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Sample records for organochlorine compounds ddts

  1. [Residues and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides DDTs in Soil of Linyi City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Zeng-hui; Wang, Hong-jin; Dai, Jie-rui; Pang, Xu-gui; Zhao, Xi-qiang; Liu, Hua-feng

    2015-07-01

    Surface soil samples were collected every 36 km2 from Linyi City to study the residues, composition and origin, influencing factors, spatial distribution and environment quality characteristics of soil DDTs. Measurements were taken for DDTs, OrgC, N, etc. for all samples. The results indicated that the detectable rate of DDTs was 71. 75%, and the mean content of DDTs was 0. 035 µg.g-1. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were the predominant contaminant compounds, with mean concentrations of 0.033 µg.g-1 and 0.010 µg.g-1, and accounted for 60. 99% and 34. 62% of the detectable samples, respectively. The degradation rate of DDTs suggested that 58% surface soils were recently inputted, these newly inputted locations were especially distributed in the middle to south of the study area, meanwhile, p,p'-DDD/p,p'-DDE revealed that the degradation of DDTs was mainly under oxidizing condition, and o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT illustrated that 71. 37% DDTs in soils of the study area were concerned with technical DDTs sources. Besides, the correlation, analysis showed that the external factors affecting the distribution of DDTs included OrgC, N, C and pH etc. and the higher the p, p'-DDT proportion of DDTs, the greater the effect. The distribution of DDTs had an obvious point source characteristic, and significant concentration centers were located nearby the cities and counties, typically, the DDTs concentrations of middle to southern area were much higher. However, DDTs environmental quality assessment suggested that the pollution level was relatively low, and the soil was mainly classified into grade I or II, which accounted for 78. 95% and 21. 05% of the whole study area, respectively. PMID:26489336

  2. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26896161

  3. Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

    2014-02-15

    Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in μg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

  4. Health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides with emphasis on DDTs and HCHs in abandoned agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Chow, Ka Lai; Wang, Hong Sheng; Lau, Ka Yan; Sun, Xiao Lin; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing land use from agriculture land to other use purposes with respect to OCPs non-cancer and cancer risk on human health, based on concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in soils collected from 55 locations representing 12 different land use types. There were no non-cancer risks of DDTs and γ-HCHs on adults and children, and there were very low cancer risks of DDD, o,p'-DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH based on their total concentrations in all samples. Nonetheless, there were significant correlations of DDT to its metabolites (DDE and DDD) (r = 0.506 and r = 0.648) and DDE to DDD (r = 0.438) both at p < 0.01. OCP levels should be routinely monitored in different environmental media and food in order to verify whether there is fresh input. Their potential risks on human health should also be assessed.

  5. Reconstruction of organochlorine compound inputs in the Tagus Prodelta.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Vicente, Maria; Grimalt, Joan O; Micaelo, Cristina; Abrantes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Twenty century time-resolved variability of riverine deposits of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in three (210)Pb dated sediment cores collected in a depositional shelf area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (the Tagus Prodelta). The geographic and temporal distribution patterns were consistent with discharge of these organochlorine compounds (OCs) in the area associated with the Tagus mouth. Their concentrations were not correlated with the sedimentary total organic carbon. The PCB down-core profiles were dominated by CB138 and CB153 (hexa-CBs) congeners followed by CB180 (hepta-CBs). Principal Component Analysis of the congener distributions of these compounds did not define temporal down-core trends. The ratios of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT) were consistent with recent DDT inputs into the environment and/or earlier applications and long-term residence in soils/sediments until these were eroded and remobilized. PMID:26210675

  6. Organochlorine and organobromine compounds in a benthic fish (Solea solea) from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia): implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, Walid; El Megdiche, Yassine; Eljarrat, Ethel; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Badreddine, Barhoumi; Souad, Trabelsi; Bèchir, Hammami; Barceló, Damia; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Information on the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish from Tunisia is scarce. In this study, thirty one persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (dichlorodihenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in solea solea muscle, from Bizerte Lagoon (northern Tunisia) and from the Mediterranean Sea (reference area) (northern Mediterranean). In the Bizerte Lagoon, contaminant concentrations generally followed this order: PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>MeO-PBDEs>HCB>HCHs; while in the Mediterranean Sea, pollutant concentration followed this order: MeO-PBDEs>PCBs>DDTs>PBDEs>HCB>HCHs. Mean levels of organochlorine compounds were 1018 and 380 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw) in fish from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Mean concentrations of organobromine compounds were 279 and 301 ng g(-1) lw in sole from Bizerte Lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Organohalogen concentrations in fish from Bizerte Lagoon were similar or slightly lower than those reported for other marine fish species from other locations around the world. PCB, HCH, HCB and PBDE levels were negatively correlated with lipid content, while no such correlation was seen for DDTs. Assessment based on several available guidelines suggested an insignificant human health risk for dietary intake of HCB, lindane and PBDEs associated with consumption of sole. However, the estimated lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to DDTs and PCBs is a potential concern. PMID:23219662

  7. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs.

  8. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs. PMID:27367176

  9. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): III. Hair as an indicator of endogenous organochlorine compound concentrations.

    PubMed

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine persistent pollutants were investigated in tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to characterize organochlorine compound tissue distribution and tissue profile dissimilarities (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue). The most important contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), and DDTs, with median concentrations of 75, 5.1, and 1.4 ng/g liver wet weight, respectively. Median levels for the remaining compounds-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and octachlorostyrene-were less than 0.5 ng/g liver wet weight. Compared to results with other mammalian wildlife, the present results indicate that hedgehogs may accumulate considerable concentrations of organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls and HCB preferably accumulated in liver and muscle tissue. Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were highest in muscle tissue and hair, respectively. Octachlorostyrene and CHL levels were predominant in liver. The observed positive relationships between concentrations in hair and internal tissues for PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, and CHLs (0.49 < r < 0.91) and for several individual PCB, DDT, and CHL compounds (0.31 < r < 0.76) indicate the usefulness of hair as a biomonitoring tool of organochlorine compounds. Multivariate profile analyses revealed a higher dominance of less-persistent compounds (p,p'-DDT, alpha-HCH, and PCBs 95, 101, and 149) in hair compared to internal tissues. The present study demonstrates the suitability of hedgehog hair as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool regarding pollution with organochlorine compounds and the promising role of the hedgehog as a mammalian indicator species of pollution in terrestrial environments.

  10. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  11. Contamination by organochlorine compounds in the edible tissue of four sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Behrooz, Reza Dahmardeh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Tahergorabi, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin; Feás, Xesús

    2008-10-01

    This study focused on accumulation of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulation in the muscle of four sturgeon (Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus; Stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus; Ship sturgeon, Acipenser nudiventris and Beluga sturgeon, Huso huso) from the southern Caspian Sea. The DDT group was prominent in all of the sturgeon muscle tested constituting almost half or more of the total organochlorine content. Contaminant concentration generally followed this order: DDTs>PCBs>HCHs>HCB. The OCs concentrations in Beluga sturgeon (H. huso) were the highest and over four times higher than in the next highest species (A. nudiventris). From an ecotoxicological point of view, the concentrations of OCs in experimental fishes do not reflect a comparatively clean and pollution-free environment; however, results from this study shown that the inflow of organic pollutants into the Caspian Sea has been reduced when compared with prior studies. Levels of measured OCs in sturgeon were relatively low, but the level of some OCs in some of the specimens tested exceeded the guidelines for food; therefore, the maximum allowable daily consumption rate for sturgeon from this watershed may be limited by DDTs and PCBs content for high risk populations.

  12. Influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments.

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2016-02-01

    The composition of organochlorine compounds (OCs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), has been analyzed in eggs from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and little egret (Egretta garzetta), two species of herons (family Ardeidae), nesting at the same remote riverine environment (Aiguabarreig, Ebro River). These two species were selected to evaluate the importance of diet in the accumulation of OCs. Cattle egret essentially feeds on dry grassy habitats and follow cattle or other large animals whereas little egret feeds on fish, amphibians and crustaceans captured in shallow waters. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C isotopic composition of the sampled eggs was studied and the results were consistent with these species feeding habits. In both species, the compounds accumulated the most were the less volatile and more lipophilic, e.g. PCB congeners of higher chlorination, DDT and metabolites. The distinct foraging species preferences were reflected in significant higher concentrations in little egret than cattle egret of all pollutant groups analysed. These differences were statistically significant for DDTs and PCBs (p < 0.015 and p < 0.047, respectively), e.g. the p,p'-DDE and PCB concentrations were 6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively, in the former than the latter. This strong contrast indicates that in remote environments aquatic riverine ecosystems are more efficient OC reservoirs than the terrestrial ecosystem.

  13. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded California sea lions, elephant seals, and harbor seals from coastal California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, N; Kannan, K; Muraoka, M; Watanabe, M; Takahashi, S; Gulland, F; Olsen, H; Blankenship, A L; Jones, P D; Tanabe, S; Giesy, J P

    2001-07-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT), chlordanes (CHLs; cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and mono- (MBT), di-(DBT), and tri-butyltin (TBT) were determined in blubber and livers of 15 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 6 northern elephant seals (Mirounga augustirostris), and 10 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) found stranded along the coasts of California, USA, during 1991-1997. Among the organochlorines analyzed, DDTs were predominant, followed in decreasing order by PCBs, CHLs, TCPMe, TCPMOH, HCHs, and HCB. The greatest concentrations of organochlorines were found in California sea lions. The highest DDT and PCB concentrations found in the blubber of California sea lions were 2,900 and 1,300 microg/g, lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in California sea lions were correlated significantly with DDT concentrations. Concentration ratios of various organochlorines in harbor seal livers were different from those in California sea lions and elephant seals, which suggested that the sources of exposure of harbor seals to organochlorines were different from those in the other two species. Concentrations of butyltin compounds in livers of pinniped species ranged from 2 to 99 ng/g, wet weight, which were less than those observed in cetaceans and in California sea otters. PMID:11385594

  15. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs.

  16. Are Biometric Parameters Helpful to Assess the Health Risk of Consuming Organochlorine Compounds Contaminated Silver European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)?

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria C; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Meli, Rosaria; Clausi, Maria T

    2016-04-01

    Several organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in European eels from the Tevere river (Italy). It followed that some of them are still important chemical contaminants. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are hazardous for the consumer health; those of the 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often close to the current European maximum residue limit and always higher than the former limit. The relationship between OC concentrations, biometric parameters and the lipid content was then investigated. A strong positive correlation with eel size emerged for the indicator PCBs and DDTs concentrations expressed on wet weight basis. This is explained by the corresponding higher lipid percentage that characterizes bigger eels and the absence of a dilution effect for compounds of main concerns. On the basis of the PCB-TDI threshold for a 70 kg person, we suggest that 1 should consume no more than 2 eels per week each weighing about 100 g. Thus, we conclude that eel consumption should be limited and restricted to eels relatively shorter and lighter.

  17. Are Biometric Parameters Helpful to Assess the Health Risk of Consuming Organochlorine Compounds Contaminated Silver European Eel (Anguilla anguilla)?

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria C; Fusco, Giovanna; Naccari, Clara; Meli, Rosaria; Clausi, Maria T

    2016-04-01

    Several organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in European eels from the Tevere river (Italy). It followed that some of them are still important chemical contaminants. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) are hazardous for the consumer health; those of the 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often close to the current European maximum residue limit and always higher than the former limit. The relationship between OC concentrations, biometric parameters and the lipid content was then investigated. A strong positive correlation with eel size emerged for the indicator PCBs and DDTs concentrations expressed on wet weight basis. This is explained by the corresponding higher lipid percentage that characterizes bigger eels and the absence of a dilution effect for compounds of main concerns. On the basis of the PCB-TDI threshold for a 70 kg person, we suggest that 1 should consume no more than 2 eels per week each weighing about 100 g. Thus, we conclude that eel consumption should be limited and restricted to eels relatively shorter and lighter. PMID:26953718

  18. Risk to breeding success of fish-eating Ardeids due to persistent organic contaminants in Hong Kong: evidence from organochlorine compounds in eggs.

    PubMed

    Connell, D W; Fung, C N; Minh, T B; Tanabe, S; Lam, P K S; Wong, B S F; Lam, M H W; Wong, L C; Wu, R S S; Richardson, B J

    2003-01-01

    Eggs of two Ardeid species, the Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), were collected from two egretries located in the New Territories of Hong Kong with one located near the internationally acclaimed wetland reserve, the Mai Po Marshes, and the other in a remote site (A Chau). The eggs were analysed for organochlorine (OC) compounds including the DDTs, PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and the chlordanes (CHLs). All of the OCs under investigation were detected in the eggs of both species with significantly higher levels in the Little Egret (DDTs, 560-2200; PCBs, 270-1700; CHLs, 81-470 ng g(-1) wet weight) than the Night Heron (DDTs, 210-1200; PCBs, 85-600; CHLs 59-75 ng g(-1) wet weight). The DDTs consisted mainly of DDE with levels ranging from 85% to 95% of the total. The HCHs were at about the same levels in both species (8.4-30 ng g(-1) wet weight). All of the OCs had linear concentration probability distributions on a log-normal basis which were used to evaluate exposure associated with these compounds as part of a probabilistic risk analysis. A linear dose/response relationship for the percentage reduction in the survival of young associated with DDE in eggs was developed. This probabilistic relationship was used to establish the threshold level (1000 ng g(-1) wet weight) at which there was a significant level of reduction in the survival of young above zero and the variability in DDE concentrations at this effect level. Using a threshold level of 1000 ng g(-1), the calculated Risk Quotient (RQ) had a 12.4% probability of RQ exceeding unity with the Night Heron, and 40.9% with the Little Egret. These results indicate that the DDTs in eggs would be expected to be associated with adverse effects on the survival of young of both species, particularly the Little Egret.

  19. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  20. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment.

  1. Residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Bunck, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Starlings were collected for the National Pesticides Monitoring Program from 112 sites throughout the contiguous United States and analyzed for organochlorine compounds. Starling samples from 14 sites had greater than 1.0 ppm DDE residues with the highest DDE level being 15.8 ppm in a sample taken near Roswell, New Mexico. The occurrence of PCBs and chlordane isomers increased since the 1976 collection, but DDT, and dieldrin occurrences decreased. DDE and dieldrin levels decreased since the 1976 collection, but the level of PCBs has increased

  2. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

  3. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. In the present work, those compounds were analysed in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the austral summers of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The compounds found in higher levels (in a wet weight basis) were, in most of the egg samples, the PCBs (2.53-78.7 ng g(-1)), DDTs (2.07-38.0 ng g(-1)) and HCB (4.99-39.1 ng g(-1)) and after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in Arctic birds in a similar trophic level. The krill samples analysis allowed estimating the biomagnification factors (which resulted in up to 363 for HCB, one order of magnitude higher than DDTs and chlordanes and two orders of magnitude higher than the other groups) of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer.

  4. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in Euphausia superba and unhatched eggs of Pygoscelis genus penguins from Admiralty Bay (King George Island, Antarctica) and estimation of biomagnification factors.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides are compounds that do not occur naturally in the environment and are not easily degraded by chemical or microbiological action. In the present work, those compounds were analysed in unhatched penguin eggs and whole krill collected in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the austral summers of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. The compounds found in higher levels (in a wet weight basis) were, in most of the egg samples, the PCBs (2.53-78.7 ng g(-1)), DDTs (2.07-38.0 ng g(-1)) and HCB (4.99-39.1 ng g(-1)) and after Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, the occurrence seemed to be species-specific for the Pygoscelis genus. In all of the cases, the levels found were not higher than the ones in Arctic birds in a similar trophic level. The krill samples analysis allowed estimating the biomagnification factors (which resulted in up to 363 for HCB, one order of magnitude higher than DDTs and chlordanes and two orders of magnitude higher than the other groups) of the compounds found in eggs, whose only source of contamination is the female-offspring transfer. PMID:19917513

  5. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sourthern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, H.; Kannan, K.; Jing, L.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT), HCHs (α-, β-, γ-isomers), chlordanes (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor and oxychlordane) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA, during 1992–96. The contamination pattern of organochlorines in sea otters from several locations was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > > CHLs > HCHs > > HCB, whereas those from Monterey Harbor contained greater concentrations of PCBs than of DDTs. Hepatic concentrations of PCBs and DDTs were in the ranges of 58–8700 and 280–5900 ng/g, wet weight, respectively, which varied depending on the geographic location. Sea otters collected from Monterey Harbor contained the greatest concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. In general, accumulation of DDTs, CHLs and PCBs was greater in kidney than in liver, whereas that of HCHs was similar in both the tissues. The gender difference in organochlorine concentrations was less than those reported in cetaceans. The composition of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs compounds in sea otter tissues indicated no recent inputs of these compounds in coastal California. Sea otters that died from infectious diseases, neoplasia and emaciation contained higher concentrations of DDTs than those that died from trauma.

  6. Organochlorines and dioxin-like compounds in green-lipped mussels Perna viridis from Hong Kong mariculture zones.

    PubMed

    So, M K; Zhang, X; Giesy, J P; Fung, C N; Fong, H W; Zheng, J; Kramer, M J; Yoo, H; Lam, P K S

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-like compounds were measured in green-lipped mussels, Perna viridis, collected from seven mariculture zones in Hong Kong between September and October in 2002 in order to evaluate the status, spatial distribution and potential sources of pollution in these areas. Concentrations ranged from 300 to 4400 ng/g lipid weight for total OCs and 170-1000 ng/g lipid weight for total PCBs (based on 28 congeners). Relatively smaller DDT concentrations in mussels compared with previous studies suggest reduced discharges of DDTs from nearby regions into Hong Kong waters. Detection of a mixture of HCH isomers in the mussels indicated that Hong Kong waters were predominantly contaminated by technical HCHs rather than lindane. Mussel samples from all sampling locations elicited significant dioxin-like activity in the H4IIE-luc bioassay. The greatest magnitude of dioxin-like response (39 pg TEQ/g wet wt.) was detected in mussels from Ma Wan in the western waters of Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the Pearl River discharge. Human health risk assessment was undertaken to evaluate potential risks associated with the consumption of the green-lipped mussels. Risk quotient (RQ) for dioxin-like compounds was greater than unity suggesting that adverse health effects may be associated with high mussel consumption. PMID:16023147

  7. Organochlorine compounds in trout from lakes over a 1600 meter elevation gradient in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Demers, Marc J; Kelly, Erin N; Blais, Jules M; Pick, Frances R; St Louis, Vincent L; Schindler, David W

    2007-04-15

    The effect of altitude on the concentration and composition of organochlorine compounds (OC) in troutwas investigated along an elevation gradient of 1600 m in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The eight lakes sampled were within or adjacent to national parks in sparsely settled parts of Alberta and British Columbia, thus contaminants were assumed to have derived from long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of several OCs in trout increased significantly with lake elevation. In general, these increases were most pronounced for the higher K(ow) pesticides (i.e., dieldrin and DDTs), and less pronounced for lower K(ow) pesticides (e.g., HCHs and HCB) and PCBs. Most OC concentrations in trout were inversely correlated with fish growth rate. Growth rate explained more of the variation for some OCs (particularly PCBs) than lake elevation. Differences in trophic position (indicated by delta15N) explained little of the variation in OC concentration in comparison to other factors such as lake elevation and the growth rate and age of trout. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified the importance of lake elevation and octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) to the OC composition of trout.

  8. Organochlorine compounds in trout from lakes over a 1600 meter elevation gradient in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Demers, Marc J; Kelly, Erin N; Blais, Jules M; Pick, Frances R; St Louis, Vincent L; Schindler, David W

    2007-04-15

    The effect of altitude on the concentration and composition of organochlorine compounds (OC) in troutwas investigated along an elevation gradient of 1600 m in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The eight lakes sampled were within or adjacent to national parks in sparsely settled parts of Alberta and British Columbia, thus contaminants were assumed to have derived from long-range atmospheric transport. Concentrations of several OCs in trout increased significantly with lake elevation. In general, these increases were most pronounced for the higher K(ow) pesticides (i.e., dieldrin and DDTs), and less pronounced for lower K(ow) pesticides (e.g., HCHs and HCB) and PCBs. Most OC concentrations in trout were inversely correlated with fish growth rate. Growth rate explained more of the variation for some OCs (particularly PCBs) than lake elevation. Differences in trophic position (indicated by delta15N) explained little of the variation in OC concentration in comparison to other factors such as lake elevation and the growth rate and age of trout. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we identified the importance of lake elevation and octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) to the OC composition of trout. PMID:17533830

  9. Distribution of some organochlorine compounds (PCB, CBz, and DDE) in beeswax and honey

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, J.; Cerne, K.

    1993-11-01

    Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

  11. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in starlings from 126 sites within the contiguous 48 states were monitored during fall 1976. The average nationwide level of DDE and PCBs has increased significantly since 1974, but the number of sites reporting PCB residues has decreased fivefold. Dieldrin residues have remained unchanged since 1974. Highest DDE levels occurred in samples from parts of Arizona, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang

    2011-11-01

    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region. PMID:21952469

  13. Cord serum immunoglobulin E related to the environmental contamination of human placentas with organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Reichrtová, E; Ciznár, P; Prachar, V; Palkovicová, L; Veningerová, M

    1999-01-01

    Allergic diseases are on the rise in both prevalence and severity, especially in industrialized countries. The process of allergic sensitization needs an understanding of the role environmental factors play in its development. In addition to traditionally considered air pollutants, various persistent organochlorine pollutants, which accumulate in the human body over a lifetime via food intake, are toxic in humans. Placental contamination by chemicals may act as a biologic marker for the exposure of the mother or for the fetus via transplacental transfer. Placentas were collected from term deliveries in two Slovak regions. The samples were then analyzed for 21 selected organochlorine compounds. Specimens of cord blood from 2,050 neonates were gathered for the determination of levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE). The regions were chosen according to their environmental characteristics: a city polluted with organic chemical industry versus a rural region devoid of industrial sources of pollution. In addition, data regarding the incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the regions were considered. Comparisons between regions revealed that both the placental contamination with 16 of 21 organochlorine compounds and the cord serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the industrial region. The findings pointed to an association between organochlorine compounds and the higher levels of total IgE in newborns, signaling a higher allergic sensitization in the industrial region. This association was supported by the higher incidence rate of atopic eczema cases in the population registered in the industrial region. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544157

  14. Organochlorine compounds in ice melt water from Italian Alpine rivers.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Finizio, Antonio; Flora, Onelio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemicals (OCs) (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and hexachlorobenzene) were measured in ice melt water from five glaciers in the Italian Alps. Even though the data collected may not be sufficient for a precise description of persistent organic pollutant release patterns from glacier melting, they have, however, highlighted the potential for surface water contamination. Concentrations were of the same order of magnitude in all glacial streams, indicating comparable contamination levels in different glaciers of the alpine region. OC levels in nonglacial springs sampled in the same areas are usually lower. Even if differences during the melting season (from spring to autumn) have been identified, a regular seasonal pattern in OC concentrations was not observed. Risk for the aquatic environment is excluded through direct water exposure, but it is likely to occur through biomagnification and secondary poisoning exposure.

  15. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  16. Circumpolar maternal blood contaminant survey, 1994-1997 organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Van Oostdam, J C; Dewailly, E; Gilman, A; Hansen, J C; Odland, J O; Chashchin, V; Berner, J; Butler-Walker, J; Lagerkvist, B J; Olafsdottir, K; Soininen, L; Bjerregard, P; Klopov, V; Weber, J P

    2004-09-01

    During the past 20 years a number of studies have found neurological and immunological effects in the developing fetus and infants exposed to background or only slightly elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To address concerns arising from possible increased human exposure in the Arctic and possible effects of POPs, all circumpolar countries agreed in 1994 to monitoring of specific human tissues for contaminants in the Arctic under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP). Mothers in eight circumpolar countries contributed blood samples that were analysed at a single laboratory for 14 PCB congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 99, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183, 187) and 13 organochlorine pesticides (aldrin, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), diphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, heptachlorepoxide, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, and the chlordane derivatives alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor). Inuit mothers from Greenland and Canada have significantly higher levels of oxychlordane, transnonachlor and mirex than mothers from Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Russia. Inuit mothers from Greenland also have significantly higher levels of these contaminants than Inuit mothers from Canada and Alaska. These differences among Inuit groups may represent regional dietary preferences or different contaminant deposition patterns across the Arctic. Levels of PCBs are also elevated among some arctic populations due to their consumption of marine mammals and are in the range where subtle effects on learning and the immune system have been reported. The Russian mothers who consume mainly food imported from southern Russia have elevated levels of DDT, DDE, beta-HCH and a higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCB congeners. This study has allowed an assessment of the variation of contaminants such as PCBs and

  17. Heavy metal and organochlorine compound concentrations in tissues of raccoons from east-central Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.B.; Peterle, T.J. )

    1990-02-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and related compounds and heavy metals are persistent contaminants in the environment. Bioconcentration and biomagnification are well reported for organochlorine compounds. These compounds have a great potential for causing wildlife mortality or serious behavioral, reproductive, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects, along with specific organ toxicity. The pervasive nature of toxic substances in the environment necessitates some knowledge for potential exposure of wildlife species. Without baseline values of contaminant loads for selected indicator species it is impossible to determine when abnormal or pathological conditions exist in wild populations. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline values for selected environmental contaminants in the raccoon (Procyon lotor), a potential indicator species for wildlife and to see if heavy metal accumulation was related to age or sex.

  18. Role of dense shelf water cascading in the transfer of organochlorine compounds to open marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Joan A; Grimalt, Joan O; López, Jordi F; Palanques, Albert; Heussner, Serge; Pasqual, Catalina; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel

    2012-03-01

    Settling particles were collected by an array of sediment trap moorings deployed along the Cap de Creus (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers (LDC) submarine canyons and on the adjacent southern open slope (SOS) between October 2005 and October 2006. This array collected particles during common settling processes and particles transferred to deep waters by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)--pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene--and hexachlorocyclohexanes were analyzed in all samples. The results show much higher settling fluxes of these compounds during DSWC than during common sedimentation processes. The area of highest deposition was located between 1000 and 1500 m depth and extended along the canyons and outside them showing their channelling effects but also overflows of dense shelf water from these canyons. Higher fluxes were observed near the bottom (30 m above bottom; mab) than at intermediate waters (500 mab) which is consistent with the formation and sinking of dense water close to the continental shelf and main displacement through the slope by the bottom. DSWC involved the highest settling fluxes of these compounds ever described in marine continental slopes and pelagic areas, e.g., peak values of PCBs (960 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), DDTs (2900 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), CBzs (340 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)) and lindane (180 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)). PMID:22296346

  19. Role of dense shelf water cascading in the transfer of organochlorine compounds to open marine waters.

    PubMed

    Salvadó, Joan A; Grimalt, Joan O; López, Jordi F; Palanques, Albert; Heussner, Serge; Pasqual, Catalina; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel

    2012-03-01

    Settling particles were collected by an array of sediment trap moorings deployed along the Cap de Creus (CCC) and Lacaze-Duthiers (LDC) submarine canyons and on the adjacent southern open slope (SOS) between October 2005 and October 2006. This array collected particles during common settling processes and particles transferred to deep waters by dense shelf water cascading (DSWC). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs)--pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene--and hexachlorocyclohexanes were analyzed in all samples. The results show much higher settling fluxes of these compounds during DSWC than during common sedimentation processes. The area of highest deposition was located between 1000 and 1500 m depth and extended along the canyons and outside them showing their channelling effects but also overflows of dense shelf water from these canyons. Higher fluxes were observed near the bottom (30 m above bottom; mab) than at intermediate waters (500 mab) which is consistent with the formation and sinking of dense water close to the continental shelf and main displacement through the slope by the bottom. DSWC involved the highest settling fluxes of these compounds ever described in marine continental slopes and pelagic areas, e.g., peak values of PCBs (960 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), DDTs (2900 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)), CBzs (340 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)) and lindane (180 ng · m(-2) · d(-1)).

  20. Sixty-year sedimentary record of DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and endosulfan from emerging development gulfs: a case study in the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingyang; Wang, Yinghui; Huang, Wenyu; Yao, Huanmei; Xue, Baoming; Xu, Yiyin

    2014-01-01

    The temporal distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in the (210)Pb dated sediment core from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. The total OCPs concentrations were in the range of 0.93-26.6 ng g(-1) dry weight. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) (0.17-24.8 ng g(-1)), Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.04-0.51 ng g(-1)), Chlordane related compounds (CHLs) (0.22-1.72 ng g(-1)) and endosulfan (n.d.-0.91 ng g(-1)) were the predominant compounds. Similar to most Chinese coastal areas, the levels of DDTs in the Beibu Gulf became elevated since the early 1990s, especially since 2000 despite the ban in 1983 in China. This suggests that the concentrations of DDTs were controlled by several processes, such as land reclamation and soil runoff. The isomer ratios of (p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT/DDTs along with construction land expansion indicated that economic activities, land reclamation, soil runoff and the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints might be responsible for the input of DDT. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH (and γ-HCH/HCHs) and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicated fresh inputs of lindane and chlordane, respectively. In addition, CC was found to be degraded faster than TC under anaerobic conditions in sediments from the Beibu Gulf.

  1. Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, N; Matsuoka, S; Iwata, H; Tanabe, S; Rosas, F C W; Fillmann, G; Readman, J W

    2004-01-01

    Wide ranges of organochlorine residues were determined in the blubber of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei), estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were the highest, followed by CHLs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, TCPMe, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, and HCHs. Unexpectedly, significant pollution of PCBs, DDTs, TCPMe, and TCPMOH were observed in cetaceans from Brazil, implying the occurrence of local sources in the Southern Hemisphere comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere, probably by high industrialization in Brazil. On the other hand, CHLs, HCB, HCHs, heptachlor epoxide, and dieldrin residue levels in Brazilian dolphins were much lower than those in other species from the Northern Hemisphere. Significant correlations of TCPMe and TCPMOH were found along with PCBs and DDTs, indicating the highly bioaccumulative nature of all these compounds and/or possible similar pollution sources. PMID:15025172

  2. Organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue in the South Platte River Basin, USA, 1992-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, C.M.; Heiny, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected in the South Platte River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the basin. During August-November 1992 and August 1993, bed sediment (23 sites) and fish tissue (subset of 19 sites) were sampled and analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and 27 compounds in fish tissue. More types of organochlorine compounds were detected in fish tissue than in bed sediment. Total DDT, p,p???-DDE, o,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, total PCS, Dacthal??, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p???-DDT were detected in fish tissue at >25% of the sites; p,p???-DDE, total DDT, cis-chlordane, and trans-chlordane were detected in bed sediment at >25% of the sites. Organochlorine concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue were related to land-use settings. Few organochlorine compounds were detected at minimally impacted sites located in rangeland, forest, and built-up land-use settings. Chlordane-related compounds and p,p???-methoxychlor in bed sediment and fish tissue, endrin in fish tissue, and endosulfan I in bed sediment were associated with urban and mixed (urban and agricultural) sites. Dacthal?? in bed sediment and fish tissue was associated with agricultural sites. The compounds HCB, ??-HCH, PCA, and toxaphene were detected only at mixed land-use sites. Although DDT and DDT-metabolites, dieldrin, and total PCB were detected in urban, mixed, and agricultural land-use settings, highest mean concentrations were detected at mixed land-use sites. Mixed land-use sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in fish tissue, whereas urban and mixed sites had the greatest number of organochlorine compounds detected in bed sediment. Measuring concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment and fish tissue at the same site offers a more complete picture of the persistence of organochlorine compounds in the environment and their

  3. Relation between the content of organochlorine compounds in Finnish human milk and characteristics of the mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Pyysalo, H.; Antervo, K.

    1988-01-01

    Neutral organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were analyzed by GC-MS technique in 183 human milk samples obtained in 1984-1985 from 165 women living in different parts of Finland. The effect of the donors' age, body mass, place of residence, number of children, dietary habits, smoking habits, occupational history, and weight loss on the organochlorine content of human milk were studied. Of all the milk samples analyzed, p,p'-DDE concentrations were above the detection limit in 99.5%, p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT in 57.9%, isomers of HCH in 30.0%, cis-chlordane in 4.9%, oxychlordane in 3.3%, trans-nonachlor in 6.0%, heptachlor in 12.0%, and heptachlor epoxide in 6.6%. Mirex was not found in any of the milk samples, whereas the signals of chlorinated terpenes (toxaphenes) were detected but could not be quantitatively determined. The mean fat adjusted residue levels above the detection limit in Finnish human milk samples of primipara mothers were 0.66 ppm for total DDT compounds, 0.08 ppm for HCB, 0.93 ppm for PCBs, 0.41 ppm for chlordane compounds, 0.20 ppm for isomers of HCH, and 0.10 ppm for heptachlor epoxide. The geometric means were 0.46, 0.06, 0.57, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.01 ppm, respectively. The age of the mothers positively correlated with the DDE concentrations in human milk. The residues of OC compounds in human milk did not differ in women living in plywood industry regions, those actually working in the industry, and other mothers. Small differences were detected in the levels of organochlorine compounds in different parts of Finland. No relation was found between the OC content and the fish consumption, smoking habits, weight loss, or social group of the donors.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of organochlorine compounds over titanium oxide and titanium oxide containing zinc oxide decatungstate and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sattari, D.

    1995-12-01

    Ten organochlorine solvents, commonly used in industry, which are di- tri- and tetra- chloro derivatives of methane, ethane and ethylene were photocatalytically degraded over titanium oxide and titanium oxide containing zinc oxide: decatungstate and hydrogen peroxide. The study has been carried out by determining the yield of organochlorine degradation at different irradiation time. It was found that for derivatives of the three compounds the degradation rates were in the order of di>tri>tetra and for those containing the same number of chlorine substituents the order was ethylene>ethane. During the degradation of each organochlorine solvent chloride was liberated. Stoichiometry for photocatalytic degradation of organochlorine solvents are C{sub x}H{sub y-z}Cl{sub z} + xO{sub 2}{yields}xCO{sub 2} + (y-z)H{sup +} + zCl{sup -}.

  5. Polluting profiles of dieldrin and DDTs in laying hens of Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, N; Morita, Y

    2000-09-01

    Contaminating/accumulating levels of organochlorine pesticides in extractable fats from a basal diet, eggs and seven tissues (adipose tissue, blood, kidney, liver, muscle, ovary and oviduct) and excreta of laying hens that were kept in a general poultry farm of Japan were examined. No benzene hexachlorides or aldrin was detected [< 1 part per billion (p.p.b.)] overall. Dieldrin and all DDTs (p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT) were contaminated in the dietary fats (mean range 10-70 p.p.b.). Although dieldrin (4-58 p.p.b.), p,p'-DDE (65-196 p.p.b.) and p,p'-DDT (30-73 p.p.b.) were found to be accumulated in all the tissue fats and egg yolk fats, they were not detected in the dried excreta. Accumulations of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD were found only in the liver fat (92 p.p.b.) and in the kidney fat (27 p.p.b.), respectively. In all the samples, p,p'-DDE levels were highest in comparison with the other compounds. For all organochlorine pesticides detected, the accumulated levels were well below the practical residue limits. PMID:11048432

  6. Levels of organochlorine compounds in spotted dolphins from the Coiba archipelago, Panama.

    PubMed

    Borrell, A; Cantos, G; Pastor, T; Aguilar, A

    2004-02-01

    Blubber and skin samples from 63 spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) (18 males, 40 females and 5 of unknown sex) were collected by biopsy techniques in the waters of the Coiba archipelago. Blubber was analyzed for organochlorine compounds and skin for gender determination. Mean levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were 0.064, 2.30 and 6.4 mgkg(-1), respectively. These levels are low and are not considered to represent a threat to the S. attenuata population. No significant differences either in concentrations of HCB, tPCB and tDDT or in PCB profiles were observed between males and females. The ratio tDDT/tPCB was 2.69, indicating predominantly agrarian versus industrial activities in the area. The ratio ppDDE/tDDT was 0.83, a high figure that suggests both a local reduction of DDT inputs and a high rate of DDT degradation. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between two schools, suggesting intra-population heterogeneity in organochlorine exposure possibly due to demographic segregation. PMID:14599513

  7. Presence and importance of organochlorine solvents and other compounds in Germany's groundwater and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dieter, H H; Kerndorff, H

    1993-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds are widely used in Germany although the inland production of chlorinated solvents has greatly decreased since 1985. Data on groundwater contamination are incomplete, but there are some regional data sets from the States (Länder). Approximately 25% of the groundwater samples contain more than 1 microgram/l of a single solvent, the most prominent ones being tri- and tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and dichloromethane, but also chloroform. The most important causes for contaminations of the groundwater are unprotected storage and leaking sewage systems. Abandoned waste sites are, besides chlorinated compounds, also a source of many other contaminants. A ranking procedure according to their exposure potential (concentration, incidence, toxicology) is proposed. The compound of greatest concern is vinyl chloride, which is formed from tri- and tetrachloroethene under reducing conditions in the subsoil. The most important contaminant in drinking water is tetrachloroethene followed by 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethane. Chlorobenzene may also be present on occasion, while only about 20% of the finished drinking waters contain more chloroform after treatment than before. Only about 10% of all analyses of drinking water derived from groundwater shows the presence of organochlorine solvents and most of these show total concentrations less than 2 micrograms/l. The degradation product, vinyl chloride, was found up to now only in different groundwaters. To stabilize and to improve the situation, which still is much more favorable for drinking than for groundwater, precautions are going to be taken which should assure that these and other problematic substances which endanger water are used only in closed systems and rigid safety measures be imposed on their disposal and transport.

  8. Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Miriam N. . E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T.; Hood, Steven R.

    2005-12-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid

  9. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish. PMID:26173852

  10. Organochlorine compounds and their metabolites in seven Icelandic seabird species - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn; Löfstrand, Karin; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Ake

    2010-05-01

    The present study is designed to assess the occurrence of a few organochlorine contaminants and their metabolites in eggs of different marine bird species in Iceland, a country located in the sub-Arctic of the North-Western Atlantic. Previous investigations from e.g. Sweden and The Netherlands have shown some obvious differences in contaminant concentrations, including e.g. hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) in guillemot (Uria aalge) and other bird species. Eggs from seven marine bird species, Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), common eider (Somateria mollissima), guillemot, fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus), and great skua (Stercorarius skua), that all breed in Iceland, were collected and analyzed for several persistent organic compounds and their metabolites. The contaminant levels varied between the species investigated. The highest concentrations were found in eggs from the great skua (18 and 23 microg/g l.w. of CB-153 and 4,4'-DDE, respectively). The concentration difference was generally 2 orders of magnitude higher in great skua for all organochlorine compounds analyzed with the exception of HCB. HCB did not vary as much between the seven species (ranging from 34 to 710 ng/g l.w). OH-PCB and MeSO(2)-PCB metabolites congener concentrations and patterns showed differences in metabolic capacity between bird species. Guillemot and great skua seem to distinguish themselves most from other species i.e. with the absence of 4-OH-CB187 and low relative levels of 4-OH-CB146 in guillemot and the low abundance of OH-PCBs in great skua. PMID:20356092

  11. Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high

  12. Determination of potentially bioaccumulating complex mixtures of organochlorine compounds in wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Contreras López, M Concepción

    2003-03-01

    Organic chlorine compounds can be persistent environmental contaminants and may be accumulated through the food chain to the aquatic organisms, to fish and humans, depending basically on their hydrophobic properties. Consequently, there is an interest to measure these organic compounds from both the scientific and regulatory communities. The analytical essays have been improved for measuring specific organic chlorine compounds that present the most toxicological potential (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], certain pesticides and dioxins), although they are tedious and time-consuming procedures. The existing tests to measure adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) or extractable organic halogens (EOX) do not distinguish the more hydrophobic organic chlorine matter. The intention of this paper is to make a review of the existing methods to measure the potentially bioaccumulating organochlorine compounds (OCs) from wastewater and propose a methodology to a standardisation procedure for complex mixtures of OCs in wastewater, such as pulp mill effluents. A new method has been proposed for determining the most hydrophobic part of the extractable organic halogens (EOX(fob)), the lowest reported value is 0.6 microg/l, expressed as chloride, and the relative standard deviation at 20 microg/l is 7% on laboratory samples and 30% on real effluents. This new procedure could be a valuable tool to complement environmental risk assessment studies of wastewater discharges. PMID:12605924

  13. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food.

  14. Risk Assessment of Organochlorines in Mollusk from the Mediterranean and Red Sea Coasts of Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; El-Said, Ghada F; Khaled, Azza

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues were studied in different mollusk species from the Egyptian Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. The average levels of OCPs in mollusks comprised chlordanes, dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor (DECEM), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The averages of HCHs, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mollusks from the Mediterranean Sea were 1.13±1.21, 1.30±1.27, and 1.40±0.93 ng/g, respectively; from the Red Sea, they were 0.62±0.90, 1.77±1.82, and 6.44±5.05 ng/g, respectively. The analysis of HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs in mollusks indicates a new usage of lindane, PCB congeners, and the input of technical HCH and aged DDT. The data showed that the Red Sea Coast was more affected by PCBs congeners than the Mediterranean Sea Coast, which may be attributed to the different activities along the two coastal areas. Mollusks in the Mediterranean Sea had higher dieldrins, total endrin, endosulfan compounds, and methoxychlor contents than those in the Red Sea. Interestingly, HCHs, DDTs, and PCBs levels were lower than those recommended for Swedish Food Regulation and U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which means that mollusks from these two coastal areas are safe as food. PMID:27131056

  15. Size-related bioaccumulation and between-year variation of organochlorines in ice-associated amphipods from the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Borgå, Katrine; Gulliksen, Bjørn; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2002-03-01

    Organochlorines are found even in organisms living in remote areas such as the Arctic marginal ice zone. Organochlorine concentrations in ice-associated (sympagic) amphipods are related to their diet. Therefore, the size-dependent diet shift of Gamunarus wilkitzkii may influence its organochlorine content. In this preliminary study, the organochlorine concentrations in two size classes (small < or = 29 mm and large >29 mm) of G. wilkitzkii were analysed. The concentrations of more lipophilic compounds [e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were lower in the small than the large size class, whereas concentrations of less lipophilic compounds [e.g. hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)] did not differ by size class. Since contamination transport by the atmosphere, ocean currents and sea ice may vary, the organochlorine burden in sympagic organisms may also vary. There are no data available on temporal variation of organochlorine burden in Arctic sympagic fauna. Therefore, we compared organochlorine concentrations in sympagic amphipods (G. wilkitzkii, Apherusa glacialis and Onisimus spp.) between 1998 and 1999. Organochlorine concentrations in all amphipods were low in both years, with sum organochlorines from 50.7 to 621.9 ngg(-1) lipid weight. The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes, DDTs and PCBs were higher in 1999 than 1998, whereas the HCH concentrations were lower in 1999 than 1998. The organochlorine concentrations differed between the taxa in both years in a similar increasing manner from A. glacialis to both G. wilkitzkii and Onisimus spp In studies of bioaccumulation relative to body size and temporal variation, a thorough interpretation requires samples from several size classes and years. Nevertheless, the present data provide new knowledge on contaminants in Arctic invertebrates where data are scarce.

  16. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  17. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  18. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer.

  19. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  20. Organochlorine Compounds and Ultrasound Measurements of Fetal Growth in the INMA Cohort (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vizcaino, Esther; Costa, Olga; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; Guxens, Mònica; Gascon, Mireia; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan O.; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated with exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs), but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments. Objective We examined the relationship between prenatal OC concentrations and fetal anthropometry. Methods We measured 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (138, 153, and 180) in 2,369 maternal and 1,140 cord serum samples in four Spanish cohorts (2003–2008). We used linear mixed models to obtain longitudinal growth curves for estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and femur length (FL) adjusted by parental and fetal characteristics. We calculated standard deviation (SD) scores of growth at 0–12, 12–20, and 20–34 weeks of gestation as well as size at gestational week 34 for the four parameters. We studied the association between OCs and the fetal outcomes by cohort-specific linear models and subsequent meta-analyses. Results PCBs were associated with a reduction in AC up to mid-pregnancy, and BPD and FL from gestational week 20 onward. An inverse association was also found between HCB and AC growth in early pregnancy. The reduction of these parameters ranged from –4% to –2% for a doubling in the OC concentrations. No association between 4,4´-DDE and fetal growth was observed. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between prenatal exposure to some PCBs and HCB and fetal growth: AC during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, and BPD and FL later in pregnancy. Citation Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Murcia M, Iñiguez C, Vizcaino E, Costa O, Fernández-Somoano A, Basterrechea M, Lertxundi A, Guxens M, Gascon M, Goñi-Irigoyen F, Grimalt JO, Tardón A, Ballester F. 2016. Organochlorine compounds and ultrasound measurements of fetal growth in the INMA cohort

  1. Recent contamination by persistent organochlorines in Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Batoev, Valeriy; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-04-01

    Blubber samples of Baikal seals pups (Phoca sibirica) collected in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed for persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers), CHLs (chlordane related compounds), TCPMe [tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane] and TCPMOH [tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol]. The distribution pattern of OCs was in the following order: DDTs>PCBs>CHLs>HCHs>TCPMOH>TCPMe. Organochlorine concentrations and composition patterns in eight pup blubber samples (2002) analyzed in the present study were compared with the corresponding levels in juvenile Baikal seals from 1992 survey, and it was found that residue levels of OC compounds have declined during the 10 year period. In particular, concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs in seals collected in 2002 were approximately two times lower, while DDTs levels were three times lower than the corresponding levels in 1992. Furthermore, higher ratios of beta-HCH/HCHs and p,p(')-DDE/DDTs were found in 2002 samples. While comparing the OC levels with those in other seal pups it appeared that all the OC concentrations were lower than the levels in seals from coastal California known as one of the most polluted areas. PCB and DDT concentrations in the present specimens were higher than that in Arctic seal pups. The proportions of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls in pups captured in 2002 were higher than those in 1992. TEQ concentrations of non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in Baikal seals collected in 2002 were higher than those in seals collected from some locations in the world, where human and industrial activities are extensive, suggesting potential for toxic implications of coplanar PCBs in Baikal seals. PMID:15041431

  2. Land use, organochlorine compound concentrations, and trends in benthic-invertebrate communities in selected stream basins in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, Mark A.; Wetzel, Kim L.; Moore, Craig R.

    1995-01-01

    Land use was analyzed for the drainage areas of 26 stream sites in Chester County, Pa., that cover a total area of 227 square miles or about 30 percent of the country. The most significant land-use changes during 1967-87 were decreased agricultural land use, increased residential land use, and increased commercial and industrial land use. Bulk samples of stream-bottom materials were collected at 42 sites in the study area from October 1985 through November 1987 and analyzed for content of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). Organochlorine compounds and (or) PCB's were detected in streambed materials collected at 40 of the 42 sites sampled. The most enriched compounds (greater than 15 micrograms per kilogram) were PCB's, chlordane, and DDT plus its breakdown products. Data suggest that chlordane residues are closely associated with residential land use. PCB residues are closely associated with industrial and commercial land use. Cores of labeled sediments from the site of Icedale Lake, a drained reservoir on the West Branch Brandywine Creek, indicate that DDT was the first organochlorine pesticide to enter the Brandywine Creek; concentrations peaked in the late 1940's and early 1950's. As DDT influx subsequently decreased, influxes of chlordane and dieldrin increased and peaked in the mind-1960's, before the Chester County biological monitoring program. Influx of all pesticides appears to have decreased significantly since the 1960's. Contingency analyses showed that the relation between the Kendall slope estimator for trend and the increases in residential land use of 12 percent or greater were significant at the 95-percent confidence level. The contingency tables also showed that the relation between diversity indices of less than 2.25 and organochlorine-compound concentrations greater than 45 micrograms per kilogram was significant at the 95-percent confidence level.

  3. Sublethal effects of chronic exposure to an organochlorine compound on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Glennemeler, K A; Denver, R J

    2001-01-01

    Global contamination with organochlorine compounds (OCs) has posed developmental and reproductive problems in wildlife worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of OCs or other pollutants on amphibians, despite mounting concerns about amphibian population declines and developmental deformities in the wild. Wildlife populations may be affected critically by sublethal impacts of anthropogenic disturbances, yet little research has focused on such effects in amphibians. In the current study, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles were chronically exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 77-TCB, and effects on behavior, morphology, competitive performance, and corticosterone content were determined. R. pipiens activity levels and feeding rates were decreased by 77-TCB exposure, but morphology of mouthparts and body proportions were unaffected. 77-TCB enhanced growth and altered competitive interactions between R. pipiens and wood frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles. R. pipiens tadpoles exposed to 77-TCB showed decreased whole-body corticosterone content compared to controls both before and after injection with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). All of the factors examined in the current study play critical roles in tadpole development, growth, survivorship, and eventual reproductive success, suggesting negative population-level consequences for amphibians in PCB-contaminated habitats.

  4. Structural diversity of organochlorine compounds in groundwater affected by an industrial point source.

    PubMed

    Frische, Kerstin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Ricking, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine compounds illustrating a considerable structural diversity in groundwater in the vicinity of the industrial plant. The polar DDT-metabolite DDA (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid), which has been neglected in water studies widely, represents the main DDT metabolite analysed in the water samples. Besides DDA, some unknown substances with structural relation to DDA and DDT were detected and identified, in detail 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid N-methyl amide (DDAMA) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid n-butyl ester (DDABE). As an overall implication of this study it has to be demanded that analysis of industrially affected ground waters have to be based on screening analysis for a comprehensive view on the state of pollution.

  5. Specific accumulation and elimination kinetics of tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol, and other persistent organochlorines in humans from Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Minh, T B; Watanabe, M; Tanabe, S; Yamada, T; Hata, J; Watanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and other persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs). TCPMe and TCPMOH concentrations in Japanese human adipose tissue were slightly higher than those reported previously, indicating widespread exposure to these compounds in humans. Elevated residues of PCBs and DDTs are found in adipose tissue and liver. Concentrations in bile strongly correlated with concentrations in adipose fat and liver, which may suggest an equilibration in adipose fat/bile and liver/bile and possible biliary excretion of persistent organochlorines in humans. Composition of the organochlorines accumulated further indicates a metabolic capacity in humans higher than that of marine mammals. We observed age-dependent accumulation for TCPMe, TCPMOH, and other organochlorines, but there were no significant gender differences. p,p'-DDE and TCPMe were estimated to have low biliary excretion rate. Elimination potential of persistent organochlorines may be related to their octanol-water partition coefficient. The relationship between excretion rate and octanol-water partition coefficient may be used to predict the biliary excretion potential of some other lipophilic organochlorines such as dioxins and dibenzofurans in humans. The presence of organochlorines in bile suggests that the hepatic excretory system plays a major role in the elimination of xenobiotics in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study of accumulation and elimination of TCPMe and TCPMOH in humans. PMID:11673122

  6. Extraction and distribution of organochlorine compounds in eastern Lake Erie and Niagara River water

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A chromic acid digestion extraction technique was compared to conventional solvent extraction for recovery of a series of organochlorine compounds (chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, DDE, mirex and photomirex) from centrifuged water collected at two sites along the Niagara River, between 1/22/86 and 1/7/87. The sampling sites were located near the river's inlet at Fort Erie, Ontario and close to the river's outlet to Lake Ontario at Niagara-on-the-Lake Ontario. The digestion technique was more efficient than conventional solvent extraction. Relative recovery (undigested/digested) decreased exponentially with increasing log K[sub ow]. This implies that digestion-extraction recovers both the fraction dissolved and the fraction bound to dissolved organic matter (DOM), while conventional solvent extraction only recovers the dissolved fraction. As the time compounds equilibrated with the DOM increased, the extraction efficiencies by conventional extraction decreased while the efficiencies by digestion extraction remained 100%. Results obtained with the digestion technique were also more reproducible than those with conventional solvent extraction. the relative recoveries also varied between the two sites. Using conventional solvent extraction PCB concentrations appeared to decrease by about 13% along the length of the river while with digestion extraction the PCBs increased by approximately 33%. To study the homogeneity of water in the eastern basin of Lake Erie, uncentrifuged water samples collected from the inlet of the Niagara River at Fort Erie, Ontario, were compared to samples collected from Lake Erie at Sturgeon Point, New York for the period from 7/24/86 to 1/24/87. The average concentrations of four PCB congeners, total organic carbon, turbidity and conductance were similar at the two sampling sites. The average p,p[prime]-DDE concentration was 0.53 ng/L at Fort Erie but only 0.28 ng/L at Sturgeon Point.

  7. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-09-01

    The authors analyzed streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls ({Sigma}PCB). The objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. The authors detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was {Sigma}DDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and {Sigma}chlordane. Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, {Sigma}DDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although {Sigma}DDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, the study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  8. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. PMID:25563158

  9. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process.

  10. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  11. Occurrence and Distribution of Organochlorine Compounds in Biological Tissue and Bed Sediment From Streams in the Trinity River Basin, Texas, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in biological tissue and bed sediment from the Trinity River Basin study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorine compounds were determined in biological tissue and surficial bed sediment from 16 stream sites in the Trinity River Basin of east-central Texas. Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) were collected at 10 sites, and fish, including blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bluegill (Lepomis cyanellus), and yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) were collected at all mainstem and two tributary sites. Thirty of the 36 compounds analyzed in biological tissue or surficial bed sediment were detected in one or both media. Overall, more organochlorine compounds were detected in bed sediment than in biological tissue; however, various chlordane isomers, DDT metabolites, and PCBs were detected more frequently in tissue than in sediment. The chlordane isomers and PCBs that were detected more frequently in biological tissue also were detected more frequently at urban sites than at agricultural sites. Organochlorine compound concentrations generally were highest in fish tissue from Trinity River mainstem sites. Fish tissue from the mainstem sites contained a higher percentage of lipids than did fish- and clam-tissue samples from the tributary sites.

  12. Source apportionment of DDTs in maricultured fish: a modeling study in South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Yiruhan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-04-01

    Fish is one of the most important nutrition sources for humanity. Contaminant exposure risk in fish farming will eventually deliver to the crowd through diet. China is the largest fish producing as well as exporting country, where mariculture plays an important role in fish production, especially in South China. Previous investigations indicated that a variety of compartments in farming areas of South China Sea were polluted by persistent organic pollutants, including DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its derivatives, some of which is designated as DDTs. In the present study, Hailing Bay and Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China, were selected as the study sites and DDTs as the target compounds. A fish enrichment model was developed to assess the relative contributions of various pathways to the mass loadings of DDTs in the fish. Average concentrations (and concentration ranges) of DDTs in various environmental compartments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were included in modeling and analysis. Modeling results indicated that fish food and seawater contributed approximately the same proportions for the DDTs in maricultured fish. Antifouling paint was supposed to be the primary source of water DDTs in mariculture zone of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay, which contributed 69 % of the total DDTs to the mariculture water. We suggest that in order to protect people from consuming highly contaminated maricuture zone fish, the most effective and feasible methods are using environment-friendly antifouling paint and applying less polluted fish food in the fish reproduction process.

  13. Source apportionment of DDTs in maricultured fish: a modeling study in South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Yiruhan; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-04-01

    Fish is one of the most important nutrition sources for humanity. Contaminant exposure risk in fish farming will eventually deliver to the crowd through diet. China is the largest fish producing as well as exporting country, where mariculture plays an important role in fish production, especially in South China. Previous investigations indicated that a variety of compartments in farming areas of South China Sea were polluted by persistent organic pollutants, including DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its derivatives, some of which is designated as DDTs. In the present study, Hailing Bay and Daya Bay of Guangdong Province, China, were selected as the study sites and DDTs as the target compounds. A fish enrichment model was developed to assess the relative contributions of various pathways to the mass loadings of DDTs in the fish. Average concentrations (and concentration ranges) of DDTs in various environmental compartments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were included in modeling and analysis. Modeling results indicated that fish food and seawater contributed approximately the same proportions for the DDTs in maricultured fish. Antifouling paint was supposed to be the primary source of water DDTs in mariculture zone of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay, which contributed 69 % of the total DDTs to the mariculture water. We suggest that in order to protect people from consuming highly contaminated maricuture zone fish, the most effective and feasible methods are using environment-friendly antifouling paint and applying less polluted fish food in the fish reproduction process. PMID:26081772

  14. Influence of diet and sea ice drift on organochlorine bioaccumulation in Arctic ice-associated amphipods.

    PubMed

    Borgå, K; Poltermann, M; Polder, A; Pavlova, O; Gulliksen, B; Gabrielsen, G W; Skaare, J U

    2002-01-01

    The drifting sea ice has been suggested as important in the transport and concentration of organic matter and pollutants in the Arctic. We collected sea ice-associated amphipods in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard and in the Fram Strait in September 1998 and 1999 to assess contaminant accumulation in ice-associated organisms. Organochlorine concentrations increased from the more herbivorous Apherusa glacialis to the more carnivorous Gammarus wilkitzkii and the more necrophagous Onisimus spp. The relative contribution of compound classes to the sum of organochlorines differed between the amphipod families, with a higher relative contribution of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in A. glacialis. The composition of the compound classes HCHs. chlordanes and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) was similar between the amphipod families, whereas the profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) differed. The occurrence of organochlorines differed spatially, with higher alpha-HCH concentrations in amphipods from the Fram Strait in comparison with amphipods collected north of Svalbard. This could be related to the sea ice drift route, since sea ice in the Fram Strait had a drift route across the central Arctic Ocean, while the sea ice north of Svalbard had a western drift route to the sampling stations. Even though marine invertebrates have direct uptake by passive diffusion of contaminants across their gills. our results imply that the species' ecology such as diet is important in the bioaccumulation process of organic pollutants. In addition, the results show that sea ice drift route influences the concentrations of organochlorine pollutants in ice-associated organisms.

  15. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and ancillary data for the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames river basins study unit, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coles, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements were assayed in fish tissue collected from the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 1992-94. These data were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the study unit. Ancillary data included are land-use categories by percentage of the sampling-site basins and the size, gender, and age of the individual fish collected for this study. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine compounds in composited whole fish samples were measured at 32 sites, and concentrations of 22 trace elements in composited fish liver samples were measured at 14 of the 32 sites. Most frequently detected organochlorines were DDT related compounds at 31 sites, total PCBs at 28 sites, and chlordane related compounds at 25 sites. Concentrations of total PCBs in fish tissue were generally higher at the large river sites than at the smaller tributary sites. Concentrations of chlordane-related compounds in fish tissue were higher at sites from more urbanized basins than at sites from predominately agriculture and forested basins. Concentrations of the DDT related compounds were undifferentiated among sites comprising different land uses. Trace elements detected at all 14 sites included boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. Trace elements detected at 10 or more sites included arsenic, mercury, silver, strontium, and vanadium. Antimony, beryllium, and uranium were not detected at any site.

  16. Metals, trace elements, and organochlorine compounds in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, Kansas, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were used to investigate the occurrence of 44 metals and trace elements, and 15 organochlorine compounds in Tuttle Creek Lake, a reservoir with an agricultural basin in northeast Kansas, U.S.A. On the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment-quality guidelines, concentrations of Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels for toxic biological effects. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally below the threshold-effects levels. Statistically significant positive depositional trends were determined for several elements. However, because the vertical profiles of element concentrations typically indicated a bimodal distribution and much of the variability could be attributable to analytical variance, the statistical trends may not represent actual trends. DDE concentrations reflected the history of DDT use. Substantial increases in grain corn and soybean production, irrigated land, and hog production in the basin have not had a discernible effect on sediment quality in the reservoir. Future research focused on small impoundments throughout the basin may enhance understanding of the effects of human activity on sediment quality within the Tuttle Creek Lake system and elsewhere.

  17. Relations between Land Use and Organochlorine Pesticides, PCBs, and Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment and Fish on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Wolff, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bed-sediment and/or fish samples were collected from 27 sites around the island of Oahu (representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land use) to determine the occurrence and distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Of the 28 organochlorine compounds analyzed in the fish, 14 were detected during this study. Nineteen of the 31 organochlorine compounds and 40 of the 65 SVOCs were detected in the sediment. Urban sites had the highest number of detections and tended to have the highest concentrations of pesticides. Chlordane compounds were the most frequently detected constituents at urban sites, followed by dieldrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT compounds. PAHs were the most frequently detected constituents in watersheds with mixed (urban and agricultural) land use. The only pesticides detected at agricultural sites were DDT and its degradation products, DDD and DDE. No pesticides or PCBs were detected at the forested sites, but a few ubiquitous SVOCs were found in sediments at some forested sites. In general, concentrations of the most frequently detected pesticides were higher in fish than in sediment. Following a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the nation, concentrations of most organochlorine pesticides and PCBs are decreasing in Hawaii.

  18. Global contamination by persistent organochlorines in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1995-12-31

    Global pollution by persistent organochlorines (POCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs has become a matter of great concern in the public with an increase of recent scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, a world-wide survey has not been systematically carried out, which makes it difficult to clarify the dynamics and fate of POCs on a global scale. In this presentation, an attempt to monitor POCs in the world oceans will be introduced and the geographical distribution, composition, and temporal trend of POCs will be discussed on the basis of recent researches. This discussion led by the ocean surveys can be summarized as follows -- POCs not only DDTs but also PCBs, chlordane compounds and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) usage tended to shift or expand from the mid- to low-latitude areas during the last decades, the compounds released in the tropics were more efficiently dispersed rather than those in colder regions and then latitudinally redistributed, perhaps depending on their physico-chemical properties and climatic parameters. For example, it was found that HCHs transported through the atmosphere were prominently accumulated in higher latitude ocean, while DDTs are likely less-volatile and readily removed from the atmosphere even in the lower latitudes with high temperature. Furthermore, POCs in the sediment collected from the cold seas suggested that the aerial inputs into the seas were still continuing significantly, and the accumulation rates of OCs into sediments were smaller than the atmospheric inputs, indicating that the residues in water bodies were unlikely to decrease rapidly in near future. Although these schematic features have been conceptually presented from the field surveys, studies regarding the factors controlling POCs dynamics, the quantitative estimates to understand the fate, and the short-/longterm fluctuations particularly in open oceans are not adequate or still lacking.

  19. Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and in biological tissue from streams and their relations to land use, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebler, Joseph B.

    2000-01-01

    Streambed-sediment samples from 13 sites and biological-tissue samples from 11 sites in the Gila River Basin in central Arizona were analyzed for 32 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and 28 compounds in biological tissue during 1996 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The objectives of the study were to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and their relation to land use. Sampling sites were categorized on the basis of major land uses in the basin or the source of water in the stream. Because land uses were mixed or had changed over time, some land-use categories were combined. Sites were categorized as forest/rangeland (6), forest/urban (1), urban (4), or agricultural/urban (2). Thirteen organochlorine compounds were detected in streambed-sediment samples, and 10 were detected in tissue samples. The number of compounds found in streambed-sediment samples from individual sites ranged from 0 to 10, and the range for individual tissue samples was 0 to 7. Comparison of the number of detections in streambed-sediment samples to the number of detections in tissue samples from particular sites where both were sampled yielded five instances where more compounds were detected in streambed sediment, six instances where more compounds were detected in tissue, and five instances where the number of detections in streambed sediment and tissue were equal. The frequency of detection of particular compounds for sites where both streambed sediment and tissue were sampled resulted in five compounds being detected more frequently in streambed sediment, five more frequently in tissue, and three compounds that were equally frequent in streambed sediment and in tissue. Few contaminants were detected in samples from the forest/rangeland sites; greater numbers of compounds were detected at the urban sites and at the forest/urban site. The greatest number of compounds and the highest concentrations

  20. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms.

  1. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. PMID:26051863

  2. The pollution characteristics of odor, volatile organochlorinated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from plastic waste recycling plants.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Chen, Mei-Lien; Chang, Keng-Fu; Chang, Fu-Kuei; Mao, I-Fang

    2009-02-01

    Plastic waste treatment trends toward recycling in many countries; however, the melting process in the facilities which adopt material recycling method for treating plastic waste may emit toxicants and cause sensory annoyance. The objectives of this study were to analyze the pollution characteristics of the emissions from the plastic waste recycling plants, particularly in harmful volatile organochlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), odor levels and critical odorants. Ten large recycling plants were selected for analysis of odor concentration (OC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PAHs inside and outside the plants using olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector, respectively. The olfactometric results showed that the melting processes used for treating polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic waste significantly produced malodor, and the odor levels at downwind boundaries were 100-229 OC, which all exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. Toluene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, methyl methacrylate and acrolein accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. Sixteen organochlorinated compounds were measured in the ambient air emitted from the PVC plastic waste recycling plant and total concentrations were 245-553 microg m(-3); most were vinyl chloride, chloroform and trichloroethylene. Concentrations of PAHs inside the PE/PP plant were 8.97-252.16 ng m(-3), in which the maximum level were 20-fold higher than the levels detected from boundaries. Most of these recycling plants simply used filter to treat the melting fumes, and this could not efficiently eliminate the gaseous compounds and malodor. Improved exhaust air pollution control were strongly recommended in these industries.

  3. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  4. Evaluation of organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and their main prey (Columba livia) inhabiting central Spain.

    PubMed

    Merino, Rubén; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    The population of peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus sbs. brookei) inhabiting the Regional Park of southeastern Madrid (RPSM), Spain, has experienced an increase of unsuccessful pairs (from 15% among a total of 20 pairs in 1995 to 55% among a total of 18 pairs in 2001). Traditionally, this area has been known to be contaminated with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals, which are known to be deleterious to the reproductive system of birds. During the breeding seasons of 2000 and 2001, contaminant residues were measured in unhatched eggs of peregrine falcons and liver of their main prey, to determine if they could be affecting the survival of the population. The most abundant contaminants were ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (ortho-PCBs), ranging from 202.56 to 3,335.16 ng/g (wet wt) in falcon eggs and from 10.25 to 53.51 ng/g (wet wt) in pigeon livers. In all samples, the 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected, although these levels never exceeded 20 pg/g (wet wt). The major contributor to total toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) were non-ortho-PCBs. Organochlorine levels found in this study may contribute to the entire suite of stressors that are negatively affecting the peregrine population. PMID:16152983

  5. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment.

  6. Organochlorine exposure and bioaccumulation in the endangered northwest Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) population

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Exposure to toxicants is one factor hypothesized to influence population growth of the northern right whale. Organochlorines in right whale skin, feces, and prey were measured and used to identify factors influencing exposure and bioaccumulation. Concentrations of 30 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 20 pesticides in skin biopsies were consistent with other baleenopterids. Concentrations in feces and prey were two orders of magnitude less than in biopsies. In principal component analysis, organochlorines in biopsies matched those from Bay of Fundy, Canada, zooplankton, whereas feces were like Cape Cod, USA, copepods. Year of biopsy collection was the principal factor associated with differential accumulation of nonmetabolizable PCBs, 4,4{prime}-DDE, and dieldrin. Biopsies collected during winter had lower concentrations of lipid and metabolizable compounds than biopsies collected during summer. Concentrations of metabolizable PCBs increased with age in males. The bioaccumulation patterns implied that blubber burdens change annually because of the ingestion of different prey or prey from distinct locations and the release of some organochlorines stored in blubber during lipid depletion in winter. Because biopsy concentrations were lower than those found in marine mammals affected by PCBs and DDTs, the authors do not have evidence that the endangered whales bioaccumulate hazardous concentrations of organochlorines.

  7. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in edible fish species from a Rift Valley lake-Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of organic pollutants, like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could pose health hazards. Thus, OCPs in edible fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, Carassius spp., and Clarias gariepinus) from Lake Ziway, an Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake were investigated to assess the potential human health hazards of these contaminants. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, and heptachlors were observed with ΣOCPs concentration ranging from 1.41 to 63.8 ng g(-1) ww. DDTs were the predominant contaminants (0.9 to 61.9 ng g(-1) ww), followed by HCHs. The predominance of DDTs may be attributed to their current use in vector control and contamination from past usage. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCPs from all fish species were much lower than the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), indicating that consumption of fish is at little risk to human health at present. However, the cancer risk estimates in the area of concern and the hazard ratios (HRs) of HCHs, DDTs, and heptachlors exceeded the threshold value of one, indicating daily exposure to these compounds is a potential concern. This may result in a lifetime cancer risk greater than of 1 in 10(6). PMID:24836883

  8. Nationwide residues of organochlorine compounds in wings of adult mallards and black ducks, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Organochlorine residues in wings of adult mallards and black ducks were monitored nationwide during the 1976-77 hunting season. DDE was found in all samples. Levels were unchanged since the 1972-73 collections in all migratory routes except the Pacific Flyway, in which residue levels declined significantly. Dieldrin levels had not changed in any flyway and residues remained low. PCB levels declined significantly in the Atlantic Flyway but remained stable in other flyways. Heptachlor epoxide, mirex, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane isomers were detected in low amounts in some samples.

  9. Concentrations of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit : Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Femmer, Suzanne R.; Coupe, Richard H.; Justus, B.G.; Kleiss, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    Whole fish were collected at 52 sites during 1995-99 to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of selected organochlorine compounds in the Mississippi Embayment Study Unit. Samples were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. From 5 to 8 fish were collected at each site; the fish were composited, and an aliquot of the tissue was analyzed for 28 organo-chlorine compounds, which included pesticides, pesticide degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The use of these organochlorine compounds has been discontinued or severely restricted within the United States, but the continued detection of these compounds or their degradates in the air, water, soil, and biota in national surveys, coupled with known environmental problems associated with these compounds (such as a long half-life and the propensity to accumulate in living tissue), is cause for continued interest in their environmental fate. At least one organochlorine compound was detected in every fish-tissue sample, and as many as 15 different compounds were detected in some. The most frequently detected com-pounds were the degradates of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichlo-roethane (p,p'-DDT); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was detected in every sample above the method reporting limit, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), was detected in 94 percent of the samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds and dieldrin were detected in 83 and 78 percent of fish-tissue samples, respectively. Because these were whole fish samples, the results are not directly comparable to human health standards, which are based on fish fillets. Comparison of these results, however, to the guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife indicates that concentrations of the p,p'-DDT degradates and toxaphene continue to be of environmental concern.

  10. Baseline occurrence of organochlorine pesticides and other xenobiotics in the marine environment: Caribbean and Pacific collections.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert; Soares Quinete, Natalia; Gardinali, Piero; Seba, Douglas

    2013-05-15

    This ongoing survey reports the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea surface slicks collected on a global circumnavigation. Hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds such as POPs are known to accumulate on the sea surface in slicks at concentrations many fold greater than the underlying water column, raising concerns about the ecological impacts due to the high biological activity associated with this zone. Six different categories of POPs were reported: chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane related compounds, organochlorine pesticides and other cyclodiene pesticides, DDTs and metabolites, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations ranged from <1ngL(-1) to 18.45μgL(-1). Ranking analysis indicates an independence of detected concentrations for each class of compounds and their geographical locations. Although concentrations observed were normally low and below commonly accepted toxic levels to animals and humans, they fall within the effective range of concentrations of many hormones and neurotransmitters, thus could potentially act as endocrine disrupters.

  11. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants.

  12. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and streambed sediment in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 1998, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, a survey was conducted to determine which organochlorine compounds and trace elements occur in fish tissues and streambed sediments in the Mobile River Basin, which includes parts of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. The data collected were compared to guidelines related to wildlife, land use, and to 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment Program Study-Unit data.Twenty-one sites were sampled in subbasins of the Mobile River Basin. The subbasins ranged in size from about 9 to 22,000 square miles and were dominated by either a single land use or a combination of land uses. The major land-use categories were urban, agriculture, and forest.Organochlorine compounds were widespread spatially in the Mobile River Basin. At least one organochlorine compound was reported at the majority of sampling sites (84 percent) and in a majority of whole-fish (80 percent) and streambed-sediment (52 percent) samples. Multiple organochlorine compounds were reported at 75 percent of the sites where fish tissues were collected and were reported at many of the streambed-sediment sampling sites (45 percent). The majority of concentrations reported, however, were less than 5 micrograms per kilogram in fish-tissue samples and less than 1 microgram per kilogram in streambed-sediment samples.The majority of trace elements analyzed in fish-liver tissue (86 percent) and streambed-sediment (98 percent) samples were reported during this study. Multiple trace elements were reported in all samples and at all sites.Based on comparisons of concentrations of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish-tissue and streambed-sediment samples in relation to National Academy of Science and National Academy of Engineering and Canadian tissue guidelines, probable-effects concentrations, and mean probable-effects concentration quotients for streambed sediment, the potential exists for adverse effects

  13. Biodegradation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) with plant and nutrients and their effects on the microbial ecological kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangdong; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Qing; Zhang, Heqing; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Guanghe

    2015-02-01

    Four pilot-scale test mesocosms were conducted for the remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated aged soil. The results indicate that the effects on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were in the following order: nutrients/plant bioaugmentation (81.18 % for HCHs; 85.4 % for DDTs) > nutrients bioaugmentation > plant bioaugmentation > only adding water > control, and nutrients/plant bioaugmentation greatly enhanced the degradation of HCHs (81.18 %) and DDTs (85.4 %). The bacterial community structure, diversity and composition were assessed by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA), whereas the abundance of linA gene was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Distinct differences in bacterial community composition, structure, and diversity were a function of remediation procedure. Predictability of HCH/DDT degradation in soils was also investigated. A positive correlation between linA gene abundance and the removal ratio of HCHs was indicated by correlation analyses. A similar relationship was also confirmed between the degradation of HCHs/DDTs and the abundance of some assemblages (Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria). Our results offer microbial ecological insight into the degradation of HCHs and DDTs in aged contaminated soil, which is helpful for the intensification of bioremediation through modifying plant-microbe patterns, and cessation of costly and time-consuming assays.

  14. Biodegradation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) with plant and nutrients and their effects on the microbial ecological kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangdong; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Qing; Zhang, Heqing; Zhang, Dayi; Li, Guanghe

    2015-02-01

    Four pilot-scale test mesocosms were conducted for the remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated aged soil. The results indicate that the effects on degradation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were in the following order: nutrients/plant bioaugmentation (81.18 % for HCHs; 85.4 % for DDTs) > nutrients bioaugmentation > plant bioaugmentation > only adding water > control, and nutrients/plant bioaugmentation greatly enhanced the degradation of HCHs (81.18 %) and DDTs (85.4 %). The bacterial community structure, diversity and composition were assessed by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA), whereas the abundance of linA gene was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Distinct differences in bacterial community composition, structure, and diversity were a function of remediation procedure. Predictability of HCH/DDT degradation in soils was also investigated. A positive correlation between linA gene abundance and the removal ratio of HCHs was indicated by correlation analyses. A similar relationship was also confirmed between the degradation of HCHs/DDTs and the abundance of some assemblages (Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria). Our results offer microbial ecological insight into the degradation of HCHs and DDTs in aged contaminated soil, which is helpful for the intensification of bioremediation through modifying plant-microbe patterns, and cessation of costly and time-consuming assays. PMID:25213654

  15. The relationship between land use and organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Gruber, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzeds streambed sediment and fish in the Central Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and Idaho for or ganochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB). Our objective was to assess the effects of land use on the occurrence and distribution of these compounds; land uses in the study area included forest, dryland and irrigated farming, and urban. We detected 16 organochlorine compounds in streambed sediment and fish tissue; fish usually had more compounds and a greater frequency of detection. The most frequently detected compound was ΣDDT (sum of six isomers), which was found in 52% of bed sediment samples and 94% of whole fish composite samples. The other commonly detected compounds were dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and Σchlordane (sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor oxychlordane, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide). Forest was the only land use with no detections of organochlorine compounds in either fish or bed sediment. Hexachlorobenzene was the only organochlorine pesticide detected at concentrations that differed significantly among land uses: concentrations were higher in the dryland farming areas than in the irrigated farming or urban areas. In agricultural areas irrigated by surface water, ΣDDT concentrations in both streambed sediment and fish tissue were related to the percentage of land irrigated by water delivered via furrows (gravity irrigation), although ΣDDT was not detectable in bed sediments until gravity irrigation exceeded 30%. Because of the relation between gravity irrigation and soil erosion, our study supports the importance of controlling soil erosion in order to reduce the overall loading of organochlorine compounds to surface waters.

  16. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health determinants of placental transfer of organochlorine compounds

    PubMed Central

    Patayová, Henrieta; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Palkovičová, Ľubica; Drobná, Beata; Fabišková, Anna; Kováč, Ján; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate placental transfer, quantified by the cord to maternal serum concentration ratio (C/M), of five organochlorine pesticides (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) , p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and 15 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123+149, 138+163, 153, 156+171, 157, 167, 170, 180, and 189) to anthropometric, socioeconomic, and maternal health characteristics. We included into the study 1,134 births during the period 2002–2004 from two districts in eastern Slovakia with high organochlorine concentrations relative to other areas of the world. Only concentrations >LOD were taken into account. Variables as age, weight and height of mothers, parity, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, illness during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, hypertension, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, and birth weight were related to C/M. Results of regression analyses showed that C/M was predicted by several factors studied. Positive associations were observed for gestational alcohol consumption, fewer illnesses during pregnancy, maternal age, and maternal weight. Caucasians had a greater C/M compared to Romani for wet weight data of congeners 170 and 180 and in contrast C/M for HCB was greater in Romani. Our results show that drinking mothers compared to abstaining expose their fetuses not only to alcohol but to an increased level of several PCB congeners. A straightforward explanation of associations between C/M shifts and factors studied is very difficult, however, with regard to the high lipophilicity of OCPs and PCBs, changes in their kinetics probably reflect lipid kinetics. PMID:23677752

  17. An assessment of the intestinal lumen as a site for intervention in reducing body burdens of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine--thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  18. An Assessment of the Intestinal Lumen as a Site for Intervention in Reducing Body Burdens of Organochlorine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Genuis, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals maintain a persistent body burden of organochlorine compounds (OCs) as well as other lipophilic compounds, largely as a result of airborne and dietary exposures. Ingested OCs are typically absorbed from the small intestine along with dietary lipids. Once in the body, stored OCs can mobilize from adipose tissue storage sites and, along with circulating OCs, are delivered into the small intestine via hepatic processing and biliary transport. Retained OCs are also transported into both the large and small intestinal lumen via non-biliary mechanisms involving both secretion and desquamation from enterocytes. OCs and some other toxicants can be reabsorbed from the intestine, however, they take part in enterohepatic circulation(EHC). While dietary fat facilitates the absorption of OCs from the small intestine, it has little effect on OCs within the large intestine. Non-absorbable dietary fats and fat absorption inhibitors, however, can reduce the re-absorption of OCs and other lipophiles involved in EHC and may enhance the secretion of these compounds into the large intestine—thereby hastening their elimination. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine the efficacy of using non-absorbable fats and inhibitors of fat absorption in facilitating the elimination of persistent body burdens of OCs and other lipophilic human contaminants. PMID:23476122

  19. Distribution of PCBs, HCHs and DDTs, and their ecotoxicological implications in Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R Babu; Imagawa, T; Tao, H; Ramesh, R

    2005-05-01

    Analyses of environmentally persistent pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in seawater and sediment samples collected from six locations along the east coast of India were carried out using High-Resolution Gas Chromatograph with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). Sediment and water from Chennai harbour and Cuddalore fishing harbour contained higher concentration of all the compounds. The highest concentration (6570 pg/g dry weight) of total PCB was found in sediment from Chennai harbour followed by sediments sampled in Chennai (opposite to Cooum River mouth) (505 pg/g), Cuddalore fishing harbour (335 pg/g) and Mandapam (251 pg/g). Concentrations in other locations were two orders of magnitude lower than Chennai harbour. A distinct PCB distribution pattern in sediment was observed between harbours and other locations. Greater concentrations of tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls were observed in sediments of harbours and opposite to Cooum river mouth, but in other locations lower chlorinated biphenyls (di, tri and tetra-) were more. In seawater, HCH concentration was greater than DDT, but it was quite opposite in sediments. Elevated levels of DDT in sediment were observed only at highly populated urban locations, reflecting the local usage and input of this pesticide. Based on sediment/water quality criteria/guidelines, some coastal locations of the Bay of Bengal could be designated as being polluted by DDTs and gamma-HCH (lindane), but not by PCBs. This investigation reveals the declining trend on the environmental burden of persistent pesticides in Indian marine environment. Data on the organochlorine concentrations found in this survey can be used as reference levels for future POPs monitoring programme. PMID:15788191

  20. Decomposition of organochlorine compounds in flue gas from municipal solid waste incinerators using natural and activated acid clays.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2014-09-01

    High-temperature particle control (HTPC) using a ceramic filter is a dust collection method without inefficient cooling and reheating of flue gas treatment; thus, its use is expected to improve the energy recovery efficiency of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However there are concerns regarding de novo synthesis and a decrease in the adsorptive removal efficiency of dioxins (DXNs) at approximately 300 degrees C. In this study, the effect of natural and activated acid clays on the decomposition of monochlorobenzene (MCB), one of the organochlorine compounds in MSW flue gas, was investigated. From the results of MCB removal tests at 30-300 degrees C, the clays were classified as adsorption, decomposition, and low removal types. More than half of the clays (four kinds of natural acid clays and two kinds of activated acid clays) were of the decomposition type. In addition, the presence of Cl atoms detached from MCB was confirmed by washing the clay used in the MCB removal test at 300 degrees C. Activated acid clay was expected to have high dechlorination performance because of its proton-rich-composition, but only two clays were classed as decomposition type. Conversely, all the natural acid clays used in this work were of the decomposition type, which contained relatively higher di- and trivalent metal oxides such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, and CaO. These metal oxides might contribute to the catalytic dechlorination of MCB at 300 degrees C. Therefore, natural and activated acid clays can be used as alternatives for activated carbon at 300 degrees C to remove organochloride compounds such as DXNs. Their utilization is expected to mitigate the latent risks related to the adoption of HTPC, and also to contribute to the improvement of energy recovery efficiency of MSWI. Implications: The effect of natural and activated acid clays on MCB decomposition was investigated to evaluate their suitability as materials for the removal of organochlorine compounds, such as

  1. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  2. Persistent organochlorine compounds in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from South Greenland: levels and temporal changes between 1986 and 2003.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Møller, Søren; Falk, Knud; Sørensen, Peter B

    2009-02-01

    Thirty-seven addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in South Greenland between 1986 and 2003 were analysed for their content of the organochlorine compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl tricloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). PCBs and DDT (including metabolites) were by far the most abundant OC groups, with median concentrations of 55 and 40 microg/g lw, respectively. The concentrations were high in an Arctic context, but similar to previously reported levels from Alaska and Norway and slightly lower than concentrations measured in eggs from industrialised regions. Geographical differences may be of importance, considering the migration of peregrine falcons and their prey. SigmaHCH and HCB had median concentrations of 0.39 and 0.17 microg/g lw, respectively. On average, DDE accounted for 97% of SigmaDDT, but was below critical levels for eggshell thinning. All compound groups showed a weak decreasing trend over the study period, which was statistically significant for HCB and close to being significant for SigmaHCH. The weak decrease of SigmaPCB and SigmaDDT is different from other time trend studies from Greenland, usually showing a more pronounced decrease in the beginning of the study period, followed by a certain stabilisation in recent years. PMID:18823663

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  4. Induction of micronuclei in vitro by organochlorine compounds in beluga whale skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, J M; Dubeau, H; Rassart, E

    1999-02-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabiting the St. Lawrence estuary are highly contaminated with environmental pollutants and have a high incidence of cancer. Environmental contaminants may be partly responsible for the high cancer incidence observed in this population. DNA damage plays an important role in the development of cancer. The micronuclei (MN) assay was used to test the genotoxic potential of organochlorine (OC) pesticides with and without external metabolic factor in skin fibroblasts of an Arctic beluga whale. Toxaphene, chlordane and p,p'-DDT induced significant (p<0. 05) concentration-response increases of micronucleated cells (MNCs). Statistically significant increases in MNCs, ranging from 1.7- to 5-folds when compared to control cultures, were observed for 0.05, 0. 5, 5 and 10 microg/ml toxaphene, 2, 5 and 10 microg/ml chlordane and 10 and 15 microg/ml p,p'-DDT. Presence of exogeneous metabolic factor (S9) completely abolished the MN induction potency of chlordane and p,p'-DDT, and toxaphene induced MN formation at higher concentrations (0.5 microg/ml) than without S9 mix. The ecotoxicological significance of MN induction by low concentrations of toxaphene is unknown and do not imply that toxaphene is involved in the etiology of cancer in St. Lawrence beluga whales. However, because of the known genotoxicity of toxaphene and the long lifespan of beluga whales, it cannot be excluded that toxaphene may pose a long-term genetic hazard to the more contaminated whales of this population.

  5. Data on occurrence of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds in edible fish tissues from Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, James B.

    2002-01-01

    A public-health assessment conducted for the Texas Department of Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concluded that exposure to contaminants through the aquatic food chain is an indeterminate human-health hazard in Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile organic compounds to support a human-health risk assessment. Left-side, skin-off fillet samples were collected from 10 individuals each of channel catfish, common carp, freshwater drum (gaspergou), largemouth bass, and white crappie but only from five smallmouth buffalo. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory analyzed the samples for 22 trace metals, 40 organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, and 75 semivolatile organic compounds.

  6. Persistent organochlorine residues in estuarine and marine sediments from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat Estuary, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hong, S H; Yim, U H; Shim, W J; Oh, J R; Viet, P H; Park, P S

    2008-07-01

    To assess the organochlorine contamination in the northeast coastal environment of Vietnam, a total of 41 surface sediments were collected from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat estuary, and analyzed for their organochlorine content. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the Vietnamese coastal environment. Among the OCs measured, DDT compounds predominated with concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 274 ng g(-1). The overall contamination level of DDTs in coastal sediments from northern Vietnam is comparable with those from other Asian countries. However, concentrations exceeding 100 ng g(-1) are comparable with high concentrations reported from India and China, the largest DDT consumers in the world. The overall concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and chlordanes in surface sediments were in the ranges of 0.04-18.71 ng g(-1), not detected (n.d.) - 1.00 ng g(-1), and n.d. - 0.75 ng g(-1), respectively. Ha Long Bay and Hai Phong Bay were relatively more contaminated with DDTs and PCBs than other regions, respectively. In contrast, the distribution of HCHs was relatively homogeneous. OCs contamination in the coastal environment of Vietnam is closely related to shipping and industrial activities. The levels of DDT compounds in harbors and industrial areas exceeded their sediment quality guideline values suggested by Environment Canada [CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment), 2002. Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. In: Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, MB] and Australian and New Zealand [ANZECC and ARMCANZ, 2000. National water quality management strategy. Paper No. 4, Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality, vol. 1, The Guidelines. Australia. Document: http://www.deh.gov.au/water/quality/nwqms/volume1.html], indicating that adverse effects may occur to marine species in that areas.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in reared and wild Dicentrarchus labrax from the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lo Turco, V; Di Bella, G; La Pera, L; Conte, F; Macrí, B; mo Dugo, G

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in samples of Dicentrarchus labrax living in the Straits of Messina with samples cultivated in cages in the Mediterranean Sea. Muscles and liver tissues sampled over the months, within the same year, were analyzed. The quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of DDTs in muscles and livers as such of reared sea bass were in the range 0.2-1.3 microg/kg and 9.6 -48.4 microg/kg, respectively. In wild fish the concentrations of DDTs were very much lower: 0.1 microg/kg in muscles, 5.1-9.0 microg/kg in livers. Total PCBs levels were higher in cultivated sea bass than in wild fish; the concentration ranges were 5.3-59.7 microg/kg and 74.4-267.4 microg/kg in muscle and liver of reared samples, respectively, and 1.1-1.5 microg/kg and 63.2-109.4 microg/kg in muscle and liver of wild samples, respectively. PMID:17342439

  8. Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prediagnostic serum organochlorines: beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane/heptachlor-related compounds, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Kenneth P; Strickland, Paul T; Brock, John W; Bush, David; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Needham, Larry L; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Comstock, George W; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2003-01-01

    Increases in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence and mortality rates during the past few decades remain largely unexplained. Studies suggest that organochlorine pesticides may contribute to an increased risk of NHL. In 1974, serum samples were obtained from 25,802 participants in the Campaign Against Cancer and Stroke in Washington County, Maryland (USA), and cryopreserved for future study. We measured prediagnostic levels of chlordane, lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene in serum samples of 74 cases of NHL and 147 matched controls. Previously, we found an association between NHL and serum levels of total PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), but not DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and related compounds. In this instance, there was no evidence of an association between NHL risk and serum levels of any of the individual lipid- and recovery-corrected organochlorines that we evaluated, nor of the summed chlordane-related compounds (transnonachlor, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). These findings do not support the hypothesis that the organochlorine compounds included in this study are strongly linked to the development of NHL. The possibility of a weak association cannot be excluded by these data. PMID:12573902

  9. Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

  10. Residue of organochlorine compounds and mercury in birds' eggs from the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V

    1975-01-01

    Eggs (307) were collected in 1971 from twenty species of birds with a variety of feeding habits from the Niagara Peninsula. This area of ontario is intensively developed for agriculture and heavy industry and has a large urban population. Representative species were obtained from both the terrestrial and aquatic food chains. Eggs were analyzed for organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and total mercury. Eggs from carnivorous species at the top of the aquatic food chain had the highest mean residues of signa DDT(7.6to 22.4 pm), PCB (3.5 to 74.0 ppm) and total mercury (0.64 to 0.83 ppm). Eggs from some terrestrial carnivores (red-tailed hawk and great horned owl) also had relatively high residues (2.5 to 3.9 ppm of sigmaDDT, 0.2 to 1.0 ppm of PCB, 0.06 to 0.09 ppm of mercury, however levels were much lower than those found in eggs from aquatic-feeding carnivores. Eggs from one red-shouldered hawk had residues comparable to the aquatic feeding carnivores. Eggs from herbivorous and insectivorous birds of both aquatic and terrestrial environments contained much lower residues. PCB residues were slightly lower in eggs among the terrestrial feeding species (0.05 to 2.0 ppm) than among the aquatic feeders (0.14 to4.0 ppm) and tended to be lower in eggs from terrestrial species collected in rural than incity environs. Levels of sigmaDDT were similar in both groups with eggs from terrestrial feeders containing mean resisues between 0.15 and 2.64 ppm and those from aquatic feeders between 0.33 and 2.79 ppm. PMID:1155964

  11. [Features of apoptosis in conditions of the exposure to organochlorine compounds and vanadium].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, O V; Zaĭtseva, N V; Dianova, D G; Karakhorina, R A

    2012-01-01

    The cell structures involved into the apoptotic mechanism is an ideal object for the study of toxic effects produced by low-molecular-weight compounds on the immune system. Organic chlorine compounds and heavy metals were tested for their effects in the in vitro system. The experiments show that organic chlorine compounds inhibit apoptotic cell death. An assessment of their results has demonstrated that vanadium promotes activation-induced lymphocyte death. Thus, there are multidirectional immune responses upon exposure to organic chlorine compounds and heavy metals.

  12. Occurrence of selected organochlorine compounds in fish tissue from eastern Iowa streams, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    Human activities have caused dramatic changes to our Nation's landscape for over a century. Use of synthetic organic compounds in agriculture and industry has resulted in the accumulation and persistence of some of these compounds in natural systems. Concern has arisen over the contamination of our Nation's waters and the organisms that depend on them.

  13. Levels of mercury and organochlorine compounds and stable isotope ratios in three tuna species taken from different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2010-08-01

    Levels of mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs), such as PCBs and p,p'-DDE, as well as the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) were compared in Pacific bluefin, yellowfin, and albacore tuna taken from the southern, central, and northern regions of Japan according to tuna species and the region of origin. Levels of Hg and OCs as well as the delta 15N value were the highest in the bluefin tuna, reflecting their higher trophic position and longer life span. The average Hg concentrations tended to be higher in specimens taken in the southern region than in the central and northern regions for bluefin tuna and in the southern region than in the central region for yellowfin and albacore tuna, while the levels of OCs tended to be lower in the southern region except for yellowfin tuna. The spatial differences in Hg and OCs levels found in the three species may reflect geographical differences in the contamination of marine environment around Japan. Negative correlations between delta 13C and delta 15N were found in the yellowfin and albacore tuna, probably reflecting the latitudinal effect, whereas a positive correlation was found in the bluefin tuna, probably reflecting a diet shift during wide-range migration.

  14. Air monitoring at Alert in the high Arctic: Results of one year of monitoring of organochlorine compounds and PAH

    SciTech Connect

    Toom, D.; Barrie, L.; Fellin, P.; Dougherty, D.; Muir, D.; Grift, B.; Lockhart, L.; Billick, B.

    1994-12-31

    In January 1992, an air toxics sampler was set up at Alert, on Northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic (82.5{degree} N, 62.3{degree} W) as part of an arctic air toxics monitoring and assessment program. Since then, three more sites were added to the network: Tagish, Yukon Territory near Whitehorse, Dunai Island in the former Soviet Union, and Cape Dorset on Baffin Island. Organochlorines (OCs) and PAHs were sampled weekly to determine the types, concentrations and vapor-particle relationships. High volume samplers with a 10 micrometer size selective inlet were used with a collection cartridge consisting of glass fiber filter(s) for particulates followed by two 20 cm diameter 5 cm thick polyurethane foam plugs for vapors, with a weekly sample volume of approximately 11,000 m{sup 3}. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron capture detection and confirmation by GC/MS. This paper will focus on selected compounds for 1992 at Alert: a volatile OC hexachlorobenzene, a semi-volatile OC DDT, and the PAHs, pyrene, benzo(e) and benzo(a)pyrene. The authors will present annual average concentrations as well as weekly integrated values to look for potential seasonal variation through temporal profiles and their distribution between the particle and gas phases.

  15. Contaminants in the southern tip of South America: Analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, E; Espín, S; Barbar, F; Lambertucci, S A; Gómez-Ramírez, P; García-Fernández, A J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (OC) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), American black vulture (Coragyps atratus) and Southern crested caracaras (Polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of South America, in the Argentinean Patagonia. We analyzed for a series of OC including hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide. This is the first study on OC in feathers of three terrestrial top carnivores from South America. OC concentrations found in the studied species were much higher than those found in feathers of raptors from Europe and Asia, which likely indicate their high use in the region, specifically in agriculture, and other possible uses of OC in this area. ∑HCH had the highest median concentration, followed by ∑Drins, ∑DDT, ∑Heptachlor, and ∑Endosulfan, similar to those reported in several food samples in Argentina. On the other hand, differences in OC profiles between species and areas may be related to feeding and migratory habits, as well as the molt period. Three individuals showed ∑DDT (DDT, DDD and DDE) concentrations in feathers related to sublethal effects. However, this comparison should be used with caution due to problems with extrapolating such data across tissues and species.

  16. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  17. Levels of mercury and organochlorine compounds and stable isotope ratios in three tuna species taken from different regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya

    2010-08-01

    Levels of mercury (Hg) and organochlorine compounds (OCs), such as PCBs and p,p'-DDE, as well as the stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta 13C) and nitrogen (delta 15N) were compared in Pacific bluefin, yellowfin, and albacore tuna taken from the southern, central, and northern regions of Japan according to tuna species and the region of origin. Levels of Hg and OCs as well as the delta 15N value were the highest in the bluefin tuna, reflecting their higher trophic position and longer life span. The average Hg concentrations tended to be higher in specimens taken in the southern region than in the central and northern regions for bluefin tuna and in the southern region than in the central region for yellowfin and albacore tuna, while the levels of OCs tended to be lower in the southern region except for yellowfin tuna. The spatial differences in Hg and OCs levels found in the three species may reflect geographical differences in the contamination of marine environment around Japan. Negative correlations between delta 13C and delta 15N were found in the yellowfin and albacore tuna, probably reflecting the latitudinal effect, whereas a positive correlation was found in the bluefin tuna, probably reflecting a diet shift during wide-range migration. PMID:20604561

  18. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p'-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH. PMID:26354713

  19. Occurrence of chiral organochlorine compounds in the environmental matrices from King George Island and Ardley Island, west Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Zhu, Chaofei; Chen, Zhaojing; Zheng, Shucheng; Sun, Huizhong; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-09-01

    Chiral organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, soil and vegetation) from west Antarctica using high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). They were generally detected at a global background level compared with the previous studies. α-HCH and PCB-183 was observed in all the matrices except PCB-183 in two soil samples, while PCB-95, -136, -149, -174, -176 and o,p’-DDT were detected in most air but only a few solid matrices. Enantiomeric fractions (EFs) indicated that nonracemic residues of chiral OCs occurred in all the matrices and a wide variation of the EF values was observed in the vegetation. There was significant discrepancy between the EF values of PCB-183 and the racemic values, indicating that stereoselective depletion of PCB-183 was probably associated with the water-air exchange. The EFs values of α-HCH were generally lower than the racemic values but no statistical difference was obtained in all the matrices except lichen, supporting the assumption that water-air exchange may make influence on long-range transport of α-HCH.

  20. Occurrence of organochlorine compounds in whole fish tissue from streams of the lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Campbell, Harry L.

    1999-01-01

    Tissue samples of whole body white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were collected at 15 sites and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected at 5 sites during 1992 in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine the occurrence and distribution of 28 selected organochlorine compounds as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Only 12 of the 28 compounds occurred at concentrations greater than the 5 mg/kg reporting limit (total PCB?s reporting limit is 50 percent) sites than in forest-dominated (>50 percent) sites with the exception of Deer Creek and Big Beaver Creek. These two sites are located more in grazing areas that lack a substantial crop-land use. Concentrations of total PCB?s were highest in basins with greater than 10 percent urban land use excluding the larger river sites. Concentrations of total chlordane were highest at sites with greater than 70 percent agricultural and 10 percent urban land use. Regional comparisons of total DDT, total PCB?s, and total chlordane in white sucker tissue from the Lower Susquehanna, Hudson (in New York), and Connecticut River Basins showed that median concentrations of total DDT were different (p=0.05), with the Lower Susquehanna Basin being the lowest. Total PCB?s and total chlordane medians were similar. Comparison of the data from national and regional studies with data from this local study showed concentrations of p,p?-DDE in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin are similar to those nationwide and lower than the concentrations measured in the Northeast. PCB concentrations in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin and the Northeast were higher than those nationwide.

  1. Influence of parasitism in dogs on their serum levels of persistent organochlorine compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, María; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F; Cordón, Yaiza Falcón; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals, which accumulate in humans and animals, as only few species have the capability of eliminating them. However, some authors have pointed to the possibility that certain species of invertebrates (i.e. nematodes) could metabolize this type of compounds. As certain species of nematodes act as parasites of vertebrates, this research was designed to explore the influence of some of the most common parasites of the dogs in their serum levels of 56 common POPs. The study included three groups of dogs (n=64), which were prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n=24); b) dogs tested positive for intestinal parasites and negative for other parasites (n=24); and c) dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and negative for other parasites (n=16). The presence of Dirofilaria immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, anthracene and pyrene). We also found an inverse association between the hosts' serum levels of PCBs and intestinal parasites. We did not find any association with DDT or its metabolites, but this might be explained by the recently suggested ability of dogs for the efficient metabolization of these compounds. According to the results of this study certain forms of parasitism would reduce the bioavailability of the major classes of POPs in dogs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate whether this phenomenon is due to a competence between parasites and hosts or could respond to a possible capability of parasitic nematodes for the metabolization of these POPs. PMID:27096633

  2. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs, chicken and meat in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafat; Salem, Nida' M; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2010-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in 519 samples; comprising eggs, chicken and meat (lamb and beef), collected from Jordan were determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The samples were Soxhlet extracted for 8h in 250mL petroleum ether. The cleanup of the samples was performed by Florisil column chromatography and analysis was done on a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 28% (38/134), 20% (23/115) and 49% (131/270) of the examined eggs, chicken and meat samples, respectively, were contaminated with OCP residues. HCHs and DDTs are the most prominently noticed compounds, as they were detected at a high incidence. On the other hand, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin and endrin compounds were only present in less than 7% of the analyzed samples. These residues are present despite complete ban on the use of OCPs for agricultural purposes in Jordan. No residues of op'-DDD, op'-DDT, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were detected. PMID:20042222

  3. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources.

  4. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-02-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Reemission of PCBs from soils or as consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific sources

  5. Increasing and decreasing trends of the atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds in European remote areas during the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, L.; Fernández, P.; Fonts, R.; Rose, N. L.; Nickus, U.; Thies, H.; Stuchlík, E.; Camarero, L.; Catalan, J.; Grimalt, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high-altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté Pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally showed the highest deposition fluxes in the four sites, between 112 and 488 ng m-2 mo-1, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) the lowest, a few ng m-2 mo-1. Among pesticides, endosulfans were found at higher deposition fluxes (11-177 ng m-2 mo-1) than hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (17-66 ng m-2 mo-1) in all sites except Lochnagar that was characterized by very low fluxes of this insecticide. Comparison of the present measurements with previous determinations in Redòn (1997-1998 and 2001-2002) and Gossenköllesee (1996-1998) provided for the first time an assessment of the long-term temporal trends in OC atmospheric deposition in the European background areas. PCBs showed increasing deposition trends while HCB deposition fluxes remained nearly constant. Re-emission of PCBs from soils or as a consequence of glacier melting and subsequent precipitation and trapping of the volatilized compounds may explain the observed PCB trends. This process does not occur for HCB due to its high volatility which keeps most of this pollutant in the gas phase. A significant decline of pesticide deposition was observed during this studied decade (1996-2006) which is consistent with the restriction in the use of these compounds in most of the European countries. In any case, degassing of HCHs or endosulfans from ice melting to the atmosphere should be limited because of the low Henry's law constants of these compounds that will retain them dissolved in the melted water. Investigation of the relationship between air mass trajectories arriving at each site and OC deposition fluxes showed no correlation for PCBs, which is consistent with diffuse pollution from unspecific

  6. Variation in organochlorine accumulation in relation to the life history of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takaomi

    2014-03-15

    Members of the catadromous eel live in various fresh, brackish and marine habitats. Therefore, these eels can accumulate organic pollutants and are a suitable bioindicator species for determining the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The ecological risk for organochlorine compounds (OCs) in Anguilla japonica with various migration patterns, such as freshwater, estuarine and marine residences, was examined to understand the specific accumulation patterns. The concentrations of HCB, ∑HCHs, ∑CHLs and ∑DDTs in the silver stage (maturing) eel were significantly higher than those in the yellow stage (immature) eel, in accordance with the higher lipid contents in the former versus the latter. The OC accumulations were clearly different among migratory types in the eel. The ecological risk of OCs increased as the freshwater residence period in the eel lengthened. The migratory histories and the lipid contents directly affected the OC accumulation in the catadromous eel species.

  7. Blood concentrations and risk assessment of persistent organochlorine compounds in newborn boys in Turkey. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, İsmet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-12-01

    Even early life in utero cannot provide a safe place for newborns. The first acquaintance with chemicals takes place in utero and/or with mother's milk after delivery. Besides legislations and bans to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these chemicals are still affecting the general population especially the children as they are one of the populations most susceptible to chemicals, and also the health problems may arise in the future. Our objective is to collect the first data in newborns in Turkey to determine baseline levels of POPs in the general population and estimate the potential cancer risk related to exposure. Twenty-nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in blood samples of newborn boys (0-1 month old) who were born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 2010-2012 were evaluated with high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds are as follows: hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) 1828 ± 3650 pg/g lipid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) 10,000 ± 15,398 pg/g lipid, and ΣPCB 1068 ± 1823 pg/g lipid. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene, and PCB 138 and 153 are the major contaminants. New POPs as lindane 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid, pentachlorobenzene 13 ± 74 pg/g lipid, and endosulfan 29 ± 106 pg/g lipid are also detected in blood. Estimated total risk for lifetime PCB exposure is less than 1 × 10(-5), an acceptable risk. Blood concentration levels will be important base data in the assessment of health concerns of newborns as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans. PMID:26289328

  8. Blood concentrations and risk assessment of persistent organochlorine compounds in newborn boys in Turkey. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, İsmet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-12-01

    Even early life in utero cannot provide a safe place for newborns. The first acquaintance with chemicals takes place in utero and/or with mother's milk after delivery. Besides legislations and bans to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these chemicals are still affecting the general population especially the children as they are one of the populations most susceptible to chemicals, and also the health problems may arise in the future. Our objective is to collect the first data in newborns in Turkey to determine baseline levels of POPs in the general population and estimate the potential cancer risk related to exposure. Twenty-nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in blood samples of newborn boys (0-1 month old) who were born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 2010-2012 were evaluated with high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds are as follows: hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCH) 1828 ± 3650 pg/g lipid, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) 10,000 ± 15,398 pg/g lipid, and ΣPCB 1068 ± 1823 pg/g lipid. 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene, and PCB 138 and 153 are the major contaminants. New POPs as lindane 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid, pentachlorobenzene 13 ± 74 pg/g lipid, and endosulfan 29 ± 106 pg/g lipid are also detected in blood. Estimated total risk for lifetime PCB exposure is less than 1 × 10(-5), an acceptable risk. Blood concentration levels will be important base data in the assessment of health concerns of newborns as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans.

  9. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  10. Mass balance of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds in a lactating cow

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-03-01

    A contaminant mass balance was conducted of a lactating cow in its natural state. PCBs, HDHs, DDE, DDT, HCB, and several other chlorinated substances were investigated. It was found that virtually all of the cow's exposure was through feed. The contaminant absorption in the cow and hence the carry-over rate of persistent compounds was found to be a function of K[sub ow], with approximately constant values up to a log K[sub ow] of 6.5 and thereafter rapidly decreasing absorption with increasing lipophilicity of the contaminant. The key to PCB persistence in the cow was the 4,4[prime] substitution pattern. The 2,3,5 substitution was a less effective hindrance for PCB metabolism. 33 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 μg/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 μg/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between δ(15)N and ΣDDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 μg/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 μg/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 μg/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between δ(15)N and ΣDDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 μg/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds.

  13. Persistent organochlorine residues and their bioaccumulation profiles in resident and migratory birds from North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Yen, Nguyen Thi Hong; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Qui, Vo

    2002-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordane compounds (CHLs), were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from the Red River estuary, North Vietnam, during March and October 1997. Contamination pattern was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs > HCB in both resident and migratory birds. Residue concentrations, according to the feeding habit, showed little variability, which may reflect relatively similar trophic levels of the bird species analyzed. Resident birds accumulated greater concentrations of DDTs as compared to migrants. In contrast, HCH residues were greater in migratory species. Higher proportions of p,p'-DDT to total DDT concentrations were found in many species of residents and migrants, indicating recent exposure to technical DDT in northern Vietnam. Congener-specific PCB analysis showed the predominance of penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls in all the species analyzed. Estimation of hepatic microsomal enzyme activities suggested higher metabolic capacity for PCB congeners in shore birds from Vietnam as compared to higher-trophic predator birds and marine mammals. Comparison of OC residues in avian species in Asia-Pacific revealed that DDT residues in resident birds in North Vietnam are among the highest values reported for the countries surveyed, suggesting recent usage of DDT in Vietnam. Available data for birds, fish, and bivalves from the recent Asia-Pacific Mussel Watch Program suggested that Vietnam might be a potential source of DDT contamination in Asian developing countries. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the OC accumulation in avian species from Vietnam.

  14. Temporal bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Sethajintanin, D; Anderson, K A

    2006-06-15

    Because PCBs and organochlorine pesticides continue to be of global concern, studies that address information gaps, such as factors and influences of spatial and temporal effects on contaminant bioavailability, are valuable. The present study focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of bioavailable organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in surface waters of a contaminated harbor. Passive sampling devices were intensively deployed adjacent to various land uses on the Willamette River, OR, including Portland Harbor and McCormick and Baxter Superfund sites, during summer and fall, extreme conditions, 2001-2004. An increase of bioavailable sigmaDDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) concentrations was strongly affected bythe local historic production of DDTs and temporal changes in river conditions. The increase of bioavailable p,p'-DDD and high DDD/DDE ratios observed during summer indicates conditions favoring anaerobic reductive processes. In contrast to sigmaDDTs, the bioavailable concentrations and daily loads of dieldrin and PCBs increased during fall, especially during episodic rainstorms. On the basis of the PCB congener profiles, PCB inputs from urban runoff /sewer overflows were considered likely current sources of bioavailable PCB into the Harbor. The exceedence of the U.S. national and Oregon water quality criteria was a function of the temporal variability of each bioavailable contaminant. This illustrates the impacts associated with temporal changes of bioavailable organochlorine distributions in surface waters and the significance of considering realistic temporal, bioavailability, and site-specific conditions in risk assessment and water quality management.

  15. Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Achilleas; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Schmieder, Klaus; Tsachalidis, Efstathios

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling sites of the River Nestos, Greece. PCBs in muscle and DDTs in the liver tissues were the predominant organochlorinated contaminants. Among the PCBs, congeners 47 (up to 9.60 ng g(-1) wet wt.), 180 (up to 1.15 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and 190 (up to 1.50 ng g(-1) wet wt.) were the most frequent and abundant. The contamination degree by the sum of PCBs on the fish tissue samples from the River Nestos is lower or similar to PCB levels found in other ecosystems. Among the organochlorine pesticides, essentially only p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were found, with the former appearing at mean levels up to 30.71 ng g(-1) wet wt. From a public health standpoint, residue organochlorine pesticide levels from our work are considerably lower than the recommended tolerance limits. Finally, mean values of Hg in chub were significant lower (up to 31.04 ng g(-1) wet wt.) compared to those detected on barbel (up to 169.27 ng g(-1) wet wt.). The concentrations of Hg in fresh water fish from the River Nestos did not exceed WHO and US EPA health guidelines, and were suitable for human consumption.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  17. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE

  18. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from four lakes of Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hui, Hongkuan; Zang, Shuying

    2014-05-01

    There is growing concern for the lake environment because polluted sediments may cause ecotoxicological effects. In the current study, persistent organochlorine compounds (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and cyclodienes, were analyzed in core sediments taken from Huoshaohei Lake, Xihulu Lake, Wanghua Lake and Keqin Lake, Heilongjiang Province, China. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 7.09, 0.15 to 9.95, 0.19 to 1.84 and 0.06 to 3.52 ng/g, respectively. The most dominant pollutants were the HCHs, high proportions of γ-HCH isomer indicating the recent input of lindane. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH of four lakes are all lower than that in technical HCH mixtures indicating that there was input of lindane in the past several years, and the mean ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs are all <0.5, suggesting recent release of DDT compounds. Compared with the corresponding ecological environmental quality guidelines from Ingersoll and base on the model of risk based corrective action environmental health risk assessment, the sediments from the four lakes poses a lower potential hazard to human health and the environment but still should be taken into account.

  19. Organochlorine contamination in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J D; Simmonds, M P

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDT, are ubiquitous contaminants. Most studies reporting concentrations of organochlorines in pinnipeds have investigated ringed, grey, and harbour seals. Very few studies have been carried out on pinnipeds from the southern hemisphere. Pre-1980, the highest mean wet-weight blubber concentrations of DDT and related metabolites (911 +/- 582 micrograms g-1) were recorded in sea lions from California. The highest pre-1980 blubber concentrations of PCBs (1470 +/- 922 micrograms g-1) were recorded in harbour seals from the Netherlands. In later studies, the highest blubber concentrations of PCBs have been recorded from grey seals of the Dee estuary, UK [46.79 (10.17-116.68) micrograms g-1]. The highest DDT concentrations measured in individual pinnipeds appear to be in the 1-15 micrograms g-1 range, and such levels have been recorded from ringed, grey, and harbour seals and Australian fur seals. There are problems in identifying trends based on different studies. These include the improvement in analytical methods with time and the lack of uniformity in analytical methodology between laboratories as well as in the biological material analyzed. Insufficient standardized studies have been undertaken for a clear picture of temporal trends in DDT and PCB concentrations in pinniped tissues to be identified. Reported results show variations in contaminant concentrations between pinniped colonies from different sites, and special reference has been made to comparison of contaminant burdens between the UK colonies. Insufficient standardized information is currently available for patterns of contamination in pinnipeds to be assessed on a global scale. Many, although not all, studies have shown evidence for age and sex correlation for organochlorine concentrations in pinnipeds; male seals continuing to accumulate certain organochlorines throughout their lives; female seals accumulating these compounds until maturity when they lose part of their

  20. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  1. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  2. Determination of organochlorinated compounds in marine organisms by microwave-assisted extraction with molecular organized systems and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Sanz Carolina; Eiguren, Fernández Arantza; Sosa, Ferrera Zoraida; Santana, RodríguezJoseJuan

    2002-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction methodology is used to extract different compounds from various kinds of marine solid samples, such as soils, sediments, and organisms. A new analytical method was developed to extract polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by using a conventional microwave system and the nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether as the extractant as a prior step to liquid chromatography analysis coupled with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of these analytes in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and clams (Dosinia exoleta). Compared with the traditional Soxhlet extraction, results of the proposed method showed acceptable recovery percentages for the organochlorinated compounds under study and standard deviation values <10%. PMID:11878618

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  4. Aquaculture-derived enrichment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in coastal sediments of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Cheng, Zhang; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Leung, Ho-Man; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of sediments along the coast of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in surface and core sediments were measured in six mariculture zones. In surface sediments (0 to 5 cm), concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in mariculture sediments were approximately 1.3- and 7.7-fold greater, respectively, than those detected in sediments at corresponding reference sites, which were 1 to 2 km away in areas where there was no mariculture. Similarly, in cores of sediments, concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs were 1.2- and 14-fold greater in mariculture zones, respectively. Enrichment relative to regional background concentrations, expressed as percentages was as large as 8.67 × 10(3)% for o,p'-DDD. The major sources of the enriched organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were hypothesized to be derived from the use of contaminated fish feeds and anti-fouling paints for maintaining fish cages. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that enriched OCPs had a large potential to contaminate the surrounding marine environment and lead to adverse effects on the associated biota. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differences of OCP contaminations between mariculture and natural coastal sediments.

  5. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the Lower Columbia River using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Gale, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds are of concern in the Columbia River Basin because of their adverse effects on fish and wildlife. Because these compounds can have important biological consequences at concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional water-sampling techniques, we used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. We deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. We also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our data indicate that (1) in the absence of additional sources, mechanisms such as volatilization, dilution, and settling of suspended particles can act to significantly reduce concentrations of contaminants along the river's flow path, (2) elevated concentrations of contaminants in the Portland-Vancouver area are primarily from local rather than upstream sources, (3) elevated concentrations of many compounds tend to be diluted during periods of high discharge, (4) much higher discharge in the main stem considerably dilutes elevated concentrations entering from tributaries, (5) the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in streambed sediment is not necessarily indicative of their distribution in the dissolved-phase, and (6) SPMDs can reveal patterns of contaminant occurrence at environmentally relevant concentrations that are undetectable by conventional water-sampling techniques.

  6. Exposure to bioaccumulative organochlorine compounds alters adipogenesis, fatty acid uptake, and adipokine production in NIH3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Howell, George; Mangum, Lauren

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to the organochlorine compounds p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and oxychlordane have been associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. Although the exact etiology of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, is not known, it is thought that adipose dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of this disease. Thus, the present study examined whether exposure to these bioaccumulative compounds promotes adipocyte dysfunction including alterations in adipogenesis, fatty acid storage, and adipokine production within the adipocyte. We employed the NIH3T3-L1 cell line as a model for adipogenesis and mature adipocyte function. Exposure to DDE or oxychlordane prior to and throughout differentiation did not affect adipogenesis. In mature NIH3T3-L1 adipocytes, exposure to oxychlordane, DDE, or dieldrin had no effect on insulin-stimulated fatty acid uptake but did increase basal fatty acid uptake over a 24 h period. There was no observed effect of exposure to these compounds on lipolysis. Exposure to DDE significantly increased the release of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin from mature adipocytes with corresponding increases in expression of resistin and adiponectin. Taken together, the current data suggest that exposure to these compounds, especially DDE, may promote some aspects of adipocyte dysfunction that are commonly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. The effect of long-range atmospheric transport of organochlorine compounds by soil studies from Mongolia to the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies on the distribution regularities are presented for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of different degrees of chlorination and for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCCH), and DDT with its metabolites in the soils along the Lena River valley and in background areas of Eastern Siberia and Mongolia. A statistically reliable correlation is found between the PCB-OCP and Corg concentrations. The highest levels of HCB are registered in the soils between 50 and 60° N. The concentrations of αand γ-HCCH increase reliably, while those of pp'-DDT and pp'-DDE decrease from south to north. A trend of the decrease in concentrations from Mongolia to the Laptev Sea is revealed for tri-, tetra-, and penta-chlorine-substituted PCB congeners. However, the soils sampled northwards from 60° N show a reliable increase in the concentrations of tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorine-substituted congeners.

  8. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations.

  9. Organochlorine and butyltin residues in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and Japan Sea.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Ana P X; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine (OC) and toxic butyltin compounds (BTs) were determined in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) collected from Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Japan Sea, during 1991 and 1992. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolites were the most abundant compounds ranging up to 3200 and 2500 ng/g on lipid weight, respectively, followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the liver of walleye pollock. Concentrations of HCHs and HCB in walleye pollock from these remote areas were higher than those in fishes from the western North Pacific and Japanese coastal waters, indicating atmospheric transport of these compounds to higher latitude regions such as Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska and/or local input around northern Japan Sea. The concentrations of other OCs were generally comparable to those in fishes from North Pacific Ocean and Japanese waters but significantly lower than in cod-like fishes from North Atlantic and European countries. Among sampling locations, walleye pollock from Japan Sea showed higher concentrations of DDTs and HCHs compared to fishes from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, suggesting greater input of these compounds around Japan Sea. Slower declining trend of DDTs and CHLs and an increasing pattern of PCBs concentrations were found in walleye pollock from Bering Sea during 1982-1992. This may imply a continuous input of these compounds by long-range transport and/or long-term persistency in these cold regions. Compared to the fishes from Japan Sea, walleye pollock from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska showed higher proportions of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDE in the composition of HCH isomers and DDT compounds, respectively. This suggests selective transportability of these compounds during long-range transport to higher latitude remote areas. Concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) in the muscle of walleye pollock ranged from 1.1 to

  10. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species.

  11. Simultaneous congener-specific determination of selected organochlorine compounds and nitro musks in human whole blood samples by solid-phase extraction and capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Maret; Hilpert, Felix; Arnold, Norbert; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Jonat, Walter; Kruse, Hermann

    2005-03-01

    Chlororganic compounds like pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and nitro musks are environmental contaminants, which remain public health concerns because of their persistence in humans and their toxicological properties. Many of these substances are associated with endocrine dysfunction or with carcinogenicity. Therefore, a simple method using solid-phase extraction followed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection for the simultaneous determination of both organochlorines and nitro musks in human whole blood samples has been developed. Recovery rates of 13 PCB congeners and of 7 pesticides ranged from 67.5% to 100.4% and from 81.1% to 110.5%, respectively. Recoveries of the 5 nitro musks were consistent and ranged from 90.2% to 98.8%. The accuracy for organochlorines and nitro musks varied from 6.3% to 8.6%. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 microg/L to 0.11 microg/L for the organochlorines and from 0.04 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L for the nitro musks. The method has a high sensitivity with a low detection limit even in slightly contaminated human blood samples. The time and technical effort is small, so the method is feasible for epidemiological studies with regard to the impact of organochlorines and nitro musks on certain diseases.

  12. Assessment of the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine contaminants in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Eastern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, Natalia; Boada, Luis D; Fernández, Antonio; Zumbado, Manuel; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Xuriach, Aina; Almunia, Javier; Camacho, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the blubber and liver of 27 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded along the Canary Islands coasts from 1997 to 2011. DDTs (mean of 60,960 and 445 ng/g lw., respectively) and PCBs (mean of 47,168 and 628 ng/g lw., respectively) were the predominant compounds in both tissues. Among PCBs the highly chlorinated PCB 180, 153 and 138 were the predominant congeners. We found a p,p'-DDE/∑DDTs ratio of 0.87 in blubber and 0.88 in liver, which is indicative of DDT ageing. All the samples showed detectable values of any of the 16 PAH studied. Phenanthrene was the most frequently detected and at the highest concentration. According to our results, concentrations of OCPs, and especially PCBs, are still at toxicologically relevant levels in blubber of bottlenose dolphins of this geographical area.

  13. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ΣPCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ΣPBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (α->β->sulfate), γ-HCH and γ-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health. PMID:24144466

  14. Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, C; Scaion, D; Lemaire, B; Belpaire, C; Thomé, J-P; Thonon, M; Leermaker, M; Gao, Y; Debier, C; Silvestre, F; Kestemont, P; Rees, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs). Data were compared to levels in liver and muscle tissues. Eel brain contained very high amounts of OCs, superior to those found in the two other tissues. Interestingly, the relative abundance of PCB congeners markedly differed between tissues. In brain, a predominance of low chlorinated PCBs was noted, whereas highly chlorinated congeners prevailed in muscle and liver. HCHs were particularly abundant in brain, which contains the highest amounts of β-HCH and ϒ-HCH. p,p'-DDTs concentration was similar between brain and muscle (i.e., about twice that of liver). A higher proportion of p,p'-DDT was noticed in brain. Except for Cr and inorganic Hg, all potentially neurotoxic metals accumulated in brain to levels equal to or lower than hepatic levels. Altogether, results indicate that eel brain is an important target for organic and, to a lesser extent, for inorganic neurotoxic pollutants.

  15. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ΣPCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ΣPBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (α->β->sulfate), γ-HCH and γ-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health.

  16. Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, C; Scaion, D; Lemaire, B; Belpaire, C; Thomé, J-P; Thonon, M; Leermaker, M; Gao, Y; Debier, C; Silvestre, F; Kestemont, P; Rees, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In present study, carried out on female eels caught in Belgian rivers and canals, we analyzed brain levels of potentially-neurotoxic trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, MeHg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn) and OCs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; Hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs; Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites, DDTs). Data were compared to levels in liver and muscle tissues. Eel brain contained very high amounts of OCs, superior to those found in the two other tissues. Interestingly, the relative abundance of PCB congeners markedly differed between tissues. In brain, a predominance of low chlorinated PCBs was noted, whereas highly chlorinated congeners prevailed in muscle and liver. HCHs were particularly abundant in brain, which contains the highest amounts of β-HCH and ϒ-HCH. p,p'-DDTs concentration was similar between brain and muscle (i.e., about twice that of liver). A higher proportion of p,p'-DDT was noticed in brain. Except for Cr and inorganic Hg, all potentially neurotoxic metals accumulated in brain to levels equal to or lower than hepatic levels. Altogether, results indicate that eel brain is an important target for organic and, to a lesser extent, for inorganic neurotoxic pollutants. PMID:27376663

  17. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler. PMID:27487448

  18. PCDD, PCDF, dl-PCB and organochlorine pesticides monitoring in São Paulo City using passive air sampler as part of the Global Monitoring Plan.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Silva, C R; Melo, J P; Niwa, N A; Plascak, D; Souza, C A M; Sato, M I Z

    2016-11-15

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, are ordinarily monitored in the aquatic environment or in soil in the environmental quality monitoring programs in São Paulo, Brazil. One of the core matrices proposed in the POPs Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) from the Stockholm Convention list is the ambient air, which is not a usual matrix for POPs monitoring in the country. In this study POP levels were evaluated in the air samples from an urban site in São Paulo City over five years, starting in 2010 as a capacity building project for Latin America and the Caribbean region for POP monitoring in ambient air using passive samplers. Furthermore, after the end of the Project in 2012, the monitoring continued in the same sampling site as means to improving the analytical capacity building and contribute to the GMP data. The POPs monitored were 17 congeners of 2,3,7,8 chloro-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, indicator PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and toxaphene. The results show a slight decrease in PCDD/F, dl-PCBs and indicator PCBs levels along the five years. The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was present at its highest concentration at the beginning of the monitoring period, but it was below detection level in the last year of the monitoring. Some other organochlorine pesticides were detected close to or below quantitation limits. The compounds identified were dieldrin, chlordane, α-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene and DDTs. Toxaphene congeners were not detected. These results have confirmed the efficacy of passive sampling for POP monitoring and the capacity building for POP analysis and monitoring was established. However more needs to be done, including expansion of sampling sites, new POPs and studies on sampling rates to be considered in calculating the concentration of POPs in ambient air using a passive sampler.

  19. Organochlorine formation in magnesium electrowinning cells.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, R L; Cathro, K J

    2001-04-01

    The formation of organochlorines during the electrolytic production of magnesium was investigated using a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell having a graphite anode, a liquid aluminium alloy cathode, and a molten chloride electrolyte. The cell was operated at current densities ranging from 3000 to 10,000 A m(-2) and at temperatures ranging from 660 degrees C to 750 degrees C. Organochlorines were adsorbed from the cell off-gases onto silica gel, extracted with hexane, and determined by gas chromatography. All compounds identified were fully chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, the major components being hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, hexachloroethylene, and octachlorostyrene. The total amount of organochlorines per tonne of magnesium produced decreased with electrolysis time and with current density and increased with operating temperature; it was also dependent on the type of graphite employed. The output of organochlorines varied from 5 to 20 g t(-1) of magnesium. PMID:11297394

  20. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin: Organochlorine compounds in streambed sediments and fish tissues, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNellis, R.P.; Fallon, J.D.; Lee, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Streambed sediments and fish tissues were collected in part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin to assess the presence and distribution of organochlorine compounds (OCs) including PCBs. A total of 13 OCs were detected among 14 of 27 streambed sediment sampling locations. In fish tissues analyzed, 9 OCs were detected among 17 of 24 sites sampled. Eight OCs were detected in both fish and streambed sediment samples, they were: cis-chlordane, o,p'-DDD; p,p'-DDD; p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT; hexachlorobenzene; transnonachlor; and PCBs. The most frequently detected OCs were: p,p'-DDE; and p,p'-DDD in streambed sediment and p,p'-DDE and PCBs in fish tissues. No OCs were detected in streambed sediment at agricultural sites; however, the agricultural sites had 17 detections of OCs in fish tissue. Urban streams had concentrations of total DDT and metabolites in streambed sediment that exceed guidelines for classification of sites with high probabilities of adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Total DDT was the only OC within an urban land use that exceeded guidelines for piscivorous wildlife.

  1. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  2. Spatial and vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Daya Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Yan, Wen; Chi, Jisong; Zhang, Gan

    2008-09-01

    The spatial and vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) has been investigated in Daya Bay, China. The concentration of total OCPs in surface sediment range from 16.66 to 44.04 ng/g dry weight with a mean concentration of 26.60 ng/g. DDTs and HCHs were the predominant species. The ratios of (DDD+DDE)/DDT reflected a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered DDTs. The predominant alpha-HCH and the alpha/beta-HCH ratios indicated that the technical HCH contamination was mainly due to historical usage, although there was fresh input of lindane. The variation profiles of concentrations showed that OCPs were extensively applied between the late 1950s and early 1980s in China. A recent increasing trend in concentrations of DDTs and HCHs was found in both cores. The increasing ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDT with corresponding decreases of DDE/DDT ratio implied that most of the DDTs deposited after their production ban were more likely "weathered" DDTs derived from soil residues.

  3. Chlorinated, brominated, and perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in livers of sea otters from California, Washington, and Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Moon, H.-B.; Yun, S.-H.; Agusa, T.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 20 trace elements were determined in livers of 3- to 5-year old stranded sea otters collected from the coastal waters of California, Washington, and Alaska (USA) and from Kamchatka (Russia). Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs were high in sea otters collected from the California coast. Concentrations of DDTs were 10-fold higher in California sea otters than in otters from other locations; PCB concentrations were 5-fold higher, and PBDE concentrations were 2-fold higher, in California sea otters than in otters from other locations. Concentrations of PAHs were higher in sea otters from Prince William Sound than in sea otters from other locations. Concentrations of several trace elements were elevated in sea otters collected from California and Prince William Sound. Elevated concentrations of Mn and Zn in sea otters from California and Prince William Sound were indicative of oxidative stress-related injuries in these two populations. Concentrations of all of the target compounds, including trace elements, that were analyzed in sea otters from Kamchatka were lower than those found from the US coastal locations. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Bimonthly variability of persistent organochlorines in plastic pellets from four beaches in Mumbai coast, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in plastic pellets collected from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. A total of 72 pools of pellets were extracted and analysed by gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni(63) electron capture detector (ECD). The median concentrations of seven ΣPCBs and 16 ΣOCPs were 37.08 and 104.90 ng g(-1) (n = 72), respectively. PCB-28 was recorded at the highest concentration with a mean of 17.58 ± 2.77 ng g(-1) among the seven PCBs studied, followed by PCB-52 and PCB-101. Bimonthly variation was significant for ΣPCBs. The ΣPCB concentration in November was at par with that of September and was significantly higher than those of the other months (p < 0.05) with an increasing trend during the monsoon period. Among the OCPs, γ-HCH recorded the highest concentration with a mean of 33.88 ± 5.97 ng g(-1) followed by heptachlor and α-HCH. The ΣOCPs and ΣHCHs are not significantly varied among the months and sites. However, significant variation was observed for ΣDDTs among the months and sites (p < 0.05). The significantly higher concentration of ΣDDT (46.55 ± 12.23 ng g(-1)) was found in January than in the other months while it was intermediate in November. The study confirmed that plastic pellets are a trap for various cyclodine compounds in addition to PCB, HCH and DDT. Further, pellets can be used to study the temporal variability for a range of organic micropollutants.

  5. Bimonthly variability of persistent organochlorines in plastic pellets from four beaches in Mumbai coast, India.

    PubMed

    Jayasiri, H B; Purushothaman, C S; Vennila, A

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analysed in plastic pellets collected from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly from May 2011 to March 2012. A total of 72 pools of pellets were extracted and analysed by gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni(63) electron capture detector (ECD). The median concentrations of seven ΣPCBs and 16 ΣOCPs were 37.08 and 104.90 ng g(-1) (n = 72), respectively. PCB-28 was recorded at the highest concentration with a mean of 17.58 ± 2.77 ng g(-1) among the seven PCBs studied, followed by PCB-52 and PCB-101. Bimonthly variation was significant for ΣPCBs. The ΣPCB concentration in November was at par with that of September and was significantly higher than those of the other months (p < 0.05) with an increasing trend during the monsoon period. Among the OCPs, γ-HCH recorded the highest concentration with a mean of 33.88 ± 5.97 ng g(-1) followed by heptachlor and α-HCH. The ΣOCPs and ΣHCHs are not significantly varied among the months and sites. However, significant variation was observed for ΣDDTs among the months and sites (p < 0.05). The significantly higher concentration of ΣDDT (46.55 ± 12.23 ng g(-1)) was found in January than in the other months while it was intermediate in November. The study confirmed that plastic pellets are a trap for various cyclodine compounds in addition to PCB, HCH and DDT. Further, pellets can be used to study the temporal variability for a range of organic micropollutants. PMID:26116196

  6. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M.A.; Foreman, W.T.; Skaates, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 ??g/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 ??g/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 ??g/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 ??g/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 ??g/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  7. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Mast, M A; Foreman, W T; Skaates, S V

    2007-04-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 microg/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 microg/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 microg/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 microg/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 microg/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well.

  8. Investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in wild and farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from the Western Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Roque; Barreda, Mercedes; Blanes, Miguel A

    2008-05-01

    The presence of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in wild and farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from the Western Mediterranean, Spain, is investigated. These pollutants were determined in white and red muscle and liver by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Contaminant profiles present in both wild and farmed fish tissues include DDTs, PCBs and HCB. The highest concentrations of contaminants were found in liver, and an increase in pollutant levels was observed in autumn, before spawning. This fact is explained in light of increased food intake when sea water temperatures increase. Gilthead sea bream from Western Mediterranean populations showed significantly higher concentrations of DDTs and PCBs than farmed fish from the same area. This fact is attributed to the low level of organochlorine contaminants present in fish feed supplied to the cultured fish. The diet is highlighted as an important factor in understanding differences observed in organochlorine pollutants levels of fish tissues.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  10. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in whole body soft tissue homogenates and in muscles of resident and migratory birds collected from Lake Baikal, Russia. The residue pattern in both resident and migratory birds was in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > CHLs. OC concentrations in migratory birds varied, depending on the feeding habit. The maximum levels of OCs were found in piscivores, followed by insectivores, omnivores, and herbivores. OC residue levels in Lake Baikal birds were lower than those in the Great Lakes region as well as in other lakes in Europe and Japan. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in most of the migratory birds collected in the spring were higher than for those collected in the autumn, indicating a notable accumulation in wintering grounds. Compilation and analysis of the available data in fish and birds from Asia suggested that the tropical and subtropical regions in south Asian countries may be a source of pollution for the wintering accumulation of migratory birds from Lake Baikal. Relatively higher compositions of alpha- and gamma-HCH in total HCHs, p,p'-DDT in total DOTs were observed in some migratory species, indicating recent exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Lake Baikal or wintering areas. PCB isomer patterns were different between residents and migrants, with the predominance of lower chlorinated congeners in migratory species, suggesting recent PCB accumulation in stopover sites during wintering. TEQ concentrations of toxic non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in common terns from Lake Baikal were comparable to those reported in some species from Japan, the United States, and Europe. Relative contributions of non-ortho coplanar congeners to toxic equivalents (TEQs) were predominant, in which CB-126 accounted for the highest toxicity contribution. Estimated TEQ

  11. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Identification of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Soil in Karst Underground River Basin].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng-lan; Sun, Yu-chuan; Zhang, Mei; Yu, Qin; Xu, Xin

    2016-03-15

    Six typical surface soil samples were taken in Laolongdong underground river basin, and 20 OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with micro-⁶³Ni electron capture detector. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, composition and source of organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs) in the surface soil of Laolongdong underground river basin, and to further evaluate the pollution level. The results showed that 20 OCPs were inordinately detected in the soil samples and the detection rate of 16 OCPs (except for p,p'-DDE, cis-Chlordane, trans-Chlordane, dieldrin) was 100%. Moreover, the CHLs and DDTs were the main contaminants, and there were obvious differences in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides between different sampling points. The concentration range of total OCPs was 5.57-2,618.57 ng · g⁻¹ with a mean of 467.28 ng · g⁻¹. Compared with other regions both at home and abroad, the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the surface soil samples of the studied area were arranged from high to middle levels. The total concentrations of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs and CHLs had a similar variation tendency in spatial distribution, upstream > midstream > downstream, and the concentrations of OCPs in upstream were obviously higher than those in midstream and downstream. Source analysis indicated that the HCHs mainly came from the use of lindane. DDTs in soil came from not only the early residues but also recently illegal use of industrial DDTs and the input of dicofol. In addition, chlordan was mainly from the early residues and atmospheric deposition. Compared with the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China and Netherlands, the level of OCPs in Xinli vilage soil was categorized as highly polluted, but the levels of OCPs in Longjing bay, Xia spit, and Zhao courtyard soils were classified as slightly polluted, while the Longjing adjacency and gaozhong temple soils belonged to unpolluted ones.

  12. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Identification of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Soil in Karst Underground River Basin].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng-lan; Sun, Yu-chuan; Zhang, Mei; Yu, Qin; Xu, Xin

    2016-03-15

    Six typical surface soil samples were taken in Laolongdong underground river basin, and 20 OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with micro-⁶³Ni electron capture detector. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, composition and source of organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs) in the surface soil of Laolongdong underground river basin, and to further evaluate the pollution level. The results showed that 20 OCPs were inordinately detected in the soil samples and the detection rate of 16 OCPs (except for p,p'-DDE, cis-Chlordane, trans-Chlordane, dieldrin) was 100%. Moreover, the CHLs and DDTs were the main contaminants, and there were obvious differences in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides between different sampling points. The concentration range of total OCPs was 5.57-2,618.57 ng · g⁻¹ with a mean of 467.28 ng · g⁻¹. Compared with other regions both at home and abroad, the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the surface soil samples of the studied area were arranged from high to middle levels. The total concentrations of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs and CHLs had a similar variation tendency in spatial distribution, upstream > midstream > downstream, and the concentrations of OCPs in upstream were obviously higher than those in midstream and downstream. Source analysis indicated that the HCHs mainly came from the use of lindane. DDTs in soil came from not only the early residues but also recently illegal use of industrial DDTs and the input of dicofol. In addition, chlordan was mainly from the early residues and atmospheric deposition. Compared with the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China and Netherlands, the level of OCPs in Xinli vilage soil was categorized as highly polluted, but the levels of OCPs in Longjing bay, Xia spit, and Zhao courtyard soils were classified as slightly polluted, while the Longjing adjacency and gaozhong temple soils belonged to unpolluted ones. PMID:27337880

  13. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future.

  14. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. PMID:26021291

  15. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE: 0.11-2163ngg(-1) dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT: 0.36-345ngg(-1) dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02-34ngg(-1) dry wt.), ∑PCBs (0.03-16ngg(-1) dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01-0.13ngg(-1) dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p'-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑PCBs and ∑DDTs were significantly different among species (both p<0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p<0.03). Only ∑PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p<0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differed significantly (all p<0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p=0.22 for δ(13)C; p=0.50 for δ(15)N). Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p=0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p<0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ(13)C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in predatory birds should be further elucidated in future studies.

  16. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE: 0.11-2163ngg(-1) dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT: 0.36-345ngg(-1) dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02-34ngg(-1) dry wt.), ∑PCBs (0.03-16ngg(-1) dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01-0.13ngg(-1) dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p'-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑PCBs and ∑DDTs were significantly different among species (both p<0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p<0.03). Only ∑PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p<0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differed significantly (all p<0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p=0.22 for δ(13)C; p=0.50 for δ(15)N). Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p=0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p<0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ(13)C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in predatory birds should be further elucidated in future studies

  17. Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other

  18. Organochlorine residual concentrations in cattle egret from the Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Rauf, Sidra; Mohammad, Ashiq; Eqani, Syed-Ali-Musstjab-Akber Shah; Ahad, Karam

    2011-02-01

    In this study, residual concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediments, prey, and eggs of Bubulcus ibis were measured from three breeding heronries from the Punjab province of Pakistan. Pattern of contamination in eggs followed the order: DDTs>HCHs>heptachlor>aldrin. Overall, pesticide residual concentrations were greater in eggs of cattle egrets collected from heronry on the River Ravi. Among HCHs, γ-HCH was more prevalent in eggs, whereas DDTs followed the order: DDD>DDE>p,p'-DDT>o,p'-DDT. Eggshell thinning was detected which showed negative relationship with residual concentration of DDE. In prey samples, residual concentration of POPs followed the order: DDTs>HCHs>dicofol>heptachlor; however, contamination pattern in sediments followed a slightly different order: DDTs>heptachlor>dicofol>HCHs>dieldrin>aldrin. Concentration of β-HCH was more prevalent in sediments and comparatively greater concentrations of POPs were measured in sediments collected from the River Ravi. Dicofol was found for the very first time in the biological samples from Pakistan, and its concentration was measured as relatively high in eggs from heronry from the River Chenab. Residual concentrations measured in eggs were below the levels that could affect egret populations. Biomagnification of the total OCPs through the food chain was evident in three breeding heronries. The concentration of DDE measured in eggs of the cattle egret suggests the need for monitoring this contaminant in other bird species at different trophic levels. PMID:20213056

  19. The neurotoxicity of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine and pyrethroid compounds represent an old and a new class, respectively, of insecticides. Organochlorines such as DDT, dieldrin, or chlordecone, have been banned, primarily because of environmental issues. DDT is still used in certain countries to fight malaria-bearing mosquitoes, while lindane still finds some limited used against head lice. In contrast, pyrethroids find widespread use because of their efficacy, low environmental persistence, and relatively low mammalian toxicity. Like all insecticides, organochlorines and pyrethroids target the nervous system of insects and of nontarget species. All pyrethroids and DDT interact with the sodium channel; by keeping it open longer, they increase the likelihood of action potentials developing, thus creating a condition of hyperexcitability, whose main clinical sign is tremors. Most other organochlorines (except chlordecone), as well as certain (type II) pyrethroids, block the chloride channels of the GABA-A receptor, and cause seizures. Evidence of an association between exposure to organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease) is weak, at best.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in fish from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia: Insights from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-05-01

    The levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals were studied in muscle and liver of three fish species, with two trophic levels, from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia. DDTs were the predominant organic pollutant in all species with a maximum level of 73.28 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). p,p'-DDE was the predominate congener and showed a significant (p<0.001) relationship with δ(15)N, which indicates that DDTs could biomagnified in the food web of the lake. Generally, high levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were found in liver samples as compared to muscles. The levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb in liver samples showed negative correlation with δ(15)N. They were found markedly higher in the lower trophic level fish species (p<0.05) that indicates biodilution whereas; Zn level showed positive correlation with δ(15)N.

  2. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  3. Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    A Leri; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

  4. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Organochlorine residues in Surface Soil of Pearl River Delta Economic Zone].

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-08-01

    The contents of 17 Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of 605 samples collected from the surface of agriculture land from Pearl River Delta Economic Zone were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The residual characteristics, sources and ecological risk of OCPs were also analyzed. The results showed that the detection rate of OCPs was 97.85%. The mean value of residue level was 20.67 microg x kg(-1), with the highest value of 649.33 microg x kg(-1). The main contaminants included DDTs, HCHs, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Compared with the soils of other cities, the levels of HCHs and DDTs in the studied area were arranged from low to middle levels. The OCPs were obviously regionally distributed. High content areas were mainly distributed in the central area with dense population, intense industrial and agricultural activities. The residue levels in different types of lands were significantly different: the arable land > garden land > woodland. Especially, the residue level was the highest in the vegetable land. Source analysis indicated that the HCHs might come from the use of lindane. DDTs in soil mainly came from early residues, but the dicofol might be the important source in partial area. Comparing the contents of HCHs and DDTs with our National Standard (GB 15618-2008), the qualified rates of the first and second standard of HCHs were 97.5% and 100%, respectively, and the DDTs were 95.5% and 97.7%, respectively. According to the risk assessment, DDTs may still have some potential ecological impact on the studied area. PMID:26592027

  5. [Vertical Migration Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in Overlying Soil in Karst Terranes and Its Impact on Groundwater].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-chuan; Wang, Yong-qi; Liang, Zuo-bing; Yuan, Dao-xian

    2015-05-01

    Five soil profiles and four typical epikarst springs were selected in Nanchuan District, Chongqing Municipality as objects of the study on vertical migration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils and its impact on groundwater. OCPs in soil and epikarst spring water samples were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that HCHs and DDTs were detected in all the 5 soil profiles, varying in the range of 0.77-18.3 and 0.34-226 ng · g(-1), and averaging 5.16 and 16 ng · g(-1) in concentration, respectively. The highest concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found in the subsoil (10-40 cm) in most sampling sites. The detection ratios of HCHs and DDTs in four springs were 100%. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs fluctuated greatly in epikarst spring water during the one-year observation, and the concentration ranged from 2.09 to 60.1 and from N. D. to 79.8 ng · L(-1), with a mean value of 12 and 9.16 ng · L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in Hougou, Baishuwan and Lanhuagou spring in rainy season were all. higher than those in dry season in these three epikarst springs. There were no good corresponding relationship between HCHs and DDTs contents in spring water and those in corresponding spring catchment soil. TOC, soil water content, clay content and pH all inhibited the vertical migration of OCPs in Hougou spring catchment, which led to the lowest content of OCPs in spring water, although the OCPs content in Hougou spring catchment soils was the highest in the four spring catchments. However, the four factors didn't inhibit the vertical migration of OCPs in Shuifang spring catchment, which led to higher OCPs content in spring water, although the OCPs content in spring catchment soils was the lowest in the four spring catchments.

  6. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-03-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of "hot spots" in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

    2015-06-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (<0.33) as a result of aged DDT inputs. However, the occurrence of only p,p'-DDT in some samples suggests a recent pesticide input. α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio (organochlorine compounds are forbidden they were bioaccumulated in the blubber of SRW with a predominance of endosulfans, the more recently used pesticide. The absence of data on chemical pollutants in stranded dead whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy

  8. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Jeffery A; Kassoy, Dr. David R; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2006-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A nonlinear transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gas dynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  9. Detonation initiation on the microsecond time scale: DDTs

    SciTech Connect

    Kassoy, Dr. David R; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Nabity, Mr. Matthew W.; Clarke, Dr. John F.

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved, thermal power deposition of limited duration into a finite volume of reactive gas is the initiator for a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) on the microsecond time scale. The reactive Euler equations with one-step Arrhenius kinetics are used to derive novel formulas for velocity and temperature variation that describe the physical phenomena characteristic of DDTs. A transformation of the variables is shown to yield a canonical equation system, independent of the activation energy. Numerical solutions of the reactive Euler equations are used to describe the detailed sequence of reactive gasdynamic processes leading to an overdriven planar detonation far from the power deposition location. Results are presented for deposition into a region isolated from the planar boundary of the reactive gas as well as for that adjacent to the boundary. The role of compressions and shocks reflected from the boundary into the partially reacted hot gas is described. The quantitative dependences of DDT evolution on the magnitude of thermal power deposition and activation energy are identified.

  10. Seasonal variation of organochlorine pesticides in the gaseous phase and aerosols over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tianyi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Fengwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Eighty paired gaseous phase and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter) samples, covering four seasons from October 2011 to August 2012 were collected simultaneously from a remote island in the East China Sea (ECS). The samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to determine their seasonal variation and potential sources over the coastal marine environment. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the PM2.5 samples were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the reverse trend was observed for the measured OCP compounds (except hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs) in the gaseous phase. Principal component analysis revealed one trend that contributed 40% to PM2.5-bound OCPs characterized by β-HCH, α-HCH, p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p‧-DDD), p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p‧-DDE), and chlordanes; whereas two seasonal trends, represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) or chlordanes and HCHs, were responsible for 38% and 23% of the gaseous OCPs, respectively. Continental outflow driven by the East Asian monsoon brought large quantities of particulate OCPs to the ECS, especially in winter. Possible fresh sources or net volatilization from the Yangtze River induced by both higher ambient temperature and higher discharge rates caused the higher gaseous DDT and chlordane levels observed in summer. However, the lower concentrations of gaseous HCHs observed in summer suggested that net volatilization had a relatively limited impact on gaseous HCHs due to the long-term prohibition of their use and their low residual levels in the catchment, whereas the elevated concentrations of gaseous HCHs in winter controlled by gas-particle partitioning, resulted from increased particulate HCHs producing a partial shift to gaseous HCHs over ECS.

  11. Residues and chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides in mollusks from the coastal regions of the Yangtze River Delta: source and health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Tang, Qiaozhi; Jin, Meiqing; Liu, Weiping; Niu, Lili; Ye, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The residues and enantiomeric fractions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 11 mollusk species collected from the coastal areas along the Yangtze River Delta to evaluate the status, potential sources, and health risks of pollution in these areas. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes ranged from 6.22 to 398.19, 0.66-7.11, and 0.14-4.08 ng g(-1) based on wet weight, respectively; DDTs and HCHs have the highest values, globally. The DDTs increased and the HCHs decreased compared to historical data. Both the box-and-whisker plots and the one-way ANOVA tests indicated that the OCP levels varied little between sampling locations and organism species. The compositions of the DDTs and HCHs suggested a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered technical products. The comparative EF values for the α-HCH between the sediments and mollusks, as well as the lack of any discernible difference in the relative proportions of HCH isomers among different species from the same sampling site implied that the HCH residues in the mollusks came directly from the surrounding environment. However, the biotransformation of DDTs in mollusks cannot be precluded. The assessments performed based on several available guidelines suggested that although no significant human health risks were associated with the dietary intake of OCPs, the concentrations of DDTs exceeded the maximum residual limits of China and many developed nations. Moreover, an increased lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to either DDTs or HCHs remains a possibility. Because non-racemic OCP residues are common in the mollusk samples, our results suggest a need to further explore the levels and toxicity of the chiral contaminants in mollusks and other foodstuff to develop the human risk assessment framework based on chiral signatures. PMID:25113182

  12. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs < HCHs < PCBs, and their mass fractions ranged from 0.29-32.91, 0.09-13.19 and 0.16-4.10 μg/kg (dry mass), respectively. The levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased slowly from 2009 to 2013, with considerably greater concentrations in winter than in spring and summer. In this study area, the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs decreased gradually towards the mouth of Hangzhou Bay, while the concentrations of PCBs were related to changes in the local economy. In addition, the sources of HCHs and DDTs were identified as atmospheric precipitation and historical residues. Finally, we predicted that PCBs pollution primarily originated from Aroclor 1254(Lot A4), which might root in the illegal demolition and stacking of abandoned paint, transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  14. Organochlorine contaminants in loggerhead sea turtle blood: extraction techniques and distribution among plasma and red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Keller, J M; Kucklick, J R; McClellan-Green, P D

    2004-02-01

    Few studies have described the organochlorine (OC) contaminant concentrations found in sea turtle tissues. These studies have relied on the opportunistic sampling of either eggs or tissues from stranded carcasses. In this study, the use of whole blood samples as well as both blood components (plasma and red blood cells) were examined as a non-destructive alternative for monitoring OCs in free-ranging loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Blood samples were collected from juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (n = 12) captured in Core Sound, North Carolina, USA and analyzed for 55 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 24 OC pesticides by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Using pooled loggerhead sea turtle whole blood, three different liquid:liquid extraction techniques were compared. Results were similar in terms of recovery of internal standards, lipids, and OC concentrations. An extraction technique, employing formic acid and 1:1 methyl-tert-butyl-ether: hexane, was found to be satisfactory. This method was applied to the extraction of OCs from whole blood, plasma, and red blood cell (RBC) samples from five loggerhead sea turtles. Plasma contained the highest OC concentrations on a wet mass basis, followed by whole blood and RBCs. The majority of each OC compound was found in the plasma rather than the RBCs, suggesting that OC compounds preferentially partition into the plasma. On average (SD), 89.4% (3.1 %) of total PCBs, 83.4% (11.9%) of total chlordanes, 74.3% (15.1%) of mirex, 72.6% (4.8%) of total DDTs, and 80.1% (16.6%) of dieldrin were found in the plasma. The concentrations of total PCBs, mirex, total chlordanes, and total DDTs measured in both components of the blood significantly correlated to those in whole blood. These are the first reported OC concentrations in sea turtle blood. They were found to be similar to previously reported levels in blood components of humans and of reptiles from relatively clean

  15. Spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and effect of soil characters: a case study of a pesticide producing factory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, Huijun; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Jingtao; Liang, Shuang

    2013-03-01

    The distribution and concentration of some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soil around a pesticide factory in Zibo, China, were examined, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan (ENDO). The results showed that the OCPs concentrations were extraordinary high in this region. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and ENDO were measured in the range of 0.775-226.711, 0.248-42.838, and 0.081-1.644 mg kg(-1), respectively. DDT and its isomers were identified to be the dominate contaminants in most of the sampling sites. In the vertical direction, the distribution pattern of the total OCPs was in order of DDTs, HCHs, and ENDO in the 0-20 cm, but in 20-40 and 40-60 cm the trends were unobvious. Although no recent input occurred in most areas, the residues of OCPs remained in deep soil due to their persistence. Unlike ENDO, DDTs and HCHs appeared to have the similar property in terms of not only the migration pattern in soil, but also the relationship to the same dominant impact factor (i.e. organic matter). DDTs and HCHs were affected positively by the organic matter, whereas ENDO was affected negatively. Due to the interrelationship among various impact factors, the spatial distribution of pesticides in the soil was considered to be a combined result.

  16. Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25770945

  17. Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  19. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  20. Distribution and mass inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Chen, She-Jun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-xian; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2006-02-01

    Surface sediment (0-5 cm) samples were collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) in July 2002 and analyzed for 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and heptachlor. The total PAHs and OCPs concentrations were 138-1100 and 0.18-3.57 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that PAHs in the PRE were derived from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, whereas most PAHs in the northern SCS were pyrogenically originated. The concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were higher in the PRE than in the northern SCS, and a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea was observed. In addition, perylene was a predominant component in all samples and clustered with PAH compounds with high log Kow values (from phenanthrene). These findings indicated that river outflows were the major source of contamination in the offshore sediments. A preliminary assessment suggested that atmospheric deposition contributed only a minor portion of PAHs or OCPs in the sediments of the northern SCS. The sediment (0-5 cm) mass inventories were 126 and 423 metric tons for PAHs and were 0.4 and 1.4 metric tons for OCPs in the PRE and the northern SCS, respectively. Clearly, contaminated sediments of the northern SCS may be a potential source of PAHs and OCPs to the global oceans.

  1. [Distribution characteristic of organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of ducks from Baiyangdian Lake, North China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Xu, Zhen-Cheng; Dai, Jia-Yin; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Cao, Hong; Wang, Jian-She; Shi, Zhi-Min

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in muscle, liver and brain of ducks from Baiyangdian Lake were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentrations of HCHs, DDTs and PBDEs in various tissues of ducks were in the range of 0.9-5.0 ng/g wet weight (WW), 0.3-2.8 ng/g (WW) and 0.03-0.65 ng/g (WW), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the accumulation of DDTs and PBDEs in muscle, liver and brain was significantly different (p < 0.05), but not with HCHs (p > 0.05). Liver tissues contained the highest DDTs and PBDEs levels, with average concentrations of 2.3 ng/g (WW) and 0.37 ng/g (WW), respectively. Among the HCH isomers and DDT metabolites, beta-HCH was the predominant isomers in liver and brain tissues, and p,p'-DDE was the dominant metabolites of DDTs in various tissues. Among the PBDE congeners, BDE47 and BDE99 were the predominant in various tissues. The different profiles of persistent organohalogen compounds in various tissues of ducks may reflect that the Baiyangdian Lake still subject to the contamination of historically residue for HCHs and DDTs. In addition, the source of PBDEs was partly attributed to the industrial pollution, chemical plants, and sewage discharging.

  2. An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Jenssen, B M

    1996-07-16

    Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, approximately 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. In this case, as well as in other similar cases of spills at breeding colonies, oil has produced little visible disturbance to the seals behaviour and there has been little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (approximately 1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals. PMID:8685703

  3. Distribution and sources of DDTs in urban soils with six types of land use in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyan; Xia, Xinghui; Liu, Shaoda; Bu, Qingwei

    2010-02-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were investigated for urban soil samples collected from business area (BU), classical garden (CL), culture and educational area (CU), large public green space (LA), residential area (RE), and roadside area (RO) in Beijing. The DDTs concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 1282.58 ng/g, with an average of 68.14+/-189.46 ng/g. The DDTs concentration in CL was much higher than that in the other five types of land use, which was due to the usage of DDTs to protect vegetation in CL, and the DDTs concentration was affected by both the usage history of DDTs and the age of the CL. Only 22% of the samples, mainly located in RO, manifested the application of technical DDTs recently. DDTs concentration showed a decreasing trend from the city center to the suburb, and it increased with the age of the urban area. DDTs were positively correlated with total organic carbon and black carbon in soils. About 81.7% of the samples met the grade I standard (50 ng/g soil) of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, and only 1.5% of the samples exceeded the grade III standard (1000 ng/g soil).

  4. [Optimizing remediation conditions of non-thermal plasma for DDTs heavily contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Hong; Luo, Yong-Ming; Teng, Ying; Liu, Wu-Xing; Pan, Cheng; Li, Zhen-Gao; Huang, Yu-Juan

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in a non-thermal reactor to remove DDTs in heavily contaminated soil by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The study aims to investigate the effects of soil properties (including soil particle size and soil water content) and equipment working parameters (e. g. the plasma power, the processing time and discharge atmosphere) on the removal of DDTs from soil. The results showed that DDTs in soil were significantly degraded by the non-thermal plasma produced by dielectric barrier discharge. Removal rate of DDTs increased with increasing processing time. The removal efficiency of DDTs ranged from 95.3% to 99.9% in 20 minutes. The optimum conditions were as follows: 1 kW of the plasma power, 20 minutes of processing time in air discharge atmosphere, 0-0.9 mm soil particle size and 4.5% -10.5% of soil moisture content. The results also showed that o,p'-DDE might be the intermediate dechlorination and dehydrogenation product of the o,p'-DDT after the oxidization.

  5. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides occurrence, origin, and character in agricultural and industrial soils in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Guang; Luo, Wei

    2009-10-01

    The origin and occurrence of organochlorine pesticides [OCPs; hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDTs)] in the surface and profile of soils from former OCPs production areas were compared with those of agricultural plots in Beijing, China in order to identify their characteristics, assess the eco-toxicological risk, and provide management suggestions. The comparison indicated heavier contamination caused by the production, storage, and waste disposal than the application of OCPs. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in topsoils varied by several orders of magnitude among different land-use groups. The concentrations (ng/g dry soil, geometric means) of HCHs (1958.2) and DDTs (3998.2) in the topsoils of former OCPs production factories were significantly higher than those in agricultural soils. The residue of DDTs and HCHs accumulated only on the surface of agricultural soil, but at depths ranging from 0 to 400 cm for the OCPs plant and warehouse. beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE dominated in the agricultural soils, whereas beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE were dominant in the industrial soils. The risk of examined OCPs in soils on human health was assessed in light of the Dutch and Canadian soil quality criteria, and the results indicated a high risk in the OCPs production factory area and the agricultural lands with large application. The results point to the need for urgent actions to evaluate long-term toxicity and preassessment for OCPs-related land-use management. PMID:19198752

  6. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides occurrence, origin, and character in agricultural and industrial soils in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Guang; Luo, Wei

    2009-10-01

    The origin and occurrence of organochlorine pesticides [OCPs; hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDTs)] in the surface and profile of soils from former OCPs production areas were compared with those of agricultural plots in Beijing, China in order to identify their characteristics, assess the eco-toxicological risk, and provide management suggestions. The comparison indicated heavier contamination caused by the production, storage, and waste disposal than the application of OCPs. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in topsoils varied by several orders of magnitude among different land-use groups. The concentrations (ng/g dry soil, geometric means) of HCHs (1958.2) and DDTs (3998.2) in the topsoils of former OCPs production factories were significantly higher than those in agricultural soils. The residue of DDTs and HCHs accumulated only on the surface of agricultural soil, but at depths ranging from 0 to 400 cm for the OCPs plant and warehouse. beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE dominated in the agricultural soils, whereas beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE were dominant in the industrial soils. The risk of examined OCPs in soils on human health was assessed in light of the Dutch and Canadian soil quality criteria, and the results indicated a high risk in the OCPs production factory area and the agricultural lands with large application. The results point to the need for urgent actions to evaluate long-term toxicity and preassessment for OCPs-related land-use management.

  7. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in southern California round stingrays (Urobatis halleri) exposed to planar aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel; Lowe, Christopher G

    2014-06-01

    While contaminant concentrations have been reported for elasmobranchs around the world, no studies have examined bioaccumulation patterns across male and female age classes. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is a local benthic species that forages near areas of high organochlorine contamination and represents a good elasmobranch model. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and chlordanes were measured in juvenile and adult male and female stingrays from areas in southern California, USA (n = 208), and a nearby offshore island, Santa Catalina (n = 34). Both mainland juvenile male and female stingrays showed a significant dilution effect. After maturity, summed contaminant concentrations significantly increased with size for adult males (median 11.1 µg/g lipid wt) and females (5.2 µg/g lipid wt). However, the rate of bioaccumulation was substantially greater in male stingrays than in females, likely a result of the females' ability to offload contaminants to offspring during pregnancy. In addition, males and females showed significant differences in their contaminant profiles, suggesting differential habitat use. Male and female stingrays collected from Santa Catalina Island had significantly lower concentrations (0.51 µg/g and 0.66 µg/g lipid wt, respectively), approximately 5 times less than those of mainland animals. Potential toxicity effects mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor were explored through ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity assays. Mainland male stingrays exhibited significantly greater EROD activities than Catalina males (481 pmol/min/mg protein and 55 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively); however, activity levels in female stingrays from both locations were comparable (297 pmol/min/mg protein and 234 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively) and lower than those in mainland males. The results suggest that PCBs and/or other structurally related contaminants may be inducing a biological response

  8. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in the soils of the Campania Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    For the last several decades, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been introduced into the environment through anthropogenic activity. Due to their volatility and persistence, OCPs may undergo long-range atmospheric transport and, as a result, can be redistributed globally. Exposure to OCPs can pose serious health risks, including certain cancers, birth defects, respiratory illness, dysfunctional reproductive and immune systems, greater susceptibility to disease and damages to the central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, only a handful of studies, have reported the OCPs contamination level in water, sediment and organisms in the Campania Region, however a regional study of the soil contamination is still lacking. In our study, the distribution, inventory and potential risk of OCPs, including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in soils of the Campania Plain. The specific objectives of this study were to (I) investigate the residual levels, distribution and possible sources of legacy OCPs, and further estimate their mass inventories in soils of the Campania Plain, (II) analyze the impact of soil properties on contaminant distribution, and (III) evaluate the potential ecological and health risks of OCPs. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs has a geometric mean (GM) of 0.05 ng/g, and 14.4 ng/g, respectively. The significant difference in spatial variations of OCPs (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05) was observed in the Campania Plain. Two specific areas exhibited higher concentrations of OCP residues: one situated in the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation with elevated HCHs and DDTs; and the other in the Sarno River basin which contains elevated levels of DDTs. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use

  9. The dynamic performances of DDTs in the environment and Japanese exposure to them: a historical perspective after the ban.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Shinsuke; Kato, Atsushi; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko

    2002-04-01

    The fugacity model for evaluating DDTs dynamic performances in the environment was combined with the dietary exposure evaluation model, including the contribution of imported food, to develop the macroscopic mathematical model relating DDTs in the environment with the health risks of the reference Japanese. The model validity was examined by comparing the simulated DDTs concentrations in environmental media, various kinds of food, and dietary intake with those observed. Numerical simulations were done for the past half and future of one century to evaluate the effect of the DDTs usage prohibition in 1970 in Japan. The major results obtained under the limits considered are as follows. The DDTs concentrations in environmental media, various kinds of foods, and the dietary intake showed the steady exponential decrease after the DDTs usage prohibition in 1970. The DDE/DDTs ratio is larger in the higher position in an ecological system, and increased steadily with time. The critical exposure of DDTs occurred through animal product intake until 1960; after 1990 marine product intake caused the most exposure. The estimated DDTs intake was evaluated to be less than the PTDI and RfD. The annual excess cancer induction risk due to the annual dietary intake of DDTs was the largest at the level of (0.5 - 2.0) x 10(-6) (1/yr) in the early 1970s. The effect of the DDT usage prohibition on dietary exposure reduction was expected to appear after about 20 years. The life-span excess cancer induction risk was conservatively estimated to be larger than 10(-5) (1/lifespan) for the reference Japanese who were born before 1970. The DDTs usage prohibition in 1970 was effective to reduce the life-span cancer risk under the 10(-5) level. PMID:12022674

  10. Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Kuhnlein, H V; Receveur, O; Muir, D C; Chan, H M; Soueida, R

    1995-10-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides through traditional food resources was examined for Arctic Indigenous women living in two cultural and environmental areas of the Canadian Arctic--one community representing Baffin Island Inuit in eastern Arctic and two communities representing Sahtú Dene/Métis in western Arctic. Polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, chlorobenzenes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, chlordane-related compounds and dieldrin were determined in local food resources as normally prepared and eaten. Quantified dietary recalls taken seasonally reflected normal consumption patterns of these food resources by women in three age groups: 20-40 y, 41-60 y and > or = 61 y. There was wide variation of intake of all organochlorine contaminants in both areas and among age groups for the Sahtú. Fifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwal. Important foods contributing organochlorine contaminant to the Sahtú Dene/Métis were caribou, whitefish, inconnu, trout and duck. The superior nutritional benefits and potential health risks of traditional food items are reviewed, as are implications for monitoring organochlorine contaminant contents of food, clinical symptoms and food use. PMID:7562084

  11. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediment and livers of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Cashman, J.R.; Nishioka, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made in 1992 of chlorinated organic compounds in sediments and in livers of striped bass from the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. Samples of sediment and striped bass livers contained DDT (ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-) and its degradation products, DDD (ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-) and DDE (ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-); PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls); alpha and gamma chlordane, and cis and trans nonachlor. In addition, the livers of striped bass contained small concentrations of DCPA (dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate), a pre-emergent herbicide. Agricultural run-off from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, as well as atmospheric deposition, are probably responsible for a low chronic background of DDT in sediments throughout San Francisco Bay. Larger concentrations of DDT in sediment near Richmond in the Central Bay, and Coyote Creek in the South Bay may be derived from point sources. Ratios of pentachloro isomers of PCBs to hexachloro isomers in the South Bay sediments were different from those in the Central and North Bay, suggesting either differences in microbial activity in the sediments or different source inputs of PCBs. Concentrations of alpha chlordane in livers of striped bass were greater than those of gamma chlordane, which suggests a greater environmental stability and persistence of alpha chlordane. Trans nonachlor, a minor component of technical chlorodane, was present in greater concentrations than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor. Trans nonachlor is more resistant to metabolism than alpha and gamma chlordane and cis nonachlor, and serves as an environmentally stable marker compound of chlordane contamination in the estuary. Chlorinated organic compounds have bioaccumulated in the livers of striped bass. These compounds may contribute to the decline of the striped bass in San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary.

  13. DDTs and HCHs in sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Nizzetto, Luca; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected along the Yangtze-derived sediment transport pathway in the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) for OCP analysis. The sediment records of HCHs and DDTs in estuarine environment reflected remobilization of chemicals from enhanced soil erosion associated to extreme flood events or large scale land use transformation. The sediment records in the open sea, instead, reflected long-term historical trends of OCP application in the source region. Unlike the so-called mud wedge distribution of sediment, inventories of HCHs and DDTs slightly increased from the mouth of Yangtze River alongshore toward south, suggesting the sediment deposition rate was one of factors on the exposure of chemicals within the inner shelf of the ECS. Re-suspension and transport of the Yangtze-derived sediment and consequent fractionation in grain size and TOC were also responsible for the spatial variation of inventories of catchment derived OCPs in a major repository area of the Yangtze suspended sediment. The total burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the inner shelf of the ECS were 35tons and 110tons, respectively. After 1983 (year of the official ban in China), those values were 13tons and 50tons, respectively. It appears that the Yangtze still delivers relatively high inputs of DDTs more than 30years after the official ban. High proportions of DDD+DDE and β-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly originated from historical usage in the catchment recent years. PMID:26372941

  14. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  15. DDTs and HCHs in sediment cores from the coastal East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Nizzetto, Luca; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected along the Yangtze-derived sediment transport pathway in the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS) for OCP analysis. The sediment records of HCHs and DDTs in estuarine environment reflected remobilization of chemicals from enhanced soil erosion associated to extreme flood events or large scale land use transformation. The sediment records in the open sea, instead, reflected long-term historical trends of OCP application in the source region. Unlike the so-called mud wedge distribution of sediment, inventories of HCHs and DDTs slightly increased from the mouth of Yangtze River alongshore toward south, suggesting the sediment deposition rate was one of factors on the exposure of chemicals within the inner shelf of the ECS. Re-suspension and transport of the Yangtze-derived sediment and consequent fractionation in grain size and TOC were also responsible for the spatial variation of inventories of catchment derived OCPs in a major repository area of the Yangtze suspended sediment. The total burdens of HCHs and DDTs in the inner shelf of the ECS were 35tons and 110tons, respectively. After 1983 (year of the official ban in China), those values were 13tons and 50tons, respectively. It appears that the Yangtze still delivers relatively high inputs of DDTs more than 30years after the official ban. High proportions of DDD+DDE and β-HCH suggested those OCPs mainly originated from historical usage in the catchment recent years.

  16. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of Roseate Tern eggs were collected in 1981 from 5 of the largest colonies in the northeastern U.S. and from one large colony in the U.S. Virgin Islands. No organochlorine compounds were detected in eggs from the U.S. Virgin Islands. PCBs were found in all eggs and DDE was found in most eggs from the northeastern U.S., but concentrations were substantially lower than in Common Terns from the same colonies. There were no significant correlations between eggshell characteristics and organochlorine concentrations. DDE concentrations in Roseate Tern eggs were well below those reported to induce adverse effects in Common Terns.

  17. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n = 106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the Yangtze River outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93 μg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p < 0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (-)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.33 ± 7.34 μg kg(-1)bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01 mg kg(-1) bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs. PMID:26650085

  18. Levels and patterns of DDTs in maternal colostrum from an island population and exposure of neonates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhang, Honghui; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was heavily used in the past in many regions of the world. The occurrence of DDTs in island populations may be elevated if the island is adjacent to major DDT consumption estuaries, such as the Yangtze River Delta. In this study, colostrum samples were collected from maternal-neonate pairs (n = 106) from the Shengsi Island, located directly downstream from the Yangtze River outlet. DDT isomers and enantiomer compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and GC/MS-MS. The average levels of p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and total DDTs were 1.32, 0.03, 0.09, 0.08, 0.48, and 1.93 μg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Maternal age and pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were positively associated with levels of DDTs (p < 0.05). High (DDE+DDD)/DDT and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios suggested that current DDT residues originated primarily from historical use of DDT products, but new sources may also contribute partially to some high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios. Enantiomeric enrichment was found for the (-)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDD and the (+)-enantiomer of o,p'-DDT, suggesting stereoselective attenuation. Based on breast milk consumption, the average daily intake of DDTs by neonates was 8.33 ± 7.34 μg kg(-1)bw per day, which exceeded the WHO's tolerable daily intake guideline of 0.01 mg kg(-1) bw per day by 25%, implying some neonates in the Yangtze River region are potentially at high risk from exposure to DDTs.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Fayzieva, Dilorom; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

  20. Trace elements, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in New Zealand common dolphins (Delphinus sp.).

    PubMed

    Stockin, K A; Law, R J; Duignan, P J; Jones, G W; Porter, L; Mirimin, L; Meynier, L; Orams, M B

    2007-11-15

    Trace elements, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in tissues collected from stranded and bycaught common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters between 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and silver (Ag) were determined in blubber, liver and kidney tissue. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined in blubber samples. Cr and Ni were not detected in any of the samples and concentrations of Co, Sn and Pb were generally low. Concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.17 to 110 mg/kg wet weight. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, HCB, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations in the blubber ranged from 17 to 337 and 654 to 4430 microg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, Sigma45CB concentrations ranged from 49 to 386 and 268 to 1634 microg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The mean transmission of SigmaDDTs and ICES7CBs between a genetically determined mother-offspring pair was calculated at 46% and 42%, respectively. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides determined in the present study are within similar range to those reported for Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhyncus hectori) from inshore New Zealand waters. PMID:17644163

  1. Stable isotopes and organochlorines in the food webs of Lakes Baikal and Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Kucklick, J.R.; Baker, J.E.; Ostrom, N.E.; Ostrom, P.H.; Lee, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Quantifying organochlorine biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems is traditionally accomplished by assigning discreet trophic levels, which does not adequately describe feeding relationships except in well defined systems. {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C, particularly {delta}{sup 15}N values, measured in aquatic food webs provide additional information on trophic position such that it may be treated as a continuous variable. To evaluate this technique, samples were collected from the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal in August and September, 1993 for organochlorine (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes and HCHS) and stable isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) analyzed. These included high volume water samples, seston, net plankton, two species of pelagic sculpin Comephorus dybowskii, C. baikalensis, the omul, (Coregonus autumnalis migratorious), and 9 seal (Phoca siberica) samples of known sex and age. Food web samples from Lake Superior will be collected in June, 1994 to include benthic infauna, sculpins, Mysis and surface phytoplankton and zooplankton. Results from this study will provide a comparison of organochlorine trophodynamics between a system with a predominant pelagic food web (Lake Baikal) to one with substantial benthic/pelagic coupling (Lake Superior).

  2. Bivalve, Mytilus edulis, as a test organism for bioconcentration studies. I. Designing a continuous-flow system and its application to some organochlorine compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Renberg, L.; Tarkpea, M.; Linden, E.

    1985-04-01

    Most bioconcentration studies have previously been carried out using fish as a test organism. Equally important is the use of bivalves for this purpose, from both an ecological and an economic point of view. A continuous-flow system has thus been designed for use also with extremely hydrophobic substances and evaluated using 2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl, methoxychlor, pentachlorobenzene, and lindane. The variation of the uptake in the individuals after 3 weeks exposure was quite small (relative standard errors varied from 10.1 to 15.3% depending on the test substance), indicating a high degree of reproducibility. The bivalves, however, are known to close their valves under unfavorable conditions, which occasionally may bias the results. To overcome this disadvantage, it is suggested that an internal standard--i.e., a chemically defined compound--be added to the water simultaneously with the test substances. Although there is a principal risk for interactive effects, unexpected variations in the uptake can thus be compensated for by relating the concentration of the test substance to the concentration of the internal standard in the organisms. Comparisons between continuous-flow systems and static systems have also been made. It is concluded that continuous-flow systems are more suitable for studying hydrophobic compounds than static systems.

  3. Atmospheric depositional fluxes and sources apportionment of organochlorine pesticides in the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Song, Jianzhong; Zhong, Ying; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have variously been phased out in agricultural activities, but they are still widely detected in air, water, and soil systems due to their recalcitrant nature in the environment. The purposes of this study were to assess potential OCP pollution via dry and wet deposition over the fast developing Pearl River Delta area with 41,700 km(2), where the main effort has been focused on emerging pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and PM2.5. We quantified both the dry and wet deposition fluxes of 19 OCPs including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans (Endos), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The results showed that each year about 67.4, 42.0, 15.0, and 8.07 kg of total OCPs, DDTs, Endos, and HCHs were returned to the ground, among which 11.7, 10.4, 0.84, and 0.16 kg were in the dry deposition forms. The large spatial variations in OCP deposition fluxes indicated that OCP pollution in the air is mainly influenced on local scales because evaporation from local soil is likely the major source of the phased out OCPs. Source analysis indicated that DDTs may be still in use as antifouling agent and/or dicofol, but Endos and HCHs were mainly derived from the residual of historical usage. The study suggests that the historical OCP pollutants are persistent at high levels in this area and should not be overlooked, while we tackle emerging pollutants. PMID:23943243

  4. Atmospheric depositional fluxes and sources apportionment of organochlorine pesticides in the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Song, Jianzhong; Zhong, Ying; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have variously been phased out in agricultural activities, but they are still widely detected in air, water, and soil systems due to their recalcitrant nature in the environment. The purposes of this study were to assess potential OCP pollution via dry and wet deposition over the fast developing Pearl River Delta area with 41,700 km(2), where the main effort has been focused on emerging pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and PM2.5. We quantified both the dry and wet deposition fluxes of 19 OCPs including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans (Endos), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The results showed that each year about 67.4, 42.0, 15.0, and 8.07 kg of total OCPs, DDTs, Endos, and HCHs were returned to the ground, among which 11.7, 10.4, 0.84, and 0.16 kg were in the dry deposition forms. The large spatial variations in OCP deposition fluxes indicated that OCP pollution in the air is mainly influenced on local scales because evaporation from local soil is likely the major source of the phased out OCPs. Source analysis indicated that DDTs may be still in use as antifouling agent and/or dicofol, but Endos and HCHs were mainly derived from the residual of historical usage. The study suggests that the historical OCP pollutants are persistent at high levels in this area and should not be overlooked, while we tackle emerging pollutants.

  5. Tissue distribution of organochlorine pesticides in fish collected from the Pearl River Delta, China: implications for fishery input source and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Tang, Hong-Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2008-09-01

    Fish tissues from different fishery types (freshwater farmed, seawater farmed and seawater wild) were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), with the aim to further our understanding of bioaccumulation, and reflect the state of different fishery environments. Significantly higher SigmaOCP levels were found in seawater farmed fish than others, and among three freshwater farmed species, the lowest levels occurred in filter-feeding fish (bighead carp). Liver contained the highest SigmaOCP levels, while no significant differences were found among other tissues. Among DDT components, p,p'-DDT was abundant in seawater fish, while for freshwater fish, p,p'-DDE was the predominant congeners, except for northern snakehead (34% for p,p'-DDE and 30% for p,p'-DDT). The new source of DDTs to freshwater fish ponds was partly attributed to dicofol, whereas sewage discharged from the Pearl River Delta and anti-fouling paint were likely the DDTs sources to seawater farmed fish. PMID:18063460

  6. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  7. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  8. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from DDTs in shark in our study were relatively lower than those reported in other studies. Aggressive shark species and species inhabiting the Indian Ocean had the highest levels of OCs. Inter-species differences in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of OCs among shark species could be explained by differences in feeding habit and sampling locations. Several confounding factors such as growth velocity, trophic position, and regional contamination status may affect the bioaccumulation of OCs in sharks. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea.

  9. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might have played

  10. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  11. Development and evaluation of data-driven designed tags (DDTs) for controlling protein solubility.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shuichi; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Mori, Masatoshi; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Noguchi, Tamotsu; Goshima, Naoki

    2011-04-30

    Production of proteins is an important issue in protein science and pharmaceutical studies. Numerous protein expression systems using living cells and cell-free methods have been developed to date. In these systems, a promising strategy for improving the success rate of obtaining soluble proteins is the attachment of various tags into target proteins based on empirical rules. This paper presents a method for the production of data-driven designed tags (DDTs) based on highly frequent sequence property patterns in an experimentally assessed protein solubility dataset in a wheat germ cell-free system. We constructed seven proteins combined with 12 kinds of DDTs (six for enhancing solubility and six for insolubility) at the N-terminal region as tags. Then we investigated their behavior using SDS-PAGE. Results show that three and four proteins respectively showed a trend toward solubilization and insolubilization, which indicates the possibility that the theoretically designed sequence can control protein solubility. PMID:20837175

  12. Development and evaluation of data-driven designed tags (DDTs) for controlling protein solubility.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shuichi; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Mori, Masatoshi; Yokota, Kiyonobu; Noguchi, Tamotsu; Goshima, Naoki

    2011-04-30

    Production of proteins is an important issue in protein science and pharmaceutical studies. Numerous protein expression systems using living cells and cell-free methods have been developed to date. In these systems, a promising strategy for improving the success rate of obtaining soluble proteins is the attachment of various tags into target proteins based on empirical rules. This paper presents a method for the production of data-driven designed tags (DDTs) based on highly frequent sequence property patterns in an experimentally assessed protein solubility dataset in a wheat germ cell-free system. We constructed seven proteins combined with 12 kinds of DDTs (six for enhancing solubility and six for insolubility) at the N-terminal region as tags. Then we investigated their behavior using SDS-PAGE. Results show that three and four proteins respectively showed a trend toward solubilization and insolubilization, which indicates the possibility that the theoretically designed sequence can control protein solubility.

  13. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. ); Bruneau, S. ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Soto, E U; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A I; Félix-Fuentes, A; Grajeda-Cota, P; Balderas-Cortes, J J; Osorio-Rosas, C L; Acuña-García, G; Aguilar-Apodaca, M G

    2011-11-01

    Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g(-1)), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g(-1)) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g(-1)) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs.

  15. Temporal trends of organochlorine contamination in Black Guillemots in Iceland from 1976 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Olafsdóttir, Kristín; Petersen, Aevar; Magnúsdóttir, Elín V; Björnsson, Thorvaldur; Jóhannesson, Torkell

    2005-02-01

    The levels of several different persistent organochlorines (OCs) in Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle, collected during the summers of 1976-1996 at Breioafjörour in W-Iceland, were investigated. The levels of about 40 different organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphenes, HCH, HCB) were compared with respect to age, sex, fat content, and year of collection. The levels of PCBs correlated very closely with those of DDE, indicating long-range transport as the major source of these contaminants in Iceland, with the ratio PCBs/DDE mostly in the range of 2-5. Unlike the Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus, the organochlorine levels did not seem to accumulate substantially with age, neither in males nor females. The variation in the levels of OCs at the age of 2 years was even greater than the variation in OC levels over an age range of 12 years. In immature birds the levels of PCBs, DDE, HCB and beta-HCH declined very slowly (T(1/2) from 12 to 20 years) over the years 1976-1996, whereas the levels of alpha-HCH and p,p'-DDT declined much faster. The levels of trans-nonachlor, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, and toxaphene did not correlate with the year of collection. As the Black Guillemot is mostly a resident seabird, feeding mainly on small fish and invertebrates, this investigation should give a good indication of the temporal trends of organochlorine pollution at Breioafjörour, Iceland, during this 20 year period and is likely to reflect baseline trends in the marine environment of the North-Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Great Lakes fish, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengchih; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Milligan, Michael S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-11-15

    Temporal trend analysis of the latest Great Lake Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) data showed statistically significant decreases in persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) contaminant (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane and its metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor) concentrations in Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan lake trout over the period of 1999 to 2009. In contrast, for most contaminants, no statistically significant concentration trends were found in top predator fish in Lakes Superior and Erie during the same period. For Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan 5.0 ± 2.6% average annual concentration decreases were found for PCBs, DDTs, dieldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides (OCs) decreased at a faster rate, ranging from 10 ± 4.3% to 20 ± 7.1% per year. For these three lakes, with the exception of PCBs, these current decreases are greater than were shown by an earlier trend analysis that estimated an annual contaminant decrease of about 2-5% for the period of 1980 to 2003. For Lakes Superior and Erie, the finding of no statistically significant trend is in agreement with previously reported results for these lakes.

  17. Risk assessment of residual DDTs in freshwater and marine fish cultivated around the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Leung, S Y; Kwok, C K; Nie, X P; Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Six species of freshwater fish collected from 10 fishponds in Shunde and Zhongshan, China, four species of marine fishes collected from different mariculture farms [four in Hong Kong (Tung Lung Chau, Ma Wan, Cheung Chau and Kat O) and two in mainland China (Daya Bay and Shenzhen)] together with feed (both trash fish and commercial pellets) and sediment were analyzed for DDTs. Total DDTs in freshwater fish flesh decreased in the order of: carnivores [1742 microg/kg lipid weight (l.w.)] > herbivores (165 microg/kg, l.w.) > omnivores (42.5 microg/kg, l.w.), with the highest concentration detected in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (2641 microg/kg, l.w.). For marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) collected in Ma Wan contained elevated levels of total DDTs (2590 and 2034 microg/kg l.w., respectively). Trash fish used in both freshwater and marine fish farms contained significantly higher levels (86.5-641 microg/kg l.w.) (p < 0.05) of DDTs than in commercial pellets, but correlations between DDT levels in fish feed and muscle were not significant. The elevated biota-sediment accumulating factor for tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) (24.1) indicated that accumulation of DDTs from sediment to the fish was evident. It can be concluded that trash fish should not be used for fish culture in order to lower the level of residual DDTs in fish muscle.

  18. HCHs and DDTs in Soils around Guanting Reservoir in Beijing, China: Spatial-Temporal Variation and Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tie-yu; Tan, Bing; Lu, Yong-long

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in the topsoil samples around the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing were measured, and their spatial distribution and environmental risks were analyzed by GIS. The results showed that in 2003, 2007, and 2009, the HCHs concentrations were 0.66, 0.85, and 0.73 ng/g, and the DDTs concentrations were 9.50, 7.80, and 6.46 ng/g in the studied area, respectively. In the topsoil, the HCHs concentrations did not change much while the DDTs concentrations declined steadily. Most of the current residues in soil come from the POPs used in the past years but some new input is also detected in certain regions. The level of HCHs and DDTs residues in the south reservoir is lower than that in the north reservoir. The middle region has the highest HCHs and DDTs concentrations, especially near the Beixinpu town. The high risk regions of pollution of HCHs and DDTs are mainly distributed in the vicinity of Beixinpu town as well. Based on the aforementioned results, a comprehensive countermeasure is proposed entailing decision making, local implementation, scientific support, and public participation with regard to the long-term control and management of POPs around the Guanting Reservoir. PMID:23346019

  19. Alternative tissue analysis method developed for organochlorine contaminants in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, T.H.; Hopple, J.A.; Foster, G.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The exposure of aquatic life to organochlorine contaminants has been investigated during the past two decades because of human and ecosystem health concerns related to the bioaccumulation of hazardous, lipophilic substances. The toxic effects of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known, and recent evidence also suggests that low level exposure to lipophilic organochlorines may interfere with normal development during sensitive early life history stages. As the use of lipophilic organochlorines, such as DDT, in third world countries continues and with the purported global cycling and food chain accumulation of persistent organochlorines, the occurrence of these compounds in aquatic organisms is a critical global environmental issue. An understanding of the fate of organochlorines in the environmental clearly remains an extremely important subject related to water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently gained congressional approval in the United States to track nation wide trends in water quality through the establishment of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Among the goals defined by NAWQA, aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and plants, collected from major drainage basins will be analyzed for, along with other contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine insecticides, and chlorobenzenes. The purpose of this report is to present quality assurance data obtained from the development of a PCB, chlorobenzene, and organochlorine insecticide tissue analysis method in support of NAWQA and other large-scale water quality programs conducted through our laboratory. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. PMID:27262989

  1. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain), 1982-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Rico, M.C.; Fernandez, M.A.; Baluja, G.

    1985-12-01

    The existence of 11 organochlorine compounds and five heavy metals in the liver and muscle of 57 members of 10 species of mammals, all from Donana National Park (Spain), has been investigated. Five organochlorine compounds have been found and the five heavy metals were present in the samples. The biomagnification of organochlorines is shown. The detected concentrations for each trophic rank seem not to influence unfavourably on the population stability of the species. The rabbit is proposed as a monitor species for future studies in pollution at Donana National Park.

  2. Is there biomagnification of organochlorines in a Rocky Mountain aquatic food web?

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.M.; Schindler, D.W.; Kidd, K.; Donald, D.D.; Muir, D.

    1995-12-31

    In 1991--92, 14 lakes in the Canadian Rocky Mountains were surveyed for organochlorine contamination (PCBs, DDT isomers, toxaphene, and other pesticides) of water and lake trout. Lake trout from Bow Lake, near the Continental Divide, in Banff National Park, contained particularly high concentrations of organochlorines, notably toxaphene, in their tissue compared to other mountain lake trout populations. The hypothesis that the high degree of contamination in fish is caused by biomagnification is being tested by analysis of lake trout (Salveninus namaycush), mountain whitefish (Propsopium williamsoni), benthic invertebrates, and zooplankton for organochlorine compounds and stable nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N). Fish, invertebrates, sediments and water collected from Bow Lake in 1994 were all found to contain organochlorines, and the authors are investigating the apparent patterns of contamination present. The possibility that contaminants deposited in past decades on the glaciers that feed Bow Lake contributes to the high values is also being examined.

  3. Organochlorine residues in bird species collected dead in Ontario 1972-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Organochlorine residues have been reported in many species of birds found dead or shot around the Great Lakes Basin. Raptors and fish-eating birds have had very high residues in the past while terrestrial seed- and insect-eaters have had relatively low residues. Most of the organochlorine insecticides like DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane, endrin and heptachlor have been removed from field use, and controls have been placed on the dispersal of organochlorine industrial chemicals like mirex and PCB. These substances are very persistent. The major sources of contamination now are environmental residues picked up by birds in their normal feeding. These compounds bioaccumulate in bird species, and the highest residues accumulate at the top of the food chain. This paper is a compilation of data obtained from dead birds collected in the Great Lakes Basin over the last 16 years and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants.

  4. Sources and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the soil and sediment along the Kaidu-Peacock River, Northwest of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Fei; Qu, Chengkai; Zhang, Yuan; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a sub-group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have raised the concerns from researchers all around the world for several decades. But very little research has been conducted on POPs in the arid zone of Northwest China. More than 100 soil and sediment samples were collected from Kaidu-Peacock River of Xinjiang, Northwest of China, to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in this region analysed by the gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Our pre-study in 2006 (Chen et al. 2011) in the same region, showed that OCPs except o,p'-DDT were detected in sediments from the Peacock River. Similar results were found in the whole river catchment in this investigation. DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and endosulfans were the dominant OCPs residual in the soil and sediments. This study confirmed that POPs, such as OCPs in this region were contributed to by both local emissions and long-term atmospheric transport and may pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. Chen, W., Jing, M., Bu, J., Ellis Burnet, J., Qi, S., Song, Q., Ke, Y., Miao, J., Liu, M. & Yang, C. (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 1-21.

  5. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychloribiphenyls [sic] in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), from the continental United States, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Starlings were collected from 129 sites throughout the contiguous United States in the fall of 1982 and analyzed for organochlorine compounds as part of a nationwide monitoring program. Residues of 14 organochlorine compounds were found. Only DDE, polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide occurred in more than 50% of the lO-starling pools. Geographical variation in the occurrence of seven organochlorine compounds was noted. Mean DDE levels were higher in the southwestern United States. Mean PCB levels were higher in the eastern United States. The occurrence frequency of most organochlorines in 1982 was similar to that which was reported in the previous nationwide study in 1979. A slight increase in occurrence was noted for trans-nonachlor. Mean DDE level I in 1982 was similar to that of 1979. Mean PCB level in 1982 was lower than the 1979 mean, but this change may not reflect a decrease in environmental PCB levels.

  6. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Hulea, Orieta; Schepens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogues, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in sediments and biota (invertebrates, 11 fish species and cormorant tissues) collected in 2001 from the Danube Delta, the biggest European wetland. DDTs were the predominant pollutants in all samples. A high variability in the concentrations of pollutants within the same species was observed and this was related to sampling location, age, length and sex. DDTs were also the main organohalogenated contaminants in cormorant muscle and liver, followed by PCBs, HCHs, HCB and PBDEs. The present levels of DDTs in cormorant tissues are lower than levels measured in cormorant eggs sampled from the Danube Delta in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The variance of delta15N for herbivores was much greater than for carnivores, while carp and bream showed higher delta15N signatures than expected, probably due to a higher dietary proportion of benthos, typically more delta15N enriched relative to pelagic biota. PMID:16112310

  7. Assessing spatial distribution, sources, and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in the soils of arid and semiarid areas of northwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Guo, Qiang; Tian, Hui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Ding, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Thirty-two topsoil samples were collected to analyze the residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in topsoil of arid and semiarid areas of northwest China in 2011. Results showed that DDTs were the dominant contaminants with a mean concentration of 12.52 ng/g. The spatial distribution characteristics indicated that α-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were mainly used in rural sites, whereas hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and endosulfan were detected mostly in urban areas. DDTs, heptachlor, and chlordane were found almost equally in both urban and rural areas. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs in soils were attributable to the residues from their historical use and fresh usage of lindane (γ-HCH). DDTs were mainly from historical use and fresh usage of dicofol, and HCB was emitted from the chemical industry. It was also found that the current soil levels of heptachlor were mainly from its historical usage, endosulfan from fresh input, and chlordane from long-range atmospheric transport, respectively. The noncarcinogenic health risk assessment with a model was also conducted using USEPA standards for adults and children. Results indicated that health risk under nondietary exposure to OCPs decreased in the sequence of ΣDDT > ΣHCH > HCB > Σheptachlor > Σendosulfan > Σchlordane. According to the reference dose from the USEPA, the health risk under nondietary exposure to OCPs in the soil samples was at a relatively safe level.

  8. Temporal variation and biomagnification of organohalogen compounds in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Lam, Paul K S; Jefferson, Thomas A; Zhou, Kaiya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of male finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected in 1990 and 2000/01 from the South China Sea. Among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, DDTs and PCBs were the predominant contaminants in the porpoises, ranging from 26,000 to 260,000 and 1400 to 28,000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. PBDEs ranged from a minimum of 84 ng/g lipid wt., in 1990 to a maximum of 980 ng/g lipid wt., in 2001, showing a significant increase during the time period investigated. Congener profiles in finless porpoises did not shift to higher BDE congeners during these years, implying a continuous discharge of lower BDE commercial mixtures, such as PentaBDE. For OCs, HCHs concentrations decreased significantly, while others did not exhibit any significant temporal variation. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found to be highest for CHLs and lowest for HCB. PBDEs and PCBs had comparable BMFs, indicating a similar potential for biomagnification through the food web.

  9. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were <1, and most of the cancer risk values were <10(-6), suggesting that DDTs and HCHs in the farmland will not pose non-carcinogenic risks and will pose only very low cancer risks to the Tibetan residents.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  11. Organochlorine residues and eggshell thinning in anhingas and waders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine compounds occur commonly in environmental samples and have been associated with adverse effects in numerous avian species. The affected species are usually terminal consumers, generally those feeding on aquatic organisms (primarily fish) or birds. Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus , and certain herons are among the species that have exhibited shell thinning in some regions. In 1972, we began a study to determine: (1) geographic differences in the occurrence of environmental pollutants in Anhingas (Anhinga anhinga) and waders in the eastern United States; (2) differences in environmental pollutant levels among those species nesting at the same localities; and (3) whether eggshell thickness had changed since the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides began in the mid-1940's.

  12. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  13. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roscales, Jose L; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-07-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ(13)C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  14. The residues, distribution, and partition of organochlorine pesticides in the water, suspended solids, and sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu) during the high water level period.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-04-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water, suspended solids, and sediments from Lake Chaohu during the high water level period were measured by a solid-phase extraction gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. The spatial distributions of the three phases and the water/suspended solids and sediment/water partition coefficients were analyzed. The results showed the following: (1) The mean contents of OCPs in the water, suspended solids, and sediments were 132.4 ± 432.1 ng/L, 188.1 ± 286.7 ng/g dry weight (dw), and 13.7 ± 9.8 ng/g dw, respectively. The dominant OCP components were isodrin (85.1%) for the water, DDTs (64.4%) for the suspended solids, and both isodrin (48.5%) and DDTs (31.8%) for the sediments. (2) β-HCH was the primary isomer of HCHs in the water and sediments, and the proportions were 61.7 and 41.3%; γ-HCH was the primary isomer in the suspended solids, accounting for 49.3%; p,p'-DDT was the dominant content of DDTs in the water and suspended solids, whereas p,p'-DDD was the main metabolite of DDTs in the sediments. (3) The concentrations of contaminants in the water from the western lake were greater than those from the eastern lake, but the concentrations in the suspended solids from the western lake were less than those from the eastern lake. (4) There was no significant correlation between the water-suspended solids partition coefficient Kd and the n-octanol-water partition coefficient Kow, and between the sediment-water organic-C weighted sorption coefficients Koc and Kow.

  15. The status of organochlorine pesticide contamination in the soils of the Campanian Plain, southern Italy, and correlations with soil properties and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Doherty, Angela L; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-09-01

    The distribution, inventory, and potential risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with soil properties and anthropogenic factors were investigated in soils of the Campanian Plain. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs ranged from 0.03 to 17.3 ng/g (geometric mean: GM = 0.05 ng/g), and 0.08-1231 ng/g (GM = 14.4 ng/g), respectively. In general, the concentration of OCPs in farmland and orchards was higher than on land used for non-agricultural purposes. There are significant differences in the concentration of OCPs in the soils across the region, more specifically, the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation (AMC) and Sarno River Basin (SRB) are recognized as severely OCP-contaminated areas. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use of these chemicals in Italy nearly forty years ago. The clear correlation between the concentration of DDTs and organic carbon suggests a typical secondary distribution pattern. The mass inventory of OCPs in soils of the Campanian Plain is estimated to have a GM of 17.3 metric tons. There is no clear evidence linking the impact of geographical distribution of OCPs on the incidence of cancer, and the 95% confidence interval of total incremental lifetime cancer risk (TILCR) data falls below the internationally accepted benchmark value of 1 × 10(-5). PMID:27376995

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in grass, yak muscle, liver, and milk in Ruoergai high altitude prairie, the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Gai, Nan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Shu; Chen, Dazhou; Lu, Guohui; Yang, Yongliang

    2014-09-01

    In highland pastures, where no agricultural and industrial activities exist, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are believed to be mainly coming from water-soil-grass system which is subject to air-water and air-soil exchanges and atmospheric precipitation. Samples of grass and yak muscle, liver, and milk were measured for OCPs and PCBs in the summer and winter of 2011. The total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, HCB, and PCBs in grass samples were in the range of 0.53-2.45, 1.6-6.0, 1.10-4.38, 0.30-1.24, 0.65-2.04 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight), with the means 1.38, 2.86, 2.06, 0.73, and 1.19 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The mean concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in yak muscle were 1.65 and 0.55 ng g(-1) fw (fresh weight), respectively; no significant seasonal differences. The average total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, HCB, endosulfans, and PCBs in yak milk were 4.46, 0.59, 1.00, 0.27, and 0.097 ng g(-1) fat, respectively. Among the POPs investigated, β-HCH and HCB were dominant in yak muscle and liver, whereas β-HCH dominated the yak milk. Consistent with the results of other studies, PCB 153, 138, and 180 were detected in yak milk that is in accordance with the case reported for farmed cow milk in China and other countries. A human health risk was conducted based on the intake of OCPs via consumptions of the yak muscle and milk. Since the daily intake of HCHs and DDTs was lower than WHO or USEPA's acceptable daily intake or minimal risk level, showing that the consumptions of the yak muscle and milk would not pose any immediate risk to local people.

  17. Health risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants in fish from a major lake (Baiyangdian Lake) in North China.

    PubMed

    Dai, G H; Liu, X H; Liang, G; Xu, M Z; Han, X; Shi, L

    2011-07-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in fish were determined to evaluate the potential risk to humans consuming fish originating in Baiyangdian Lake, North China. Relatively low levels of PCBs, HCHs and DDTs were observed, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 3.28 ng/g, wet weight. Among various fish species tested, the highest burden of OCs was recorded in northern snakehead (7.39 ng/g, wet weight) and the lowest was in grass carp (2.04 ng/g, wet weight). The hazard ratios (HRs), based on noncancer risk were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer risk exceeded 1.0 only for PCBs based on the 90th percentile concentration. PMID:21516458

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and chlorobiphenyls in the blubber of bycaught female common dolphins from England and Wales from 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Law, Robin J; Bersuder, Philippe; Barry, Jon; Barber, Jon; Deaville, Rob; Barnett, James; Jepson, Paul D

    2013-04-15

    We report concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, HCHs, DDTs, dieldrin) and PCBs in the blubber of 43 common dolphins bycaught in fisheries operating off the SW coast of the UK from 1992 to 2006. Concentrations of ΣDDT (summed p,p'-DDT and its metabolites, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-TDE) and of 25 summed CB congeners ranged from 0.2 to 16.1 and 2.1 to 62.4 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. Concentrations of sum HCH, HCB and dieldrin were lower, ranging from not detected to 0.14, 0.01 to 0.27 and 0.01 to 0.73 mg kg(-1) lipid weight, respectively. All contaminants studied showed a downward time trend but only that for HCHs was statistically significant. Overall, 72% of the dolphins analysed had blubber PCB concentrations above an established toxicity threshold value.

  19. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the

  20. Occurrence and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) along the Chao River, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Li, Yingxia; Shen, Zhenyao; Yang, Zhifeng; Mo, Li; Kong, Yanhong; Lou, Inchio

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the possible influence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on Miyun Reservoir, 14 soil samples and 1 water sample were collected along the Chao River, which is the main upstream source of the reservoir. A total of 24 kinds of OCPs and 12 kinds of dioxin-like PCBs were measured. Results showed that the ∑OCPs concentration ranged from 0.8145 to 16.8524 ng g(-1), and the ∑PCBs ranged from 0.0039 to 0.0365 ng g(-1). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the three dominant kinds of OCPs in this region, and the majority component of the PCBs was PCB-118 in both water and soil samples. The OCP ratios suggest that new inputs of lindane exist. DDTs mainly come from old technical inputs. HCHs might come from a new application of lindane, which highlights the importance of prohibited pesticide control. OCP concentrations were higher in corn fields and orchards and lower in forest lands and grasslands, which indicated that OCPs were very much influenced by human activities. The proportion of PCB components in this study area suggested that they mainly came from atmospheric deposition.

  1. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. PMID:26969054

  2. Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

    2012-05-01

    An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in local waterbird eggs from Hong Kong: risk assessment to local waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Jiao, Liping; Wong, Captain C L; Yeung, Leo W Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-05-01

    The contamination status of the marine environment in Hong Kong was studied by measuring concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pollutants (i.e., hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, mirex, total heptachlor, total chlordane, total DDTs, total PCBs, and total toxaphenes) in the eggs of selected waterbird species from different locations around the city: Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese Pond Heron (Ardeola bacchus) from Mai Po Village, Great Egret (Ardea alba) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) from A Chau, and Chinese Pond Heron (A. bacchus) from Ho Sheung Heung. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and total DDTs ranged from 191-11,100 ng g(-1) lipid and 453-49,000 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. Recent exposure of waterbirds to technical chlordane was found in Hong Kong. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to birds associated with exposure to DDE, which was found to cause a reduction in survival of young in Hong Kong Ardeids based on the endpoint in the risk assessment. PMID:21440927

  4. PCBs and DDTs in light-vented bulbuls from Guangdong Province, South China: levels, geographical pattern and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Thirty-two light-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) were collected from six sampling sites in Guangdong Province, South China to investigate the geographical variation on the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the pectoral muscle of light-vented bulbul ranged from 140 to 73,000 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 12 to 4600 ng/g lw, respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in birds from e-waste site compared to other sampling sites (mean, 18,000 vs 290 ng/g lw, p<0.0001), implying that PCBs mainly came from e-waste recycling activities. No significant differences for DDT levels were observed among the sampling sites (p=0.092). Differences in PCB homologue profiles among the sampling sites were found and can be probably ascribed to different local contamination sources. p,p'-DDE (>80%) was the most abundant component of DDTs in birds. Compositional pattern of DDTs suggested that historical residue was the main source of DDT. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations had significant positive correlations with PCB concentrations, indicating that elevated PCB levels may have adverse effects on light-vented bulbuls.

  5. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken eggs: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kahunyo, J M; Froslie, A; Maitai, C K

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and five chicken egg samples were taken from seven geographical locations in Kenya and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues using gas-liquid chromatography. Nine organochlorine compounds were detected: alpha- and gamma-HCH/BHC (hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride), aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], p,p'-DDD (TDE) [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] (tetrachlorodiphenylethane), o,p'-DDD [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane], o,p'-DDT [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and p,p'-DDT. Eighteen of the samples contained DDT levels exceeding the practical residue limit (0.5 ppm). The mean DDT residue content was 0.68 ppm, a result influenced greatly by the high contamination in the 18 samples. Both individual and mean residue levels for other organochlorine pesticides detected were well within the respective practical residue limits. PMID:3411637

  7. Profile of organochlorine pesticides in soil cores from some hotspot areas of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hang-Xin; Li, Xing-Hong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Zhao, Chuan-Dong; Liu, Ying-Han; Chen, Hong-Han; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2011-08-01

    For the valid use of urban land and the safety of public health, an extensive contamination survey of organochlorine pesticides from five soil cores was conducted in the highly urbanized areas of Beijing in China. For topsoils in five soil cores, level of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs varied from 0.174 to 4,783 ng g(-1) and 0.62 to 57,849 ng g(-1), respectively. The profile in topsoil of cores displayed that levels of pollutants in four soil cores from the urban areas with dense population are higher than that from outskirts. The depth characteristics of pollutants indicated that the level of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in BY and WU was close to/below the background value of soil in China (50 ng g(-1)), but those in some soil samples from A, B and ZX core, especially A and B, was above the threshold value for the soil safety (1,000 ng g(-1)). In views of the usage history of the land and profiles of contaminants, the source in A and B probably came from the dumped waste chemical materials in the old chemical factories. The study of soil cores sampled revealed the existence of chemical "time bomb" in urban regions of Beijing. Also, the finding indicated the absolute necessity of assessing the soil quality with the unprecedented land use changes in the big city community. PMID:21614446

  8. Contamination characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in multimatrix sampling of the Hanjiang River Basin, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Shihua; Yao, Jun; Yang, Dan; Xing, Xinli; Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Chengkai

    2016-11-01

    Hanjiang River, the second largest river in Guangdong Province, Southern China, is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Chaozhou and Shantou. Our previous studies indicated that soils from an upstream catchment area of the Hanjiang River are moderately contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which can easily enter the river system via soil runoff. Therefore, OCPs, especially downstream drinking water sources, may pose harmful health and environmental risks. On the basis of this hypothesis, we measured the OCP concentrations in dissolved phase (DP), suspended particle matter (SPM), and surface sediment (SS) samples collected along the Hanjiang River Basin in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. OCP residue levels were quantified through electron capture detector gas chromatography to identify the OCP sources and deposits. The concentration ranges of OCPs in DP, SPM, and SS, respectively, were 2.11-12.04 (ng/L), 6.60-64.77 (ng/g), and 0.60-4.71 (ng/g) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and 2.49-4.77 (ng/L), 6.75-80.19 (ng/g), and 0.89-252.27 (ng/g) for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs). Results revealed that DDTs represent an ecotoxicological risk to the Hanjiang River Basin, as indicated by international sediment guidelines. This study serves as a basis for the future management of OCP concentrations in the Hanjiang River Basin, and exemplifies a pattern of OCP movement (like OCP partition among multimedia) from upstream to downstream. This pattern may be observed in similar rivers in China. PMID:27521638

  9. Contamination characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in multimatrix sampling of the Hanjiang River Basin, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Shihua; Yao, Jun; Yang, Dan; Xing, Xinli; Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Chengkai

    2016-11-01

    Hanjiang River, the second largest river in Guangdong Province, Southern China, is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Chaozhou and Shantou. Our previous studies indicated that soils from an upstream catchment area of the Hanjiang River are moderately contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which can easily enter the river system via soil runoff. Therefore, OCPs, especially downstream drinking water sources, may pose harmful health and environmental risks. On the basis of this hypothesis, we measured the OCP concentrations in dissolved phase (DP), suspended particle matter (SPM), and surface sediment (SS) samples collected along the Hanjiang River Basin in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. OCP residue levels were quantified through electron capture detector gas chromatography to identify the OCP sources and deposits. The concentration ranges of OCPs in DP, SPM, and SS, respectively, were 2.11-12.04 (ng/L), 6.60-64.77 (ng/g), and 0.60-4.71 (ng/g) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and 2.49-4.77 (ng/L), 6.75-80.19 (ng/g), and 0.89-252.27 (ng/g) for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs). Results revealed that DDTs represent an ecotoxicological risk to the Hanjiang River Basin, as indicated by international sediment guidelines. This study serves as a basis for the future management of OCP concentrations in the Hanjiang River Basin, and exemplifies a pattern of OCP movement (like OCP partition among multimedia) from upstream to downstream. This pattern may be observed in similar rivers in China.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake. PMID:16170447

  11. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  12. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in foodstuffs collected from traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shoiful, Ahmad; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Isao; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2013-02-01

    A total 23 of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in five groups of foodstuffs, i.e.: vegetables (carrot, potato, cucumber, corn, and onion), rice, pulses (green bean and soybean), nuts (peanut), and fish (milkfish), which collected from traditional markets in three big cities of Indonesia; Jakarta, Bogor, and Yogyakarta. OCPs were only detected in fatty foodstuffs, such as soybean, peanut, and milkfish. The concentration of HCB (expressed as ng g(-1) on a whole basis), ΣDrins, ΣDDTs, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs were in the range of <0.3-0.74 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.42 ng g(-1), <0.02-0.41 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.14 ng g(-1), and <0.03-0.06 ng g(-1), respectively, which were far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as established by FAO/WHO. These very low concentrations of OCPs residues in foodstuffs indicated that OCPs were used only in past time and no recent input into the environment. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of HCB, ΣDDTs, ΣDrins, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs in five group foodstuffs, which were 60% of total daily diet of Indonesian, were 0.09 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.04 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.01 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.003 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), and 0.002 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. These results were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) as established by FAO/WHO, which indicated that consumption of foodstuffs from Indonesia were at little risk to human health in term of OCPs at present.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides contamination in surface soils from two pesticide factories in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Yeru

    2009-10-01

    The present article attempts to investigate organochlorine pesticides' (OCPs) contamination in soils from polluted sites and to assess the soil quality in the study area. HCHs and eight other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pesticides were studied in surface soil samples collected from a new (F) and an old (G) pesticide factory in Southeast China. According to the measured results, surface soils from F and G were contaminated with HCHs, DDTs, HCB, and chlordane, with beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT being the two dominant substances. The total OCPs concentrations of surface soils from F and G were 0.84 and 166mgkg(-1) respectively. Cluster analysis was performed to group the soil sites in terms of their total OCPs contamination levels. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, and trans-/cis- chlordane in some of the soil samples are similar to their technical products in the study area which indicates the lack of hazardous waste management practices of the pesticide production and transportation. According to GB 15618-1995, the HCHs could be classified as light pollution and little pollution for F and G, whereas DDTs levels of F and G could be defined as little pollution and heavy pollution, respectively. This study indicates that surface soils, especially residential area soils from F and G were facing varying degrees of pollutions. The situation is more hazardous due to the continuous exposure of the population that lives in the surroundings. Therefore, on-site remediation technologies and the best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) should be carried out on these factories with the national implementation of the Stockholm Convention.

  14. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

    2013-11-15

    Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant β-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area.

  15. Organochlorine residues in adult mallard and black duck wings, 1981-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Bunck, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten organochlorine compounds were identified in pools of black duck (Anas rubripes) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wings from the 1981-82 hunting season. Most organochlorine compounds occurred very infrequently. Among those compounds positively identified by mass spectrometry, DDE and, secondarily, PCB had the highest frequencies of occurrence. Other compounds, positively identified and occurring less frequently, included DDT, DDD, DDMU, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor, cis-chlordane and mirex. Compounds looked for but not positively identified include oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, endrin, hexachlorobenzene and toxaphene. PCB levels in black duck wings declined between the 1979-80 and 1981-82 collections. PCB levels in black duck wings from the northern region of the Atlantic Flyway were higher than those in wings from the southern region. Mean DDE residues in mallard wings declined between collections and differed among flyways and regions. PCB levels in mallard wings differed only among flyways and regions.

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in ringed seals and polar bears collected from northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kucklick, J.R.; Struntz, W.D.J.; Becker, P.R.; York, G.W.; O'Hara, T. M.; Bohonowych, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Blubber samples from ringed seal (Phoca hispida; n=8) and polar bear subcutaneous fat (Ursus maritimus; n=5) were collected near Barrow, Alaska in 1996 as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) and retained in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA). The samples were analyzed for a variety of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane and metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs and metabolites. The geometric mean, on a wet mass basis, of ??PCBs (sum of 29 congeners and congener groups) were 732??282 ng/g (1 S.D.) in seals and 3395??1442 ng/g in polar bears. The geometric mean of ??DDTs, ??HCHs (??-, ??- and ??- HCH) and HCB concentrations (wet mass basis) in seals and bears were 562??261 ng/g vs. 74.8??39 ng/g, 380??213 ng/g vs. 515 ng/g, and 17.4??10.1 ng/g vs. 183??153 ng/g, respectively. The geometric mean sum of chlordane (??chlordane, sum of cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane and heptachlor epoxide) and dieldrin concentrations in ringed seals and polar bears were 753??617 ng/g vs. 720??315 ng/g and 38.6??22.8 ng/g vs. 130??65 ng/g, respectively. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (polar bear/ringed seal POP concentrations) were lower in the animals sampled near Barrow, Alaska than in those from locations in the Canadian Arctic. This suggests that polar bears are also preying on marine mammals from lower trophic levels than the ringed seals with correspondingly lower organochlorine levels, such as bowhead whale carcasses. PCB congener patterns in the samples demonstrated the metabolism of certain PCB congeners in the polar bear relative to the ringed seal in agreement with previous studies. Regional comparisons of animals collected in Alaska and Arctic Canada are presented. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, M.H.; Chapman, P.M.; Johns, D.M.; Paine, M.D.

    1997-07-01

    Organisms exposed to organochlorinated compounds in sediments are likely to suffer chronic rather than acute effects. Thus, acute toxicity tests are unlikely to truly assess their potential impact. A 120-d toxicity test was designed to assess the impact of polychlorinated biphenyl on the marine polychaete Neanthes arenacedodentata. A two-tiered approach was used: Tier 1 involved reference sediment spiked with a range of concentrations of the organochlorine bracketing the concentrations found in natural sediments, and tier 2 involved field sediments collected from a coastal area contaminated with high concentrations of the same organochlorine. Testing measured a number of endpoints, including survival, growth, and reproduction. Survival and growth were unaffected in either tier by any of the test sediments. Reproductive endpoints, however, were depressed in both tiers relative to the reference sediment.

  18. Trace elements and organochlorines in the shoalgrass community of the lower Laguna Madre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Mitchell, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to measure concentrations of seven trace elements and 14 organochlorine compounds in sediment and biota of the shoalgrass (Halodule wrightii) community of the lower Laguna Madre of south Texas and to determine whether chemicals associated with agriculture (e.g. mercury, arsenic, selenium, organochlorine pesticides) were highest near agricultural drainages. Arsenic, mercury, selenium, lead, cadmium, and organochlorines were generally at background concentrations throughout the lower Laguna Madre. Nickel and chromium concentrations were exceptionally high in shrimp and pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), which is difficult to explain because of no known anthropogenic sources for these trace elements. For sediment and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), mercury was highest near agricultural drainages. Also, DDE was more frequently detected in blue crabs near agricultural drainages than farther away. In contrast, selenium concentrations did not differ among collecting sites and arsenic concentrations were lowest in shoalgrass, blue crabs, and brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) near agricultural drainages.

  19. Behaviour of some organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides in potatoes during soaking in different solutions.

    PubMed

    Zohair, A

    2001-07-01

    The efficiencies of acidic solutions (radish, citric acid, ascorbic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide), neutral solutions (sodium chloride) and alkaline solution (sodium carbonate) as well as tap water in the elimination of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides from naturally contaminated potatoes were examined. The results indicated that acidic solutions were more effective than neutral and alkaline solutions in the elimination of the organochlorine compounds under investigation, Radish solutions eliminated pesticides completely, except o,p'-DDE (73.1% loss), followed by citric and ascorbic acid solutions. On the other hand, organophosphorus pesticides (pirimphos methyl, malathion and profenofos) were eliminated more by acidic, neutral and alkaline solutions than by organochlorines. The percentage of removal ranged from 98.5 to 100% for pirimphos methyl, 87.9 to 100% for malathion and 100% for profenofos. PMID:11397522

  20. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  1. Organochlorine residues in northeaster Alberta otters

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, J.D.; Goski, B.C.; Barrett, M.W.

    1987-11-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides in North America has for the most part been legislatively curtailed during the last decade, and North American production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCS's) was stopped in the 1970's. However, monitoring of chemical residues in fish and wildlife indicates that these persistent compound are still much in evidence throughout North America. Data on chemical residues in Alberta wildlife, particularly non-migratory species, is for the most part unknown. Otters (Lutra canadensis) are consumers of fish, invertebrates, amphibians and small mammals cohabiting their aquatic habitat. As carnivores at the terminus of their respective food chains, semi-aquatic mammals such as otter and mink (Mustela vison) may be expected to accumulate pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals. Otters are relatively sedentary and monitoring of chemical residues in their tissues might yield a diverse contaminant profile unique to the specific environs from which the animals are collected. The purpose of this report is to present chemical residue data for otters collected from aquatic habitats in northeastern Alberta.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Ford, C A; Grift, N P; Stewart, R E; Bidleman, T F

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (DDT, chlordane, polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs), dieldrin, hexachloroheclohexanes (SigmaHCH), mirex), polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorobenzenes (SigmaCBz) were determined in blubber and liver of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) collected during 1982-1983 from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. PCCs were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2990 to 13 200 ng g(-1) (wet wt) in males and from 1910 to 8390 ng g(-1) in females. PCCs consisted of two major components, an octachlorobornane and a nonachlorobornane with gas chromatographic retention times of 1.05 and 1.22, relative to 4,4'-DDE. SigmaPCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2250 to 7290 ng g(-1) in males and from 894 to 5710 ng g(-1) in females. Seven PCB congeners (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) accounted for 45% of total PCB (SigmaPCB) in narwhal blubber. Narwhal had 1.4- to 8.6-fold higher ratios of tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls to PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl), lower 4,4'-DDE/SigmaDDT ratios and lower proportions of trans-nonachlor to total chlordane components than reported for odontocetes living in more contaminated environments. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and SigmaHCH, dieldrin and SigmaCBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants. PMID:15092019

  3. Organochlorine residues in eggs of Alaskan seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Bartonek, J.C.; Divoky, G.J.; Klass, E.

    1982-01-01

    One egg from each of 440 clutches of eggs of 19 species of Alaskan seabirds collected in 1973-76 was analyzed for organochlorine residues. All eggs contained DDE; 98.9% contained PCB's; 84.3%, oxychlordane; and 82.7%, HCB. Endrin was found in only one egg, but DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, cis-chlordane (or trans-nonachlor), cis-nonachlor, and toxaphene each occurred in at least 22% of the samples.Concentrations of organochlorines in the samples were generally low. Mean concentrations of eight compounds were highest in eggs of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from three sites: DDE (5.16 ppm, wet weight), dieldrin (0.214 ppm), oxychlordane (0.251 ppm), and PCB's (3.55 ppm) in eggs from Bogoslof Island; heptachlor epoxide (0.037 ppm), cis-chlordane (0.075 ppm), and HCB (0.188 ppm) in eggs from Buldir Island; and cis-nonachlor (0.026 ppm) in eggs from the Semidi Islands. Highest concentrations of DDD (0.157 ppm), DDT (0.140 ppm), and toxaphene (0.101 ppm) were in eggs of fork-tailed storm-petrel (Oceanodroma furcata) from Buldir Island, and the highest concentration of mirex (0.044 ppm) was in fork-tailed storm-petrel eggs from the Barren Islands.Both frequency of occurrence and concentration of residues in the eggs differed geographically and by species, apparently reflecting non-uniform distribution of organochlorines in the environment, dissimilar feeding habits and migration patterns of the species, or metabolic differences among the species.The overall frequency of residue occurrence was highest in eggs from the Pribilof Islands, but only three species were represented in the samples collected there. Detectable residues also were more frequent in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska colonies than elsewhere, and the lowest frequency was in eggs from nesting colonies on or near the Seward Peninsula. Regionally, concentrations of DDE and PCB's were usually higher than average in eggs from the Gulf of Alaska and lower than average in eggs from the

  4. Production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint resulted in high DDTs residue in three paint factory sites and two shipyard sites, China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jia; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Jihua; Niu, Jia

    2011-06-01

    This study provides the first intensive investigation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) distribution in typical paint factories and shipyards in China where DDT containing antifouling paint were mass produced and used respectively. DDTs were analyzed in soil, sludge and sediment samples collected from three major paint factories and two shipyards. The results showed that the total DDTs concentrations detected in paint factory and shipyard sites ranged from 0.06 to 8387.24 mg kg(-1). In comparison with paint factory sites, the shipyard sites were much more seriously contaminated. However, for both kinds of sites, the DDTs level was found to be largely affected by history and capacity of production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that DDT containing antifouling paint could serve as important fresh input sources for DDTs. It can be seen that most samples in shipyards were in ranges where heavy contamination and potential ecological risk were identified.

  5. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DDTs in Dianchi Lake, an urban lake in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-yang; Wu, Feng-chang; Liao, Hai-qing; Zhao, Xiao-li; Li, Wen; Wang, Jing; Wang, Li-fang; Giesy, John P

    2013-08-01

    Unique time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were found in a dated sediment core from Dianchi Lake (DC), an urban lake in Southwest China. The temporal trend of PAHs in DC was not only different from those in China's coastline and remote lakes of China, but also different from those in more developed countries. Identification of sources suggested that PAHs in DC originated primarily from domestic combustion of coal and biomass. However, a change of source from low- and moderate-temperature combustion to high-temperature combustion processes was observed. Different from those in China's coastline and some developed countries, the temporal trend of DDTs in DC mirrored the historical usage of DDTs in China, with erosion of soils and surface runoff from its drainage area the most likely routes of DDT introduction to the lake. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in its catchment, effective interception of point-source pollution, and changes in sources of energy during the last few decades have significantly influenced the vertical profiles of PAHs in DC.

  6. DDTs in rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from an agricultural site, South China: tissue distribution, biomagnification, and potential toxic effects assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-04-01

    Contamination with agricultural pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), is among several proposed stressors contributing to the global declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity. These chemicals were examined in insects and in the muscle, liver, and eggs of rice frogs (Rana limnocharis) from the paddy fields of an agricultural site in South China. The ΣDDT (sum of DDT, DDE, and DDD) concentrations ranged from 154 to 915, 195 to 1,400, and 165 to 1,930 ng/g lipid weight in the muscle, liver, and eggs, respectively. All the DDTs (DDT, DDE, and DDD) showed higher affinity for the liver relative to muscle tissue and can be maternally transferred to eggs in female frogs. The average biomagnification factors for DDTs ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 and 1.5 to 2.9 in female and male frogs, respectively, providing clear evidence of their biomagnification from insects to frogs. Compared with the reported DDT levels demonstrated to have toxic effects on frogs, DDTs in the present frogs are unlikely to constitute an immediate health risk. However, the adverse impacts of high DDT residues in eggs on the hatching success and their potential toxicity to the newly metamorphosed larval frogs should be assessed further.

  7. Accumulation of organochlorine contaminants in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Bojan; Maslov, Luna; Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Gračan, Romana; Krauthacker, Blanka; Holcer, Draško; Tvrtković, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in fat tissue of 27 loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from eastern Adriatic Sea with the curved carapace length ranging from 25.0 to 84.5 cm. The PCB profile was dominated by hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners, with PCB-153 (median: 114.9 ng g⁻¹ wet mass), PCB-138 (80.0 ng g⁻¹ w.m.), and PCB-180 (26.7 ng g⁻¹ w.m.) detected with the highest levels. Toxic mono-ortho congeners PCB-118, PCB-105 and PCB-180 with dioxin-like toxicity were found in > 70% samples. 4,4'-DDE (81.0 ng g⁻¹ w.m.) prevailed the OCP signature, accounting for 80% of the total DDTs. A significant increasing trend in accumulation with size was found for PCB-52 (r(s) = 0.512, p < 0.01) and PCB-114 (r(s) = 0.421, p < 0.05). Comparison of our results with organochlorine contaminant (OC) pattern in some prey taxa suggest that contamination occurs primarily through the food web, with biomagnification factors of 0.14-6.99 which were positively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (logK(ow); p < 0.05). This study, based upon a fairly large sample size collected mostly from incidentally captured animals over a short time period (June 2001-November 2002), present a temporal snapshot of OC contamination in wild, free-ranging loggerheads from Adriatic feeding grounds and provide a baseline for monitoring the regional OC trends in this endangered species.

  8. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, in the period 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Zenitani, Ryoko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kato, Hidehiro

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in the blubber of males (20-25 years old) of Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) management Areas IV (70°-130°E) and V (130°E-170°W), south 60°S. The ranges of concentrations (ng g(-1) lipid wt.) for each compound were, PCBs: 7.7-89; DDTs: 29-340; HCHs: 0.20-4.3; HCB: 75-430; CHLs: 10-120, which were much lower than those in common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, from the northern hemisphere. The levels of PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs in Area IV were significantly higher than those in Area V, while the levels of DDTs in both areas were similar. For comparing the fate among four pesticides in the Antarctic Ocean avoiding the effect of variance due to food intake, the ratios of the pesticides to PCBs, which has an extremely high chemical stability and environmental persistence, were examined. The HCHs/PCBs ratio decreased by a factor of about 20 in a span of 16 years in both Areas IV and V, while temporal trends of DDTs/PCBs, HCB/PCBs and CHLs/PCBs ratios were not observed. These results indicate that PCBs, DDTs, HCB and CHLs levels did not vary or slightly decreased in Areas IV and V during the study period. However HCHs levels clearly decreased. Spatial differences seems to be related to differences in food intake among whales, and temporal differences seems to be related to the length stay of OCs in the Antarctic Ocean.

  10. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbehenn, K.R.; Reichel, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Residue levels of 12 organochlorine compounds found in the brains of bald eagles can be predicted from the corresponding concentrations in the carcass when expressed on a hexane-extractable lipid basis. The compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain. An understanding of these relations enhances our ability to assess the toxic hazards of environmental contamination.

  11. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  12. Organochlorine residues and mortality of herons.

    PubMed

    Ohlendorf, H M; Swineford, D M; Locke, L N

    1981-03-01

    Since 1966, 72 herons found dead or moribund in the field have been analyzed for organochlorine chemicals. In addition, 36 herons were obtained through systematic collections, and carcasses were analyzed to determine sublethal exposure to organochlorines. Brains of birds found dead or moribund were analyzed to determine whether the birds had died of organochlorine poisoning. Residues of DDE were found most frequently (96 of 105 carcasses analyzed), PCBs were second (detected in 90 carcasses), and dieldrin and TDE (detected in 37 and 35 carcasses, respectively) were about equal as third and fourth most frequent. Endrin, mirex, toxaphene, and HCB were found least often (8, 9, 9, and 9 carcasses, respectively). At least one organochlorine was found in each carcass, except for six heron chicks found dead in a Maryland heronry. DDE and PCBs were present in highest concentrations; they exceeded 100 ppm in two birds each. Organochlorine concentrations were almost always higher in adult herons than in immature birds. All birds that had hazardous or lethal concentrations in the brain were adults, and most were great blue herons (Ardea herodias). Dieldrin was the chemical most often considered responsible for death. Herons died of suspected DDT and dieldrin poisoning years after the chemicals were banned in the United States. More than 20 percent of the herons found dead or moribund had lethal or hazardous concentrations of organochlorines in the brain.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia).

  14. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100 μm than 100-280 and 280-2000 μm, therefore 0-100 μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  15. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  16. Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

    Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and α-HCH/γ-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

  17. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Qi, Shihua; Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atmospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively. DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons. Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site. Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period. The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons. Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon. Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air. Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area. Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  18. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs and tissues of house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, V; Muralidharan, S; Ranapratap, S

    2011-12-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in eggs and tissues of House Sparrow, Passer domesticus, in Tamil Nadu, India. The mean concentration of total hexachlorocyclohexane (∑HCH) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (∑DDT) in eggs ranged from 0.01 to 1.81 μg/g and 0.02 to 1.29 μg/g, respectively. Concentration of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranged from below detectable limit (BDL) to 0.64 μg/g, representing more than 60% of the ∑DDTs. About 28% of samples had p,p'-DDE levels above the critical concentration associated with reproductive impairment. However, the mean concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides were less than 0.5 μg/g. Although OCPs levels detected in tissues are not indicative of toxicity, continuous monitoring is recommended. PMID:21979140

  20. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  2. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  3. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water columns from Poyang Lake was studied. The total concentrations of OCPs and PAHs were 19.10-111.78 ng L(-1) and 5.56-266.1 ng L(-1), respectively. Among OCPs, endosulfans, chlordanes, and HCHs accounted for 21.96%, 24.6% and 24.65%, and were the predominant pollutants. Results suggested that the main sources of DDTs were residue from technical DDTs and dicofol, as well as antifouling paints for ships, while for HCHs, the main sources included long-distance transmission, agriculture activities and the combination of industrial products with separate lindane in use. As for PAHs, the predominance of lower molecular weight congeners demonstrated that petroleum and the combustion products of fuel oil, as well as other pyrogenic sources, contributed to the main input of PAHs in the Poyang region. The vehicle emissions were mostly from diesel engines. Moreover, HCH, DDT and BaP concentrations in water of Poyang Lake were all below the threshold values. PMID:25460753

  4. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in edible cattle tissues from northeastern part of Egypt: High accumulation level of OCPs in tongue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abdallah Fikry A; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Darwish, Wageh S; Eldaly, Elsaid A; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In order to assess the potential human health risks associated with OCPs, edible cattle tissues (liver, kidney and tongue) were collected from three slaughter houses in Mansoura, Zagazig and Ismailia cities, Egypt. Levels of 22 OCPs such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin and endrin (Drins), chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HPTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were investigated. Among the investigated OCPs, HCHs represented the most dominant group with high proportions of γ-HCH isomer (53-91% of total HCHs). Mansoura city had the highest OCPs contamination load ranged from 0.1 to 2827 ng g(-1) lw (lipid weight). Surprisingly, tongue samples collected from Mansoura showed the highest concentration of HCHs (448 ng g(-1) lw) in comparison to liver (152 ng g(-1) lw) and kidney (266 ng g(-1) lw). Generally, contamination pattern of OCPs was in the order of HCHs > Drins > CHLs > DDTs ≅ HCB and HPTs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) through dietary consumption of cattle tissues were lower than the recommended acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) established by FAO/WHO. However, the hazard ratios (HRs) based on cancer risk were greater than 1.0 for HCHs based on the average and 95th centile concentrations, indicating carcinogenic effects to consumers through cattle tissues consumption.

  5. Organochlorine and mercury residues in eggs of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) from a long term study in the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Goutner, Vassilis; Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Papakosta, Malamati A; Vlachos, Christos G; Mattig, Frank R; Pijanowska, Ursula; Becker, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Organochlorine and mercury residues were analyzed in unhatched eggs of the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) (2002-2012) in central Greece. Concentrations graded as ∑DDTs > ∑PCBs > HCB > ∑HCHs > ∑Chlordanes. Temporal declines were found in the concentrations of ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and ∑Chlordanes but not in Hg, HCB and ∑PCBs. TEQs of PCBs and their degree of metabolisation showed no time trend. The reproductive parameters showed neither a temporal trend nor a significant year effect. No relationships occurred between the reproductive parameters per year and nest type (natural, artificial) with any of the contaminants analyzed except HCB influenced by year and clutch size. Low pollutant concentrations suggest that either lesser kestrels ranged across the year in unpolluted areas or may be caused by their short food chain. The low concentrations seem improbable to have affected the reproduction of these birds, although critical levels are still to be defined. PMID:26386205

  6. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective. PMID:25080070

  7. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation.

  8. Historical contamination of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and heavy metals in Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Presley, B J; Wade, T L; Garcia-Romero, B; Baskaran, M

    2001-07-01

    Profiles of trace contaminant concentrations in sediment columns can be a natural archive from which pollutant inputs into coastal areas can be reconstructed. Reconstruction of historical inputs of anthropogenic chemicals is important for improving management strategies and evaluating the success of recent pollution controls measures. Here we report a reconstruction of historical contamination into three coastal sites along the US Gulf Coast: Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay. Within the watersheds of these areas are extensive agricultural lands as well as more than 50% of the chemical and refinery capacity of the USA. Despite this pollution potential, relatively low concentrations of trace metals and trace organic contaminants were found in one core from each of the three sites. Concentrations and fluxes of most trace metals found in surface sediments at these three sites, when normalized to Al, are typical for uncontaminated Gulf Coast sediments. Hydrophobic trace organic contaminants that are anthropogenic (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are found in sediments from all locations. The presence in surface sediments from the Mississippi River Delta of low level trace contaminants such as DDTs, which were banned in the early 1970's, indicate that they are still washed out from cultivated soils. It appears that the DDTs profile in that sediment core was produced by a combination of erosion processes of riverine and other sedimentary deposits during floods. Most of the pollutant profiles indicate that present-day conditions have improved from the more contaminated conditions in the 1950-1970's, before the advent of the Clean Water Act. PMID:11488356

  9. Risk assessment of manufacturing equipment surfaces contaminated with DDTs and dicofol.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Song, Jing; Chen, Meng-Fang; Wei, Jing; Pan, Yun-Yu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-01-15

    Decommissioning of manufacturing plant in the chemical industry includes inspection of the surfaces of production equipment for potential contamination and associated health risks. In the present study wipe-samples were taken from the surfaces of dicofol manufacturing equipment at a chemical factory in north China and analyzed for chemicals of concern (COCs). Occupational hygiene assessment was conducted to assess the risks to demolition workers and health risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risks to demolition and general industrial workers. The concentrations of COCs on the equipment surfaces were found to be 0.54-3.75 × 10(4)mg DDTs m(-2) and 0.15-4.38 × 10(3)mg dicofolm(-2). The average concentration of p,p'-DDT does not represent an unacceptable risk to the demolition workers using occupational hygiene assessment. Under the industrial scenario the carcinogenic risks of COCs ranged from 2.28 × 10(-7) to 1.79 × 10(-2) for p,p'-DDT, 6.18 × 10(-7) to 3.04 × 10(-3) for p,p'-DDD and 1.89 × 10(-6) to 0.16 for p,p'-DDE. The non-carcinogenic hazard indices ranged from 3.86 × 10(-3) to 3.03 × 10(2) for p,p'-DDT and 1.16 × 10(-3) to 33.94 for dicofol. Both carcinogenic risk and hazard index of COCs under the industrial scenario were higher than under the demolition scenario. Oral ingestion and dermal contact were the major pathways and accounted for >88% of the total exposure of COCs. Parameter sensitivity analysis shows that equipment surface concentration (Cs), frequency of contact with surface (EV), fraction of dust transferred from surface to skin (FTss) and exposure frequency (EF) were the most sensitive parameters and these should be acquired on a site-specific basis. The accuracy of the risk assessment was controlled largely by the variation in the sensitive parameters and the uncertainty of the exposure model for the inhalation pathway. PMID:24029690

  10. Toxic contaminants in the environment: Persistent organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Indicators in this bulletin are part of a national set of environmental indicators designed to provide a profile of the state of Canada`s environment and measure progress towards sustainable development. Some toxic substances associated with industry are of particular concern because of adverse effects on wildlife and humans. One of these groups is persistent organochlorines and this bulletin focuses on levels of these in biota. Organochlorines are a family of chemicals that have been used as insecticides, such as DDT, or as industrial chemicals, such as PCBs. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans are by-products of certain industrial processes. This document looks at these organochlorines and the use of wildlife indicators. It then provides more specific information on contaminant levels in double-crested cormorant eggs -- DDE and PCBs, or dioxins and furans.

  11. Residual levels of DDTs and PAHs in freshwater and marine fish from Hong Kong markets and their health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Leung, H M; Kong, K Y; Wong, M H

    2007-01-01

    Axial and ventral muscle from 10 each species of freshwater and marine fish purchased from markets in Hong Kong were analyzed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDTs including DDE, DDD and DDT) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Among the 10 freshwater fish species, rice field eel (Monopterus albus) showed significantly higher levels of DDTs in both ventral (125 ng/g wet wt) and axial muscle (127 ng/g wet wt) than the other species. The highest concentration of PAHs was detected in catfish (Clarias fuscus), with 24.8 ng/g in ventral muscle and 9.1 ng/g in axial muscle. As to marine fish, snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) showed significantly higher levels of DDT and its metabolites (1018 ng/g in ventral and 409 ng/g wet wt in axial tissues) than all other marine fish species. The overall concentrations of PAHs in marine fish species were 15.5-57.0 ng/g (axial muscle) and 18.1-118 ng/g wet wt (ventral muscle) where yellow seafin (Acanthopeyrus latus) and golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) exhibited the highest concentrations of PAHs in the axial and ventral muscles, respectively. In general, results showed that levels of PAHs in Hong Kong market fish was low and do not expect to cause any concern for human consumption. However, the levels of DDTs in fish samples ranged from 1.10 to 1018 ng/g wet wt, and based on a fish consumption rate of 142.2g/day to calculate the screening value of 14.4 ng/g wet wt for human consumption (USEPA, 2000. Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant, data for use in fish advisories, vol. 1: fish sampling and analysis, third ed. EPA 823-R-95-007. Office of Water, Washington, DC), there were 9 out of 20 (45%) muscle samples of freshwater fish species and 14 out of 20 (70%) muscle samples of marine fish species had elevated levels of DDTs exceeded the screening value. It was also suggested to use ventral muscle for detecting concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in fish.

  12. Levels, tissue distribution, and age-related accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis): comparison to organochlorines.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wei, Qiwei; Hu, Jianying; Jin, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhaobin; Zhen, Huajun; Liu, Jianyi

    2007-01-15

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) was listed as a Grade I protected animal in China in 1989, and the observed intersexual phenomenon and sex ratio deviation have suggested that chemicals have posed a risk as environment pollutants. This study analyzed seven musk fragrances in liver, muscle, heart, gonad, stomach, intestines, adipose, gill, pancreas, kidney, gallbladder, and roe from 13 female Chinese sturgeons, and the toxicokinetic behavior of musks were studied and compared with some organochlorines. Of the seven musks, HHCB, AHTN, and musk xylene were detected, and the highest concentrations were observed in adipose tissue: from 33.7 to 62.1 ng/g wet weight (ww), from 1.0 to 5.4 ng/g ww, and from 1.1 to 13 ng/g ww, respectively. Similar to the tissue distribution of DDTs and HCB, musks were detected frequently in high lipid content tissues such as roe, adipose, and liver, suggesting that tissue distribution of musks is controlled by the affinity to lipids. The concentration ratios based on lipid weight between roe and adipose were estimated to be 0.47 for HHCB, 0.58 for AHTN, and 0.51 for musk xylene, and those for the total DDTs and HCB were 0.27 and 0.61, which were relatively low compared with mammals. Relatively high concentrations of p,p'-DDE (68.4-449 ng/g ww) were detected in 10 of total 11 samples, which would cause the feminization of Chinese sturgeons during embryonic development. It was found that lipid-corrected concentrations of HHCB, AHTN, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD increased with age in female sturgeon, of which the trends were similar to those in fishes and different from those in mammals.

  13. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-09-15

    Concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB 153) were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds, one species of wild terrestrial bird, and two species of captive birds from North China. Among the contaminants measured, DDTs were the dominant compounds, HCHs and PCBs were in nearly the same concentration range, and PBDEs exhibited lower concentrations than other compound groups. The median concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs in all avian species ranged from 21 to 11034, 5.5 to 623, 1.0 to 613, and 4.6 to 146 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Median concentrations of DBDPE and PBB 153 in all avian species were in the range of not detectable (ND)-1.7 and ND-0.7 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their feeding habits, habitat, and migration. The captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in PCBs and PBDEs from those of wild birds, which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates. Octa- to deca-BDEs contributed more to the total PBDEs in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds, except for one insectivorous species, possibly due to greater exposure to terrestrial food sources. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from North China due to organohalogen compounds, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied.

  14. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in bird eggs from the Yellow River Delta, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2009-09-15

    Concentrations of several persistent organohalogen compounds such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), and polybrominated biphenyl 153 (PBB 153) were measured in eggs of six species of wild aquatic birds, one species of wild terrestrial bird, and two species of captive birds from North China. Among the contaminants measured, DDTs were the dominant compounds, HCHs and PCBs were in nearly the same concentration range, and PBDEs exhibited lower concentrations than other compound groups. The median concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PCBs, and PBDEs in all avian species ranged from 21 to 11034, 5.5 to 623, 1.0 to 613, and 4.6 to 146 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Median concentrations of DBDPE and PBB 153 in all avian species were in the range of not detectable (ND)-1.7 and ND-0.7 ng/g lipid wt, respectively. Significant differences among species in contaminant profiles and contaminant levels were found depending on their feeding habits, habitat, and migration. The captive birds had the lowest contaminant levels and entirely different congener profiles in PCBs and PBDEs from those of wild birds, which can be attributed to differences in dietary compositions and reproduction rates. Octa- to deca-BDEs contributed more to the total PBDEs in wild terrestrial and captive birds than in wild aquatic birds, except for one insectivorous species, possibly due to greater exposure to terrestrial food sources. Preliminary risk assessment suggests that there is no risk of a reduction in offspring survival in avian species from North China due to organohalogen compounds, except for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), which would be expected to affect some proportion of the populations of several species of birds studied. PMID:19806727

  15. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  16. Chemical analysis of human blood for assessment of environmental exposure to semivolatile organochlorine chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Crist, H L; Lewis, R G; MacLeod, K E; Sovocool, G W

    1982-01-01

    A chemical method for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues present in human blood was scaled-up to provide increased sensitivity and extended to include organochlorine industrial chemicals. Whole blood samples were extracted with hexane, concentrated, and analyzed without further cleanup by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The methodology used was validated by conducting recovery studies at 1 and 10 ng/g (ppb) levels. Screening and confirmational analyses were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on samples collected from potentially exposed residents of the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York and from volunteers in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina for 25 specific semivolatile organochlorine contaminants including chlorobenzene and chlorotoluene congeners, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls as Aroclor 1260. Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane residues fell in the range of 0.1 to 26 ppb in a high percentage of both the field and volunteer blood samples analyzed. Levels of other organochlorine compounds were either non-detectable or present in sub-ppb ranges. PMID:6819409

  17. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure.

  18. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  19. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in sediments from the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-liang; Ma, Lu-ming; Sun, Jian-hui; Zhang, Gan

    2010-09-01

    Sediments used in this study were selected from 23 stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and its tributaries in November 2005. The levels and distribution patterns of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs = p,p(')-DDT, o,p (')-DDT, p,p(')-DDE, p,p(')-DDD, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH) in samples were investigated by analysis of gas chromatography coupled with micro-electronic capture detector. Concentration of OCPs in the sediments from the Yellow River ranged from 0.05 to 5.03 ng g(-1) (mean, 1.02 ng g(-1)) for summation operatorDDT, 0.09-12.89 ng g(-1) (mean, 1.08 ng g(-1)) for summation operatorHCH. The concentration distribution of summation operatorDDT and summation operatorHCH varied significantly with different sampling station, indicating their different contamination sources. Composition analyses demonstrated that residues of DDTs in sediments came from the previous inputs of organochlorine pesticides, while beta-HCH and gamma-HCH significantly dominated in the sediments for HCHs. PMID:19760089

  1. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna M; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V M; Helander, Björn O; Rigét, Frank F; Eriksson, Ulla C

    2012-11-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species.

  2. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna M; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V M; Helander, Björn O; Rigét, Frank F; Eriksson, Ulla C

    2012-11-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species. PMID:22842056

  3. DDTs in mothers' milk, placenta and hair, and health risk assessment for infants at two coastal and inland cities in China.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    This study is a one of the very few investigating the dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) (summation of o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT) in multiple human matrices in mothers' milk, placenta and hair collected from residents from two coastal cities: Guiyu (GY) and Taizhou (TZ) and one inland city: Lin'an (LA). TZ (milk: 360±319ng/g lipid wt.) showed significantly higher concentrations of DDTs than those from LA (milk: 190±131ng/g lipid wt.), whereas, concentrations of DDTs in GY (milk: 305±109ng/g lipid wt.) were in between TZ and LA. In addition, levels of DDTs in the human tissues from TZ (placenta: 122±109ng/g lipid wt.; hair: 79.9±215ng/g dry wt.) were significantly higher than those from Lin'an (placenta: 49.2±30.2ng/g lipid wt.; hair: 10.8±7.09ng/g dry wt.). The above concentrations of DDTs in milk exceeded the Codex Maximum Residue Limits/Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits for milk (20ng/g lipid wt. whole milk), indicating that the human milk samples were grossly polluted. The present study revealed that human specimens collected from the coastal city (TZ) were more contaminated with inland one (LA), based on the levels of DDTs contained in samples which may be due to the higher dietary exposure to DDTs via consumption of contaminated seafood. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs by GY, TZ and LA infants were 1.69±1.86, 1.48±0.79, and 0.95±0.73μg/kg body wt./day, respectively which did not exceed 10μg/kg body wt./day, the provisional tolerable daily intake proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms.

  5. Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Ge, Jing; Zhu, Yindi; Yang, Yuyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China, in order to assess health risk to the human via fish consumption. Two edible fish species (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were collected and analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and eight heavy metals (HMs). Concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, and ∑OCPs in fish samples were in the range of 0.37-111.20, not detected (nd)-123.61, and 2.04-189.04 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of OCPs in bighead carp (A. nobilis) were higher than those in silver carp (H. molitrix). Concentrations of ∑HMs in bighead carp and silver carp were 352.48 and 345.20 mg kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Daily exposure of OCPs and HMs for consumers was estimated by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) with different criteria. The results revealed that the EDIs in our study were all lower than those criteria. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and risk ratio (R) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. As regard to non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, hazard quotients (THQ) of OCPs and HMs were both lower than 1.0, implying negligible non-carcinogenic risk via fish consumption in study area. Nevertheless, in view of carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, the total value of risk ratio (R) of OCPs was lower than the threshold of tolerable risk while the total value of risk ratio (R) of HMs was higher than the threshold of tolerable risk due to the high carcinogenic risk ratios of As and Cr, indicating high carcinogenic risks via fish consumption. The results demonstrated that HMs in edible fish from Wuhan, China, especially As and Cr required more attention than OCPs. PMID:26040264

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms. PMID:26139408

  7. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls by loaches living in rice paddy fields of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Xianbo; Zhang, Yichi; Ma, Xindong; Wang, Shuqiu; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in two loach species (Misgurnus mohoity and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) and the soils of their inhabiting rice paddies from three typical rice production bases of Northeast China to explore the main factors influencing the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of ∑18PCBs and ∑21OCPs in loaches were determined to be in the ranges of 0.14-0.76 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 1.19-78.53 ng g(-1) ww, respectively. Most of loaches showed the considerably high contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which accounted for over 97% of the total OCPs. The much lower maximum allowable loach consumption rates (<15 g d(-1)) indicated a high carcinogenic risk that results from the consumption of rice-field loaches. The field biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) was calculated as a main measure of bioaccumulation potential. The comparisons of BSAF values and the results of multivariate analysis indicated that habitat-specific environmental conditions, mainly the paddy soil contamination levels and average temperature, decisively affected the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. When the influence of lipid contents was offset, M. mohoity loaches were found to have a higher potential to accumulation PCBs and OCPs than P. dabryanus loaches, while the bioaccumulation potentials did not exhibit significant differences between juvenile and adult loaches and between male and female loaches. The octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) was the main chemical factor influencing bioaccumulation potentials. The BSAF values presented an increasing tendency with increasing log KOW values from 6.0 to approximately 7.0, followed by a decreasing tendency with a continuous increase in log KOW values. Moreover, loaches exhibited an isomeric-selective bioaccumulation for p

  8. Methods for determination of toxic organic compounds in air

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides environmental regulatory agencies, industry, and other interested parties with specific, standardized sampling and analysis procedures for toxic organic compounds in air. Compounds include Volatile Organic Compounds, Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs, Aldehydes and Ketones, Phosgene, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, Phenol and Methylphenols (Cresols), Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Formaldehyde, Non-Methane Organic Compounds (NMOCs) and Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  9. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  10. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  11. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L.; Clark, D.R.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  12. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk for consumers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Pohoryło, Anna; Mituniewicz-Małek, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of organochlorine xenobiotics in goat milk is a one of bioindicators of environmental pollution, and, consequently, food contamination. This study estimates contamination level of goat milk produced at two organic farms in years 2009-2013. Analysis covered determination of 18 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers (α, β, γ, δ), DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and its derivatives, and methoxychlor. Pesticide content was determined using GCMS method. The detected levels of organochlorine residues in goat milk were low, in most cases below 8 ng g(-1) lipids. Among HCH isomers, γ- and β-HCH occurred in the highest concentrations, up to 4.85 ng g(-1) lipids. While among DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD dominated, up to 7.86 ng g(-1) lipids. The detected residues were below the current maximum residue limits (MRLs) for the pesticides. Considering the average milk consumption in Poland, the goat milk from both farms was safe for consumers' health. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for the sum of the compounds under study ranged within 1.73 × 10(-5)-1.06 × 10(-4) mg kg bw(-1) d(-1) and were well below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for particular compounds. This was also confirmed by the values of hazard quotient (HQ), which were very low and ranged within 3.42 × 10(-3)-5.55 × 10(-2).

  13. Organochlorine pesticide contaminations in human milk samples from women living in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alawi, M A; Ammari, N; al-Shuraiki, Y

    1992-08-01

    Concentration of 15 organochlorine pesticides were determined by capillary gas chromatography in 59 human milk samples collected from the general population during 1989/1990 in the Jordanian capital of Amman. In addition to hexachlorbenzene (HCB), three groups of organochlorine compounds namely, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH-isomers) and the cyclopentadiene group (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide) were analyzed. The results show that almost all samples contained HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT, whereas p,p'-DDD, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH and o,p'DDT were found in 42, 40, 33, 22 and 20 analyzed samples, respectively. The concentration of HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and heptachlor expressed on a milk-fat basis (median in mg/kg milk fat): 0.29, 0.4, 2.04, and 0.7 respectively. For the comparative purposes and in order to try to find the possible sources of mother-milk contaminations, different types of locally produced and imported cow milk samples were also analyzed for the same organochlorine compounds. Almost all types of tested milk were contaminated with p,p'-DDE.

  14. Complex organochlorine pesticide mixtures as determinant factor for breast cancer risk: a population-based case–control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All the relevant risk factors contributing to breast cancer etiology are not fully known. Exposure to organochlorine pesticides has been linked to an increased incidence of the disease, although not all data have been consistent. Most published studies evaluated the exposure to organochlorines individually, ignoring the potential effects exerted by the mixtures of chemicals. Methods This population-based study was designed to evaluate the profile of mixtures of organochlorines detected in 103 healthy women and 121 women diagnosed with breast cancer from Gran Canaria Island, and the relation between the exposure to these compounds and breast cancer risk. Results The most prevalent mixture of organochlorines among healthy women was the combination of lindane and endrin, and this mixture was not detected in any affected women. Breast cancer patients presented more frequently a combination of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and this mixture was not found in any healthy woman. After adjusting for covariables, the risk of breast cancer was moderately associated with DDD (OR = 1.008, confidence interval 95% 1.001-1.015, p = 0.024). Conclusions This study indicates that healthy women show a very different profile of organochlorine pesticide mixtures than breast cancer patients, suggesting that organochlorine pesticide mixtures could play a relevant role in breast cancer risk. PMID:22534004

  15. Organochlorine pesticide contamination in grassland-nesting passerines that breed in North America.

    PubMed

    Bartuszevige, A M; Capparella, A P; Harper, R G; Frick, J A; Criley, B; Doty, K; Erhart, E

    2002-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were measured in grassland-nesting passerines that breed in North America. We also examined testes of male birds for abnormalities that may have resulted from pesticide exposure. Forty-four of 99 individuals contained one or more organochlorine pesticides above the detection limit, representing nine of 10 species. The most prevalent compound detected was p,p'-DDE (minimum-maximum levels: 7.55-285.85 ng/g, carcass concentration). Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of p,p'-DDE than both omnivores and granivores. Birds that frequented moist grassland habitats had significantly higher levels of p,p'-DDE than those that frequented drier grassland habitats. No evidence of feminization was observed in any of the testes analyzed, however, other endpoint effects of contamination (e.g. hormone levels and immunological parameters) should be investigated in future studies.

  16. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  17. Persistent organochlorine contaminants in liver and fat of birds of prey from Greece.

    PubMed

    Hela, D G; Konstantinou, I K; Sakellarides, T M; Lambropoulou, D A; Akriotis, T; Albanis, T A

    2006-05-01

    The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), cyclodienes (Cycls), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were measured in livers and subcutaneous fat tissues of six Accipitridae and four Falconidae bird species from different areas in Greece. This is the first report of persistent organochlorine (OC) pollutants in birds of prey tissues presented for Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean region. Accumulation patterns of OCs found in birds suggested that the predominant contaminants were p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-1,1-ethylene (DDE) and PCBs, whereas Cycls and HCHs occurred at low concentrations only. Concentration values of p,p'-DDE ranged from nondetected to 19,518.72 ng/g wet wt in livers and from nondetected to 2679.19 ng/g wet wt in fat. Total PCB levels ranged from 1.01 to 7419.43 ng/g and from 3.25 to 490.10 ng/g wet weight for liver and fat samples, respectively. Higher-chlorinated PCBs such as 118, 138, 153, and 180 predominated in both the liver and subcutaneous fat samples, a pattern comparable to that observed in birds from other European countries. No significant differences in mean concentrations of OCs are detected between species. Hepatic concentrations were in general higher than the fat concentrations showing depleted fat stores in most birds. Concentration ranges were also found in lower or similar levels to those reported for birds in other regions. Variation of OCs levels in bird tissues could be due to different causes of death, with a subsequent effect on body lipid levels, and different feeding and migration habits. The liver PCB levels reported in this study are below the concentrations currently believed to exert mortality or ecotoxicological effects. On the contrary, in some cases p,p'-DDE concentrations were higher than the reported effect values for birds of the same families and could be associated with sublethal effects.

  18. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in Hector's (Cephalorhynchus hectori hectori) and Maui's (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) dolphins.

    PubMed

    Stockin, K A; Law, R J; Roe, W D; Meynier, L; Martinez, E; Duignan, P J; Bridgen, P; Jones, B

    2010-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide levels were determined in blubber samples collected from stranded and incidentally by-caught Hector's (Cephalorhynchus hectori hectori) and Maui's (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) dolphins from New Zealand waters between 1997 and 2009. PCBs (45 congeners) and a range of OC pesticides including dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), along with its metabolites DDE and DDD were determined. OC pesticides dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT were present at the highest concentrations. Sum DDT concentrations ranged from 93.7 to 8210 (Mean=1358, S.D=1974) and 252.4 to 57,390 (Mean=12,389, S.D=18,161)microg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. Similarly, Sigma45CB concentrations ranged from 45.5 to 981.3 (Mean=333.2, S.D=265.8) and 60.5 to 5574 (Mean=1833, S.D=1659)microg/kg wet weight in females and males, respectively. The transfer of SigmaDDTs and summed PCBs (both as SigmaICES7CBs and Sigma45CBs) between a pregnant female and her unborn fetus was calculated at 5.7% and 4.3%, respectively. As the fetus was close to term, this likely represents the degree of placental transfer. Concentrations of OC pesticides determined in the present study are higher than those previously reported for Hector's dolphins. Sum DDT and DDE/SigmaDDT levels calculated reveal New Zealand's legacy of DDT usage, particularly off the east coast of the South Island. PMID:20226477

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber of four seal species: integrating biomonitoring and specimen banking.

    PubMed

    Krahn, M M; Becker, P R; Tilbury, K L; Stein, J E

    1997-05-01

    Blubber samples from four Alaska seal species (bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, ringed seal, P. hispida) were collected for inclusion in the US National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank, as well as for immediate analysis as part of the contaminant monitoring component of the US National Marine Fisheries Service's Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program. The blubber samples were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) contaminants (e.g., PCB congeners, pesticides, DDTs). Results for bearded and ringed seals from the Alaska Arctic revealed low blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. Harbor seals from Prince William Sound. Gulf of Alaska, had somewhat higher blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. In contrast, northern fur seals sampled from the Pribilof Islands had blubber concentrations of certain OC contaminants that were about an order of magnitude higher than those found in the other seal species. Differences in contaminant concentrations among the Alaska seals may be explained by differences in feeding habits and migratory patterns, age or gender did not appear to account for the differences observed. The highest concentrations of OCs were found in harbor seals stranded along the northwestern US mainland, which is consistent with higher concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants being found in urban coastal areas than in more remote Arctic environments. The integration of real-time contaminant monitoring with specimen banking provides important baseline data that can be used to plan and manage banking activities. This includes identifying appropriate specimens that are useful in assessing temporal trends and increasing the utility of the banked samples in assessing chemical contaminant accumulation and relationships to biological effects.

  20. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (∑PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ∑DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ∑PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy. PMID:26524270

  1. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (∑PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ∑DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ∑PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy.

  2. Concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from Western Sahara and Greece.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Assumpció; Cantos, Gemma; Aguilar, Alex; Androukaki, Eugenia; Dendrinos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    Blubber from Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) from the Western Sahara coast (Atlantic), sampled during 1996-1999, and from the Greek coast (Mediterranean), sampled during 1995-1999, was analyzed for organochlorine pollutants (OCs). In both populations, no significant difference was found between sexes. In the Atlantic population, mature females presented greater percentages of higher chlorinated PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners in relation to total PCBs (sum of 25 congeners) than pups, indicating a differential transfer of PCB congeners through lactation. In the Mediterranean, the reduced sample size of adult individuals precluded proper statistical investigation of age-related variation. Significant differences in concentrations and pollutant patterns were found between populations. Thus, Mediterranean individuals presented significantly higher levels of HCB (hexachlorobenzene), tPCB, and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) concentrations and DDE/tDDT and tDDT/tPCB ratios than their counterparts from the Atlantic. Moreover, the relative proportion of different congeners in relation to the total PCB load (congener/tPCB) was also different between the two areas. The 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio in Atlantic seals was 38.46, which indicates a predominance of industrial inputs over those associated with agriculture. Conversely, in the Mediterranean seal population, the 100*tDDT/tPCB ratio was 177.1, denoting a proportionally higher contribution of pollutants of agricultural origin. PMID:17499843

  3. Organochlorines in the free-ranging Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Maia K; Woodward, Lee Ann; Ylitalo, Gina M; Buzitis, Jon; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

    2004-04-25

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species found only in the Hawaiian Island chain. The largest subpopulation, at French Frigate Shoals, has been in decline since 1989. In order to assess organochlorine (OC) levels in the Hawaiian monk seals, whole blood and blubber samples were collected in 1999 from 46 free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals at French Frigate Shoals, and were analyzed for eight dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as six other PCB congeners, DDT and DDT metabolites. Average levels of the total PCBs in blood samples from adult male, juvenile and reproductive female groups were 4800, 4000 and 3000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, whereas 3200, 1300 and 1200 ng/g, respectively, in blubber from the three corresponding groups. p,p'-DDE was the only DDT detected in blubber samples, and no DDTs were detected in blood samples. Concentrations of the total PCBs in adult males were significantly higher than the levels measured in either reproductive females or juveniles. There were significant correlations between age and blubber p,p'-DDE, estimated mass and total blood PCBs or blubber p,p'-DDE, and body condition and total blood PCBs. Although it is clear that the Hawaiian monk seal has been exposed to OCs, it is unclear what biological effects, if any, these xenobiotics may have on the animals. PMID:15081740

  4. [Source and distribution characteristic of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-qing; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Xian-zhi; Zou, Shi-chun; Qi, Shi-hua

    2008-12-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during the winter and spring cruise to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) in 2003 and were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Meanwhile, air samples were collected at land-based sites in Guangzhou and Zhongshan for comparison. Results indicated that the detected OCPs were mainly of HCHs, DDTs and chlordane, its concentration ranged between 13-99, 73-390, 63-224 pg/m3 and 10-106, 429-1003, 1724-9638 pg/m3 during the winter and spring cruise, respectively. In general, the concentrations of OCPs were higher during spring cruise than in winter cruise. The measured OCPs concentration in the atmosphere over the PRE and adjacent SCS were found higher at sites close to continent and lower in outer sea, it is suggested that land-based source were to play a key role in the delivery of atmospheric OCPs. The alpha-HCH concentrations had significantly declined, higher gamma-HCH level may attribute to the present usage of lindane. Dicofol application and antifouling paints for fishing ships was suggested to be the important current "fresh" DDT source. The observed high level of chlordane during spring cruise could be related to the large amount usage of chlordane for termite control, as well as the long range transport from the west pacific region.

  5. The legacy of organochlorine pesticide usage in a tropical semi-arid region (Jaguaribe River, Ceará, Brazil): Implications of the influence of sediment parameters on occurrence, distribution and fate.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André H B; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Duaví, Wersângela C; Fernandes, Gabrielle M; Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Queiroz, Maria E L R; Mendonça, Kamila V

    2016-01-15

    Between the 1940s and 1990s, immeasurable amounts of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were used in endemic disease control campaigns and agriculture in the tropical semi-arid regions of Brazil. The present study evaluated the legacy of banned OCP usage, considering the levels, ecological risk and dependence on sediment physicochemical properties for the fate and distribution in the Jaguaribe River. The sum concentration of OCPs (ΣOCPs) ranged from 5.09 to 154.43 ng·g(-1), comparable to the levels found in other tropical and subtropical regions that have traditionally used OCPs. The environmental and geographical distribution pattern of p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD and p,p-DDE shows that the estuarine zone contained more than 3.5 times the levels observed in the fluvial region, indicating that the estuary of the Jaguaribe River is a sink. The temporal pattern indicates application of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in the past; however, there is evidence of recent input of these pesticides. High ecological risk was observed for levels of γ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (γ-HCH) and heptachlor, and moderate ecological risk was observed for levels of DDTs in sediments from the Jaguaribe River. The heptachlor, γ-HCH and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations depend on the organic and inorganic fractions of sediment from the Jaguaribe River, whereas the p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDT and α-endosulfan concentrations depend solely on the organic fraction of the sediment.

  6. Organochlorine compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Pacific walrus blubber.

    PubMed

    Seagars, D J; Garlich-Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    Blubber samples were collected from 8 male and 19 female Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) taken during a 1991 joint USA/USSR cruise traveling widely through the Bering Sea. Dieldrin was found at a level similar to that reported 10 years earlier; oxychlordane was found at a slightly higher concentration than reported previously (Taylor et aL, 1989). Heptachlor epoxide was detected for the first time and found at a low concentration. An initial testing for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH detected concentrations similar to those in other Bering Sea pinnipeds. Mean summation of PCB was 0.45 microg g(-1) wet weight in males and 0.16 microg g(-1) in females; only one sample was > 1 microg g(-1). Traces of aliphatic hydrocarbons were detected in all sampled animals, only pristane (x = 0.48 microg g(-1)) was found in concentrations > 1 microg g(-1). Small sample sizes, a lack of samples from immature animals, and uniformly low concentrations of contaminants precluded meaningful analysis of age-related effects and regional differences.

  7. ORGANOCHLORINE CONTAMINANTS IN SEA TURTLES FROM THE EASTERN PACIFIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured organochlorine residues in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Seventeen of 21 organochlorine pesticides analyzed were detected, with heptachlor epoxide and y-hexachlorocyclohexane the most prevalent in 14 (40%) and 11 (31%) of th...

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly.

  9. Thyroid Dysfunction as a Mediator of Organochlorine Neurotoxicity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Choi, Anna L.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can alter thyroid function in humans, and hypothyroidism during early life can adversely affect a child’s neurodevelopment. Objectives: In this study we aimed to assess the relationship between developmental organochlorine exposures and thyroid function and the relationship between thyroid function and subsequent neurodevelopment. Methods: A population-based birth cohort of 182 children was followed annually up to 5.5 years of age. The assessments included OC concentrations in maternal pregnancy serum and milk, clinical thyroid parameters in maternal and cord serum, and subsequent neuropsychological outcomes of the child, along with sociodemographic cofactors. Resin triiodothyronine uptake ratio (T3RU) was also assessed as an estimate of the amount of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) sites unsaturated by thyroxine. The T3RU is high in hyperthyroidism and low in hypothyroidism. Results: The findings showed consistent inverse and monotonic associations between organochlorine exposure and T3RU after covariate adjustments. We observed no associations with other thyroid parameters. T3RU was positively associated with improved performance on most of the neuropsychological tests. For other thyroid parameters, the findings were less consistent. Conclusions: The results suggest that OC exposures may decrease the T3RU during early life, which is a proxy measure of the binding capacity of TBG. In addition, minor decreases of the thyroid function may be inversely associated with a child’s neurodevelopment. PMID:21719373

  10. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  11. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  12. Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Susan S.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound. PMID:24219506

  13. Sucralose, a synthetic organochlorine sweetener: overview of biological issues.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a synthetic organochlorine sweetener (OC) that is a common ingredient in the world's food supply. Sucralose interacts with chemosensors in the alimentary tract that play a role in sweet taste sensation and hormone secretion. In rats, sucralose ingestion was shown to increase the expression of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and two cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozymes in the intestine. P-gp and CYP are key components of the presystemic detoxification system involved in first-pass drug metabolism. The effect of sucralose on first-pass drug metabolism in humans, however, has not yet been determined. In rats, sucralose alters the microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with relatively greater reduction in beneficial bacteria. Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the GIT unchanged, subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT, as indicated by multiple peaks found in thin-layer radiochromatographic profiles of methanolic fecal extracts after oral sucralose administration. The identity and safety profile of these putative sucralose metabolites are not known at this time. Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods. Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures was reported to generate chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds. Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound.

  14. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n = 633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals. PMID:26285160

  15. Organochlorine insecticides DDT and chlordane in relation to survival following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S; Engel, Lawrence S; White, Alexandra J; Eng, Sybil M; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Neugut, Alfred I; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine insecticides have been studied extensively in relation to breast cancer incidence, and results from two meta-analyses have been null for late-life residues, possibly due to measurement error. Whether these compounds influence survival remains to be fully explored. We examined associations between organochlorine insecticides [p,p'-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), its primary metabolite, p,p'-DDE, and chlordane] assessed shortly after diagnosis and survival among women with breast cancer. A population-based sample of women diagnosed with a first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996-1997 and with available organochlorine blood measures (n = 633) were followed for vital status through 2011. After follow-up of 5 and 15 years, we identified 55 and 189 deaths, of which 36 and 74, respectively, were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lipid-adjusted organochlorine concentrations with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. At 5 years after diagnosis, the highest tertile of DDT concentration was associated with all-cause (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 4.67) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.13) mortality. At 15 years, middle tertile concentrations of DDT (HR = 1.42; 95% CI 0.99, 2.06) and chlordane (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.12) were modestly associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Third tertile DDE concentrations were inversely associated with 15-year all-cause mortality (HR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.99). This is the first population-based study in the United States to show that DDT may adversely impact survival following breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies are warranted given the high breast cancer burden and the ubiquity of these chemicals.

  16. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water of Lake Qiandao and its major input rivers].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Jian-Fen; Ruan, Dong-De; Chen, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantitatively determined by GC in several surface water samples collected in July 2011 and November 2011 from Lake Qiandao (Xin'an River Reservoir) and its major input rivers. Then the component characteristics and source apportionment of HCHs and DDTs were confirmed, and the health risk assessment was evaluated. The results showed that 8 OCPs were found to be in trace amount, and p,p'-DDT, a-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the highest frequently detected OCPs. The concentrations of total OCPs in surface water of the studied Lake ranged from 1.9 to 7.6 ng-L-1 , which were at lower pollution level, and 1.2-212 ng.L-1 in the samples from its three major input rivers. The spatial distribution of OCPs in the water of lake was varying, and Xin'an River, the mainstream of the lake, was the main input source of OCPs. Also, different contamination patterns among sampling seasons were found, the concentrations of OCPs in surface water collected in wet period were higher than those in dry season, which display the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution. According to the ratio of feature components, the OCPs in surface water from the Lake Qiandao originated largely from long distance transmission or degradation of technical HCHs, while additional sources of DDTs existed in the region. In addition, human health risk assessment of ingestion through the drinking water and skin contact absorption was performed using EPA recommends methods, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks caused by OCPs were 0. 06 x 10(-7)-23. 2 x 10(-7) and 3.43 x 10(-5) -6.01 x 10(-3), respectively. According to the acceptable risk level, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in water body of Lake Qiandao.

  17. A comparison of organochlorine and heavy metal contamination and effects in freshwater fish from the U.S. and Russian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, S.M.; Landers, D.H.; Gubala, C.P.; Curtis, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Liver and muscle from grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from four US Arctic lakes, and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), whitefish (Coregonus sp.) and burbot (Lola lota) from five lakes in the Taimyr Peninsula of the Russian Arctic were analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cu, Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) and organochlorine content (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, chlordanes). Although the Russian Arctic is home to two of the largest metal smelters in the world (Nickel and Norilsk), and is often considered a source for atmospheric pollutants to the North American Arctic, heavy metal burdens in fish collected along a transact northeast of the Norilsk smelter in Russia were not elevated relative to US Arctic fish. Sediment records from these lakes indicate that metal flux to the lakes has not increased in the post industrial era. Thus, metal concentrations in fish likely represent natural background concentrations for these areas. Likewise, levels of PCBs and DDTs were similar in US and Russian fish. Burbot collected south of the Norilsk smelter showed elevated levels of Hg, p,p{prime}-DDE, and PCBs 138 and 153 relative to other species collected in Russia and the US. The authors believe this is attributable to species differences in trophic positioning, rather than differences in total contaminant flux. There were no indications of reproductive impairment, as indicated by circulating sex steroid levels, in Russian fish. By contrast, a negative correlation was observed between both 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone and liver Pb concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.51--0.82) in Arctic graving from the US Arctic. These data suggest that long range atmospheric transport and deposition of anthropogenically-derived contaminants are probably not a significant stressor affecting aquatic food webs in these two Arctic regions.

  18. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C. ); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

  19. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. PMID:25899033

  20. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  1. Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine chemical residues in oxbow lakes of northeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; White, D.H.; Baskett, T.S.; Sayre, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Samples (98) of 16 spp. of animals were collected at Lake Providence, 88 samples of 15 spp. at Lake Bruin and 21 samples of 5 spp. at Lake St. John, Louisiana, between July 15 and Sept. 25, 1980. Residues of 13 organochlorine compounds were identified in these samples. Substantial concentrations of many compounds throughout the food webs of all 3 lakes showed that the lakes acted as sumps, accumulating residues from nearby agricultural land. DDT and its metabolites (DDE, TDE and DDMU [1-chloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene]), toxaphene and polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) were the principal organochloride residues detected. With few exceptions, biomagnification of the principal residues was clearly illustrated. Tertiary consumers such as green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), snakes, spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) contained the highest residues. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), blacktail shiner (Notropis venustus), yellow-crowned night heron (Nycticorax violaceus) and other secondary consumers contained lower levels of residues. Primary consumers, crayfish (Orconectes lancifer) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), contained relatively low residue levels of most compounds. Frogs contained lower residue levels than expected based on their position in the food web. Residue levels in immature green-backed herons and .gtoreq. 1 of the longer-lived predators, e.g., snakes, gars or largemouth bass could be monitored to evaluate levels of organochlorine chemical contaminants in aquatic habitats.

  2. Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard--occurrence, levels and effects.

    PubMed

    Skaare, J U; Bernhoft, A; Derocher, A; Gabrielsen, G W; Goksøyr, A; Henriksen, E; Larsen, H J; Lie, E; Wiig

    2000-03-15

    .U. , 1999. Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Bear Island, the Barents Sea. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (in press); Sagerup, K., Gabrielsen, G.W., Skorping, A., Skaare, J.U., 1998. Association between PCB concentrations and intestinal nematodes in glaucou gulls, Larus hyperboreus, from Bear Island. Organohalogen compounds 39, 449-451; Skaare, J.U., Wiig, O., Bernhoft, A., 1994. Klorerte organiske miljogifter; Nivâer og effekter i isbjorn. Norwegian Polar Institute Reportseries no. 86, 1-23. (in Norwegian)].

  3. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted.

  4. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Henk; Polder, Anuschka; Venter, Belinda; Skaare, Janneche U

    2008-03-01

    During the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from South Africa, despite the high levels found previously. We analysed eggs from African darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, African sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found HCB, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at detectable levels. The presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in South Africa. It also seemed as if terrestrial feeding birds had higher DDE:PCB ratios when compared with aquatic feeding birds. Except for chlordane, the African darter eggs had the highest levels of all other compounds (mean 370 and 300 ng g(-1) ww Sigma pesticides and Sigma PCBs, respectively). Multivariate analysis clearly distinguished the aquatic and terrestrially feeding birds on pollution profile. The African darter (aquatic feeding) and the cattle egret (terrestrial feeding) would be good indicator candidates. Eggshell thinning was detected in the African darter, and was associated with most of the compounds, including DDE and PCBs. We raise a concern that generally longer living birds in warmer climates, laying fewer eggs per clutch, might be at increased risk when compared with trophically similar birds exposed to equivalent levels of pollution in colder climates. Given the scarcity of water and the high biodiversity in Southern Africa, climate change will exert strong pressure, and any additional anthropogenic contamination at levels that can cause subtle behavioural, developmental and reproductive changes, can have serious effects. PMID:18001817

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol in livers of small cetaceans stranded along Florida coastal waters, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Takahashi, Atsushi; Loganathan, B.G.; Odell, D.K.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Giesy, J.P.

    2000-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in the livers of bottlenose dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and pygmy sperm whales found stranded along the coastal waters of Florida, USA, during 1989 to 1994. The PCBs were the most predominant contaminants followed in order by DDTs, chlordanes, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), hexachlorobenzene, and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Among the cetaceans analyzed, organochlorine concentrations were greatest in bottlenose dolphins followed by Atlantic spotted dolphins and pygmy sperm whales. Hexa- and heptachlorobiphenyls were the predominant PCB congeners found in the livers of dolphins. Patterns of relative concentrations of PCB congeners varied among individual bottlenose dolphins. A few individuals contained predominant concentrations of octa- (CB-199, 196/201) and nonachlorobiphenyl (CB-206, 208) congeners, which suggested exposure to the highly chlorinated PCB formulation, Aroclor{reg_sign} 1268, a contaminant at a coastal site in Georgia bordering northern Florida. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of coplanar PCBs in bottlenose dolphins were 170 to 18,000 pg/g, lipid weight (mean:5,400 pg/g) with mono-ortho congeners 118, 105, and 156 contributing more than 80% of the TEQs. The ratios of CB-169 to CB-126 in cetacean livers were linearly related to total PCB concentrations, which suggested a strong induction of microsomal monooxygenase enzymes in the liver. The hepatic concentrations of TCPMe and TCPMOH in bottlenose dolphins and Atlantic spotted dolphins were greater than those in the blubber of marine mammals of various regions, which suggested the presence of sources for these chemicals along the Atlantic coast of Florida.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  8. Formation of organochlorine by-products in bleached laundry.

    PubMed

    Leri, Alessandra C; Anthony, Laura N

    2013-02-01

    Laundering fabrics with chlorine bleach plays a role in health and hygiene as well as aesthetics. However, laundry bleaching may create chlorinated by-products with potentially adverse human health effects. Studies have shown that toxic chlorinated gases are produced in the headspace of washing machines when hypochlorite-containing bleach is used. Laundry bleaching has also been implicated in contributing dissolved organochlorine to municipal wastewater. However, there have been no reports of organochlorines produced and retained in fabric as a result of laundry bleaching. We have used a chlorine-specific X-ray spectroscopic analysis to demonstrate the formation of organochlorine by-products in cotton fabrics laundered with chlorine bleach under typical household conditions. Organochlorine formation increases at higher wash temperature. At least two pools of organochlorine are produced in bleached fabric: a labile fraction that diminishes over several months of storage time as well as a more stable fraction that persists after more than 1 year. Our results also suggest that residual hypochlorite remains in fabric after laundering with bleach, presenting the possibility of direct and sustained dermal contact with reactive chlorine. This study provides a first step toward identifying a new risk factor for elevated organochlorine body burdens in humans.

  9. A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.

    PubMed

    Hall, R H

    1992-01-01

    Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment. PMID:1603449

  10. Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

    2006-03-01

    Samples of breast muscle from 32 species of waterfowl collected from 123 sites across Canada were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury. SigmaDDT, SigmaCBz and SigmaPCB were the compounds most frequently found above trace levels. SigmaHCH and SigmaMirex were detected the least often. Mercury was detected in all of the mergansers, over 50% of dabbling, bay and sea ducks, and in less than 2% of the geese analysed. The highest levels of contaminants were generally found in birds feeding at higher trophic levels such as sea ducks and mergansers. With the exception of a few samples of mergansers and long-tailed ducks from eastern Canada, which contained SigmaPCB concentrations of 1.0-2.4 mg kg(-1), SigmaPCB levels were less than 1 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Only one merganser from eastern Canada had a SigmaDDT concentration (2.6 mg kg(-1) ww) which was greater than 1 mg kg(-1) ww. The highest SigmaCHL (0.10 mg kg(-1) ww) was also found in mergansers from eastern Canada. Levels of total mercury in breast muscle were either low (< 1 mg kg(-1) ww) or below detection limits with the exception of a few samples of mergansers from eastern Canada which contained mercury concentrations of 1.0-1.5 mg kg(-1) ww. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and mercury levels found in samples of breast muscle of ducks and geese analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these waterfowl were safe to eat.

  11. Organochlorine pollutants in water, soils, and earthworms in the Guadalquivir River, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1992-08-01

    Organochlorine compounds (insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) are known to maintain their stability in the aquatic environment for long periods. DDT and cyclodiene insecticides were used widely in Spain until their use was banned in 1976; DDT and its degradation products are still found in environmental samples. Since DDT has been legally restricted for use, lindane has become important as a substitute for DDT. This study has been carried out along Guadalquivir River, Spain. This river runs across an agricultural area where pesticides are used extensively. The Guadalquivir basin is the most economically important area of the South of the Iberian Peninsula; its economic importance stems from its proximity to a major metropolitan areas (Cordova, Seville), which indicates the presence of numerous urban, commercial, and industrial locations in the vicinity of the sampling stations. The purposes of this investigation are: (1) to determine the levels of organochlorine compounds in water, soils, and earthworms sampled in ten stations of the Guadalquivir River; (2) to evaluate biological accumulation of pollutants studied within the food webs; (3) to evaluate regional patterns and time trends of residues. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  13. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Dietz, R; Riget, F; Hobson, K A; Heide-Jørgensen, M P; Møller, P; Cleemann, M; de Boer, J; Glasius, M

    2004-09-20

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the first 3-4 years of the animal's life, after which no dependence on age was observed. Females had significantly higher concentrations of Cd in all tissues and of Hg and Se in liver than males. No consistent difference in metal levels between narwhals from Avanersuaq and Uummannaq was found. Year-to-year variation in metal levels at one location was larger than the geographical variation. Metal levels were within the range of previous published results for narwhals from Arctic Canada. Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in blubber of narwhals were dependent on age and sex. Females showed decreasing OC concentration in the first 8-10 years, while for males increases were detected in the first few years of life, after which the concentrations became stable. Few statistical differences in mean OC concentrations among individuals were observed. However, narwhals from Avanersuaq in 1993 had the lowest levels, indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size/age composition of the data. PCB and DDT concentrations in West Greenland narwhals were half those found in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stable-carbon isotope ratios in muscle of 150 narwhals showed a decreasing trend in the first year when they gradually reduced their dependency on mother's milk, after which they became relatively stable. delta15 N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummannaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in 1984 and 1985

  14. In vitro activation of cord blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in a remote coastal population exposed to organochlorines and methyl mercury.

    PubMed

    Bilrha, Houda; Roy, Raynald; Moreau, Brigitte; Belles-Isles, Marthe; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Remote coastal populations that rely on seafood for subsistence often receive unusually high doses of organochlorines and methyl mercury. Immunosuppression resulting from prenatal exposure to organochlorines has been reported in wildlife species and humans. In this study, we assessed lymphocyte activation and associated cytokine secretion in 47 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Mid and Lower North Shore regions of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada; subsistence fishing group) and 65 newborns from nearby urban settings (reference group). Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and mercury analyses and also to isolate cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) for the in vitro assessment of cytokine production and expression of surface markers after mitogenic stimulation (CD4(+)CD45RO(+), CD8(+)CD45RO(+), CD3(+)CD25(+), and CD8(+)HLA-DR(+)). Blood mercury and plasma concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly higher in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between the two groups regarding subsets of lymphocytes showing markers of activation. In vitro secretion of cytokines by CBMCs after mitogenic stimulation was lower in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and plasma PCB, p,p'-DDE, and HCB concentrations (p < 0.05). Our data support a negative association between TNF-alpha secretion by CBMCs and prenatal organochlorine exposure. If the relationship between organochlorine and TNF-alpha secretion is causal, it would suggest a role for this important proinflammatory cytokine in mediating organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to these compounds. PMID:14644672

  15. Analysis of human milk to assess exposure to PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the vicinity Mediterranean city Mersin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Mazmanci, Birgul; Mazmanci, Mehmet A; Turgut, Cafer; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of human exposure to environmental persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) based on the levels in human breast milk provides a reasonable tool not only to assess the contaminant burden in mothers but also to assess potential exposure of breast-fed neonates. There are limited data on levels of PCBs and OCPs in humans but no previous reports from Turkey on chemically determined levels PAHs in human milk. The aim of this study was to report the levels and accumulation profiles of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs in 47 breast milk samples obtained from a Mediterranean city, Mersin. High resolution analyses were performed by a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4.4'-DDE) was the dominant pollutant. Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4.4'-DDT), dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, oxy-chlordane, cis-heptachlorepoxide were the other main OCPs detected. Mean levels of ΣPCB congeners and WHO(PCB)-TEQ were 9.94 and 0.001 ng/g lipid, respectively. PCB 153 showed the highest concentration (3.37 ng/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and 180. For the dioxin-like PCBs, PCB 118 was the dominant (0.97 ng/g lipid). Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene were the major PAHs among the 16 PAHs detected. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs and HCB were not exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the Health Canada Guideline. These results indicate that the neonates of Mersin city are exposed to persistent organic pollutants analyzed in this study. However, neonates born in Mersin province are less exposed than the ones born in other regions, considering OCP and PCB levels in breast milk.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  17. Concentrations and inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in watershed soils in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Zou, Mengyao

    2008-10-01

    The concentration levels, source, and inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 55 surface vegetable soils in the watershed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed and compared with those of the surface sediments in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and northern South China Sea (SCS). The 16 priority PAHs on US EPA list range from 58 to 3,077 microg/kg (average: 315 microg/kg). The concentrations of DDTs and HCHs range from 3.58 to 831 microg/kg (average: 82.1 microg/kg) and from 0.19 to 42.3 microg/kg (average: 4.42 microg/kg). The ratios of DDT/ (DDD+DDE) are higher than 2 in majority of the soil samples, suggesting that DDT contamination still exists. The PAH ratios suggest that the source of PAHs is petroleum, and combustion of fossil fuel, biomass, and coal. The average concentrations of PAHs and the linear regression slope between PAHs and TOC for the soils and the sediments are quite similar. It was estimated that the soil mass inventories at 0-20 cm depth are 1,292 metric tons for PAHs and 356 metric tons for OCPs in the studied region. The average PAHs inventory per unit area for the soil samples investigated in PRD is about 0.86 time that of surface sediments in the Pearl River Estuary, and about 2.43 times that of surface sediments in the northern South China Sea. PAHs in the soils in PRD have similar source to those of the surface sediments in PRE. All of those may suggest that PAHs in PRE and SCS are probably mainly inputted from the soils in PRD via soil erosion and river transport.

  18. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their enantiomeric signatures, and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Adélie penguin food web, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Covaci, Adrian; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano; Schepens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations and enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were determined in Antarctic krill, emerald rockcod and Adélie penguin from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. HCB and DDTs were prevalent contaminants in penguin eggs. The highest concentrations of SigmaHCHs (1.35 +/- 0.72 ng/g) were found in the rockcod muscle, where gamma-HCH (1.23 +/- 0.67 ng/g) was the principal isomer. The ratio gamma-HCH/alpha-HCH was evaluated. Enantioselective gas chromatography was used for the evaluation of enantiomeric fractions (EFs) for alpha-HCH and oxychlordane. An increase of 14% in the (+)alpha-HCH enantiomer was found from krill through penguin, suggesting the enantioselective biotransformation increased proportionately with trophic level. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured and their concentrations were 5.6 +/- 1.12, 5.81 +/- 2.32, 4.57 +/- 0.17 and 3.06 +/- 3.27 ng/g lipids in krill, rockcod muscle, rockcod homogenate and penguin eggs, respectively. The detection of BDE28, BDE47, BDE99 and BDE100 in Antarctic organisms confirmed their global transport and distribution; the detection of lower brominated congeners suggested a potential long-range transport.

  19. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their enantiomeric signatures, and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Adélie penguin food web, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Covaci, Adrian; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano; Schepens, Paul

    2006-03-01

    Concentrations and enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were determined in Antarctic krill, emerald rockcod and Adélie penguin from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. HCB and DDTs were prevalent contaminants in penguin eggs. The highest concentrations of SigmaHCHs (1.35 +/- 0.72 ng/g) were found in the rockcod muscle, where gamma-HCH (1.23 +/- 0.67 ng/g) was the principal isomer. The ratio gamma-HCH/alpha-HCH was evaluated. Enantioselective gas chromatography was used for the evaluation of enantiomeric fractions (EFs) for alpha-HCH and oxychlordane. An increase of 14% in the (+)alpha-HCH enantiomer was found from krill through penguin, suggesting the enantioselective biotransformation increased proportionately with trophic level. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured and their concentrations were 5.6 +/- 1.12, 5.81 +/- 2.32, 4.57 +/- 0.17 and 3.06 +/- 3.27 ng/g lipids in krill, rockcod muscle, rockcod homogenate and penguin eggs, respectively. The detection of BDE28, BDE47, BDE99 and BDE100 in Antarctic organisms confirmed their global transport and distribution; the detection of lower brominated congeners suggested a potential long-range transport. PMID:16183185

  20. The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, K.; Jarman, W.M.; Bott, J.A.; Bacon, C.E.; Sydeman, W.

    1994-12-31

    Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP.

  2. In vivo and in vitro effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, TCPM, methoxychlor, and lindane on the female reproductive tract of mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, U

    2008-04-01

    The present paper summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of the organochlorine pesticides DDT, its metabolites, TCPM, methoxychlor and lindane on folliculogenesis, ovulation, fertilization, and implantation of female reproductive organs in human, laboratory, and farm animals. These compounds possess the ability to disrupt endogenous hormone synthesis, storage or metabolism. Cells of the ovary, oviduct, and uterus are susceptible to the disruptive effects of organochlorine compounds (OCCs). This review discusses that the exposure to OCC causes an impairment of (1) female fertility by altering ovarian development and function and (2) implantation by altering endometrial function through their estrogenic activity. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview on data which support that assumption that OCC can substitute for estradiol in regulating the microanatomy of the female reproductive tract. The data indicate the potential of these compounds act as endocrine disrupting agents, but in a different extent.

  3. Organochlorine residues in eggs of black-crowned night-herons from Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; Stafford, C.J.; Hensler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Eggs of black-crowned night-herons N. nycticorax were collected for analysis from 7 nesting sites in Colorado and Wyoming in 1979. One egg was taken/nest from as many as 20 nests/site during early incubation. The nests were marked and revisited after hatching, but before fledging, to record the number of live young. DDE was detected in all collected eggs (147) at a mean concentration of 3.1 ppm, fresh basis (residue means were geometric). Mean DDE at the 7 sites varied from 1.8-7.6 ppm. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were detected in 81 eggs (mean 1.0 ppm); the highest mean at any site was 2.2 ppm. Twelve other organochlorines were each detected in 1-30 eggs, usually at a concentration of lt 1.0 ppm. Mean total organochlorines in the eggs from the 7 sites ranged from 2.0-10.1 ppm and the median number of compounds/egg ranged from 1-5. Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated (P lt 0.001, r = -0.585) with DDE levels in the 147 eggs. Average shell thickness (0.258 +- 0.030 mm) was 8.8% lower than the average thickness (0.283 +- 0.016 mm) of 40 pre-DDT eggs from this region. The nesting sites with the highest DDE and total organochlorine residues in the eggs had the thinnest shells, produced the fewest young and had more nonviable eggs and dead young. At 4 of 7 sites, the average number of live young/nest was lt 2.0, the minimum long-term mean required for population maintenance. The source of the contaminants found in the heron eggs in this study was not determined.

  4. Novel Firmicutes Group Implicated in the Dechlorination of Two Chlorinated Xanthones, Analogues of Natural Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Krzmarzick, Mark J.; Miller, Hanna R.; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Although the abundance and diversity of natural organochlorines are well established, much is still unknown about the degradation of these compounds. Triplicate microcosms were used to determine whether, and which, bacterial communities could dechlorinate two chlorinated xanthones (2,7-dichloroxanthone and 5,7-dichloro-1,3-dihydroxylxanthone), analogues of a diverse class of natural organochlorines. According to quantitative-PCR (qPCR) results, several known dechlorinating genera were either not present or not enriched during dechlorination of the xanthones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, however, indicated that several Firmicutes were enriched in the dechlorinating cultures compared to triplicate controls amended with nonchlorinated xanthones. One such group, herein referred to as the Gopher group, was further studied with a novel qPCR method that confirmed enrichment of Gopher group 16S rRNA genes in the dechlorinating cultures. The enrichment of the Gopher group was again tested with two new sets of triplicate microcosms. Enrichment was observed during chlorinated xanthone dechlorination in one set of these triplicate microcosms. In the other set, two microcosms showed clear enrichment while a third did not. The Gopher group is a previously unidentified group of Firmicutes, distinct from but related to the Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium genera; this group also contains clones from at least four unique cultures capable of dechlorinating anthropogenic organochlorines that have been previously described in the literature. This study suggests that natural chlorinated xanthones may be effective biostimulants to enhance the remediation of pollutants and highlights the idea that novel genera of dechlorinators likely exist and may be active in bioremediation and the natural cycling of chlorine. PMID:24296507

  5. Organochlorine insecticides and heavy metals in fish from Mutek Lake, N. E. Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, J.; Smoczynski, S.; Skibniewska, K.A.; Amarowicz, R.

    1986-10-01

    The ability of organochlorine insecticides to accumulate in fat tissue and their stability in the environment has created threat for correct functioning of biocenoses and indirectly, for health of man. Similarly, compounds of heavy metals, due to their stability in the environment and tendency to cumulation in living organisms, cause the danger for human and animal health. The subject of our interest is the quality of food. The aim of the present work was to determine the level of residues of HCH, DDT and its metabolites and of compounds of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) in fish which, on the one hand are the indicators of toxic substance's presence in their environment, and on the other hand they may become a food for man.

  6. Organochlorine residues in finfish from Maryland waters 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, M.; Topping, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and herbicide levels were monitored in samples of a variety of edible finfish harvested from the Maryland section of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries over a five-year period (1976-80). Qualitative and quantitative information was obtained for the various polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), heptachlor, alpha-BHC, chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlorepoxide, lindane, mirex, methoxychlor, aldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, kepone and dacthal. In addition to analyses of the flesh of the animals, organochlorine residue levels were determined in roe or gonad tissue of several samples. Striped bass, white perch and yellow perch samples showed significantly higher concentrations of certain of these substances in roe or gonad tissue, especially PCB's, chlordane, DDD and dieldrin. Significantly higher levels of six organochlorine residues were found in the gonad tissue of striped bass; however, similar studies on gonad tissue of American Shad, harvested from the same region, show no such enhancement. Rather, the reverse is true; levels of certain organochlorine residues are higher in flesh tissue. All mean values, and virtually all individual values of organochlorine concentrations in the edible portion of the fish were within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline, where such guidelines have been established.

  7. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk. PMID:25151654

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid.

  9. Organochlorine contaminants in tissues of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Romanić, S Herceg; Holcer, D; Lazar, B; Klinčić, D; Mackelworth, P; Fortuna, C M

    2014-09-01

    Levels of 24 organochlorine compounds, including toxic mono-ortho PCB congeners, were determined in the organs and tissues (blubber, kidney, lung, muscle, liver, heart) of 13 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded between 2000 and 2005 in the northern part of the Croatian territorial waters of the Adriatic Sea. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found at higher concentrations in comparison with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in all of the analyzed tissues. Sums of six indicator congeners (Σ6PCB) constituted around 50% of the total PCB amount, while PCB-153 and PCB-138 were found to have the highest concentrations. Among the seven investigated OCPs, p,p'-DDE was found at the highest concentrations. In blubber, mean values of 22,048 and 11,310ngg(-1) wet weight were determined for ΣPCB and ΣDDT, respectively. Much lower concentrations were found in muscle samples, followed by similar concentrations in kidneys, liver and heart, while the lowest levels of organochlorine contaminants were found in lungs. The results indicate that p,p'-DDT is still being introduced in the Mediterranean region. PCB concentrations are among the highest found in this region and toxicological assessments indicate that the health of this specie is at high risk.

  10. Developmental Exposure to the Organochlorine Insecticide Endosulfan Alters Expression of Proteins Associated with Neurotransmission in the Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Wyatt; Onyenwe, Wellington; Bradner, Joshua M.; Nennig, Sadie E.; Caudle, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine insecticides during critical periods of neurodevelopment has been shown to be a major contributor to several neuropsychological deficits seen in children, adolescence, and adults. Although the neurobehavioral outcomes resulting from exposure to these compounds are known the neurotransmitter circuitry and molecular targets that mediate these endpoints have not been identified. Given the importance of the frontal cortex in facilitating numerous neuropsychological processes, our current study sought to investigate the effects of developmental exposure to the organochlorine insecticide, endosulfan, on the expression of specific proteins associated with neurotransmission in the frontal cortex. Utilizing in vitro models we were able to show endosulfan reduces cell viability in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells in addition to reducing synaptic puncta and neurite outgrowth in primary cultured neurons isolated from the frontal cortex of mice. Elaborating these findings to an in vivo model we found that developmental exposure of female mice to endosulfan during gestation and lactation elicited significant alterations to the GABAergic (GAT1, vGAT, GABAA receptor), glutamatergic (vGlut and GluN2B receptor), and dopaminergic (DAT, TH, VMAT2, and D2 receptor) neurotransmitter systems in the frontal cortex of male offspring. These findings identify damage to critical neurotransmitter circuits and proteins in the frontal cortex, which may underlie the neurobehavioral deficits observed following developmental exposure to endosulfan and other organochlorine insecticides. PMID:25042905

  11. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the critically endangered Iberian lynx and other sympatric carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Millán, Javier; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Camarero, Pablo R; Palomares, Francisco; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2012-02-01

    Accumulation of organochlorine compounds is well studied in aquatic food chains whereas little information is available from terrestrial food chains. This study presents data of organochlorine levels in tissue and plasma samples of 15 critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) and other 55 wild carnivores belonging to five species from three natural areas of Spain (Doñana National Park, Sierra Morena and Lozoya River) and explores their relationship with species diet. The Iberian lynx, with a diet based on the consumption of rabbit, had lower PCB levels (geometric means, plasma: <0.01 ng mL(-1), liver: 0.4ngg(-1) wet weight, fat: 87 ng g(-1)lipid weight) than other carnivores with more anthropic and opportunistic foraging behavior, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes; plasma: 1.11 ng mL(-1), liver: 459 ng g(-1), fat: 1984 ng g(-1)), or with diets including reptiles at higher proportion, such as the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon; plasma: 7.15 ng mL(-1), liver: 216 ng g(-1), fat: 540 ng g(-1)), or the common genet (Genetta genetta; liver: 466 ng g(-1), fat: 3854 ng g(-1)). Chlorinated pesticides showed interspecific variations similar to PCBs. Organochlorine levels have declined since the 80s in carnivores from Doñana National Park, but PCB levels are still of concern in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra; liver: 3873-5426 ng g(-1)) from the industrialized region of Madrid. PMID:22099537

  12. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth.

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: identification, geographical distribution, and temporal trends in polar bears

    SciTech Connect

    Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.; Muir, D.C.G.; Schweinsburg, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of Canadian arctic and subarctic marine ecosystems by organochlorine (OC) compounds was measured by analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues collected from 12 zones between 1982 and 1984. PCB congeners (S-PCB), chlordanes, DDT and metabolites, chlorobenzenes (S-CBz), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (S-HC-H), and dieldrin were identified by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nonachlor-III, a nonachlor isomer in technical chlordane, was positively identified for the first time as an environmental contaminant. S-PCB and S-CHLOR accounted for >80% of the total organochlorines in adipose tissue. Six PCB congeners constituted approximately 93% of S-PCB in polar bears. Levels of most OCs were lowest in the high Arctic, intermediate in Baffin Bay, and highest in Hudson Bay. Levels of ..cap alpha..-HCH were evaluated in zones influenced by surface runoff. Levels of S-CHLOR were four times higher and levels of the other OCs were two times higher in adipose tissue of bears from Hudson Bay and Baffin Bay in 1984 than in adipose tissue archived since 1969 from these areas; levels of S-DDT did not change.

  14. Potential role of organochlorine pesticides in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neurobehavioral disorders: A review.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent and bioaccumulative environmental contaminants with potential neurotoxic effects. The growing body of evidence has demonstrated that prenatal exposure to organochlorines (OCs) is associated with impairment of neuropsychological development. The hypothesis is consistent with recent studies emphasizing the correlation of environmental as well as genetic factors to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral defects. It has been suggested that maternal exposure to OCPs results in impaired motor and cognitive development in newborns and infants. Moreover, in utero exposure to these compounds contributes to the etiology of autism. Although impaired neurodevelopment occurs through prenatal exposure to OCs, breastfeeding causes postnatal toxicity in the infants. Parkinson's disease (PD) is another neurological disorder, which has been associated with exposure to OCs, leading to α-synuclein accumulation and depletion of dopaminergic neurons. The study aimed to review the potential association between pre- and post-natal exposure to OCs and impaired neurodevelopmental processes during pregnancy and neuropsychological diseases such as PD, behavioral alterations, seizures and autism. PMID:26549647

  15. Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

  16. Characteristic trend of persistent organochlorine contamination in wildlife from a tropical agricultural watershed, south India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A; Tanabe, S; Kannan, K; Subramanian, A N; Kumaran, P; Tatsukawa, R

    1992-07-01

    The residue levels of persistent organochlorines, such as HCH (BHC: 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane] compounds, PCBs (polychlorobiphenyls) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene), were measured in wildlife. The wildlife were sampled from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in and around the agricultural watershed of Parangipettai, South India. On the basis of overall concentrations sigma HCH ranked first followed by sigma DDT, sigma PCB and HCB, reflecting the increasing usage of HCH in recent years in India. The residue levels of organochlorines in birds varied according to their feeding habits and showed the following pattern: inland piscivores and scavengers greater than coastal piscivores greater than insectivores greater than omnivores greater than granivores. High levels of HCH and DDT residues were recorded in Pond heron and Cattle egret which feed in the agricultural fields. Comparison of HCH concentrations in fish and birds in the study area to other locations was made to further understand the dynamics of contaminant accumulation in tropical wildlife. Regarding birds, a wide variation in residue levels could be seen among various countries, with tropical regions registering high levels. In contrast, the variation is not prominent in the case of fish. The residue levels in fish measured in the present study were generally comparable to values reported from other locations. This suggests that the bioavailability of contaminants to the aquatic fauna is less due to the smaller flux and shorter residence time of these chemicals in the tropics.

  17. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  18. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies.

  19. Associations between organochlorine pesticides and cognition in U.S. elders: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-02-01

    There is limited evidence about whether background exposure to organochlorine pesticides is related to impairment of cognitive function in general populations. This study was performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and cognitive function, a predictor of dementia, among U.S. elders without overt dementia. Study subjects were 644 elders aged 60-85, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. We selected 6 organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane) which were commonly detected in current general population. Cognitive function was assessed with the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test. All 6 compounds showed statistically significant or marginally significant inverse associations with cognitive score after adjusting for covariates including education levels. The strongest association was observed with p,p'-DDT. With the outcome of low cognitive score defined as <25th percentile, elders in the highest quartile of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane had 2 to 3 times higher risks than those in the lowest quartile. In particular, when their concentrations were further divided with the cutoff points of 90th and 95th percentiles, p,p'-DDT in the highest 5th percentile showed 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-16.3) times higher risk of low cognitive score. On the other hand, non-persistent pesticides like organophosphates or pyrethroid showed little association with this cognitive score. The potential role of background exposure to organochlorine pesticides in the development of dementia should be explored in future prospective studies and in-vitro/in-vivo experimental studies. PMID:25461417

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Liu, W X; Li, X Q; Zhou, D X; Li, X; Yang, Y F; Yue, D P; Coveney, R M

    2009-02-01

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122+/-0.061 ng/g and 0.051+/-0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption.

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residuals in chickens and eggs at a poultry farm in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Tao, S; Liu, W X; Li, X Q; Zhou, D X; Li, X; Yang, Y F; Yue, D P; Coveney, R M

    2009-02-01

    Chicken organs, animal feed, droppings, and ambient air were sampled at a farm in Beijing to determine the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs). Mean fresh weight concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were 0.122+/-0.061 ng/g and 0.051+/-0.038 ng/g in the muscles. These values are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in China in 1980. Contaminated feed was the main source of HCHs and DDTs. Only 12.8% of HCH and 3.3% of DDT of the amount consumed were excreted. Accumulated quantities of HCHs and DDTs increased during growth. However, concentrations of HCHs and DDTs did not increase because of dilution from rapid growth. Based on the observed residual levels in mature chicken and the average diet of residents of China, the contributions from chicken and egg consumption to per capita daily intake of HCHs and DDTs were 487% and 88% of those of fish consumption. PMID:18963306

  2. Organochlorine residues and shell characteristics of roseate tern eggs, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) breed in two areas in the Western Hemisphere: in northeastern North America between Long Island, New York, and Nova Scotia, and around the Caribbean Sea from the Florida Keys and the Bahamas to the Netherlands Lesser Antilles. The present paper reports the results of a survey of organochlorine residues in Roseate Terns in 1981. The main objectives of the survey were to determine the levels of organochlorine contamination in eggs of the Roseate Tern in its major colonies and to investigate whether changes in eggshell characteristics similar to those reported by Fox (1976) may have occurred in this species. A secondary objective was to determine geographic patterns of organochlorine contamination within the northeastern U.S. population of Roseate Terns and to compare them with patterns observed in Common Terns.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-01

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  4. The legacy of organochlorine pesticide usage in a tropical semi-arid region (Jaguaribe River, Ceará, Brazil): Implications of the influence of sediment parameters on occurrence, distribution and fate.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André H B; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Duaví, Wersângela C; Fernandes, Gabrielle M; Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Queiroz, Maria E L R; Mendonça, Kamila V

    2016-01-15

    Between the 1940s and 1990s, immeasurable amounts of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were used in endemic disease control campaigns and agriculture in the tropical semi-arid regions of Brazil. The present study evaluated the legacy of banned OCP usage, considering the levels, ecological risk and dependence on sediment physicochemical properties for the fate and distribution in the Jaguaribe River. The sum concentration of OCPs (ΣOCPs) ranged from 5.09 to 154.43 ng·g(-1), comparable to the levels found in other tropical and subtropical regions that have traditionally used OCPs. The environmental and geographical distribution pattern of p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD and p,p-DDE shows that the estuarine zone contained more than 3.5 times the levels observed in the fluvial region, indicating that the estuary of the Jaguaribe River is a sink. The temporal pattern indicates application of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in the past; however, there is evidence of recent input of these pesticides. High ecological risk was observed for levels of γ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (γ-HCH) and heptachlor, and moderate ecological risk was observed for levels of DDTs in sediments from the Jaguaribe River. The heptachlor, γ-HCH and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations depend on the organic and inorganic fractions of sediment from the Jaguaribe River, whereas the p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDT and α-endosulfan concentrations depend solely on the organic fraction of the sediment. PMID:26519585

  5. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in coastal marine ecosystems of southern Alaska: inferences from spatial patterns in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus).

    PubMed

    Reese, Stacey L; Estes, James A; Jarman, Walter M

    2012-08-01

    We measured the concentrations and chemical structures of persistent organochlorines (OCs) in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from 44 sites across southwest and southeast Alaska in an effort to determine both the sources of these compounds and the extent to which this region might be contaminated. High PCB concentrations were detected at Amchitka, Adak, and Unalaska Islands (83, 430, and 2800μgkg(-1) dry weight, respectively) in the Aleutians with relatively low concentrations elsewhere (7.1-51μgkg(-1) dry weight). Heavy PCB congener profiles (indicative of localized point sources) characterized the high concentration sites whereas distinctly lighter congener profiles (indicative of atmospheric transport) characterized the lower concentration sites. Elevated PCB concentrations at Adak were restricted to a small area along the island's eastern shore, suggesting either limited dispersion or rapid dilution of these compounds. More uniform chlorinated pesticide concentrations among the collection sites suggests that these compounds are entering the Aleutian ecosystem from distant sources. Pesticide concentrations correlated significantly with seabird density across the islands we sampled, thus identifying biological transport as a delivery mechanism of these compounds to the Aleutian archipelago. Our findings do not implicate persistent organochlorines as a significant factor in the recent pinniped and sea otter population declines across southwest Alaska.

  7. Temporal and spatial trends of persistent organochlorines in Greenland walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Muir, D C; Born, E W; Koczansky, K; Stern, G A

    2000-01-17

    Persistent organochlorines [PCBs, DDT and chlordane related compounds, dieldrin, toxaphene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), chlorobenzenes] were determined in blubber of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in 1978 and 1988 from the Avanersuaq (Thule) region of north-west Greenland and in 1989 from Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund) in east Greenland. Lowest concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) were found in the samples from the Avanersuaq region while much higher levels of all compounds, except HCH isomers and mono/dichlorobiphenyls (CB5/8), were observed in samples (all males) from Ittoqqortoormiit. Total PCBs (sigma PCB) averaged 246 ng/g (wet wt.) male walrus from Avanersuaq and 2860 ng/g in samples from Ittoqqortoormiit. DDT isomers showed the greatest difference between the two locations, 50 x for p,p'-DDE and 69 x higher for p,p'-DDT. Ittoqqortoormiit walrus showed the pattern of OCs characteristic of seal-eating animals although the consumption of other organisms cannot be ruled out. The higher levels of OCs in east Greenland compared to north-west Greenland animals were consistent with results for polar bears, seals and gulls from the same regions. Principal components analysis showed that the pattern of OCs in Ittoqqortoormiit walrus was very similar to that in walrus from Inukjuaq in east Hudson Bay, which have previously been reported to be seal eaters, and quite distinct from the Avanersuaq walrus. No significant differences in mean concentrations of any OCs were found between male walrus from 1978 and 1988. For females, there were significantly higher levels of CB5/8, trichlorobiphenyls, dieldrin, toxaphene and alpha HCH as well as sigma HCH but not for sigma PCBs or DDT compounds. The data for Greenland walrus from the 1970s and late 1980s provide a baseline for future trend monitoring in walrus.

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs. PMID:26633149

  10. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-03

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  12. Levels and mass burden of DDTs in sediments from fishing harbors: the importance of DDT-containing antifouling paint to the coastal environment of China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Hu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong; Xu, Weihai; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun

    2009-11-01

    DDT remains an important type of persistent organic pollutant (POP) in the environment of China. One of the current applications of DDT in China has been through antifouling paint for fishing ships as an active component. It has been estimated that approximately 5000 t of DDT was released into the Chinese coastal environment during the last two decades. Therefore, sediments in coastal fishing harbors of China may be the important sinks of DDT. In this study, DDT and its metabolites in 58 sediment samples from nine typical fishing harbors along the coastal line of China were characterized to assess their accumulation levels, sediment burdens, and potential ecological risks. The concentrations of DDTs ranged from 9 to 7350 ng/g dry weight, which were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of the adjacent estuarine/marine sediments. The high concentrations of DDT coupled with the lower concentrations of HCH and TOC clearly indicated a strong local DDT input, i.e., DDT-containing antifouling paint, within the fishing harbors. A significant correlation between the total DDT concentrations and p,p'-DDT concentrations further confirmed the existence of fresh DDT input. The overall burden of DDTs within the upper 10 cm sediment layer in the fishing harbors of the Pearl River Delta, southern China, was estimated to be 1.0-5.7 t, which was several times higher than the DDT accumulation in the surface sediment of the Pearl River estuary. The concentrations of DDTs in the fishing harbor sediments significantly exceeded the sediment quality guidelines on the basis of adverse biological effects. The absence or low concentrations of p,p'-DDD in aquatic organisms and human may imply that either p,p'-DDD may be less bioaccumulated by fish and human, or is biotransformed to other metabolites. A national ban of DDT as an additive to antifouling paint was implemented in 2009 in China; however, the legacy high DDT burden in the coastal fishing harbors needs further

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  14. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  16. Effect of organochlorine pesticides on maturation of starfish and mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Picard, André; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Palavan, Golbahar; Robert, Stéphanie; Pesando, Danielle; Ciapa, Brigitte

    2003-05-01

    Methoxychlor, lindane, and dieldrin are organochlorine pesticides that have been described as altering different reproductive functions in mammals and in invertebrates. However, few data have been published concerning the effects these pesticides have on oocyte maturation and fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine whether these compounds could affect maturation of mouse and starfish oocytes. We observed that germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in starfish oocytes was significantly inhibited by the pesticides. Furthermore, formation of the first meiotic spindle and extrusion of the first polar body were also altered in mouse as well as in starfish. Our results suggest that the three pesticides act on common intracellular targets in invertebrates as well as in vertebrates.

  17. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  19. {gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S.

    1995-02-01

    The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. PCB and organochlorine pesticides in home-produced eggs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Windal, I; Hanot, V; Marchi, J; Huysmans, G; Van Overmeire, I; Waegeneers, N; Goeyens, L

    2009-07-15

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OC) in home-produced eggs was investigated in Belgium. The concentration of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane (DDT) is above the norm for 17% of the eggs collected during the spring on 58 different locations. For PCB, aldrin, dieldrin, and chlordane, 3-5% of the samples are above the norm too. These levels are surprisingly high for compounds banned for about 30 years. Higher concentrations in home-produced eggs are expected compared to battery eggs because of contact with the environment and especially the soil. For ten selected locations, the concentration in soils, excreta and feed was measured, but no simple correlation between egg and feed or soil level could be established. Hexachlorohexane, endosulfan, endrin, methoxychlor and nitrofen were not detected in any sample. PMID:19150570

  1. Organochlorine residues in booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) eggs from southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, Emma; Maria-Mojica, Pedro; Martinez, Jose E; Calvo, Jose F; Wright, Julian; Shore, Richard F; Romero, Diego; Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio J

    2007-11-01

    Most organochlorine (OC) use has been banned in Spain, but these compounds are persistent and may still adversely affect predatory birds. Data generally are lacking, however. Residues of hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDT, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 22 failed eggs of booted eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from southeastern Spain; both species are declining in this region. Hexachloro-octahydro-epoxy-dimethanonaphthalene, DDE, and sum PCB congener concentrations were significantly higher in booted eagle than in goshawk eggs, and an inverse relationship was found between shell thickness and DDE concentrations in booted eagles. Organochlorides may have been associated with the failure of some booted eagle eggs, but concentrations in booted eagle and goshawk eggs decreased over the period during which populations have dwindled. Thus, although OCs may be a contributory factor, they are unlikely to be the primary cause of the recent population declines in southeastern Spain. PMID:17941741

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human fat in the United Kingdom 1976-7.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, D C; Collins, G B; Goulding, R; Hoodless, R A

    1981-01-01

    Between May 1976 and August 1977 samples of human body fat were taken during routine necropsies in the United Kingdom on 236 subjects aged over 5 years and four infants aged under 4 months. Comparison with results from earlier studies showed a further decline in residues of pp'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp'-DDT) and dieldrin (HEOD) and increased amounts of hexachlorobenzene residues; concentrations of other compounds were similar to those observed in the studies carried out in 1963-4, 1965-7, and 1969-71. Comparison of the data with those from other countries, showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues and polychlorobiphenyls in human fat samples from residents of the United Kingdom remain among the lowest in Europe and, indeed, the world. PMID:6797569

  3. Organochlorines in the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France).

    PubMed

    Roche, H; Vollaire, Y; Persic, A; Buet, A; Oliveira-Ribeiro, C; Coulet, E; Banas, D; Ramade, F

    2009-01-01

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides in the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon, 1988-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lee, Karl K.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were detected in unfiltered samples from Johnson Creek that were collected during a storm in March, 2002. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites), as well as dieldrin, potentially exceeded Oregon chronic, freshwater criteria at all four Johnson Creek stream-sampling sites. The total DDT criterion was also potentially exceeded at a storm drain at SE 45th Avenue and Umatilla Street. The concentration of total DDT in water samples has decreased by an order of magnitude since previous sampling was done on Johnson Creek in 1989?1990. This decrease was probably due to the movement of these compounds out of the basin and to degradation processes. Concentrations and loads of the organochlorine pesticides were largest at the most upstream sampling site, Johnson Creek at Palmblad Road, which has historically been primarily affected by agricultural land cover. Concentrations and loads were smaller at downstream locations, and there were only a few detections from storm drains. For the purposes of assessing trends in total DDT concentration in Johnson Creek, data for total suspended solids (TSS) were examined, because TSS is often correlated with DDT concentrations, and TSS data are collected routinely by regulatory agencies. As an intermediate step, linear regression was used to relate TSS (measured in the recent study) and turbidity (measured both in the earlier and in the recent studies). For 77 samples, TSS (in mg/L [milligrams per liter]) = 0.88 x Turbidity (in nephleometric turbidity units). The r2 value was 0.82. The TSS concentration (measured, or estimated by the regression) was compared to the concentration of total DDT using linear regression. The TSS concentration associated with meeting the Oregon water-quality criterion for total DDT was 15 to 18 mg/L in the lower and middle part of the basin and 8 mg/L in the upper reaches of the basin. This TSS/DDT relationship is based on only one storm and may not be valid for other conditions

  5. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  6. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of HCHs and DDTs in surface seawater and sediment of the mariculture area of Jincheng Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanbing; Sun, Shan; Song, Xiukai; Ma, Jianxin; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in the surface seawater and sediment of Jincheng Bay mariculture area were investigated in the present study. The concentration of total HCHs and DDTs ranged from 2.98 to 14.87 ng L-1 and were < 0.032 ng L-1, respectively, in surface seawater, and ranged from 5.52 to 9.43 and from 4.11 to 6.72 ng g-1, respectively, in surface sediment. It was deduced from the composition profile of HCH isomers and DDT congeners that HCH residues derived from a mixture of technical-grade HCH and lindane whereas the DDT residues derived from technical-grade DDT and dicofol. Moreover, both HCH and DDT residues may mainly originate from historical inputs. The hazard quotient of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and δ-HCH to marine species was 0.030, 0.157, 3.008 and 0.008, respectively. It was estimated that the overall probability of adverse biological effect from HCHs was less than 5%, indicating that its risk to seawater column species was low. The threshold effect concentration exceeding frequency of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDE and p, p'-DDT in sediment ranged from 8.3% to 100%, and the relative concentration of the HCH and DDT mixture exceeded their probable effect level in sediment. These findings indicated that the risk to marine benthos was high and potentially detrimental to the safety of aquatic products, e.g., sea cucumber and benthic shellfish.

  7. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  8. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  11. Time series of organochlorine pesticides from ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, K. A.; Steig, E. J.; Hermanson, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    The transport to the Arctic from lower latitudes of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including PCBs and various biocides, is a major environmental health issue. Time series of OC deposition from the atmosphere are of considerable interest for establishing a historical pattern of Arctic inputs relative to uses and regulations. Deposition rates of particular compounds may remain high for some time after use has ceased because of long-term revolatilization from temperate soil and oceanic reservoirs. Obtaining time series of OCs from ice cores has been problematic due to the large sample sizes required for analysis and concerns that post-depositional loss from the firn may obscure the primary depositional signal. We report here results of OC measurements on a 38-m firn/ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard (78° 51'53"N, 17° 25'30"E, 1230 m asl). The core covers approximately the period 1930 to 2000 A.D., providing complete coverage of all commercial OC production and use. Among the notable results include a distinct peak in hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) and DDT concentrations in the 1960s, consistent with known usage histories. A decrease in use of technical (α -enriched) HCH in the United States after 1960 is known to have led to a decrease in the α /γ -HCH ratio since that time, which is precisely what we observe in the core, further supporting the reliability of these time series. We also find that the ratios of primary OCs to their decomposition products are also much higher, overall, than what has been observed in, for example, Arctic sediment cores. High DDT/DDE and cis/trans-chlordane ratios are indicative of recently-produced OCs. Our results suggest two important conclusions. First, that transport to the Arctic is remarkably fast, on the order of months rather than years. Second, that post-depositional decomposition of OCs in the ice core environment is negligible, at least at high-accumulation rate sites like Lomonosovfonna (>30 cm/year ice equiv). The

  12. [Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of typical organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong-Yuan; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Ma, Zi-Long; Tian, Hui; Guo, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-04-01

    Air samples were seasonally collected in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou, Gansu province, using polyurethane foam (PUF) based passive air samplers for a year and determined hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Atmospheric concentrations of sigma HCHs (alpha-HCH +beta-HCH +gamma-HCH +delta-HCH) and sigma DDTs (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD) were 86.22 pg x m(-3) and 34.06 pg x m(-3) in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou with background concentrations of 54.41 pg x m(-3) and 21.56 pg x m(-3), respectively, which were lower than previously reported values elsewhere. In general, the seasonal pollution characteristics of sigma HCHs and sigma DDTs exhibited higher levels with the average concentrations of 127.4 pg x m(-3) and 47.06 pg x m(-3) in autumn, respectively. Furthermore, relatively higher residual concentrations of HCHs and DDTs were found in Jiuquan, Anxi and Zhangye, relating to their more arable lands and more intensively historical usage. Source apportionment indicated HCHs were mainly originated from historical technical-HCHs residues and recent Lindane usage. Recently introduced technical-DDTs was highly responsible for DDTs contamination, whereas the higher concentrations of o,p'-DDT observed in Jiuquan and Anxi may be attributed to dicofol usage. In addition, human exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Hexi Corridor and Lanzhou via inhalation could be relatively low.

  13. Current-use and organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and anaerobic digest.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Anna; Nilsson, Marie-Louise; Kylin, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Several current-use (≤ 80 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and organochlorine pesticides (≤ 15 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) and polychlorinated biphenyls (≤ 18 ng g⁻¹ dry weight) were found in the biodegradable fraction of source separated household waste, compost, and/or anaerobic digestate. The degradation rates of individual compounds differ depending on the treatment. Dieldrin and pentachloroaniline, e.g., degrade more rapidly than the waste is mineralized and accumulates in the products after all treatments. Many organochlorines degrade at the same rate as the waste and have the same concentrations in the waste and products. Chlorpyrifos degrades slower than the waste and accumulates in all products and ethion during anaerobic digestion. The polychlorinated biphenyls and some pesticides show different degradations rates relative the waste during different processes. Understanding the degradation of the contaminants under different conditions is necessary to develop quality criteria for the use of compost and digest.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  15. Specific pattern of persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from South India

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Gondaira, Futoshi; Ramesh, A.; Tatsukawa, Ryo ); Subramanian, A.; Mohan, D.; Kumaran, P.; Venugopalan, V.K. )

    1990-03-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from four locations in Tamil Nadu state, South India, were analyzed for understanding the levels of persistent organochlorines such as 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH (BHC)) isomers, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the basis of the overall concentrations of these compounds, {Sigma}HCH (sum of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, and {delta} isomers) levels were higher than the other two. Unlike that of developed countries, the concentration of HCH isomers in Indian breast milk was more in vegetarians than nonvegetarians. Interestingly, high levels of HCH isomers indicated a shift toward their preferential accumulation in the body relative to DDT compounds, which had higher levels than HCH isomers in earlier years. In view of the increase usage of technical HCH for agriculture and vector control, the body burden of HCH isomers may still go up in Indians. The authors also detected PCBs in Indian breast milk, but at low levels.

  16. Mercury, selenium, cadmium and organochlorines in eggs of three Hawaiian seabird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Harrison, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Eggs of three representative species of seabirds (wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus; red-footed booby Sula sula; and sooty tern Sterna fuscata) were collected in 1980 to determined differences in heavy metal, Se, and organochlorine residues among species nesting in the Hawaiian Archipelago and among the four nesting sites sampled (Oahu, French Frigate Shoals, Laysan, and Midway). Hg and Se were present in all eggs analysed, but Cd was not detected. Hg was usually highest in booby eggs, and there was a southeast-to-northeast trend toward higher concetrations in this species; booby eggs from Midway contained the highest mean concentration of Hg (0?36 :g g-1, wet weight). Se consistently occurred at lowest concentrations in booby eggs. When Se and Hg concentrations were expressed as nanomoles per gram, Se constituted 94?96% of the combined total at each location for shearwater and tern eggs. In booby eggs, the proportion as Se declined significantly (' = 0?05) from Oahu (93?4%) westward to Midway (85?9%). Although DDT occurred in most of the shearwater eggs from each site, it was not found in booby or tern eggs. DDE occured in all eggs, but mean concentrations did not exceed 0?6 :g g-1. DDE concentrations were higher in eggs from the two south-eastern nesting sites and were consistently highest in shearwater eggs. PCBs were found in most of the shearwater and booby eggs, but were not detected in tern eggs. Other organochlorines usually occurred more frequently in eggs of shearwaters than in other species. The only exception were '-HCH and HCB, which occurred more frequently in booby eggs. Kepone, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane compounds, and toxaphene were not detected. Differences in residue concentrations seem to reflect differences in diets and seasonal movements of the birds, and perhaps other factors such as atmospheric and oceanic transport of chemicals and physiological differences among the species.

  17. Residues of organochlorinated pesticides in eggs of water birds from Tai Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Wang, H; An, Q; Ruiz, X; Fasola, M; Zhang, Y M

    2004-01-01

    The levels of organochlorine compounds in eggs of water birds from the colony on Tai Lake in China were studied. The eggs were collected in 2000 and belonged to the following species: 65 samples of black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), 36 samples of little egret (Egretta garzetta), 26 samples of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) from 13 clutches and 43 samples of Chinese pond heron (Ardeola bacchus) from 17 clutches. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivates (DDE and DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate were determined in the laboratory by gas chromatography. The data showed that DDE had the highest levels in all the samples, followed by beta-HCH. The mean levels of DDE among the water bird species were in the order as follows: black-crowned night heron (5464.26 ng/g, dry weight) > Chinese pond heron (2791.12 ng/g, dry weight) > little egret (1979.97 ng/g, dry weight) > cattle egret (660.11 ng/g, dry weight). DDT and its metabolites accounted for 90% of the total organochlorines, except that it was only 73% for cattle egret. The differences of the residue among the bird species were statistically significant and could be attributed to their variations in prey and habitat. Although the DDE burdens in Tai Lake were much lower than 8 microg/g (wet weight) which are thought to have significant adverse effects on black-crowned night herons, they would be expected to increase the risk of adverse effects on survival of chicks of herons and egrets, particularly black-crowned night heron, based on the critical value of 1 microg/g (wet weight) DDE. The burdens of HCHs in this study were higher and the cyclodienes were lower than those found elsewhere. PMID:15499782

  18. Cord blood lymphocyte functions in newborns from a remote maritime population exposed to organochlorines and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Belles-Isles, Marthe; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Roy, Raynald

    2002-01-25

    The consumption of fish and sea mammals can be an important source of exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) and heavy metals in populations relying on seafood for subsistence. Exposure to these substances, especially during the prenatal period, has been shown to induce immunotoxic effects in mammals. Immunological status was assessed in 48 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Lower and Mid North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (subsistence fishing group) and 60 newborns from the coastal urban center of Sept-Iles (reference group). Women were recruited upon arrival at Sept-Iles regional hospital to give birth. Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and heavy metal analyses and to isolate lymphocytes for immunological assays (proportions and functional responses of the main cellular subsets T, B, and NK (natural killer) cells. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury were respectively three- and twofold higher, significantly greater, in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group. Compared to the reference group, the subsistence fishing group showed significant decreases in the proportion of the naive helper T-cell subset CD4+CD45RA, T-cell proliferation following an in vitro mitogenic stimulation, and plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) level, while plasma IgC level was increased. NK cytolytic activities were similar in both groups. The proportion of CD4+CD45RA cells was inversely correlated to mercury and PCBs, while T-cell clonal expansion was negatively associated with PCBs and p,p'-DDE. Mercury was inversely correlated to plasma IgM. Data show that subtle functional alterations of the developing human immune system may result from in utero exposure to OCs and mercury. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine the relevance of these alterations in predicting detrimental health effects in the developing child. PMID:11820504

  19. Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in an apex aquatic predator from a premier conservation area.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; Van Vuren, Johan H J; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Wepener, Victor

    2016-04-15

    With the second highest gross domestic product in Africa, South Africa is known to have a high pesticide usage, including the highly persistent and banned group of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). South Africa is also one of few countries to still actively spray DDT as malaria vector control. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to by use of OCPs in the catchments outside the KNP and how this exposure relates to human health. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) are economically important apex predators and was selected as bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2010 to 2011 within the KNP and 19 OCPs were determined in muscle tissue using GC-ECD techniques. Significant flow related and spatial OCP bioaccumulation was observed. Tigerfish from the Luvuvhu River displayed the highest OCP bioaccumulation. Concentrations of the majority of the OCPs including the DDTs were the highest levels ever recorded from South African freshwater systems and in many cases the concentrations were higher than most contaminated areas from around the world. The concentrations found in H. vittatus muscle also exceeded maximum residue levels in edible fat as set by the European Union. The health risk assessment also demonstrated that the levels of OCPs pose very high cancer risks to the local populations consuming tigerfish, as high as 2 in 10 increased risk factor. This is of concern not only when managing the water resources of the conservation area but also for surrounding communities consuming freshwater fish. Contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP.

  20. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  1. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  2. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  3. Organochlorine residues in two Norwegian puffin (Fratercula arctica) colonies.

    PubMed

    Ingebrigtsen, K; Skaare, J U; Teigen, S W

    1984-01-01

    Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, aldrin, and dieldrin in adult puffins (Fratercula arctica) from two colonies in Norway (Røst 67 degrees 30'N and Hornøy 70 degrees 20'N) showing differences in breeding performance were compared in 1982. Furthermore, residue levels in puffin chicks from Røst in 1982, when breeding failed totally, were compared with the corresponding levels in 1983, when breeding was successful. Residue levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons were also measured in eggs from Røst 1982. An autoradiographic study of the distribution of [14C]HCB in adult puffins and chicks from Røst 1982 was included. In general, organochlorine contamination was low, and the results are interpreted to eliminate the organochlorines as a serious factor for impaired reproduction in the Røst colony. Significant differences between the two colonies are discussed in relation to geographical and nutritional aspects. The finding of significantly higher levels of organochlorines in organ tissue from puffin chicks from Røst in 1982 compared to the corresponding levels in 1983 may reflect the dramatic difference in nutritional status between the two years. PMID:6084067

  4. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentzen, T.W.; Follmann, E.H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.S.; Wooller, M.J.; Muir, D.C.G.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in the adipose tissue of polar bears (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1774) vary throughout the Arctic. The range in concentrations has not been explained fully by bear age, sex, condition, location, or reproductive status. Dietary pathways expose polar bears to a variety of contaminant profiles and concentrations. Prey range from lower trophic level bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L., 1758), one of the least contaminated marine mammals, to highly contaminated upper trophic level ringed seals (Phoca hispida (Schreber, 1775)). We used ??15N and ??13C signatures to estimate the trophic status of 42 polar bears sampled along Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast to determine the relationship between organochlorine concentration and trophic level. The ?? 15N values in the cellular portions of blood ranged from 18.2% to 20.7%. We found strong positive relationships between concentrations of the most recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ??15N values in models incorporating age, lipid content, and ??13C value. Specifically these models accounted for 67% and 76% of the variation in PCB153 and oxychlordane concentration in male polar bears and 85% and 93% in females, respectively. These results are strong indicators of variation in diet and biomagnification of organochlorines among polar bears related to their sex, age, and trophic position. ?? 2008 NRC.

  5. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  6. Level of organochlorine pesticide residues in dry fruit nuts.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pragya; Raizada, R B; Srivastava, L P

    2010-09-01

    The use of pesticides on cash crops and exportable food commodities had always been a serious concern. Fruits form one of the important constituents of human diet, in that they give one third of the requirement of calories, vitamins, and minerals. This study has been carried out to determine the level of organochlorine pesticides namely HCH, DDT and Endosulfan in raw fruit nuts. Nuts have proteins and high level of fat content. These properties of nuts attract organochlorine pesticides to accumulate. The analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in commonly used dry fruits like Cashewnut, Walnut, Coconut, Chilgoza, Chironji, Makhana, Resins, Apricot, Almonds, Date palm, Pistachio nut collected from local market of Lucknow India has indicated presence of very low level of HCH (0.007-1.328 mg kg(-1)), DDT(ND-0.140 mg kg(-1)) and Endosulfan (ND-0.091 mg kg(-1)). There are no MRL values established for nuts in the country. This finding is based on a smaller number of samples, which however suggest that the presence of low level of DDT, HCH and Endosulfan might be due to environmental rather than direct exposure. PMID:21387926

  7. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  8. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  9. Level of organochlorine pesticide residues in dry fruit nuts.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pragya; Raizada, R B; Srivastava, L P

    2010-09-01

    The use of pesticides on cash crops and exportable food commodities had always been a serious concern. Fruits form one of the important constituents of human diet, in that they give one third of the requirement of calories, vitamins, and minerals. This study has been carried out to determine the level of organochlorine pesticides namely HCH, DDT and Endosulfan in raw fruit nuts. Nuts have proteins and high level of fat content. These properties of nuts attract organochlorine pesticides to accumulate. The analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in commonly used dry fruits like Cashewnut, Walnut, Coconut, Chilgoza, Chironji, Makhana, Resins, Apricot, Almonds, Date palm, Pistachio nut collected from local market of Lucknow India has indicated presence of very low level of HCH (0.007-1.328 mg kg(-1)), DDT(ND-0.140 mg kg(-1)) and Endosulfan (ND-0.091 mg kg(-1)). There are no MRL values established for nuts in the country. This finding is based on a smaller number of samples, which however suggest that the presence of low level of DDT, HCH and Endosulfan might be due to environmental rather than direct exposure.

  10. Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

  11. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  12. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat.

  13. Modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in Rhine-delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Ma, W C; Brouns, J J; de Ruiter-Dijkman, E M; Gast, R

    1995-07-01

    In the Rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. To investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (Crocidura russula, Sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. Chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil organic matter, whereas ratios for other organochlorines varied between 0.87 and 8.8. These ratios are one order of magnitude lower than expected from laboratory experiments with earthworms, and laboratory and field studies on aquatic invertebrates. Bioconcentration ratios for heavy metals are in accordance with literature values for other locations, confirming the high potential for cadmium accumulation in Lumbricidae. Concentrations of organochlorines in shrew liver lipids were 1.0 to 13 times the residues in earthworm fat. These values are higher than lipid-corrected biomagnification ratios for laboratory rodents, but equal to those measured for benthivorous birds in the Rhine-delta. On a dry weight basis, kidney-earthworm ratios for cadmium were about one order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for insectivores. Soil concentrations of many compounds in both floodplains did not meet Dutch quality standards. Yet, hexachlorobenzene, chlorobiphenyl 153 (PCB153), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, sigma DDT, and dieldrin residues in earthworms and shrews did not exceed diet levels expected to be safe for endothermic species. An exception was noted for cadmium in worms and shrew kidneys. Heavy metal pollution in soil was close to levels that are critical to earthworms in laboratory studies. Cadmium concentrations in shrew kidneys were below levels suggested to be safe for Sorex araneus, but above those that were critical to the rat. PMID:7794009

  14. Geographic variation of organochlorine concentrations in ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic: A multivariate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, I.M.; Muir, D.

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of 58 PCB congeners, DDT and its metabolites, chlorinated benzenes, chlordanes, and toxaphene measured in approximately 180 ringed seals (Phoca hispida), collected from the vicinities of 12 communities across the Canadian Arctic in the period 1984--1989, were analyzed statistically. Data were first lipid corrected and log transformed, then subjected to ANCOVA to remove effects of sex and age on measured levels. Sex was a significant factor for all contaminant groups. For DDT and related compounds and for PCBs, young males and females had similar concentrations; concentrations increased significantly with age in males, but not in females. Concentrations of toxaphenes and chlordanes did not show significant age effects. Residuals from a multiple regression on age and sex were subjected to Principal Components Analysis. Component 1 strongly loaded only a group of highly chlorinated PCB congeners (7 or more chlorine substitutions), component 2 loaded chlorinated benzenes strongly, and component 3 loaded a group of less chlorinated PCBs (4 or 5 chlorine substitutions). Few differences among sites were evident in {Sigma}PCBs, {Sigma}DDTs, {Sigma}chlordanes, or {Sigma}toxaphenes. However, geographical pattern was detectable in both factor scores calculated for some of the principal components and in an analysis of proportions of total PCBs represented by single congeners selected to include a range of K{sub ow} and chlorination levels. Less chlorinated congeners represent larger proportions at increasing latitude and decreasing longitude. More chlorinated congeners generally represented higher proportions of total PCBs at higher longitudes and lower latitudes of the Canadian Arctic.

  15. Biomarkers of Maternal and Fetal Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides Measured in Pregnant Hispanic Women from Brownsville, Texas

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken; Salinas, Jennifer J.; McDonald, Thomas J.; Gowen, Rose M. Z.; Miller, Rebecca P.; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides were measured in both venous and umbilical cord blood from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, USA. Gas chromatography with an electron capture detector was used to analyze specimens for 30 individual pesticides or their metabolites. Results indicate that blood concentrations were relatively low for most individual compounds, but that high-end (upper 10th percentile) values for total DDT were comparatively high. Although health effects associated with measured blood concentrations are uncertain, there is concern that fetal exposure to low levels of these OC compounds, either individually or in combination, might contribute to subsequent health problems, including neurodevelopmental effects, cancer, endocrine disruption, obesity and diabetes. PMID:23343981

  16. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.R.; Powell, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, evaluated the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements in fish tissue in samples collected in the lower Tennessee River Basin study unit. Fish tissue analysis provides a time-averaged measurement of contaminants as well as a direct measurement of the contaminants that bioaccumulate in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish tissue may result in concentrations that can affect human, wildlife, or aquatic health. Data for two types of tissue analyses were evaluated to assess the occurrence and distribution of contaminants: whole fish for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and fish fillets for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and trace elements. The fish tissue data analyzed for this study cover an 18-year span including data collected in 1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; data collected from 1980 through 1997 by the Tennessee Valley Authority; and data collected from 1992 through 1997 by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Concentration data for constituents that are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant List were summarized and compared against existing action levels or guidelines.From the list of organochlorine pesticide compounds analyzed, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a breakdown product of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), was the most commonly detected compound with detections at 83 percent of the sites sampled. Eleven p,p'-DDE samples exceeded action levels or guidelines with concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 12.8 milligrams per kilogram. Five other organochlorine compounds, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls, also exceeded action levels and guidelines, but the

  17. Macro-analytical methods used to analyze tissues of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, G.H.; Leong, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Among the specimens which were processed as the results of poisoning incidents, were tissues of an adult male Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, which had died while in captivity without known cause. Various tissues of the animal were analyzed to determine whether the death of the monk seal had any connection with exposures to environmental pesticides or pollutants, particularly to organochlorine compounds. The specimens included urine, parts of liver, lung and blubber, an entire testis, and an entire kidney. Solid tissues from the animal were from correspondingly large organs. Macro methods for representative analyses of these tissues for multiresidues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were devised. Results are tabulated. The death of the Hawaiian monk seal could not be attributed conclusively to the organochlorines and pentachlorophenol that were found in tissues of this mammal. Baseline (normal) data of residue levels for these pollutants in animal tissues in Hawaii are so limited that pathogenic levels in the fauna cannot be predicted. It is difficult to even speculate whether the residues detected in the monk seal tissues were due to exposures of earth's background (ambient) atmosphere or to exposures of the mammal's immediate (specific) environment.

  18. Persistent halogenated compounds in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Wu, Xiaobing; Wu, Jiangping; Wang, Xinming; Yi, Zhigang; Zhao, Juan; Zhan, Miao; Mai, Bixian

    2014-09-01

    While a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the Chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. In the present study, several PHCs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive Chinese alligators from China. The concentrations of ΣPBDEs, ΣPCBs, and ΣDDTs in Chinese alligators ranged from 0.11 to 16.1, 1.12 to 22.2, and 6.03 to 1020ngg(-1) wet weight, respectively, with higher levels of ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs in the neonates and eggs than in muscle tissues. The ΣDDT residues in the studied Chinese alligators were at the high end of reported ranges from crocodilia around the world, and some results exceeded levels known to cause a female-biased sex ratio in crocodilians.

  19. Cyclic organochlorines in epibenthic organisms from coastal waters around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, J. P.; Everaarts, J. M.; Kastoro, W. W.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.; Sumarno; Nelissen, P. H.; Stefels, J.; Hillebrand, M. Th. J.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and their persistent metabolites were identified in epibenthic animals from the estuaries of the rivers Brantas and Solo and from Strait Madura, Strait Bali and the Java Sea in July and November 1984. Samples of different phyla showed similar general geographical trends for the compounds investigated. Contamination with p,p'-DDE was of major importance in the river Porong, a distributary of the Brantas river system. Increased concentrations of PCBs were found near Surabaya. In Strait Madura, p,p'-DDE and PCBs were increased only in animals from the western part. Therefore the dispersion of the contaminants in biota appeared to be determined by the residual currents caused by the SE trade winds prevailing in both periods of sampling (July and November 1984). Generally no differences existed between the two sampling periods, except in the Java Sea, where PCBs were only detected during the November cruise. Compared to the animals from Strait Madura, the PCB patterns showed increased contributions of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This could not be related to differences in PCB-patterns of water or suspended particles. The compounds QCB, HCB, α-HCH, ß-HCH, o,p'-DDD, methoxychlor and several cyclodienes were generally below detection limits.

  20. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindoruk, S. Sıddık; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of Σ10OCPs.

  1. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and