Hassib, Ahmed; Al-Khatib, Hamza; Choi, Min Kyung; Nema, Noor; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the driving behaviours of four ethnic groups and to investigate the relationship between violations, errors and lapses of DBQ and accident involvement in Qatar. Subjects and Methods: The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was used to measure the aberrant driving behaviours leading to accidents. Of 2400 drivers approached, 1824 drivers agreed to participate (76%) and completed the driver behaviour questionnaire and background information. Results: The study revealed that the majority of the Qatari (35.9%) and Jordanian drivers (37.5%) were below 30 years of age, whereas Filipino (42.3%) and Indian subcontinent (34.1%) drivers were in the age group of 30-39 years. Qatari drivers (52%) were involved in most accidents, followed by Jordanians (48.3%). The most common type of collision was a head on collision, which was similar in all four ethnic groups. The Qatari drivers scored higher on almost all items of violations, errors and lapses compared to other ethnic groups, while Filipino drivers were lower on all the items. The most common violation was the same in all four ethnic groups “Disregard the speed limits on a motorway”. The most common error item observed was “Queing to turn right/left on to a main road”. “Forget where you left your car” and “Hit something when reversing” were the two lapses identified in factor analysis. Conclusion: The present study identified that Qatari drivers scored higher on most of the items of violations, errors and lapses of DBQ compared to other countries, whereas Filipino drivers scored lower in DBQ items. PMID:23777732

  4. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  5. Development of synthetic media mimicking food soils to study the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Overney, Anaïs; Chassaing, Danielle; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2016-12-05

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the main targets of hygiene procedures in the ready-to-eat food industry due to its ability to persist for months or even years in processing plants, where it can contaminate food during processing. The factors associated with persistence are often those that foster growth, which itself depends on food contamination of surfaces. It is therefore essential to experiment by using food soils or media modelling these soils to understand the behaviour of L. monocytogenes on surfaces of food processing plants. Thus, we set up an experimental plan including three physiological parameters characteristic of the behaviour of cells on surfaces, namely spatial distribution, adhesion forces and the physiological state of sessile L. monocytogenes. These were recorded in two food soils: smoked salmon juice and meat exudate. According to our results, the behaviour of L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces is highly dependent on the food soil used. The presence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells was demonstrated using meat exudate, while all viable cells were recovered using smoked salmon juice. Moreover, on the basis of our criteria and after validation with three strains of L. monocytogenes, we showed that smoked salmon juice can be substituted by a modified culture medium, demonstrating that drawbacks associated with the use of food soils can be overcome.

  6. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  7. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  8. Control system development for an organic Ranking cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.; Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle engine is used as part of a solar thermal power conversion assembly (PCA). The PCA, including a direct-heated cavity receiver and a shaft-mounted alternator, is mounted at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator. The engine controls are required to maintain approximately constant values of turbine inlet temperature and shaft speed, despite variation in the concentrated solar power input to the receiver. The controls design approach, system models, and initial stability and performance analysis results are presented herein.

  9. A study on the development of public campaign messages for organ donation promotion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hye-Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to find an effective method of expressing a message in public service ads by investigating whether or not a message framing type affects the outcome. Specifically, the study looks into the effects of messaging on organ donation by identifying how the type of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal type (rational vs. emotional) affect the attitude and behavioural intention of the consumer. The individual characteristics of each subject such as altruistic mind, level of self-monitoring and issue involvement were selected as intermediate variables that may affect the impact of a message. The study therefore tries to establish a proposition that can be used to generate an effective promotional message on organ donation in a systematic way.

  10. Building Bridges between Organization Development and Experiential/Adventure Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flor, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Describes and compares the foci, methods, and outcomes of experiential-education and organizational-development models. Explores the synthesis of the two models in developing corporate adventure programs and services. Lists the contributions that each approach offers to corporate programs. (KS)

  11. Educating and Developing Leaders of Racially Diverse Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need to address issues emerging from racial differences in the workplace under the heading of leadership development. Traditionally leadership development centers on creating models of leadership, describing what constitutes effective leadership, and identifying skills and competencies that will improve the capacity to…

  12. Collaborative Development: A New Culture Affects an Old Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Jim; Ruzicka, Terry

    2008-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, the Registrar's Office and the Division of Information Technology (DoIT) apply a collaborative development process to joint projects. This model differs from a "waterfall" model in that technical and functional staff work closely to develop requirements, prototypes, and the product throughout…

  13. Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

  14. Development of the centralized reliability data organization (CREDO)

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Cunningham, G. W.; Greene, N. M.; Haas, P. M.; Hudson, S. D.; Knee, H. E.; Manning, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organizaton (CREDO) has been established by the Reactor Research and Technology Division of the Department of Energy (RRT/DOE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It's primary functions are collection, evaluation and dissemination of reliability/availability data pertaining to advanced reactors. Associated information and analysis services will be provided to users. Interface and cooperative data exchange with existing US and international data banks is an integral part of CREDO's program plan. This paper outlines the design and operation of the proposed system and summarizes the status of its development. The schedule for developing CREDO has been lengthened as appropriate to the current schedule for development of advanced reactors in the US, but the initial development phase is nearing completion, and demonstration of system capabilities is anticipated prior to the end of FY 1980.

  15. Clonal development and organization of the adult Drosophila central brain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang; Awasaki, Takeshi; Schroeder, Mark David; Long, Fuhui; Yang, Jacob S.; He, Yisheng; Ding, Peng; Kao, Jui-Chun; Wu, Gloria Yueh-Yi; Peng, Hanchuan; Myers, Gene; Lee, Tzumin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The insect brain can be divided into neuropils that are formed by neurites of both local and remote origin. The complexity of the interconnections obscures how these neuropils are established and interconnected through development. The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts (NBs) that deposit neurons in regional clusters. Results By determining individual NB clones and pursuing their projections into specific neuropils we unravel the regional development of the brain neural network. Exhaustive clonal analysis revealed 95 stereotyped neuronal lineages with characteristic cell body locations and neurite trajectories. Most clones show complex projection patterns, but despite the complexity, neighboring clones often co-innervate the same local neuropil(s) and further target a restricted set of distant neuropils. Conclusions These observations argue for regional clonal development of both neuropils and neuropil connectivity throughout the Drosophila central brain. PMID:23541733

  16. Motor Cortex Activity Organizes the Developing Rubrospinal System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Preston T.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal systems function in skilled movement control. A key question is how do these systems develop the capacity to coordinate their motor functions and, in turn, if the red nucleus/rubrospinal tract (RN/RST) compensates for developmental corticospinal injury? We used the cat to investigate whether the developing rubrospinal system is shaped by activity-dependent interactions with the developing corticospinal system. We unilaterally inactivated M1 by muscimol microinfusion between postnatal weeks 5 and 7 to examine activity-dependent interactions and whether the RN/RST compensates for corticospinal tract (CST) developmental motor impairments and CST misprojections after M1 inactivation. We examined the RN motor map and RST cervical projections at 7 weeks of age, while the corticospinal system was inactivated, and at 14 weeks, after activity returned. During M1 inactivation, the RN on the same side showed normal RST projections and reduced motor thresholds, suggestive of precocious development. By contrast, the RN on the untreated/active M1 side showed sparse RST projections and an immature motor map. After M1 activity returned later in adolescent cat development, RN on the active M1/CST side continued to show a substantial loss of spinal terminations and an impaired motor map. RN/RST on the inactivated side regressed to a smaller map and fewer axons. Our findings suggest that the developing rubrospinal system is under activity-dependent regulation by the corticospinal system for establishing mature RST connections and RN motor map. The lack of RS compensation on the non-inactivated side can be explained by development of ipsilateral misprojections from the active M1 that outcompete the RST. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Skilled movements reflect the activity of multiple descending motor systems and their interactions with spinal motor circuits. Currently, there is little insight into whether motor systems interact during development to

  17. Organization and Management of Construction in Developing Countries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    efforts for mass housing schemes, the bulk of construction is still undertaken by small artisan-like entities. Some general characteris- tics that are...Construction Industry, UNIDO Monograph No 2 (Based on Proceedings of the International Symposium on Industrial Development, Athens, 1967), New York, 1969...24. United Nations, Building Materials Industry, UNIDO Monograph No 3, New York, 1969. 25. United Nations, "Towards Accelerated Development

  18. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  19. Supporting Residential Student Organization Advisers: A 21st Century Adviser Training and Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Cory Adam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this doctoral action research study was to discover if and how an updated training and development curriculum benefited residential student organization advisers at Arizona State University (ASU). Eleven advisers of residential student organizations completed a pilot training and development program and agreed to participate in a…

  20. The developing and evolving retina: using time to organize form.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Barbara L

    2008-02-04

    Evolutionary and other functional accounts of the retina and its normal development highlight different aspects of control of its growth and form than genomic and mechanistic accounts. Discussing examples from opsin expression, developmental regulation of the eye's size and optical quality, regulation of eye size with respect to brain and body size, and the development of the fovea, these different aspects of control are contrasted. Contributions of mouse models, particularly with regard to relative timing of events in different species are reviewed, introducing a Web-based utility for exploration of timing issues (www.translatingtime.net). Variation at the individual level, in early experience, and also across species is an essential source of information to understand normal development and its pathologies.

  1. Managing and Developing People in the Virtual Organization. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colky, Deborah Lavin; Colky, Michael T.; Young, William H., III

    Designed for managers and workers in virtual organizations as well as adult and continuing educators in higher education, associations, and private sector, this book outlines a customer-driven performance management system and explains its use as a development tool. The characteristics of virtual organizations are described, and the rationale for…

  2. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. PMID:25598576

  3. Integrating models to simulate emergent behaviour: effects of organic matter on soil hydraulics in the ICZ-1D soil-vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valstar, Johan; Rowe, Ed; Konstantina, Moirogiorgou; Giannakis, Giorgos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Soil develops as a result of interacting processes, many of which have been described in more or less detailed models. A key challenge in developing predictive models of soil function is to integrate processes that operate across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Many soil functions could be classified as "emergent", since they result from the interaction of subsystems. For example, soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics are commonly considered in relation to carbon storage, but can have profound effects on soil hydraulic properties that are conventionally considered to be static. Carbon fixed by plants enters the soil as litterfall, root turnover or via mycorrhizae. Plants need water and nutrients to grow, and an expanding root system provides access to a larger volume of soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Roots also provide organic exudates, such as oxalate, which increase nutrient availability. Carbon inputs are transformed at various rates into soil biota, CO2, and more persistent forms of organic matter. The SOM is partly taken up into soil aggregates of variable sizes, which slows down degradation. Water availability is an important factor as both plant growth and SOM degradation can be limited by shortage of water. Water flow is the main driver for transport of nutrients and other solutes. The flow of water in turn is influenced by the presence of SOM as this influences soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Towards the top of the unsaturated zone, bioturbation by the soil fauna transports both solid material and solutes. Weathering rates of minerals determine the availability of many nutrients and are in turn dependent on parameters such as pH, water content, CO2 pressure and oxalate concentration. Chemical reactions between solutes, dissolution and precipitation, and exchange on adsorption sites further influence solute concentrations. Within the FP7 SoilTrEC project, we developed a model that incorporates all of these processes, to

  4. Concentric Collaboration: A Model of Leadership Development for Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Cynthia; Coghlan, David

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on their experience in a Midwest healthcare system, the authors propose a model of leadership development through action learning that embraces "concentric collaboration" at its core. The present study suggests that the process of concentric collaboration can serve to strengthen the skills of the individual leader as well as…

  5. Ethical Problems in the Practice of Organization Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Kevin C.; White, Louis P.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses forces that affect the professional ethics of organizational development (OD). Both driving forces and restraining forces have influenced the current status of OD ethics. These forces have operated since the emergence of OD itself, and their fluctuating intensity results in the dynamic nature of the OD profession. (SSH)

  6. Sex Equity in Organization Development: Numbers and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Joyce P.

    To investigate whether the proportion of males to females employed as educational organizational development (OD) practitioners is equitable, sex distribution data from three recent sources are presented in female-male ratios, in categories that define the available talent pool for educational leadership, educational leadership positions, and OD…

  7. A transcriptomics investigation into pine reproductive organ development.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shihui; Yuan, Huwei; Sun, Xinrui; Porth, Ilga; Li, Yue; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The development of reproductive structures in gymnosperms is still poorly studied because of a lack of genomic information and useful genetic tools. The hermaphroditic reproductive structure derived from unisexual gymnosperms is an even less studied aspect of seed plant evolution. To extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of hermaphroditism and the determination of sexual identity of conifer reproductive structures in general, unisexual and bisexual cones from Pinus tabuliformis were profiled for gene expression using 60K microarrays. Expression patterns of genes during progression of sexual cone development were analysed using RNA-seq. The results showed that, overall, the transcriptomes of male structures in bisexual cones were more similar to those of female cones. However, the expression of several MADS-box genes in the bisexual cones was similar to that of male cones at the more juvenile developmental stage, while despite these expression shifts, male structures of bisexual cones and normal male cones were histologically indistinguishable and cone development was continuous. This study represents a starting point for in-depth analysis of the molecular regulation of cone development and also the origin of hermaphroditism in pine.

  8. Knowledge Generation, Organization Dissemination and Utilization for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.

    A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…

  9. The Journal of Staff, Program, & Organization Development, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Karron G., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Focusing on issues and practices related to professional development at two- and four-year colleges, selected articles in the four issues of this volume include the following: "Empowering Faculty: An Alternative Method for Allocating Funds" (B. Dangerfield, D. Stover, and C. Byers); "Research Portfolios: Connecting Projects to Products" (L.…

  10. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  11. Communication Effectiveness in Multinational Organizations: Developing Universal Intercultural Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John W.; Stull, James B.

    The increase in size and number of multinational corporations requires programs for training their personnel in intercultural communication emphasizing development of skills necessary for cultural adaptation and a "universal" perspective. Currently, intercultural training is either nonexistent or emphasizes mastery of language with…

  12. Dictionary of Environment and Development: People, Places, Ideas and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Andy

    As the linkage of environment and development issues moves increasingly to the forefront of international concerns, a variety of ideas and phrases from insiders in a number of fields are appearing in books and news reports. This concise reference offers readers a guide to these new terms. It covers ecological processes such as desertification,…

  13. Accountable care organizations in the USA: types, developments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Andrew J; Unruh, Lynn; Chukmaitov, Askar; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2014-10-01

    A historically fragmented U.S. health care system, where care has been delivered by multiple providers with little or no coordination, has led to increasing issues with access, cost, and quality. The Affordable Care Act included provisions to use Medicare, the U.S. near universal public coverage program for older adults, to broadly implement Accountable Care Organization (ACO) models with a triple aim of improving the experience of care, the health of populations, and reducing per capita costs. Private payers in the U.S. are also embracing ACO models. Various European countries are experimenting with similar reforms, particularly those in which coordinated (or integrated) care from a network of providers is reimbursed with bundled payments and/or shared savings. The challenges for these reforms remain formidable and include: (1) overcoming incentives for ACOs to engage in rationing and denial of care and taking on too much financial risk, (2) collecting meaningful data that capture quality and enable rewarding quality improvement and not just volume reduction, (3) creating incentives for ACOs that do not accept much risk to engage in prevention and health promotion, and (4) creating effective governance and IT structures that are patient-centered and integrate care.

  14. Development of minimized mixing molecular orbital method for designing organic ferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-06-15

    Predicting the high spin stability of organic radicals correctly for designing organic ferromagnets remains a significant challenge. We have developed a method with an index (L(min)) for predicting the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals at the restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock level. Unitary transformations were performed for localizing the coefficients of nonbonding molecular orbitals, and subsequently the localized coefficients were used to calculate L(min) that indicates the high spin stability of conjugated organic radicals. This method can be combined with the elongation method to treat huge high spin open-shell systems. Thus, this method is useful for designing organic ferromagnets.

  15. Development of an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II management: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Wiangkham, Taweewat; Duda, Joan; Haque, M Sayeed; Rushton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an active behavioural physiotherapy intervention (ABPI) for managing acute whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) II using a modified Delphi method to develop consensus for the basic features of the ABPI. Design Modified Delphi study. Our systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating conservative management for acute WADII found that a combined ABPI may be a useful intervention to prevent patients progressing to chronicity. No previous research has considered a combined behavioural approach and active physiotherapy in the management of acute WADII patients. The ABPI was therefore developed using a rigorous consensus method using international research and local clinical whiplash experts. Descriptive statistics were used to assess consensus in each round. Setting Online international survey. Participants A purposive sample of 97 potential participants (aiming to recruit n=30) consisting of international research whiplash experts, UK private physiotherapists and UK postgraduate musculoskeletal physiotherapy students were invited to participate via electronic mail with an attached participant information sheet and consent form. Results 36 individuals signed and returned the consent form. In round 1, 32/36 participants (response rate=89%, mean age±SD=36.03±13.22 years) across 8 countries (Australia, Finland, Greece, India, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and UK) contributed to round 1 questionnaire. Response rates were 78% and 75% for rounds 2 and 3, respectively. Following round 3, 12 underlying principles (eg, return to normal function as soon as possible, pain management, encouragement of self-management, reduce fear avoidance and anxiety) achieved consensus. The treatment components reaching consensus included behavioural (eg, education, reassurance, self-management) and physiotherapy components (eg, exercises for stability and mobility). No passive intervention achieved consensus. Conclusions Experts suggested and agreed the underlying principles

  16. Understanding the importance of therapeutic relationships in the development of self-management behaviours during cancer rehabilitation: a qualitative research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rance, Jaynie; Fitzsimmons, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is a growing health, social and economic problem. 1 in 3 people in the UK will develop cancer in their lifetime. With survival rates rising to over 50%, the long-term needs of cancer survivors are of growing importance. Cancer rehabilitation is tailored to address the physical or psychosocial decline in ability to engage in daily activities. Its use is supported by high-quality international, multicentre research. Incorporating strategies for self-management behaviour development into rehabilitation can prepare individuals for cancer survivorship. However, healthcare professionals will need to adjust their therapeutic interactions accordingly. Research is yet to clarify the impact of the therapeutic relationship on rehabilitation outcomes in cancer. This study aims to explore the impact of therapeutic relationships on self-management behaviours after cancer. Methods and analysis This qualitative study aims to understand cancer rehabilitation participants’ beliefs regarding the importance of therapeutic relationships in developing self-management behaviours. A sample representative of a local cancer rehabilitation cohort will be asked to complete a semistructured interview to identify their perspectives on the importance of therapeutic relationships in cancer rehabilitation. Data obtained from the interviews will be analysed, coded and entered into a Delphi questionnaire for circulation to a local cancer rehabilitation population to determine if the views expressed by the interviewees are supported by group consensus. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by Wales Research Ethics Committee 6 (15/WA/0331) in April 2016. Findings will be disseminated through the first author's doctoral thesis; peer-reviewed journals; local, national and international conference presentations; and public events involving research participants and the general public. PMID:28096252

  17. Solution mechanism guide: implementing innovation within a research & development organization.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Kathryn E; Richard, Elizabeth E; Davis, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    In order to create a culture more open to novel problem-solving mechanisms, NASA's Human Health and Performance Directorate (HH&P) created a strategic knowledge management tool that educates employees about innovative problem-solving techniques, the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). The SMG is a web-based, interactive guide that leverages existing and innovative problem-solving methods and presents this information as a unique user experience so that the employee is empowered to make the best decision about which problem-solving tool best meets their needs. By integrating new and innovative methods with existing problem solving tools, the SMG seamlessly introduces open innovation and collaboration concepts within HH&P to more effectively address human health and performance risks. This commentary reviews the path of creating a more open and innovative culture within HH&P and the process and development steps that were taken to develop the SMG.

  18. Developing The Organized Village of Kasaan's Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hamar, Glenn P.

    2013-02-01

    The overall goal of this project is to create a Tribal Energy Action Plan that will serve as the Tribe's blueprint for creating long term energy self sufficiency. The Plan will be developed with input from a committed group of key stakeholders and landowners in the area, will be based on sound data and research, and will address both supply side options of the development of sustainable energy sources, as well as demand-side options for reducing energy consumption. The resulting plan will include defined comprehensive energy strategies and built upon a baseline assessment of where the Tribe currently is in terms of alternative and renewable energy activities; a vision of where the Tribe wants to go; and an action plan of how the Tribe will reach its vision including the identification of viable energy options based on the long-term strategic plan of the Tribe.

  19. Planning for Organization Development in Operations Control Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    team members seated near one another will promote teamwork. The design of the workspace can also encourage the development of a team identity. It...effectiveness and job satisfaction. Varied response formats were used to design the questions. Some questions within each topic area were open-ended, while...other questions required a yes or no response or were designed to have participants rank their opinions from 1 (very low) to 7 (very high). Table 5

  20. [A survey of school teachers' knowledge and behaviour about epilepsy, in a developing country such as Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndour, D; Diop, A G; Ndiaye, M; Niang, C; Sarr, M M; Ndiaye, I P

    2004-03-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders encountered in children of developing countries. In Senegal, as in many other African countries, the disease is enrobed in superstition, discrimination, and stigma. There is a clear-cut lack of information programs in the developing world about seizures and epilepsy. Academic achievement of children with epilepsy is hampered by social barriers in addition to the burden of the disease and its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate teachers'knowledge, awareness, and current attitudes about epilepsy in order to obtain baseline data for the development of a school health education program on epilepsy. The study was carried out in Dakar. It was conducted by sending self-administered and anonymous questionnaires to 400 elementary school teachers; the data were randomly mapped, stratified, and chosen to produce a statistically representative sample of the teacher population of Dakar. The questionnaires contained 22 items related to knowledge of epilepsy, the attitude of teachers towards epilepsy, and their ability to provide first aid in case of seizures. A total of 373 teachers (93p.cent) completed the questionnaires. For 69p.cent, epilepsy arises in the brain, for 28.7p.cent it is a subnatural affliction. Epilepsy was considered to be contagious for 24p.cent and could be cured for 73p.cent. Although 66p.cent would help an epileptic pupil during a seizure, 53p.cent mentioned harmful measures. Eighty-four percent noticed that an epileptic child could go to a normal classroom, while 62.5p.cent would prefer a special school. Eighty-four percent said their knowledge on epilepsy was not sufficient and the majority (99p.cent) desired training on epilepsy. For 25.7p.cent, better collaboration between parents, doctors, and teachers would b helpful to achieve better management of epileptic children. This study demonstrated encouraging knowledge of teachers about epilepsy. However, some of their wrong attitudes may be

  1. Behavioural biologists don't agree on what constitutes behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Levitis, Daniel A.; Lidicker, William Z.; Freund, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural biology is a major discipline within biology, centred on the key concept of `behaviour.' But how is `behaviour' defined, and how should it be defined? We outline what characteristics we believe a scientific definition should have, and why we think it important that a definition have these traits. We then examine the range of available published definitions for the word. Finding no consensus, we present survey responses from 174 members of three behaviour-focused scientific societies as to their understanding of the term. Here again, we find surprisingly widespread disagreement as to what qualifies as behaviour. Respondents contradict themselves, each other, and published definitions, indicating that they are using individually variable intuitive, rather than codified, meanings of `behaviour.' We offer a new definition, based largely on survey responses: “Behaviour is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli, excluding responses more easily understood as developmental changes.” Finally, we discuss the usage, meanings and limitations of this definition. PMID:20160973

  2. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  4. Laminar organization of the early developing anterior hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Caqueret, Aurore; Boucher, Francine; Michaud, Jacques L

    2006-10-01

    The bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1 is required for the development of neurons of the anterior hypothalamus (AH). In order to dissect this developmental program, we compared gene expression in the AH of E12.5 Sim1(+/+) and Sim1(-/-) littermates using an oligonucleotide-based microarray. Our analysis identified 48 genes that were downregulated and 8 genes that were upregulated. We examined the expression pattern of 10 of the identified genes--Cart, Cbln1, Alcam, Unc-13c, Rgs4, Lnx4, Irx3, Sax1, Ldb2 and Neurod6--by in situ hybridization in E12.5 embryos. All of these genes are expressed in domains that are contained within that of Sim1 and their expression is changed in Sim1(-/-) embryos as predicted by the microarray analysis. Classical dating studies have established that the hypothalamus follows an "outside-in" pattern of neurogenesis, with neurons of the lateral hypothalamus being born before the medial ones. Analysis of the genes identified in this microarray study showed that the developing AH is characterized by different layers of gene expression that most likely correspond to distinct waves of neurogenesis. In addition, our analysis suggests that Sim1 function is required for the production or the survival of postmitotic neurons as well as for correct positioning of AH neurons.

  5. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  6. The development of the Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, Nathan E.; Quinn, Richard; Mattioda, Andrew; Bryson, Kathryn; Chittenden, Julie D.; Cook, Amanda; Taylor, Cindy; Minelli, Giovanni; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricco, Antonio J.; Squires, David; Santos, Orlando; Friedericks, Charles; Landis, David; Jones, Nykola C.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Hoffmann, Søren V.

    2012-01-01

    The Space Environment Viability of Organics (SEVO) experiment is one of two scientific payloads aboard the triple-cube satellite Organism/ORganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS). O/OREOS is the first technology demonstration mission of the NASA Astrobiology Small Payloads Program. The 1-kg, 1000-cm3 SEVO cube is investigating the chemical evolution of organic materials in interstellar space and planetary environments by exposing organic molecules under controlled conditions directly to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particle and electromagnetic radiation environment. O/OREOS was launched on November 19, 2010 into a 650-km, 72°-inclination orbit and has a nominal operational lifetime of six months. Four classes of organic compounds, namely an amino acid, a quinone, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and a metallo-porphyrin are being studied. Initial reaction conditions were established by hermetically sealing the thin-film organic samples in self-contained micro-environments. Chemical changes in the samples caused by direct exposure to LEO radiation and by interactions with the irradiated microenvironments are monitored in situ by ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) absorption spectroscopy using a novel compact fixed-grating CCD spectrometer with the Sun as its light source. The goals of the O/OREOS mission include: (1) demonstrating key small satellite technologies that can enable future low-cost astrobiology experiments, (2) deploying a miniature UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer suitable for in-situ astrobiology and other scientific investigations, (3) testing the capability to establish a variety of experimental reaction conditions to enable the study of astrobiological processes on small satellites, and (4) measuring the chemical evolution of organic molecules in LEO under conditions that can be extrapolated to interstellar and planetary environments. In this paper, the science and technology development of the SEVO instrument payload and its

  7. Is there an effect of intranasal insulin on development and behaviour in Phelan-McDermid syndrome? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zwanenburg, Renée J; Bocca, Gianni; Ruiter, Selma A J; Dillingh, Jan H; Flapper, Boudien C T; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A

    2016-01-01

    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) or 22q13.3 deletion syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with at least 60 children and 35 adults diagnosed in the Netherlands. Clinical features are moderate to severe intellectual disability and behavioural problems in the autism spectrum. Other researchers had observed a beneficial effect of intranasal insulin on development and behaviour in a pilot study in six children with PMS. To validate this effect, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a stepped-wedge design. From March 2013 to June 2015, 25 children aged 1–16 years with a molecularly confirmed 22q13.3 deletion including the SHANK3 gene participated in the clinical trial for a period of 18 months. Starting 6 months before the trial, children were systematically assessed for cognitive, language and motor development and for adaptive, social and emotional behaviour every 6 months. The second, third and fourth assessments were followed by daily nose sprays containing either intranasal insulin or intranasal placebo for a 6-month period. A fifth assessment was done directly after the end of the trial. Intranasal insulin did not cause serious adverse events. It increased the level of developmental functioning by 0.4–1.4 months per 6-month period, but the effect was not statistically significant in this small group. We found a stronger effect of intranasal insulin, being significant for cognition and social skills, for children older than 3 years, who usually show a decrease of developmental growth. However, clinical trials in larger study populations are required to prove the therapeutic effect of intranasal insulin in PMS. PMID:27577546

  8. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy. PMID:26101458

  9. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Andrea; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  10. Hox Genes: Choreographers in Neural Development, Architects of Circuit Organization

    PubMed Central

    Philippidou, Polyxeni; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The neural circuits governing vital behaviors, such as respiration and locomotion, are comprised of discrete neuronal populations residing within the brainstem and spinal cord. Work over the past decade has provided a fairly comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways that determine the identity of major neuronal classes within the neural tube. However, the steps through which neurons acquire the subtype diversities necessary for their incorporation into a particular circuit are still poorly defined. Studies on the specification of motor neurons indicate that the large family of Hox transcription factors has a key role in generating the subtypes required for selective muscle innervation. There is also emerging evidence that Hox genes function in multiple neuronal classes to shape synaptic specificity during development, suggesting a broader role in circuit assembly. This review highlights the functions and mechanisms of Hox gene networks, and their multifaceted roles during neuronal specification and connectivity. PMID:24094100

  11. Sleep and Development in Genetically Tractable Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Matthew S; Biron, David

    2016-05-01

    Sleep is widely recognized as essential, but without a clear singular function. Inadequate sleep impairs cognition, metabolism, immune function, and many other processes. Work in genetic model systems has greatly expanded our understanding of basic sleep neurobiology as well as introduced new concepts for why we sleep. Among these is an idea with its roots in human work nearly 50 years old: sleep in early life is crucial for normal brain maturation. Nearly all known species that sleep do so more while immature, and this increased sleep coincides with a period of exuberant synaptogenesis and massive neural circuit remodeling. Adequate sleep also appears critical for normal neurodevelopmental progression. This article describes recent findings regarding molecular and circuit mechanisms of sleep, with a focus on development and the insights garnered from models amenable to detailed genetic analyses.

  12. Hox genes: choreographers in neural development, architects of circuit organization.

    PubMed

    Philippidou, Polyxeni; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2013-10-02

    The neural circuits governing vital behaviors, such as respiration and locomotion, are comprised of discrete neuronal populations residing within the brainstem and spinal cord. Work over the past decade has provided a fairly comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways that determine the identity of major neuronal classes within the neural tube. However, the steps through which neurons acquire the subtype diversities necessary for their incorporation into a particular circuit are still poorly defined. Studies on the specification of motor neurons indicate that the large family of Hox transcription factors has a key role in generating the subtypes required for selective muscle innervation. There is also emerging evidence that Hox genes function in multiple neuronal classes to shape synaptic specificity during development, suggesting a broader role in circuit assembly. This Review highlights the functions and mechanisms of Hox gene networks and their multifaceted roles during neuronal specification and connectivity.

  13. Behavioural responses of freshwater planarians after short-term exposure to the insecticide chlorantraniliprole.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andreia C M; Henriques, Jorge F; Domingues, Inês; Golovko, Oksana; Žlábek, Vladimír; Barata, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Pestana, João L T

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in video tracking technologies provide the tools for a sensitive and reproducible analysis of invertebrate activity under stressful conditions nurturing the field of behavioural ecotoxicology. This study aimed to evaluate behavioural responses of the freshwater planarian Dugesia subtentaculata exposed to a model compound, chlorantraniliprole (CAP). This compound is an anthranilic diamide insecticide and due to its neurotoxic action can, at low concentrations, impair behaviour of exposed organisms. Behavioural endpoints measured included feeding and locomotor activities. Feeding responses were based on planarian predatory behaviour using Chironomus riparius larvae as prey. Locomotion was measured by the traditional planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) assay and additionally using an automated video tracking system using a Zebrabox(®) (Viewpoint, France) device. While feeding and pLMV were significantly impaired at 131.7μg/L CAP, the video tracking system showed that total distance covered by planarians was significantly reduced at concentrations as low as 26.2μg/L CAP. Our results show that more advanced automated video recording systems can be used in the development of sensitive bioassays allowing a reliable, time- and cost-effective quantification of behaviour in aquatic invertebrates. Due to their ecological relevance, behavioural responses should not be disregarded in risk assessment strategies and we advocate the suitability of planarians as suitable organisms for behavioural ecotoxicological studies.

  14. Ultrastructure of the extensively developed nuchal organs of Laonice bahusiensis (Annelida: Canalipalpata: Spionidae).

    PubMed

    Jelsing, Jacob; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny

    2010-03-01

    The nuchal organs of annelid Laonice bahusiensis (Spionidae) from northern Europe have been studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. L. bahusiensis is the first spionid species in which extensively developed, continuous nuchal organs are described. The nuchal organs of this genus are the longest known among polychaete annelids. They consist of paired double bands extending from the prostomium on a mid-dorsal caruncle for about 24-30 setigers. Their microanatomy corresponds to the general structural plan of nuchal organs: there are ciliated supporting cells and bipolar sensory cells with sensory cilia traversing an olfactory chamber. The organs are overlaid by a secondary paving-stone-like cover and innervated by one pair of longitudinally elongated nuchal nerves. These findings clearly favor the hypothesis that the paired, extensively developed ciliated structures found in some Spionidae are homologous with the prostomial nuchal organs characteristic of polychaete annelids.

  15. Development of automatic surveillance of animal behaviour and welfare using image analysis and machine learned segmentation technique.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Herlin, A H; Ardö, H; Guzhva, O; Åström, K; Bergsten, C

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the feasibility to extract the proportion of pigs located in different areas of a pig pen by advanced image analysis technique is explored and discussed for possible applications. For example, pigs generally locate themselves in the wet dunging area at high ambient temperatures in order to avoid heat stress, as wetting the body surface is the major path to dissipate the heat by evaporation. Thus, the portion of pigs in the dunging area and resting area, respectively, could be used as an indicator of failure of controlling the climate in the pig environment as pigs are not supposed to rest in the dunging area. The computer vision methodology utilizes a learning based segmentation approach using several features extracted from the image. The learning based approach applied is based on extended state-of-the-art features in combination with a structured prediction framework based on a logistic regression solver using elastic net regularization. In addition, the method is able to produce a probability per pixel rather than form a hard decision. This overcomes some of the limitations found in a setup using grey-scale information only. The pig pen is a difficult imaging environment because of challenging lighting conditions like shadows, poor lighting and poor contrast between pig and background. In order to test practical conditions, a pen containing nine young pigs was filmed from a top view perspective by an Axis M3006 camera with a resolution of 640 × 480 in three, 10-min sessions under different lighting conditions. The results indicate that a learning based method improves, in comparison with greyscale methods, the possibility to reliable identify proportions of pigs in different areas of the pen. Pigs with a changed behaviour (location) in the pen may indicate changed climate conditions. Changed individual behaviour may also indicate inferior health or acute illness.

  16. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  17. Interweaving Youth Development, Community Development, and Social Change through Youth Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christens, Brian D.; Dolan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing groups that have built coalitions for local change over the past few decades are now involving young people as leaders in efforts to improve quality of life. The current study explores a particularly effective youth organizing initiative through review of organizational documents and collection and analysis of qualitative…

  18. Multilayer Coextrusion of Polymer Composites to Develop Organic Capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Mondy, L.; Mrozek, R.; Rao, R.; Lenhart, J.; Bieg, L.; Spangler, S.; Stavig, M.; Schroeder, J.; Winter, M.; Diantonio, C.; Collins, R.

    2015-05-29

    Multilayer coextrusion is applied to produce a tape containing layers of alternating electrical properties to demonstrate the potential for using coextrusion to manufacture capacitors. To obtain the desired properties, we develop two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers. We describe numerical models used to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability. These models help quantify the critical ratios of densities and viscosities of the two layers to maintain stable layers, as well as the effect of increasing the flow rate of one of the two materials. The conducting polymer is based on polystyrene filled with a blend of low-melting-point eutectic metal and nickel particulate filler, as described by Mrozek et al. (2010). The appropriate concentrations of fillers are determined by balancing measured conductivity with processability in a twin screw extruder. Based on results of the numerical models and estimates of the viscosity of emulsions and suspensions, a dielectric layer composed of polystyrene filled with barium titanate is formulated. Despite the fact that the density of the dielectric filler is less than the metallic filler of the conductive phase, as well as rheological measurements that later showed that the dielectric formulation is not an ideal match to the viscosity of the conductive material, the two materials can be successfully coextruded if the flow rates of the two materials are not identical. A measurable capacitance of the layered structure is obtained.

  19. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  20. New magnetic fluid developed with natural organic compounds biocompatible.

    PubMed

    Santos, J G; Silveira, L B; Fegueredo, P H S; Araújo, B F; Peternele, W S; Rodriguez, A F R; Vilela, E C; Garg, V K; Oliveira, A C; Azevedo, R B; Morais, P C

    2012-06-01

    This work was developed with an aqueous suspension of maghemite nanoparticles and colloidal emulsions with nanoparticles of magnetite. The nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The first was the magnetic emulsion nanoparticles of maghemite dispersed in the aqueous extract obtained from the leaf embauba (Cecropia Obtusifolia), whose tree is native to Central and South America. Thereby achieving the magnetic fluid extract embauba stabilized with ionic buffer solution pH 7.4. A second emulsion was prepared with colloidal magnetite nanoparticles with surfaces previously coated with oleic acid as a means of dispersing and using the oil extracted from in nature seed Andiroba (Carapa Guianensis), tree of the Brazilian Amazon. These new magnetic fluids the nanoparticles were characterized by Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) to determine the coating layer of molecules on the surfaces of nanoparticles. In aqueous ionic magnetic fluid Cecropia Obtusifolia (MFCO) chlorogenic acid contributes to the electron density in the presence of four groups alcohols, a ketone group and a carboxylic group. In magnetic fluid-based oil andiroba MFAD PAS spectra show that oleic acid molecules are tightly linked on the surface of the nanoparticles.

  1. Multilayer Coextrusion of Polymer Composites to Develop Organic Capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Mondy, L.; Mrozek, R.; Rao, R.; ...

    2015-05-29

    Multilayer coextrusion is applied to produce a tape containing layers of alternating electrical properties to demonstrate the potential for using coextrusion to manufacture capacitors. To obtain the desired properties, we develop two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers. We describe numerical models used to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability. These models help quantify the critical ratios of densities and viscosities of the two layers to maintain stable layers, as well as the effect of increasing the flow rate of one of the two materials. The conductingmore » polymer is based on polystyrene filled with a blend of low-melting-point eutectic metal and nickel particulate filler, as described by Mrozek et al. (2010). The appropriate concentrations of fillers are determined by balancing measured conductivity with processability in a twin screw extruder. Based on results of the numerical models and estimates of the viscosity of emulsions and suspensions, a dielectric layer composed of polystyrene filled with barium titanate is formulated. Despite the fact that the density of the dielectric filler is less than the metallic filler of the conductive phase, as well as rheological measurements that later showed that the dielectric formulation is not an ideal match to the viscosity of the conductive material, the two materials can be successfully coextruded if the flow rates of the two materials are not identical. A measurable capacitance of the layered structure is obtained.« less

  2. Control system development for an organic Rankine cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergthold, F. M., Jr.; Fulton, D. G.; Haskins, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a control logic to govern the toluene throttle valve and verify the stability of the speed control approach for multiple engines connected to a 1 MWe point focus solar generator installation for distributed applications is presented. The toluene is is pumped by booster and main feed pumps through a regenerator to the parabolic focus receiver, with the flow rate controlled by a valve to remain at critical level of 4.1 MPa. The valve changes the inlet pressure at the turbine nozzle block. Each concentrator would produce 76 kWth and 20 kWe. Dynamic variables in the logic account for insolation variation, fluid temperature, ac grid voltage, the thermal dynamics of the regenerator, and variations in the head supplied by the feed pump. Separate analyses are presented for the turbine shaft speed and toluene loop dynamics. The resulting logic is considered preliminary and suitable only in full insolation conditions. Extension of the model to nonlinear perturbations is indicated.

  3. Constraints and flexibility in mammalian social behaviour: introduction and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Barrett, Louise; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a Theme Issue presenting the latest developments in research on the interplay between flexibility and constraint in social behaviour, using comparative datasets, long-term field studies and experimental data from both field and laboratory studies of mammals. We first explain our focus on mammals and outline the main components of their social systems, focusing on variation within- and among-species in numerous aspects of social organization, mating system and social structure. We then review the current state of primarily ultimate explanations of this diversity in social behaviour. We approach the question of how and why the balance between behavioural flexibility and continuity is achieved by discussing the genetic, developmental, ecological and social constraints on hypothetically unlimited behavioural flexibility. We introduce the other contributions to this Theme Issue against this background and conclude that constraints are often crucial to the evolution and expression of behavioural flexibility. In exploring these issues, the enduring relevance of Tinbergen's seminal paper ‘On aims and methods in ethology’, with its advocacy of an integrative, four-pronged approach to studying behaviour becomes apparent: an exceptionally fitting tribute on the 50th anniversary of its publication. PMID:23569286

  4. Where is behavioural ecology going?

    PubMed

    Owens, Ian P F

    2006-07-01

    Since the 1990s, behavioural ecologists have largely abandoned some traditional areas of interest, such as optimal foraging, but many long-standing challenges remain. Moreover, the core strengths of behavioural ecology, including the use of simple adaptive models to investigate complex biological phenomena, have now been applied to new puzzles outside behaviour. But this strategy comes at a cost. Replication across studies is rare and there have been few tests of the underlying genetic assumptions of adaptive models. Here, I attempt to identify the key outstanding questions in behavioural ecology and suggest that researchers must make greater use of model organisms and evolutionary genetics in order to make substantial progress on these topics.

  5. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Functional Literacy and Corporate Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Margison, Judith Ann

    This paper examines the conception of functional literacy advanced by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a 29-member organization of leading industrialized countries, as part of its 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). The paper suggests that embedded within this conception of literacy and the discourse…

  6. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  7. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  8. Evolutionary variation in neural gene expression in the developing sense organs of the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Klann, Marleen; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2017-04-01

    Arthropods have numerous sense organs, which are adapted to their habitat. While some sense organs are similar in structure and function in all arthropod groups, structural differences in functionally related sense organs have been described, as well as the absence of particular sense organ subtypes in individual arthropod groups. Here we address the question of how the diverse structures of arthropod sense organs have evolved by analysing the underlying molecular developmental processes in a crustacean, an arthropod group that has been neglected so far. We have investigated the development of four types of chemo- and mechanosensory sense organs in the branchiopod Daphnia magna (Cladocera) that either cannot be found in arthropods other than crustaceans or represent adaptations to an aquatic environment. The formation of the sensory organ precursors shows greater similarity to the arthropod taxa Chelicerata and Myriapoda than to the more closely related insects. All analysed sense organ types co-express the proneural genes ASH and atonal regardless of their structure and function. In contrast, in Drosophila melanogaster, ASH and atonal expression does not overlap and the genes confer different sense organ subtype identities. We performed experimental co-expression studies in D. melanogaster and found that the combinatorial expression of ato and ASH can change the external structure of sense organs. Our results indicate a central role for ASH and Atonal family members in the emergence of structural variations in arthropod sense organs.

  9. Development of a 44K SNP assay focussing on the analysis of a varroa-specific defence behaviour in honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    PubMed

    Spötter, A; Gupta, P; Nürnberg, G; Reinsch, N; Bienefeld, K

    2012-03-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a number of damaging pathogens and parasites. The most destructive among them, affecting mainly the brood, is Varroa destructor. A promising approach to prevent its spread is to breed for Varroa-tolerant honey bees. A trait that has been shown to provide significant resistance against the Varroa mite is hygienic behaviour, a behavioural response of honey bee workers to brood diseases in general. This study reports the development of a 44K SNP assay, specifically designed for the analysis of hygienic behaviour of individual worker bees (Apis mellifera carnica) directed against V. destructor. Initially, 70,000 SNPs chosen from a large set of SNPs published by the Honey Bee Genome Project were validated for their suitability in the analysis of the Varroa resistance trait 'uncapping of Varroa-infested brood'. This was achieved by genotyping of pooled DNA samples of trait bearers and two trait-negative controls using next-generation sequencing. Approximately 36,000 of these validated SNPs and another 8000 SNPs not validated in this study were selected for the construction of a SNP assay. This assay will be employed in following experiments to analyse individualized DNA samples in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the control of the investigated trait and to evaluate and possibly confirm QTL found in other studies. However, this assay is not just suitable to study Varroa tolerance, it is as well applicable to analyse any other trait in honey bees. In addition, because of its high density, this assay provides access into genomic selection with respect to several traits considered in honey bee breeding. It will become publicly available via AROS Applied Biotechnology AS, Aarhus, Denmark, before the end of the year 2011.

  10. Investigation and correlation of physical stability, dissolution behaviour and interaction parameter of amorphous solid dispersions of telmisartan: a drug development perspective.

    PubMed

    Dukeck, R; Sieger, P; Karmwar, P

    2013-07-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate if amorphous solid dispersions of telmisartan, prepared in presence of different polymers, exhibit different structural and thermodynamic characteristics and whether these differences can be correlated to their physical stability (time to crystallisation) and dissolution behaviour. Amorphous samples were prepared by melt quenching. The resulting amorphous materials were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All freshly prepared samples were completely X-ray amorphous (with a halo being the only feature in the diffractograms). The shape of the halos in the diffractograms varied suggesting structural variations in the near order of the molecules between the different amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Principal component analysis of the Raman spectra of the various ASD revealed that the samples clustered in the scores plot, again suggesting structural differences due to the presence of different drug-polymer interaction. The ranking of the samples with respect to physical stability and interaction parameter was: ASD of telmisartan:eudragit>ASD of telmisartan:soluplus>ASD of telmisartan:HPMC>ASD of telmisartan:PVP>amorphous telmisartan. The interaction parameter, calculated by using the Flory Huggins theory, showed a good correlation with the experimentally determined stability whereas a weak correlation was found with dissolution behaviour of different ASD. This study showed that correlation of physical stability and dissolution behaviour with calculated interaction parameter is possible for the same amorphous systems prepared by using different polymers. This could aid in selecting the most appropriate polymer for the development of optimised formulations containing amorphous drugs. It can be concluded that ASD prepared by using different polymers have different structural and thermal properties. These differences affect the physical stability and dissolution

  11. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  12. Leaching behaviour of wood treated with creosote.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Matuschek, G; Lenoir, D; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The results of a laboratory investigation on the leaching behaviour of wood treated with creosote and of untreated wood are reported. A special leaching test derived from the German standard method DEV S4 test (DIN 38414) has been developed. Samples were leached in deionized water, in a solution buffered at pH 4.7 and in a solution of humic substances. The organic fraction of the leachate was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction. The extracts were analysed qualitatively with GC/MSD and quantified with GC/FID. The results were compared with those of Soxhlet-extracts from creosote-treated wood.

  13. The Journal of Staff, Program, & Organization Development, Volume 4, Numbers 1-4, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Gordon E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    These four issues of "The Journal of Staff, Program, and Organization Development" contain the following articles: "A Theory of Effectiveness: Faculty Development Case Studies," by Ronald Smith and Fred Schwartz; "Career Goals of Faculty," by Mary Deane Sorcinelli; "Effects of a Staff Development Center," by Donna Nickel; "Distinguished Teaching…

  14. Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…

  15. Succession planning and leadership development: critical business strategies for healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2007-01-01

    As labor shortages intensify, succession planning and leadership development have become strategic initiatives requiring rigorous consideration. Traditional methods of replacing personnel will not accommodate the vacancies expected to plague healthcare organizations. Managers should focus on identifying potential gaps of key personnel and adapting programs to accommodate organizational need. Attention should be placed on capturing the intellectual capital existent in the organization and developing diverse groups of leadership candidates.

  16. The Study and Development of Metal Oxide Reactive Adsorbents for the Destruction of Toxic Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    exposure of personnel and systems to chemical warfare agents and other toxic organic compounds. The research program that was developed built upon earlier...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-04-1-0377 406038 Form Approved OMB NO. 0704...of the exposure of personnel and systems to chemical warfare agents and other toxic organic compounds. The research program that was developed

  17. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  18. Behavioural phenotypes over the lifetime of a holometabolous insect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioural traits can differ considerably between individuals, and such differences were found to be consistent over the lifetime of an organism in several species. Whether behavioural traits of holometabolous insects, which undergo a metamorphosis, are consistent across ontogeny is virtually unexplored. We investigated several behavioural parameters at five different time points in the lifetime of the holometabolous mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two times in the larval (second and third larval stage) and three times in the adult stage. We investigated 1) the stability of the behavioural phenotype (population level), 2) whether individuals rank consistently across behavioural traits and over their lifetime (individual level), and 3) in how far behavioural traits are correlated with the developmental time of the individuals. Results: We identified two behavioural dimensions in every life stage of P. cochleariae, activity and boldness (population level). Larvae and young adults ranked consistently across the investigated behavioural traits, whereas consistency over time was only found in adults but not between larvae and adults (individual level). Compared to adult beetles, larvae were less active. Moreover, younger larvae were bolder than all subsequent life stages. Over the adult lifetime of the beetles, males were less active than females. Furthermore, the activity of second instar larvae was significantly negatively correlated with the development time. Conclusions: Our study highlights that, although there is no individual consistency over the larval and the adult life stage, the behavioural clustering shows similar patterns at all tested life stages of a holometabolous insect. Nevertheless, age- and sex-specific differences in behavioural traits occur which may be explained by different challenges an individual faces at each life stage. These differences are presumably related to the tremendous changes in

  19. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P.; Kuske, C.; Willardson, B.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  20. Development and psychometric testing of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing scale.

    PubMed

    Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna; Ramjan, Lucie; Chang, Sungwon

    2017-01-19

    The aim of the present study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Attitudes, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioural Control, and Intention to Pursue a Career in Mental Health Nursing (ASPIRE) scale, an instrument to assess nursing students' intention to work in mental health nursing. Understanding the factors influencing undergraduate nursing students' career intentions might lead to improved recruitment strategies. However, there are no standardized tools to measure and assess students' intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing. The present study used a cross-sectional survey design undertaken at a large tertiary institution in Western Sydney (Australia) between May and August 2013. It comprised three distinct and sequential phases: (i) items were generated representing the four dimensions of the theory of planned behaviour; (ii) face and content validity were tested by a representative reference group and panel of experts; and (iii) survey data from 1109 first- and second-year and 619 third-year students were used in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the scale. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Items generated for the ASPIRE scale were subject to face and content validity testing. Results showed good factorial validity and reliability for the final 14-item scale. Principal axis factoring revealed a one-factor solution, the hypothesized model being supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The ASPIRE scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring intention to pursue a career in mental health nursing among Bachelor of Nursing students.