Science.gov

Sample records for organochlorine pesticides ocps

  1. Occurrence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) crops from organic production.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aizpún de Moreno, Julia E; Moreno, Víctor J

    2003-02-26

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantified by GC-ECD in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) during a vegetation period. Plants were harvested at 15, 60, and 151 days after seed germination. Leaves, stem, roots, and fruit (peel and flesh) were analyzed separately. The results showed that tomato plants were able to accumulate OCPs from soils, and a trend to reach the equilibrium among tissues at mature stages was also observed. Endosulfans comprised the main OCP group, probably due to its spray during summer months in the surrounding areas. Banned pesticides such as DDTs, heptachlor, and dieldrin were found. OCPs levels in the fruit were below the maximum residues limits (MRL) considered by the Codex Alimentarius. DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of <1 would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in the study farm, where agrochemicals have never been used, is a result of atmospheric deposition of those pesticides.

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in raft mussels coming from Galician rías.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2017-09-01

    This survey gives an overview of the range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) α and γ-HCH (lindane), HCB, pp´-DDE, pp´-DDD, op´-DDT, pp´-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor in raft mussels cultivated in several polygons of the Galician Rías (Ares-Betanzos, Muros-Noia, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2014. A significant number of OCPs were detected, but the levels found were generally low, mainly in the recent samplings (2010-2014). The levels of ∑DDs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites, pp´-DDE and pp´-DDD) ranged between 0.22 ng/g dry weight (dw) in samples from the Ría of Pontevedra and 46.4 ng/g dw in mussels from the Ría of Arousa. Both aldrin and endrin were not detected or were below the analytical limits of detection. With regard to other pesticides, dieldrin is the major compound, followed by γ-HCH, isodrin, α-HCH and transnonachlor. Significant ANOVA regressions indicated variations in levels of some OCPs with the biological parameters (lipid, condition index and shell length). Univariate and multivariate analysis of OCP levels revealed no significant differences between Rías. Temporal trends showed an important decline of OCPs in the studied samples during the period 1998-2014.

  3. The investigation of atmospheric deposition distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindoruk, S. Sıddık; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a significant pollution source leading to contamination of remote and clean sites, surface waters and soils. Since persistent organic pollutants (POPs) stay in atmosphere without any degradation, they can be transported and deposited to clean surfaces. Organochlorine pesticides are an important group of POPs which have toxic and harmful effects to living organisms and environment. Therefore, atmospheric deposition levels and characteristics are of importance to determine the pollution quantity of water and soil surfaces in terms of POPs. This study reports the distribution quantities of atmospheric deposition including bulk, dry, wet and air-water exchange of particle and gas phase OCPs as a result of 1-year sampling campaign. Atmospheric deposition distribution showed that the main mechanism for OCPs deposition is wet processes with percentage of 69 of total deposition. OCP compounds' deposition varied according to atmospheric concentration and deposition mechanism. HCH compounds were dominant pesticide species for all deposition mechanisms. HCH deposition constituted the 65% of Σ10OCPs.

  4. Distribution and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Bai, Aiying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in water, sediment, aquatic plant, and animal (shrimp and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The total OCPs concentrations were 65.31-100.31 ng L(-1) in water, 2.9-6.91 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 1.29-6.42 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants and 7.57-17.22 ng g(-1) dw in animals. The OCPs composition profiles showed that heptachlor compounds was also the predominant OCPs contaminants in addition to hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in Nansi Lake. According to the source of HCHs and DDTs in sediment samples, there was no new input and the HCHs pollution mainly came from the use of Lindane in Nansi Lake. Bioaccumulation of OCPs in aquatic biota indicated that DDTs and heptachlor compounds had a strong accumulation, followed by HCHs and drins. The accumulation abilities of fish for OCPs were higher than those of plants and shrimps. The OCPs biota-sediment accumulation factor values of Channa argus was the highest in fish samples, followed by Carassius auratus, and Cyprinus caspio. Risk assessment of sediment showed that heptachlor epoxide had a higher occurrence possibility of adverse ecological effects to benthic species. Based on the calculation of acceptable daily intake and hazard ratio, HCHs in fish and shrimps from Nansi Lake had a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one per million. The risk assessment of water, sediment, and fish indicated the water environment of Nansi Lake is at a safe level at present.

  5. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in foodstuffs collected from traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shoiful, Ahmad; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Isao; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2013-02-01

    A total 23 of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in five groups of foodstuffs, i.e.: vegetables (carrot, potato, cucumber, corn, and onion), rice, pulses (green bean and soybean), nuts (peanut), and fish (milkfish), which collected from traditional markets in three big cities of Indonesia; Jakarta, Bogor, and Yogyakarta. OCPs were only detected in fatty foodstuffs, such as soybean, peanut, and milkfish. The concentration of HCB (expressed as ng g(-1) on a whole basis), ΣDrins, ΣDDTs, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs were in the range of <0.3-0.74 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.42 ng g(-1), <0.02-0.41 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.14 ng g(-1), and <0.03-0.06 ng g(-1), respectively, which were far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as established by FAO/WHO. These very low concentrations of OCPs residues in foodstuffs indicated that OCPs were used only in past time and no recent input into the environment. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of HCB, ΣDDTs, ΣDrins, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs in five group foodstuffs, which were 60% of total daily diet of Indonesian, were 0.09 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.04 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.01 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.003 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), and 0.002 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. These results were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) as established by FAO/WHO, which indicated that consumption of foodstuffs from Indonesia were at little risk to human health in term of OCPs at present.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediments of an Italian drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Kalajzic, T; Bianchi, M; Muntau, H; Kettrup, A

    1998-03-01

    The concentration of 9 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 151, 153, 170, 180, 183 and 194) and of 6 micropollutants commonly classified as organochlorine pesticides, or OCPs (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD), was determined in 22 sediment samples of lake Simbirizzi, an artificial reservoir supplying drinking water to the city of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The quantification was performed by analysing purified sediment extract with HRGC-ECD. The average concentrations proved to be relatively low. In the case of p,p'-DDE, the contaminant with the highest concentration, a mean value of 0.84 ppb (micrograms/kg d.m.) was found. These relatively low concentrations and the comparison with data relating to other lakes suggest that, as far as PCBs and the majority of OCPs are considered, atmospheric inputs are likely to be the main source of contamination. Only for lindane (gamma-HCH) it is possible to assume a contribution from agricultural activities. The presence of its isomers (alpha-HCH and beta-HCH) was attributed to natural occurring reactions of the gamma-form.

  7. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residue in edible cattle tissues from northeastern part of Egypt: High accumulation level of OCPs in tongue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abdallah Fikry A; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Darwish, Wageh S; Eldaly, Elsaid A; Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In order to assess the potential human health risks associated with OCPs, edible cattle tissues (liver, kidney and tongue) were collected from three slaughter houses in Mansoura, Zagazig and Ismailia cities, Egypt. Levels of 22 OCPs such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin and endrin (Drins), chlordanes (CHLs), heptachlors (HPTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) residues were investigated. Among the investigated OCPs, HCHs represented the most dominant group with high proportions of γ-HCH isomer (53-91% of total HCHs). Mansoura city had the highest OCPs contamination load ranged from 0.1 to 2827 ng g(-1) lw (lipid weight). Surprisingly, tongue samples collected from Mansoura showed the highest concentration of HCHs (448 ng g(-1) lw) in comparison to liver (152 ng g(-1) lw) and kidney (266 ng g(-1) lw). Generally, contamination pattern of OCPs was in the order of HCHs > Drins > CHLs > DDTs ≅ HCB and HPTs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) through dietary consumption of cattle tissues were lower than the recommended acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) established by FAO/WHO. However, the hazard ratios (HRs) based on cancer risk were greater than 1.0 for HCHs based on the average and 95th centile concentrations, indicating carcinogenic effects to consumers through cattle tissues consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263 ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed.

  9. Contamination from organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils of Kuttanad agroecosystem in India and related potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Sruthi, S N; Shyleshchandran, M S; Mathew, Sunil Paul; Ramasamy, E V

    2017-01-01

    The presence and distribution of a few organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields of the Kuttanad agroecosystem (KAE) was examined in the present study. Kuttanad forms a part of the Vembanad wetland system which is a Ramsar site of international importance in the state of Kerala. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report on the occurrence of OCP residues in KAE. Pesticide residue analysis was done with gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Twenty-one soil samples were collected for the multiresidual analysis of OCPs. Sixteen OCP residues with a notable concentration were observed from the study area. α-BHC; β-BHC; γ-BHC; δ-BHC; α-chlordane; γ-chlordane; heptachlor; 4,4-DDT; 4,4-DDE; 4,4-DDD; α-endosulfan; β-endosulfan; aldrin; dieldrin; endrin aldehyde; and endrin ketone were the residues observed. The percentage-wise occurrence of OCP residues in the soil samples analysed (total of 63 samples from 21 sites, three samples per site) exhibits the following order: Σ BHC˃ Σ chlordane ˃ Σ dieldrin ˃ Σ aldrin ˃ Σ endrin˃ Σ heptachlor = endosulfan˃ Σ DDT. All pesticides detected from KAE are in the list of priority pollutants of US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The distribution pattern of OCPs in the KAE soils revealed their origin as both historical and recent application of pesticides. Health risk assessment of OCP residues on human population was also conducted. The findings indicated that the concentrations of OCPs were within the permissible limits of USEPA, thus, the human population in the study area was safe.

  10. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  11. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs.

  13. Enhanced solubilization and desorption of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soil by oil-swollen micelles formed with a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guanyu; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2012-11-06

    The effect of oil-swollen micelles formed with nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80), cosurfactant 1-pentanol, and linseed oil on the solubilization and desorption of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including DDT and γ-HCH from both loam soil and clay soil were investigated. Results showed that the solubilizing capacities of oil-swollen micelles were dependent on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80. Once the concentrations of oil-swollen micelles exceeded the CMC of Tween 80, the oil-swollen micelles exhibited much higher solubilizing capacity than empty Tween 80 micelles for the two OCPs. Desorption tests revealed that oil-swollen micelles could successfully enhance desorption of OCPs from both loam soil and clay soil. However, compared with the efficiencies achieved by empty Tween 80 micelles, oil-swollen micelles exhibited their superiority to desorb OCPs only in loam soil-water system while was less effective in clay soil-water system. Distribution of Tween 80, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in soil-water system revealed that the difference in the sorption behavior of linseed oil onto the two soils is responsible for the different effects of oil-swollen micelles on the desorption of OCPs in loam soil and clay soil systems. Therefore, oil-swollen micelles formed with nonionic surfactant Tween 80 are better candidates over empty micelle counterparts to desorb OCPs from soil with relatively lower sorption capacity for oil fraction, which may consequently enhance the availability of OCPs in soil environment during remediation processes of contaminated soil.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  16. Significance of black carbon in the sediment-water partitioning of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Bajwa, Anam; Iqbal Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the levels and black carbon mediated sediment-water partitioning of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from the Indus River. ∑OCPs ranged between 52-285 ng L(-1) and 5.6-29.2 ng g(-1) in water and sediment samples respectively. However, the ranges of sedimentary fraction of total organic carbon (f(TOC)) and black carbon (f(BC)) were 0.82-2.26% and 0.04-0.5% respectively. Spatially, OCPs concentrations were higher at upstream sites as compared to downstream sites. Source diagnostic ratios indicated the technical usage of HCH (α-HCH/γ-HCH>4) and significant presence of DDT metabolites with fresh inputs into the Indus River as indicated by the ratios of (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs (0.27-0.96). The partitioning of OCPs between the sediments and water can be explained by two carbon Freundlich adsorption model which included both organic carbon and black carbon pools as partitioning media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; LeMenach, Karyn; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; El megdiche, Yassine; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Cachot, Jérôme; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 18 surface sediment samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia. The total concentrations of ten PCBs (∑PCBs) and of four OCPs (∑OCPs) in the sediments from this area ranged from 0.8 to 14.6 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.9 ng g(-1) dw) and from 1.1 to 14.0 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.3 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the range of concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 0.3-11.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.9 ng g(-1) dw) and 0.6-2.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.4 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Compositional analyses of the POPs indicated that PCB 153, 138 and 180 were the predominant congeners accounting for 60 % of the total PCBs. In addition, p,p'-DDT was found to be the dominant DDTs, demonstrating recent inputs in the environment. Compared with some other regions of the world, the Bizerte lagoon exhibited low levels of PCBs and moderate levels of HCB and DDTs. The high ratios ΣPCBs/ΣDDTs indicated predominant industrial versus agricultural activities in this area. According to the established guidelines for sediment quality, the risk of adverse biological effects from such levels of OCPs and PCBs, as recorded at most of the study sites, was insignificant. However, the higher concentrations in stations S1 and S3 could cause biological damage.

  19. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Lie, E; Bernhoft, A; Riget, F; Belikov, S E; Boltunov, A N; Derocher, A E; Garner, G W; Wiig, Ø; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of alpha- and beta-HCH. The lowest alpha-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, summation operator HCHs was dominated by beta-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p'-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research.

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Sediment and Fish of Two Tropical Water Bodies Under Different Land Use.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa-Garro, Demián; Burgos Chan, Adriana M; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    In this study we quantified and compared bioaccumulated OCPs in target fish species Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and sediment in two lentic systems neighboring areas with different land use (Xnoha = agricultural/Mocu = nature reserve). Fish at both sites showed the same number of pesticide compounds (17) while in sediment were 17 and 20, respectively. ∑chlordane concentrations were significantly higher in Xnoha in both fish and sediment (1.0 and 0.17 µg/g, respectively). Here higher concentrations of o,p'DDT were found in fish than in sediments, this was similarly demonstrated in Mocu but to a lesser extent. The proportion of endosulfan sulfate was lower in Xnoha (<20 %) than in Mocu (<50 %) compared to the original product. Detected concentrations of ∑DDT and chlordane exceed international permissible limits. Results indicate that OCPs were present in both aquatic systems regardless of the differences in land use.

  2. A circumpolar perspective of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides (OCPs): Results from six Arctic monitoring stations in 2000-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yushan; Hung, Hayley; Blanchard, Pierrette; Patton, Gregory W.; Kallenborn, Roland; Konoplev, Alexei; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Geen, Charles; Stern, Gary; Rosenberg, Bruno; Barrie, Leonard A.

    Air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured on a weekly basis in 2000-2003 at six Arctic stations, which include Alert, Kinngait, and Little Fox Lake in Canada; Point Barrow in the USA; Valkarkai in Russia; and Zeppelin in Norway. These stations cover a large region in the Arctic, providing a comprehensive perspective on OCPs in the circumpolar atmosphere. Currently used pesticide endosulfan I had similar concentrations across the stations in November-May, whereas large spatial divergence was found in June-October. This implies the extensive usage of endosulfan during summertime followed by long-range transport to the Arctic. The median air concentration of endosulfan I was 3.2 pg m -3 ( n=245). Seasonally and spatially uniform concentrations of legacy chlordane-related compounds indicated that the influence of primary emissions on Arctic air has become less important than volatilization emissions. Median air concentrations (pg m -3) of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and heptachlor exo-epoxide were 0.20 ( n=413), 0.58 ( n=413), 0.44 ( n=413), 0.30 ( n=245), and 0.54 ( n=244), respectively. Although extensive usage was banned in the 1970s, large spatial variations reflected that DDT-related compounds were not well mixed in Arctic air. Concentrations of DDT-related compounds were low in general, and median concentrations of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, and ∑ 4DDT were 0.10, 0.18, 0.37, 0.10, and 0.79 pg m -3 ( n=418), respectively. Air concentrations of pentachloroanisole and dieldrin showed strong seasonal/spatial variations with median values of 3.8 and 0.48 pg m -3 ( n=245). Uniform concentrations were observed for octachlorostyrene with a median of 0.32 pg m -3 ( n=245). Arctic air concentrations of other measured OCPs, such as endrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor, mirex, photomirex, tetrachloroveratrole, trichloroveratrol, and trifluralin, were generally low and mostly below method detection

  3. Role of cosubstrate and bioaccessibility played in the enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy soil by nitrate and methyl-β-cyclodextrin amendments.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Liu, Zongtang; Gu, Chengang; Bian, Yongrong; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anaerobic biodegradation potential of biostimulation by nitrate (KNO3) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) addition on an aged organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated paddy soil. After 180 days of incubation, total OCP biodegradation was highest in soil receiving the addition of nitrate and MCD simultaneously and then followed by nitrate addition, MCD addition, and control. The highest biodegradation of chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endosulfans, and total OCPs was 74.3, 63.5, 51.2, and 65.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, MCD addition significantly increased OCP bioaccessibility (p < 0.05) evaluated by Tenax TA extraction and a three-compartment model method. Moreover, the addition of nitrate and MCD also obtained the highest values of soil microbial activities, including soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, ATP production, denitrifying bacteria count, and nitrate reductase activity. Such similar trend between OCP biodegradation and soil-denitrifying activities suggests a close relationship between OCP biodegradation and N cycling and the indirect/direct involvement of soil microorganisms, especially denitrifying microorganisms in the anaerobic biodegradation of OCPs.

  4. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water of Lake Qiandao and its major input rivers].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang-Liang; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Jian-Fen; Ruan, Dong-De; Chen, Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xu; Cheng, Xin-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were quantitatively determined by GC in several surface water samples collected in July 2011 and November 2011 from Lake Qiandao (Xin'an River Reservoir) and its major input rivers. Then the component characteristics and source apportionment of HCHs and DDTs were confirmed, and the health risk assessment was evaluated. The results showed that 8 OCPs were found to be in trace amount, and p,p'-DDT, a-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the highest frequently detected OCPs. The concentrations of total OCPs in surface water of the studied Lake ranged from 1.9 to 7.6 ng-L-1 , which were at lower pollution level, and 1.2-212 ng.L-1 in the samples from its three major input rivers. The spatial distribution of OCPs in the water of lake was varying, and Xin'an River, the mainstream of the lake, was the main input source of OCPs. Also, different contamination patterns among sampling seasons were found, the concentrations of OCPs in surface water collected in wet period were higher than those in dry season, which display the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution. According to the ratio of feature components, the OCPs in surface water from the Lake Qiandao originated largely from long distance transmission or degradation of technical HCHs, while additional sources of DDTs existed in the region. In addition, human health risk assessment of ingestion through the drinking water and skin contact absorption was performed using EPA recommends methods, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks caused by OCPs were 0. 06 x 10(-7)-23. 2 x 10(-7) and 3.43 x 10(-5) -6.01 x 10(-3), respectively. According to the acceptable risk level, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in water body of Lake Qiandao.

  6. The potential effects of phytoplankton on the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu; Deng, Jianming; Wu, Jinglu

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their possible interactions with phytoplankton species in water from Lake Taihu were investigated. OCP concentrations ranged from 69.95 to 223.08 ng L(-1) in winter and from 80.95 to 376.03 ng L(-1) in summer, while PAHs ranged from 45.40 to 232.74 ng L(-1) in winter and 49.53 to 197.72 ng L(-1) in summer. Such physicochemical and biological parameters as the larger amounts of pollutants taken up by phytoplankton, the increased atmospheric wet deposition, the discharge of wastewater, and the resuspension of polluted sediments in summer time were responsible for the higher residues of both OCPs and PAHs than in winter. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between phytoplankton biomass and micropollutants indicated high affinity of OCPs to Bacillariophyta and Cryptophyta and PAHs to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta, documenting the ecological effects of phytoplankton on the biogeochemical processes of OCPs and PAHs and thus should be further investigated especially in hyper-eutrophic lakes.

  7. Distribution and health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in industrial site soils: a case study of urban renewal in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenrui; Wang, Rusong; Zhou, Chuanbin; Li, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A field survey was conducted in a contaminated industrial site of southern Beijing, China to investigate the contents and distribution of the organochlorine pesticides (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT) in the profiles of soil, and a health risk assessment was carried out with CalTOX multimedia exposure model. Results showed that mean concentrations of total hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers (DDXs) in soils were in the range of 13.20-148.71 mg/kg, and 3.02-67.43 mg/kg, respectively. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) content peaked in the surface and declined in soil profile with depth. The amounts of HCHs in three profiles of soil were larger than DDXs. Composition analysis indicated that there was a trend of degradation of OCPs in the site, but the mean of HCHs and DDXs concentration were over the state warning standard limit (HCHs, 0.50 mg/kg; DDXs, 0.50 mg/kg). According to current land use development, health risk assessment with CalTOX and Monte Carlo analysis showed that health risks mainly came from two exposure pathways: dermal uptake and inhalation, and the total risk values all exceeded the general acceptable health risk value (10-6). The sensitivity analysis indicated that five parameters significantly contributed to total risk.

  8. Depth-distribution, possible sources, and toxic risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in different river sediment cores affected by urbanization and reclamation in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Junhong; Zhang, Guangliang; Wang, Xin; Jia, Jia; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-07-27

    Sediment cores were collected in urban (0-50 cm), rural (0-40 cm) and reclamation-affected river (0-40 cm) environments in the Pearl River Delta. Concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in all collected samples to identify the depth-distribution, possible sources and ecotoxicological risks of OCPs in river sediments affected by urbanization and reclamation in a Chinese delta. The results showed that the top 10 cm of rural river sediments had slightly lower concentrations of the 16 OCPs compared to urban and reclamation-affected rivers, whereas the 30-40 cm sediment layers in the rural river showed higher levels of the 16 OCPs. However, higher OCPs levels were observed in the 20-30 cm sediment layers in the urban river than in the rural and reclamation-affected rivers. The principal OCPs in most deeper sediment layers were hexachlorobezene (HCB), the combination of aldrin, endrin and dieldrin (ΣDRINs) and the combination of α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH (ΣHCHs). The predominant OCPs in surface sediments were HCB, ΣDRINs and the combination of p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE (ΣDDTs). Generally, OCP concentrations decreased with depth along sediment profiles at most sampling sites in the three types of rivers. The source analyses indicated that some sampling sites were still suffering from the recent use of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and aldrin. According to the soil quality thresholds of China, the levels of HCHs and DDTs at most sampling sites were below class Ⅰ criteria. Based on the sediment quality guideline quotient (SQGQ), the combined ecotoxicological risk of OCPs (γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT) in surface sediments (0-10 cm) was higher than deeper sediments, and the rural river sediments exhibited a higher combined ecotoxicological risk than the sediments in urban and reclamation-affected rivers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The fate of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water columns from Poyang Lake was studied. The total concentrations of OCPs and PAHs were 19.10-111.78 ng L(-1) and 5.56-266.1 ng L(-1), respectively. Among OCPs, endosulfans, chlordanes, and HCHs accounted for 21.96%, 24.6% and 24.65%, and were the predominant pollutants. Results suggested that the main sources of DDTs were residue from technical DDTs and dicofol, as well as antifouling paints for ships, while for HCHs, the main sources included long-distance transmission, agriculture activities and the combination of industrial products with separate lindane in use. As for PAHs, the predominance of lower molecular weight congeners demonstrated that petroleum and the combustion products of fuel oil, as well as other pyrogenic sources, contributed to the main input of PAHs in the Poyang region. The vehicle emissions were mostly from diesel engines. Moreover, HCH, DDT and BaP concentrations in water of Poyang Lake were all below the threshold values.

  10. Novel Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2 degrades various organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and achieves enhancing removal and complete degradation of DDT in highly contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jie; Xu, Yang; Ai, Guo-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-09-15

    Long term residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils are of great concerning because they seriously threaten food security and human health. This article focuses on isolation of OCP-degrading strains and their performance in bioremediation of contaminated soil under ex situ conditions. A bacterium, Chryseobacterium sp. PYR2, capable of degrading various OCPs and utilizing them as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, was isolated from OCP-contaminated soil. In culture experiments, PYR2 degraded 80-98% of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) isomers (50 mg L(-1)) in 30 days. A pilot-scale ex situ bioremediation study of highly OCP-contaminated soil augmented with PYR2 was performed. During the 45-day experimental period, DDT concentration was reduced by 80.3% in PYR2-augmented soils (35.37 mg kg(-1) to 6.97 mg kg(-1)) but by only 57.6% in control soils. Seven DDT degradation intermediates (metabolites) were detected and identified in PYR2-augmented soils: five by GC/MS: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDMU), 1-chloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDMS), and dichlorobenzophenone (DBP); and two by LC/MS: 4-chlorobenzoic acid (PCBA) and 4-chlorophenylacetic acid (PCPA). Levels of metabolites were fairly stable in control soils but varied greatly with time in PYR2-augmented soils. Levels of DDD, DDMU, and DDE in PYR2-augmented soils increased from day 0 to day 30 and then decreased by day 45. A DDT biodegradation pathway is proposed based on our identification of DDT metabolites in PYR2-augmented systems. PYR2 will be useful in future studies of OCP biodegradation and in bioremediation of OCP-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i.e. mother's age, BMI, gestational weight gain, occupation, residence and fetal growth parameters and breast milk levels of OCPs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dieldrin and PCBs. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 100% and 75% of the breast milk samples, respectively, and ranged between 24 and 2400ng/g lipid weight (lw) and OCPs were detected in low levels. For assessment of health risks, the Hazard Quotient (HQ) was calculated by comparing estimated daily intakes of OCPs and PCBs with health based guidance values. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of ∑DDTs, dieldrin and nondioxin-like PCBs (∑6PCBs) exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) in two, six and forty-eight of the nursing infants, respectively, suggesting potential health risks. In addition, head circumference were negatively associated with p,p´-DDE in female infants, suggesting that OC exposure during pregnancy may influence fetal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three years (2008-2010) of measurements of atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at Station Nord, North-East Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Skov, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been measured for the first time at Station Nord, North-East Greenland, from 2008 to 2010. The data obtained are reported here. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), endosulfan I and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds detected in the atmosphere, followed by p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. Chlordane isomers and related compounds (trans- and cis-chlordanes, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide, trans- and cis-nonachlor) were also detected. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation in order to obtain information about their transport properties. The correlation between atmospheric concentrations and temperature was not significant for endosulfan I, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT, which indicates that direct transport from direct sources is the dominating transport mechanism for these compounds. A significant correlation with temperature was found for all the other studied pesticides and pesticide degradation products, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces is an important factor for the observed variation in concentrations. Pesticide concentrations were also correlated with sea ice cover. Concentrations of the compounds that have not been in use for decades correlated with temperature and ice cover, while concentrations of compounds still in use did not correlate with either of these parameters. These observations indicate that processes such as revolatilization from the open sea surface are important mediating factors in the dynamics of anthropogenic persistent pollutants in the Arctic environment under the expected influence of climate change processes.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from an urban- and industrial-impacted subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Juliane; Taniguchi, Satie; Martins, César C

    2017-06-15

    Babitonga Bay is a large estuary, which has been under pressure from anthropogenic activities coexisting with a natural area of Atlantic rainforest and mangrove systems. The concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was determined to evaluate the contamination status and the determine possible pollution sources in the estuary. The ∑DDT (sum of DDT, DDE and DDD concentrations) was the predominant OCP group, with concentrations ranging from

  15. Organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    the discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT, which led to its subsequent use in pest control,w as hailed as a tremendous scientiffic achievement. Initial success with DDT in controlling human health pests during World War II, and subsequent success in agricultural pest control, stimulated the synthesis and development of related organochlorine pestidices; their use increased exponentially following the war.1 At first, evidence slowly accumulated that nearly all of these compounds were having widespread adverse effects on nontarget organisms. Later, a veritable mountain of evidence was amassed relating to their toxicity, persistence, and lipophilic characteristics, which resulted in accumulation of residues, mortality, lowered reproductive success, and decline - even extirpation - of certain populations of wildlife.2,3 Ecotoxicological data for organochlorine pesticides are limited in much of the world because most research has been conducted in relatively few countries. It is likely that no other group of contaminants of anthropogenic origin has exacted such a heavy toll on the environment as have the organochlorine pesticide.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs. PMID:26633149

  19. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetland soils under different land uses along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in a Chinese estuary.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Wang, Junjing; Gao, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Guangliang

    2015-12-03

    Soil profiles were collected at a depth of 30 cm in ditch wetlands (DWs), riverine wetlands (RiWs) and reclaimed wetlands (ReWs) along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation in the Pearl River Delta. In total, 16 OCPs were measured to investigate the effects of wetland reclamation and reclamation history on OCP levels. Our results showed that average ∑DDTs, HCB, MXC, and ∑OCPs were higher in surface soils of DWs compared to RiWs and ReWs. Both D30 and D20 soils contained the highest ∑OCP levels, followed by D40 and D100 soils; lower ∑OCP levels occurred in D10 soils. Higher ∑OCP levels were observed in the younger RiWs than in the older ones, and surface soils exhibited higher ∑OCP concentrations in the older ReWs compared with younger ReWs. The predominant percentages of γ-HCH in ∑HCHs (>42%) and aldrin in ∑DRINs (>46%) in most samples reflected the recent use of lindane and aldrin. The presence of dominant DDT isomers (p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD) indicated the historical input of DDT and significant aerobic degradation of the compound. Generally, DW soils had a higher ecotoxicological risk of OCPs than RiW and ReW soils, and the top 30 cm soils had higher ecotoxicological risks of HCHs than of DDTs.

  20. Historical records and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment from a representative plateau lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hezhong; Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Luo, Wenlei; Chen, Liang; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The PAH and OCP concentrations in sediment cores collected from a deep lake were measured and evaluated chronologically. The results indicated that the PAH and OCP concentrations significantly increased from the 1950s to the 1990s and subsequently decreased to recent years. Integrated molecular diagnostic ratios indicated that the predominant petrogenic sources occurred from the 1950s-1980s. Petroleum and fuel combustion dominated the source of contamination more recently as a result of energy structure changes in this region. Additionally, HCHs and DDTs were the dominant OCP compounds, making up a majority of the total OCPs present (>85%). HCHs accounted for a larger ratio of the OCPs between the 1950s and 1980s, suggesting that HCHs were the dominant POPs in this period. DDTs then became dominant in the 1980s and later. High α/γ-HCH ratios suggested that the emission and conversion of local technical HCHs were the predominant HCHs source. The ratios of (DDE + p,p'-DDD)/DDTs and p,p'-DDT/DDTs indicated that the DDTs mainly originated from historical input. In addition, the dramatic decrease since the 1980s may be the result of China's banning of DDTs. However, DDTs were still present in the 1990s, suggesting DDTs were still used in this region and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human health risk assessment, congener specific analysis and spatial distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) through rice crop from selected districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Mehvish; Qadir, Abdul; Mahmood, Adeel; Mehmood, Andleeb; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Yousaf, Zubaida; Jamil, Nadia; Shaikh, Irfan Ahmed; Ali, Habib; Zhang, Gan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the screening level risk assessment of OCPs in rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw (n=20) and rice grains (n=20), samples were collected from different districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs' levels (ng g(-1)) in rice straw and grains ranged from 3.63 to 39.40, 2.72 to 49.89, respectively. DDTs were found predominant over the other detected OCP isomers followed by HCH and heptachlor. Results of one way ANOVA reflected no significant difference for OCPs' levels among sampling sites, except heptachlor for rice grains. ∑OCPs' concentration in rice straw samples was exceeding the minimal residual levels (MRLs) (Australian and Japanese). Results of dietary intake and risk assessment suggested that rice straw is not safe for animals to consume as fodder. Human health was suggested to have some carcinogenic risks by consumption of rice grains, however, no considerable hazardous risk (non-carcinogenic) to human health was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs. PMID:27800487

  3. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  4. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  5. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN THE AMBIENT AIR OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent and past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in Mexico has resulted in concentrations in ambient air that are 1-2 orders of magnitude above levels in the Great Lakes region. Atmospheric transport from Mexico and Central America may be contributing significant amounts ...

  6. The organochlorine pesticides residue levels in karun river water.

    PubMed

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 - 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life.

  7. The Organochlorine Pesticides Residue Levels in Karun River Water

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari, Zahra; Rabiee, Mohammad Hassan; Raeesi, Gholamreza; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Nafiseh; Jannat, Behrooz

    2013-01-01

    Background The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are among the most commonly used in water streams around the world. Most of these contaminants are highly hydrophobic and persist in sediments of rivers and lakes. Studies have suggested that OCPs may affect the normal function of the human and wildlife endocrine systems. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides residues [OP'DDT, PP'DDT, alderin, dieldrin, heptachlor, (α,ß,γ,δ) HCH, (α, ß) endosulfan and metoxychlor] in samples from Karun River water at Khuzestan province in Iran , by GC-µ-ECD. Materials and Methods Water was extracted with n-hexane and then purified by passing through a glass column packed with Florisil and Na2SO4, which was then eluted with ether: hexane solution v/v. Results In general, all of 12 investigated organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. Regardless of the kind of OCPs, the highest OCP pollution level in Karun River were seen from August to November 2009 ranging 71.43 – 89.34 µg/L, and the lowest were seen from Dec 2010 to March 2011 at levels of 22.25 - 22.64 µg/L. The highest and lowest mean concentrations of 12 investigated pesticides were ß-Endosulfan and pp' DDT with 28.51and 0.01 µg/L respectively. Conclusions Comparison of total organochlorine pesticides residues concentration with WHO guidelines revealed that the Karun River had total OCPs residues above the probable effect level (0.2-20 µg/L, P < 0.05), which could pose a risk to aquatic life. PMID:24624185

  8. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds (< 0 means net-deposition, > 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  9. Levels, seasonal patterns, and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Huang, Yeru; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Mi, Fangzhuo; Zeng, Liangzi; Shao, Dingding

    2011-08-01

    Air samples collected monthly on the roof of a building in Beijing were analyzed for the levels, seasonal patterns, and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A high-volume air sampler with polyurethane foam and quartz fiber filters was used to collect monthly samples from November 2005 to April 2009. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT isomers were the most abundant organochlorinated pesticides in the Beijing atmosphere. Higher OCP concentrations were generally found in summer, except for HCB. Coal combustion, waste incineration, and fuel combustion were assumed to be the potential HCB emission sources. Significant input of either of these OCPs during our study period was considered very unlikely.

  10. Atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides across some West African countries.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Nahomi; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Oyediran, Femi; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Ayonghe, Samuel N; Fobil, Julius; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-07-31

    Most African countries have ratified the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are expected to reduce emissions of POPs such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to the atmosphere. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that there are contemporary sources of OCPs in African countries despite the global ban on these products. This study investigated the atmospheric contamination from OCPs in four West African countries-Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon-to ascertain the emission levels of OCPs and the characteristic signatures of contamination. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed in each country for ca. 55 days in 2012 and analyzed for 25 OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in the target countries, at average concentrations of 441 pg m(-3) (range 23-2718) and 403 pg m(-3) (range 91-1880), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration, ranged between 0.1 and 3.3 pg m(-3). The concentration of OCPs in rainy season was higher than in dry season in Cameroon, and presupposed inputs from agriculture during the rainy season. The concentrations of ∑25 OCPs in each country were in the following order: Cameroon > Nigeria > Benin > Togo. There was significant evidence, based on chemical signatures of the contamination that DDT, aldrin, chlordane, and endosulfan were recently applied at certain sites in the respective countries.

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  12. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in Argentinian butter.

    PubMed

    Lenardón, A; Maitre de Hevia, M I; Enrique de Carbone, S

    1994-04-29

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, o,p' DDT and p,p' DDT). Most samples contained residues of gamma-HCH (Lindane) and heptachlor (92% and 78%, respectively); alpha-HCH and aldrin were detected in 58% and 55% of samples; dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, DDT isomers were found in few cases (30%). Mean values of pesticides residues in butter fat were: sigma HCH 0.029 ppm; sigma heptachlor 0.064 ppm; sigma aldrin 0.11 ppm and sigma DDT 0.024 ppm. Residue levels exceeded the limits prescribed by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization in only very few cases.

  14. Organochlorine pesticide contamination of foods in Africa: incidence and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lesa A; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-04-08

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used worldwide, particularly in Africa, for several decades. Although many are banned, several African countries still use OCPs especially for the prevention and control of malaria. OCPs are characterized by their bio-accumulation in the environment, especially in the food chain, where they find their way into the human body. Despite no clear epidemiological studies confirming hazardous effects of these chemicals on human health, many studies have reported positive associations between the use of OCPs and neurological and reproductive disorders, and cancer risk. There is a clear gap in published reports on OCPs in Africa and their potential health hazards. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the incidence of OCP contamination in various foods in Africa, to demonstrate the potential transmission of these chemicals to people and to discuss their possible health hazards.

  15. Relationship of air sampling rates of semipermeable membrane devices with the properties of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Ding, Guanghui; Levy, Walkiria; Jakobi, Gert; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-06-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in Eastern-Barvaria at Haidel 1160 m a.s.l. were monitored with a low volume active air sampler and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The air sampling rates (Rair) of SPMD for OCP were calculated. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of Rair of SPMD were developed for OCP with partial least square (PLS) regression. Quantum chemical descriptors computed by semi-empirical PM6 method were used as predictor variables. The cumulative variance of the dependent variable explained by the PLS components and determined by cross-validation (Q(2)cum), for the optimal models, is 0.637, indicating that the model has good predictive ability and robustness, and could be used to estimate Rair values of OCP. The main factors governing Rair of OCP are intermolecular interactions and the energy required for cave-forming in dissolution of OCP into triolein of SPMD.

  16. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water of Ahmedabad City, India

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, J.P.; Mistry, J.S. ); Raiyani, C.V.; Patel, J.S.; Desai, N.M.; Kashyap, S.K. )

    1991-09-01

    The ubiquitous environmental pollutants organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been extensively studied for their toxicity. Monitoring of OCP and PAH residues has always been considered important for controlling human exposure. As compared to several other countries, the higher body burden of OCP in Indian general population is indicative of higher exposure to these chemicals. Recent studies have shown higher residues of OCP in food commodities including human mother's milk. The levels of OCP in drinking water is still a matter of concern and practically nothing is known about the residues of PAH in drinking water in India. This is the first report of its kind regarding the residues of OCP and PAH in drinking water of Ahmedabad City, the sixth largest city of India with a population of more than 2.5 million.

  17. Pharmaceuticals and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of an urban river in Florida, United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose Sediments from a rural to urban gradient along the Alafia River in Florida, United States were investigated to determine the risk of environmental contamination with legacy (organochlorine pesticides, OCPs) and new contaminants (pharmaceuticals). Materials and methods Bed sediments (0-10 cm)...

  18. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27597971

  19. Interaction Effects between Organochlorine Pesticides and Isoflavones In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunbo; Guo, Jipeng; Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Jingjing; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Yang; Na, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have caused increasing global concern due to their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and significant adverse effects on human health. This study was to explore the interaction effects between OCPs and isoflavones. Six kinds of OCPs and 2 kinds of isoflavones-genistein and daidzein were included to study their effect on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Eighty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 9 groups according to factorial design to study the interaction effect between isoflavones and γ-HCH. Compared to organochlorine pesticides alone group, proliferation rate of MCF-7 cells was lower in 100 μmol/L genistein + organochlorine pesticides and 100 μmol/L daidzein + organochlorine pesticides group (p < 0.05). In vivo study showed that there are interaction effects on kidney weight and liver weight when treated with isoflavones and γ-HCH. The changes in uterine morphology and positive expression of ERα showed inhibition effects between isoflavones and γ-HCH. In conclusion, the data suggests that there are interactions between isoflavones and OCPs in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in biological compartments of healthy mothers.

    PubMed

    Elserougy, Safaa; Beshir, Safia; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Abouarab, Assem

    2013-06-01

    The present study was conducted to detect placental and breast milk (BM) transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between biological compartments in healthy lactating mothers. The study explores the effect of parity, breast-feeding and urban/rural residence on body burden of OCP residues. The study included 38 healthy participants submitted to cesarean delivery. Sociodemographic data and specimens of maternal and umbilical sera, adipose tissue (Adp T) and BM were collected. Specimens were analyzed to detect OCP residues. The lindane in BM, o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in maternal serum (MS) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in umbilical serum were the only detected residues in significantly higher frequencies and/or means in the primigravidae than multigravidae. There was a high risk of detecting o,p'-DDD (odds ratio = 8.3) in umbilical serum of the mothers with o,p'-DDD detected in the MS. Total DDT was detected in about 65% of specimens of BM, MS and Adp T and in about 40% of the umbilical serum specimens. There was only a significant positive correlation between total DDT residues in the BM and Adp T. Total DDT residues in umbilical serum and Adp T were significantly higher in the urban than in the rural mothers. The detection of some OCPs in maternal biological compartments suggests their potential placental and BM transfer to her child during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. Furthermore, it might reflect the persistence or recent use of these pesticides in the environment.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma of older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle

    2011-11-01

    No nationwide study has ever measured polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) body burden in Canadians aged 65 years and over. The objective of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of PCB congeners and OCPs in participants from a sub-cohort of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging and to examine the effects of socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics on selected organochlorine concentrations. Archived plasma samples collected from 2023 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization for 15 PCB congeners and 11 OCPs. Descriptive statistics were used to report PCB congeners and OCP plasma concentrations. Multivariate models were used to study whether age at blood collection, sex, education, body mass index, rural residence, geographic region, smoking status and alcohol intake influences PCB 153, the most abundant congener, and the major OCP (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE) plasma concentrations. Statistical analyses were restricted to 1979 subjects and 17 organochlorine compounds for which at least 50% of the samples had concentrations above the limit of detection. Of these, 775 were men (mean age: 82.2 years) and 1204 were women (mean age: 84.6 years). The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of PCB 153 in the plasma of men and women were 70.9 and 75.4, respectively. The levels of the sum of PCBs and the sum of dioxin-like PCBs were 276 and 31.3 for men, and 300 and 45.5 for women, respectively. The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE, the most abundant OCP, were 565 for men and 828 for women. All compounds were positively and significantly intercorrelated (rs=0.39-0.99; p<0.001). Except for trans-nonachlor, the multivariate models revealed that age and male sex were the determining characteristics that showed, respectively, strongly positive and negative associations with selected organochlorine

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal

    2013-05-01

    As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p < 0.05). Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds in India. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides in birds was, in general, in the order HCH > DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended.

  4. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide contamination in waterbirds from an agricultural region, Central China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Yuan, Linxi; Liu, Hongxia; Xing, Xinli

    2016-10-25

    Twenty-one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle of six predominant waterbird species from Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, Central China. Among OCPs, DDTs were the most prevalent compounds, with average concentration ranging from 31.1 to 1445 ng/g lipid weight. Little egrets (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese pond herons (Ardeola bacchus) showed significantly higher concentrations of OCPs (p < 0.05) due to their dietary habits and migratory patterns. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for most OCPs between sex and age groups. The accumulation profiles of HCHs and DDTs suggested that these OCPs in Jianghan Plain were largely derived from historical usage. Risk assessment indicated that heptachlor could be likely to pose adverse health effects on people consuming ducks in Jianghan Plain.

  5. Incidence of organochlorine pesticides in soils of Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Ji, Ling-Yun; Zeng, Hui

    2011-04-01

    To determine the incidence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil in a rapid urbanization region, soil samples from various land use types in Shenzhen were collected in winter, 2007. The concentration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) ranged from non-detected to 149 ng g(-1) and 19 to 88 ng g(-1), respectively. The highest levels of OCPs were observed in soil from traffic and industry areas, reflecting that intensive human disturbance make the soil pollution accumulation more disperse. HCHs and DDTs profiles revealed that the sources were associated mainly with lindane and technical DDTs, respectively, while HCHs in the soil of Shenzhen might originate from both recent and historical sources. The loss of OCPs by soil erosion will enter surface runoff and impose impact on the water environment. Non-dietary exposure estimation indicates that children were the most sensitive group. The average daily exposure to OCPs for males was more serious than for females. Non-dietary exposure to DDTs and HCHs in residential blocks of Shenzhen were far below the acceptable daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization.

  6. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children

    PubMed Central

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Murínová, L’ubica Palkovičová; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p′-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A Multivariate General Linear Model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p′-DDT or p,p′-DDE at the different ages (at birth, 6, 16 and 45 months) and the DPOAEs were treated as multivariate outcome variables. PCB congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated BMCs relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticides alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits. PMID:25989860

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in the sediment core of Gwangyang bay, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Eiki; Baba, Koji; Katase, Takao

    2008-04-01

    The nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment samples taken from Gwangyang Bay, which is a heavy chemical industrial region in South Korea, are analyzed to evaluate their contaminations during the past 50 years. The vertical distributions of SigmaOCPs concentration in the sediment core were in good agreement with the temporal amount of pesticides used in South Korea except for the top sediment layer. The DDTs were predominant, their concentrations ranging from 78.0 to 202 pg/g dry wt and attributed more than 60% to SigmaOCPs in all the sediment layers. Based on the ratio of DDT metabolite compositions, the DDT contamination in the top layer might be caused from recent input. This is due to the highest residual concentration of OCPs in the top layer. Although HCB and mirex have been unregistered as pesticides in South Korea, two compounds were detectable in all of the sediment samples in the range from 0.243 to 16.7 pg/g dry wt in the study area. The emission source of HCB in the sediment core could be estimated to be due to incomplete combustion in the industrial chemical processes rather than pesticide application. Regarding horizontal distribution of SigmaOCPs, the concentration was slightly higher than for the inner bay than the outer bay. The OCPs in the sediments of Gwangyang Bay were compared with those of other countries by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

  8. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Identification of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Soil in Karst Underground River Basin].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zheng-lan; Sun, Yu-chuan; Zhang, Mei; Yu, Qin; Xu, Xin

    2016-03-15

    Six typical surface soil samples were taken in Laolongdong underground river basin, and 20 OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with micro-⁶³Ni electron capture detector. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, composition and source of organochlorine pesticides ( OCPs) in the surface soil of Laolongdong underground river basin, and to further evaluate the pollution level. The results showed that 20 OCPs were inordinately detected in the soil samples and the detection rate of 16 OCPs (except for p,p'-DDE, cis-Chlordane, trans-Chlordane, dieldrin) was 100%. Moreover, the CHLs and DDTs were the main contaminants, and there were obvious differences in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides between different sampling points. The concentration range of total OCPs was 5.57-2,618.57 ng · g⁻¹ with a mean of 467.28 ng · g⁻¹. Compared with other regions both at home and abroad, the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the surface soil samples of the studied area were arranged from high to middle levels. The total concentrations of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs and CHLs had a similar variation tendency in spatial distribution, upstream > midstream > downstream, and the concentrations of OCPs in upstream were obviously higher than those in midstream and downstream. Source analysis indicated that the HCHs mainly came from the use of lindane. DDTs in soil came from not only the early residues but also recently illegal use of industrial DDTs and the input of dicofol. In addition, chlordan was mainly from the early residues and atmospheric deposition. Compared with the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China and Netherlands, the level of OCPs in Xinli vilage soil was categorized as highly polluted, but the levels of OCPs in Longjing bay, Xia spit, and Zhao courtyard soils were classified as slightly polluted, while the Longjing adjacency and gaozhong temple soils belonged to unpolluted ones.

  9. First report on organochlorine pesticides in water in a highly productive agro-industrial basin of the Central Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Montory, Monica; Ferrer, Javier; Rivera, Diego; Villouta, María Valentina; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-05-01

    The Ñuble River flows through an agricultural area in the central zone of Chile in which different types of fruits are grown. The objective of this study was to identify the levels and source of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the surface waters of the Ñuble River. Surface water samples were collected at 10 sampling points and analyzed for 19 organochlorine pesticides during the dry (spring-summer) and wet (autumn-winter) periods of 2013 and 2014. The results revealed that concentrations of total OCPs in surface waters ranged from 0.12 to 26.28 ng/l. Endosulfan and lindane were the main OCPs in the water. The maximum OCP levels were found in the dry period, while significantly lower concentrations were recorded in the wet period. This indicates that patterns of OCPs have varied in the last 10 years as this study found low concentrations of DDT and metabolites but significantly increased concentrations of α-endosulfan. Given the fact that OCPs were withdrawn from agricultural used many years ago, their presence indicates that they may be still in use clandestinely. Findings of significant concentrations of endosulfan and lindane in this study lead to the conclusion that the chemical fallow practices contribute to runoff into the river and surface water infiltration into groundwater. Because no studies have previously measured OCP levels in agricultural basins in Chile, this study is an important contribution to the knowledge of organochlorine contaminants present in surface water in Chile.

  10. Predicting maternal body burdens of organochlorine pesticides from eggs and evidence of maternal transfer in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Szabo, N.J.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Few data exist regarding maternal-embryonal transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in reptiles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate maternal transfer of OCPs in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from low-, intermediate-, and high-OCP-exposure sites. Overall, total OCP burdens ranged from less than 0.8 ppb in blood to more than 44,000 ppb in abdominal adipose tissue (wet wt concentrations). Lipid-adjusted ratios of maternal adipose burdens (total OCPs) to yolk burdens were close to one (0.94 ?? 0.31:1), suggesting that animals were in steady state and that OCPs in eggs originated from adipose lipids. In contrast, lipid-adjusted muscle and liver OCP burdens were greater than yolk OCP burdens, suggesting that lipids in muscle were not utilized during oogenesis and that nonlipid liver tissue sequesters OCPs. Predictive equations were derived for several tissues and several OCP analytes with r2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.99 (p < 0.05). We suggest that yolk burdens are predictive of maternal tissue burdens for certain tissues and OCPs and that certain OCPs are maternally transferred in the American alligator. Furthermore, we suggest that future studies should investigate the applicability of these predictive equations for assessing maternal exposure in other crocodilian species.

  11. Survey of organochlorine pesticides in horticultural soils and there grown Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Hilber, Isabel; Mäder, Paul; Schulin, Rainer; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are still found in food and feed crops although they were applied about 40 years ago. There is a considerable knowledge gap concerning the extent of soil and crop contamination by OCP. We performed two surveys in 2002 and 2005 to assess the loads of OCP in 41 Swiss horticultural fields under organic and conventional production and corresponding Cucurbitaceae fruits (cucumbers, zucchini, and pumpkin), whereas these fields stay for intensive agricultural production in Europe. In addition, soil organic carbon, texture, and pH were measured also. OCP were detected in 27 out of 41 fields (65.9%). The farming practice had no influence on the contamination or level of OCP in soil. The sum of OCP-loads per field ranged from <0.01 to 1.3mgkg(-1) dry soil and pentachloroaniline (PCA, 2.1mgkg(-1)), p,p'-DDT (0.5mgkg(-1)), and p,p'-DDE and dieldrin (0.4mgkg(-1)) were the most detected pesticides over all investigated soils. PCA (up to 0.02mgkg(-1)), dieldrin (up to 0.04mgkg(-1)), alpha-chlordane and cis-heptachloroepoxide (<0.01mgkg(-1)) were detected in five cucumber samples out of 41 Cucurbitaceae samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the measured soil properties on the OCP-load of soils and cucumbers, although there is evidence that the bioavailability of OCP in soils to Cucurbitaceae plants was influenced by the sorption of the compounds to soil organic matter and by the polarity of the pesticide molecules. It is suggested, that OCP contamination is widespread in all European regions with intensive plant production and associated pesticide use, and deserves more attention with respect to save food production.

  12. Determination of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught from five different locations of the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in August 2009. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the liver tissues, and then the levels of OCPs were measured using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all locations. The levels of total OCPs in fish samples ranged between 0.224 and 1.103 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. DDT, beta-HCH, and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the fish samples. The levels of DDT in fish samples ranged between 0.081 and 0.186 μg g(-1) dry weight. The levels of total HCH in fish samples ranged between 0.007 and 0.376 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Although the usage of OCPs was banned in Turkey, the results of this study clearly indicated the presence of OCPs in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey and exposure of living organisms to these chemicals.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides in air and soil and estimated air-soil exchange in Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Liu, Di; Xu, Yue; Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-02-01

    This study provides the first systematic data on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils and atmosphere of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs were estimated by using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) technique. DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane) and chlordane were the dominant OCPs found in both soil and air samples. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordane were 350, 55 and 99 pg m(-3) in air and 40, 7.8 and 3.8 ng g(-1) in soils, respectively. Air-soil exchange of OCPs was estimated by calculating the fugacities in soil and air. Fugacity fraction (ff) values indicate that soils are acting as a secondary source to contaminate the atmosphere at certain sampling stations.

  14. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans.

  15. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the southern Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Soto, E U; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Valenzuela-Quintanar, A I; Félix-Fuentes, A; Grajeda-Cota, P; Balderas-Cortes, J J; Osorio-Rosas, C L; Acuña-García, G; Aguilar-Apodaca, M G

    2011-11-01

    Although, the Yaqui and Mayo valleys are the most important agricultural areas in Sonora, there is only limited data of the pesticides residue in soils in these valleys. This study measured the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 234 soil samples (residential and agricultural) from 24 communities. The global results (mean, range) indicated that benzene hexachloride (19.2, ND-938.5 μg g(-1)), endrin (6.6, ND-377.3 μg g(-1)) and DDTs (36.45, ND-679.7 μg g(-1)) were the dominant contaminants. Soil is one of the most important routes of exposure to OCPs in the population of southern Sonora and this study can be used to establish background levels of OCPs.

  16. Distribution and uptake pathways of organochlorine pesticides in greenhouse and conventional vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Luo, Wenxiu; Sun, Jianqiang; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Weiping

    2015-02-01

    The application of greenhouse vegetable cultivation has dramatically expanded worldwide during the last several decades. However, little information is available on the distribution and uptake of pesticides in greenhouse vegetables. To bridge this knowledge gap, the present study was initiated to investigate the distribution and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in vegetables from plastic greenhouse and conventional cultivation methods. The uptake pathways of OCPs were not significantly different between these two cultivation methods. The arithmetic means of OCP concentrations in greenhouse vegetables were higher than those in conventional vegetables, although there was no significant difference. This small difference raised the concern of whether the tiny difference could be magnified to a significant difference by bioaccumulation in the food chain. The issue should be addressed by a well-designed scheme in future studies.

  17. Associations among Organochlorine Pesticides, Methanobacteriales, and Obesity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Sook; Lee, Je-Chul; Lee, In-Kyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Methanobacteriales in the gut has recently been linked to obesity, no study has examined the hypothesis that waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are positively associated with Methanobacteriales in the general population. Since Methanobacteriales increase in a petroleum-contaminated environment to biodegrade petroleum as one way of autopurification, we also hypothesized that high body burden of highly lipophilic petroleum-based chemicals like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is associated with higher levels of Methanobacteriales in the gut. Methodology/Principal Findings Among 83 Korean women who visited a community health service center for a routine health checkup, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on 16S rDNA was used to quantify Methanobacteriales in feces. Nine OCPs were measured in both serum and feces of 16 subjects. Methanobacteriales were detected in 32.5% (27/83 women). Both BMI and waist circumference among women with Methanobacteriales were significantly higher than in women without Methanobacteriales (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). Also, Methanobacteriales levels in feces were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (r = +0.23 and P = 0.03 for both). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between feces Methanobacteriales levels and serum concentrations of most OCPs, including with cis-nonachlor (r = +0.53, P<0.05), oxychlordane (r = +0.46, P<0.1), and trans-nonachlor (r = +0.43, P<0.1). Despite high correlations of serum and feces concentrations of most OCPs, feces OCP concentrations were not clearly associated with feces Methanobacteriales levels. Conclusion/Significance In this cross-sectional study, the levels of Methanobacteriales in the human gut were associated with higher body weight and waist circumference. In addition, serum OCP concentrations were positively correlated with levels of Methanobacteriales. There may be a meaningful link among

  18. [Vertical distribution and source analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan city].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Zhao, Xu; Xiang, Qing-Qing; Li, Jia-Le

    2012-12-01

    Nine profile soil samples were collected from Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Taiyuan city, and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to analyze the vertical distribution. The results showed that the OCPs were mainly accumulated in the surface soil layer (0-30 cm) with the maximum concentration of 98.56 ng x g(-1), and HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans and methoxychlor were the predominant contaminants compared with other pesticides in the surface soil, which accounted for 85.1% in total OCPs. The concentrations of OCPs were clearly decreased with the increasing of the depth to the top layer in the most profile soils. Beta-HCH and DDE (sum of o,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDE) were the main contaminants in HCH pesticides and DDT pesticides, respectively. Composition analysis indicated that new DDT sources might be introduced into the groundwater irrigation and swamp area recently, and the main source of HCHs and DDTs was the residual of history use in other areas. Most profile soils were defined silt loam in study area. The correlations between the concentration of sigma OCPs and the total organic carbon (TOC) were positively significant in sewage irrigation area and groundwater irrigation area, but they were not significantly correlated in swamp area and background area.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in human breast milk from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Wang, Dongli; Ni, Rong; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent organic pollutants that could cause deleterious effects on human health. Breast milk represents a noninvasive specimen source to assess maternal and infant exposure to OCPs. This study recruited 142 pregnant mothers in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China, and their breast milk samples were collected during lactation and analyzed for 27 OCP compounds. Detection rates were in a range of 65.5 to 100 %. In particular, metabolites of 2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) such as 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (DDOH), bis(4-chlorophenyl)ketone (DBP), and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenylmethane (DDM) were detected in most milk samples. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were dominant OCPs with mean levels of 316, 49.8, and 41.5 ng/g lipid content, respectively, whereas levels of methoxychlor, ∑Drins, ∑Heptachlor, ∑Chlordane, and ∑Endosulfan were fairly low (0.87-5.6 ng/g lipid content). Milk concentrations of OCPs were weakly correlated with maternal age, body weight, and body mass indexes (BMIs). ∑OCPs in this study were much lower than those in human breast milk samples collected in 2002 and 2007. Consumption of higher amounts of fish was associated with higher milk levels of OCPs. Specific OCP patterns in breast milk samples from migrant mothers in Shanghai reflected features of OCP production, use, and exposure in their home provinces. The probabilistic exposure assessment model reveals that Shanghai infants were exposed to low levels of OCPs through breast milk consumption. However, infants as the vulnerable group might be subject to the potential additive and/or synergistic health effects from complex OCP exposure.

  20. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-08-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used.

  1. Sources and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in the soil and sediment along the Kaidu-Peacock River, Northwest of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Fei; Qu, Chengkai; Zhang, Yuan; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Jiaquan

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a sub-group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which have raised the concerns from researchers all around the world for several decades. But very little research has been conducted on POPs in the arid zone of Northwest China. More than 100 soil and sediment samples were collected from Kaidu-Peacock River of Xinjiang, Northwest of China, to investigate the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in this region analysed by the gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Our pre-study in 2006 (Chen et al. 2011) in the same region, showed that OCPs except o,p'-DDT were detected in sediments from the Peacock River. Similar results were found in the whole river catchment in this investigation. DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and endosulfans were the dominant OCPs residual in the soil and sediments. This study confirmed that POPs, such as OCPs in this region were contributed to by both local emissions and long-term atmospheric transport and may pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. Chen, W., Jing, M., Bu, J., Ellis Burnet, J., Qi, S., Song, Q., Ke, Y., Miao, J., Liu, M. & Yang, C. (2011) Organochlorine pesticides in the surface water and sediments from the Peacock River Drainage Basin in Xinjiang, China: a study of an arid zone in Central Asia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 177, 1-21.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

    2015-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and α-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide residues in surface water from Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Hu, Ying; Qi, Shihua; Xing, Xinli; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Dan; Qu, Chengkai

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) found in rivers from the Sichuan Basin to Aba Prefecture profile were analyzed to assess possible health risks to adults and children who use the river as a source of drinking water. OCP concentrations in surface water ranged between 22.29-274.28 ng·L-1. Compared with other published data around the world, OCP levels in this study were moderate. Among all OCPs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the predominant compounds. Higher concentrations of OCPs were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current OCPs inputs, and long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Various spatial patterns of OCPs in the profile might be affected by the usage and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, in addition to the adjacent geographical environment. The health risk assessment indicated that most OCPs had little impact on human health according to the acceptable risk level for carcinogens (10-6) recommended by the US EPA. However, carcinogenic effects caused by heptachlor, Aldrin, HCB, and α-HCH might occur in drinking water. The risk of negative impacts caused by OCPs is much higher for children than for adults.

  4. Investigating the levels and trends of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley O; Porter, Nichola A; Marriott, Philip J; Blackbeard, Judy R

    2010-05-01

    A study was completed to investigate temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, hexachlorbenzene, and DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge. Between 2004 and 2006 the concentration of OCPs and PCBs in Australian sewage sludge (n=829) was consistently <1000mugkg(-1) dry solids DS. Dieldrin, chlordane and DDE were detected in 68%, 27% and 13% at maximum concentrations of 770, 290 and 270 microgkg(-1) DS, respectively. Time series analysis (1995-2006) of OCPs and PCBs sewage sludge concentrations (n=2266) taken from six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the same geographic region found that lindane, aldrin HCB, heptachlor, DDT, DDD and PCBs were infrequently detected (<8%). A correlation between dieldrin and chlordane levels was found (P<0.05) which provides evidence of similar environmental mechanisms facilitating movement of dieldrin and chlordane through environment compartments. It has taken more than 10years for dieldrin and chlordane to reduce to less than detectable concentrations in freshly generated sewage sludge in Australia following government restrictions. Internationally, reported sewage sludge OCP concentrations were consistently low and often less than detection limits. Therefore, OCPs are not considered to be a contaminant of regulatory concern for countries that phased out OCP use several decades ago. Concentrations of PCBs in sewage sludge were also consistently low and rarely exceeded European contaminant limits and therefore, regulatory limits may warrant review. The authors recommend that Australian authorities revise regulatory requirements for OCP and PCBs contaminant levels in sewage sludge destined for beneficial reuse as biosolids.

  5. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in a northeastern state of India, Manipur.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Qi, Shihua; Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Yadav, Ishwar Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-six polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed over a year during January to December, 2009 at three locations, i.e., Imphal (urban site), Thoubal (rural site) and Waithou (alpine site) of Manipur, to assess the seasonal local atmospheric emission of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The average concentration of HCHs monitored at mountain site during hot season (Mar, Apr, and May) and rainy seasons (Jun, Jul, Aug, and Sep) were 403 and 349 pg/m3, respectively. DDTs had a high concentration with 384 pg/m3 at rural site and 379 pg/m3 at urban site during hot seasons. Endosulfans and chlordane were found high in concentration during hot seasons (260 pg/m3) and low during retreating monsoon seasons (44 pg/m3) at rural site. Most of the OCPs concentrations were high during cultivation period. The OCP concentrations of rainy season were highly correlated (p < 0.01) with OCPs of hot seasons. Further, positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also obtained between cold seasons and retreating monsoon. Principal component analysis showed a significant correlation among the four seasons and distribution pattern of OCPs in air. Back trajectory analysis by using HYPSLIT model showed a long range air transport of OCPs to the present study area. Present OCP levels at Manipur is an outcome of both local emission and also movement of air mass by long range atmospheric transport.

  6. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal and subtidal sediments in coastal wetland with high tidal ranges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to understand the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetlands experiencing high tides and the manner in which these characteristics are affected by various factors, in particular, two distinct physical and topographical features (i.e., sub- and intertidal zones). For all OCPs except HCHs, the distribution levels were higher in the intertidal zone than in the subtidal zone. The spatial heterogeneity in the isomer compositional pattern, distribution levels, and correlation among individual OCPs were pronounced in the intertidal zone. Spatial homogeneity was observed within the subtidal zone, indicating that the effect of flushing and mixing was strong enough to diminish the potential local concentration peaks and unique composition pattern. It was evident that input paths and their strength impact the horizontal and transversal distribution of OCPs. The OCP group-specific discrepancy in spatial distribution suggested that (1) chlordane and chlorobenzenes were from a single dominant innermost terrestrial input path, (2) DDTs were from multiple terrestrial input paths, and (3) HCH was likely to be from the outer sea. The observations in this study imply that (1) benthic organisms could experience greater exposure in the intertidal basin than in the subtidal zone and (2) management measures of OCPs should be set after considering the tidal effect and the OCP-specific input paths.

  7. Residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Fang, Li; Wang, Junliang; Liu, Weiping; Yuan, Hejin; Jantunen, Liisa; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-03-28

    Studies on residues of currently and never used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) facilitate the assessment of the contamination level, distribution, sources, transportation, and trend of these selected OCPs in China. In this work we investigated the concentration levels of endosulfans and chlordane, which are currently used, and the never used aldrin and dieldrin in the province of Zhejiang, a rainy, and hilly tea-growing province in eastern China. The average/mean residue levels of OCPs was in the order ∑endosulfan > ∑chlordane > aldrin > dieldrin. The residue level was in good agreement with the usage of OCPs in Zhejiang. The spatial distribution showed that the residues of OCPs in soils from the mountain area were always higher than those in soils from the plains. The distribution characteristics were related to usage for current-use OCPs and temperature for never used OCPs. The isomeric ratios and enantiomeric fractions are useful tools to identify the degradation preference of contaminants. The wide range of ratios between trans-chlordane (TC) and cis-chlordane (CC) indicated that the degradation of the two isomers of chlordane was different at different sites. Nonracemic residues of TC and CC were observed in most soils; this is significant since the enantiomers have different toxicities.

  8. Safety assessment of the source water within the Pearl River Delta on the aspect of organochlorine pesticides contamination.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; An, Taicheng; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Zhang, Guoxia; Guo, Jun

    2010-09-01

    The safety of source water is a noticeable problem in the Pearl River Delta, one of the densely populated areas in China. In this study, 20 individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in 15 water sources within this area using gas chromatography-electron capture detector, and the hazard risks to human health were assessed in terms of individual OCPs based on daily water consumption according to the standard recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Results showed that the total OCP concentrations ranged from 2.42 ng l(-1) to 39.52 ng l(-1) during the years 2008 and 2009. The hazard ratios based on both non-cancer and cancer benchmarks were less than 1 for all the water samples, which indicated that individual OCPs posed no risk to human health. However, the risks caused by the combined toxicity of total OCPs in this area should not be ignored.

  9. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides in Radix codonopsis by supercritical fluid extractions and determination by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjie; Hao, Guiming; Li, Huanxin; Luo, Xu; Chen, Yingjie

    2006-09-01

    A method involving depuration of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Radix codonopsis was developed using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The pesticides investigated in the study included alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzene hexachloride, PCNB (pentachloro-nitrobenzene), PCA (pentachloroaniline), HEPT (heptachlor), MPCPS (methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulfide), pp'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene], op'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], pp'-DDD [1,1-dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] and pp'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane]. A series of experiments was conducted to optimize the final extraction conditions as follows: pure CO2, extraction pressure 15 MPa, extraction temperature 60 degrees C, extraction time 20 min and flow rate 55 mL/h. A GC method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs in Radix codonopsis. An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of active constituents. SFE was used to remove the organochlorine pesticide from Radix codonopsis. The results showed that at least 93.5% of the organochlorine pesticide residues in the herb sample were removed by SPE, while 95.0% of the active constituent marker (atractylenoide III) remained.

  10. Environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides and deficits in cochlear status in children.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Wimmerová, Soňa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Čonka, Kamil; Šovčíková, Eva; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'- DDE) are ototoxic to humans. A multivariate general linear model was designed, in which the statistical relation between blood serum concentrations of HCB, β-HCH, p,p'-DDT, or p,p'-DDE at different ages (at birth, 6, 16, and 45 months) and the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) was treated as multivariate outcome variables. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and OCPs were strongly correlated in serum of children from our cohort. To ascertain that the association between DPOAEs at a given frequency and concentration of a pesticide is not influenced by PCBs or other OCP also present in serum, we calculated benchmark concentrations (BMCs) relating DPOAEs to a serum pesticide alone and in presence of confounding PCB-153 or other OCPs. We found that BMCs relating DPOAEs to serum pesticides are not affected by confounders. DPOAE amplitudes were associated with serum OCPs at all investigated time intervals, however, in a positive way with prenatal exposure and in a negative way with all postnatal exposures. We observed tonotopicity in the association of pesticides with amplitude of DPOAEs as its strength was frequency dependent. We conclude that exposure to OCPs in infancy at environmental concentrations may be associated with hearing deficits.

  11. Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in some ecosystem components of Manzala Lake.

    PubMed

    Azab, M M; Darwish, A A; Mahmoud, Hend A; Sdeek, Fayza A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contamination of Manzala Lake, its ecosystem was investigated during the winter season (December to March). The studied ecosystem components were water, sediment, aquatic weeds, and fishes in four locations. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Pollutant levels of total OCPs showed significantly high levels in the water areas of Round road (46.253 ng/ml), Port-Said Damietta road (19.301 ng/ml), followed by Bughas El-Rasoah (5.539 ng/ml), then Ashtoum El Gamel (natural reserve area now) (0.289 ng/ml). Organochlorines were detected in sediment only in Round road (3.359 μg/kg) and Port-Said Damietta road (0.171 μg/kg) by significant order while they were undetectable in Ashtoum El Gamel and Bughas El-Rasoah. Total OCPs in aquatic weeds ranged between 0.194 μg/kg in Port-Said Damietta and 0.026 μg/kg in Ashtoum El Gamel. While OCPs were 0.160 and 0.153 μg/kg in Round road and Bughas El-Rasoah, respectively. Concerning fish muscles OCPs were significantly higher in the Round road area (0.397 μg/kg) followed by the Port-Said Damietta road (0.258 μg/kg), and finally, Ashtoum El Gamel samples (0.126 μg/kg). The results revealed the direct relation for the accumulation of OCPs between studied ecosystem parameters at the Manzala Lake during the winter season. Results also demonstrated that fish samples collected from the Manzala Lake in the studied areas were contaminated with levels of organochlorines, not higher than the maximum permissible level recorded by FAO/WHO, and that the public is not at risk with fish consumption.

  12. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides contamination in surface soils from two pesticide factories in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Yeru

    2009-10-01

    The present article attempts to investigate organochlorine pesticides' (OCPs) contamination in soils from polluted sites and to assess the soil quality in the study area. HCHs and eight other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) pesticides were studied in surface soil samples collected from a new (F) and an old (G) pesticide factory in Southeast China. According to the measured results, surface soils from F and G were contaminated with HCHs, DDTs, HCB, and chlordane, with beta-HCH and p,p'-DDT being the two dominant substances. The total OCPs concentrations of surface soils from F and G were 0.84 and 166mgkg(-1) respectively. Cluster analysis was performed to group the soil sites in terms of their total OCPs contamination levels. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, and trans-/cis- chlordane in some of the soil samples are similar to their technical products in the study area which indicates the lack of hazardous waste management practices of the pesticide production and transportation. According to GB 15618-1995, the HCHs could be classified as light pollution and little pollution for F and G, whereas DDTs levels of F and G could be defined as little pollution and heavy pollution, respectively. This study indicates that surface soils, especially residential area soils from F and G were facing varying degrees of pollutions. The situation is more hazardous due to the continuous exposure of the population that lives in the surroundings. Therefore, on-site remediation technologies and the best available techniques/best environmental practices (BAT/BEP) should be carried out on these factories with the national implementation of the Stockholm Convention.

  14. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in crop growing in the province of Latina.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, L; Pompi, V; Faraci, A; Di Angelo, A; Conte, E

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this trial was to verify the occurrence and the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, uptake and translocation by different crops growing in glasshouses with different level of pollutants. Residues of OCPs have been detected in soils and crops in the province of Latina, an intensively agricultural area of Lazio Region, in Italy. Dieldrin was quantified particularly in zucchini, cucumber, melon, tomato during a vegetation period. Sampling was carried out at three different times after transplanting. Roots, stem, Leaves and fruits were analysed separately. It would not be advisable to grow cucurbits in soil with OCPs residues > 0.100 mg/kg, to respect the RML admitted in UE in cucurbitaceous fruits.

  15. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in skins and leather by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Font, J; Marsal, A

    1998-06-19

    The simultaneous determination of residues of lindane (gamma-HCH) and 10 other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in skins and leather was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture detection (ECD). GC with mass spectrometric detection was used to identity confirmation. Samples were extracted with hexane. The extracts were concentrated, and cleaned up on a Florisil column. Dibromooctafluorobiphenyl was added as internal standard. Hide fortifications of 0.5 an d5.0 ppm yielded average lindane recoveries of 98% and 96%, respectively. OCPs was determined in 57 samples of skins purchased from American, European and African countries in 1996-1997. OCPs were not detected in any of the American and European samples. Residues of lindane were found in 56% of African samples.

  16. Levels and distributions of organochlorine pesticides in the soil-groundwater system of vegetable planting area in Tianjin City, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Lei, Hong-Jun; He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Han, Yu-Ping; Xu, Qi-Gong

    2017-04-01

    To study the influence of long-term pesticide application on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soil-groundwater system, 19 soil samples and 19 groundwater samples were collected from agricultural area with long-term pesticide application history in Northern China. Results showed that the composition of OCPs changed significantly from soil to groundwater. For example, ∑DDT, ∑HCH, and ∑heptachlor had high levels in the soil and low levels in the groundwater; in contrast, endrin had low level in the soil and high level in the groundwater. Further study showed that OCP distribution in the soil was significantly influenced by its residue time, soil organic carbon level, and small soil particle contents (i.d. <0.0002 mm). Correlation analysis also indicates that the distribution of OCPs in the groundwater was closely related to the levels of OCPs in the soil layer, which may act as a pollution source.

  17. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in blood of women with uterine cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Riba López, M Inmaculada; DelValls Casillas, T Ángel; Araujo León, J Alfredo; Mahjoub, Olfa; Prusty, Anjan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    In Yucatan, Mexico, chronic exposure of Mayan population to pesticides is expected as about 30 per cent are drinking polluted water. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) were monitored in 18 municipalities of Yucatan with high mortality rates due to uterine cervix cancer. 70 blood samples collected from Mayan women living in livestock, agricultural and metropolitan area were analyzed for OCP. Solid Phase Extraction was performed on C18 cartridges and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The results showed that the highest OCP levels were detected in blood of women living in the livestock area. OCP detected were endosulfan I (7.35 μg/mL), aldrin (3.69 μg/mL), 4,4' DDD (2.33 μg/mL), 1.39 and 1.46 μg/mL of δ-HCH. Women from the agricultural area had high concentrations of OCP in their blood, particularly dieldrin (1.19 μg/mL), and 1.26 μg/mL of 4,4' DDE. In the metropolitan area, 0.080 μg/mL of γ-HCH and 0.064 μg/mL of heptachlore were detected. This monitoring study was also based on epidemiological data of uterine cervical cancer. It was found that environmental factors may have facilitated the infiltration of OCP to the aquifer used for potable water supply. These factors in addition to poverty can have impacts on public health. This first exploratory study suggests that monitoring of OCP in human is important for the establishment of health promotion programs. The integrative analysis of both, environmental and social factors would be helpful to characterize the bioaccumulation of pesticides in humans.

  18. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg(-1) dw) and HCHs (393ngkg(-1)) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg(-1)) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg(-1)) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in 2007 Chinese total diet study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Guohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qing; Fan, Sai; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning

    2012-07-01

    Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was assessed for Chinese populations, using the total diet study (TDS) approach in 2007. Multistage random cluster sampling method was used in this study. 108 composite samples, representative of foods "as consumed" by the Chinese were analyzed for residues of OCPs by a multi-residue method. The result showed that hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and heptachlor could be detected in, respectively 84%, 39%, 37%, 13% and 5% of all samples. Concentrations of DDT in all samples ranged from undetectable levels to 72.2 μg/kg. Others were minor components in the OCPs profile. The residual levels of OCPs were significantly below the Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits (EMRLs). Based on the 2000 nationwide food consumption survey, the average dietary exposure of the Chinese to DDT, HCH, HCB, CHLs, and heptachlor was estimated to be 0.016, 0.002, 0.009, 0.006, and 0.001 μg/kg body weight per day respectively, showing a significant decrease trend compared with the past. The major food groups contributing to dietary OCPs were aquatic foods, meats, and cereals. The average and high end estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for the Chinese were both lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) suggested by authorities indicating low health risk of OCPs dietary exposure among Chinese adults at present. However, the risk of carcinogenicity of the OCPs should be concerned with if the carcinogenicity effects from the exposures to these OCPs were considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides in Consumer Fish and Mollusks of Liaoning Province, China: Distribution and Human Exposure Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongmei; Tao, Minhui; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Ying; Ma, Dandan; He, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Fish and mollusk samples were collected from markets located in 12 cities in Liaoning province, China, during August and September 2007, and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were detected. DDT, HCH, endosulfan, chlordane, and HCB were the dominating OCPs, with mean concentrations and ranges of, respectively, 15.41 and 0.57 to 177.56 ng/g, 0.84 and below detection limit (BDL) to 22.99 ng/g, 1.31 and BDL to 13.1 ng/g, 1.05 and BDL to 15.68 ng/g, and 0.63 and BDL to 9.21 ng/g in all fish and mollusk samples. The concentrations of other OCPs generally were low and were detectable in a minority of samples, reflecting the low levels of these OCPs in the study region. In general, OCP concentrations were obviously higher in fish than in mollusks, and higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish, which indicated, first, that freshwater fish are more easily influenced than seawater fish and mollusks by OCP residues in agricultural areas and, second, that there are different biota accumulation factors for OCPs between fish and mollusk. To learn the consumption of fish and mollusk, 256 questionnaires were sent to families in 12 cities of Liaoning province. Using the contamination data, average estimated daily intakes of OCPs via fish and mollusk consumption were calculated, which were used for exposure assessment. The public health risks caused by exposure to OCPs in the course of fish and mollusk consumption were compared to noncancer benchmarks and cancer benchmarks. PMID:20352204

  1. Contamination characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in multimatrix sampling of the Hanjiang River Basin, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Shihua; Yao, Jun; Yang, Dan; Xing, Xinli; Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Chengkai

    2016-11-01

    Hanjiang River, the second largest river in Guangdong Province, Southern China, is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Chaozhou and Shantou. Our previous studies indicated that soils from an upstream catchment area of the Hanjiang River are moderately contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which can easily enter the river system via soil runoff. Therefore, OCPs, especially downstream drinking water sources, may pose harmful health and environmental risks. On the basis of this hypothesis, we measured the OCP concentrations in dissolved phase (DP), suspended particle matter (SPM), and surface sediment (SS) samples collected along the Hanjiang River Basin in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. OCP residue levels were quantified through electron capture detector gas chromatography to identify the OCP sources and deposits. The concentration ranges of OCPs in DP, SPM, and SS, respectively, were 2.11-12.04 (ng/L), 6.60-64.77 (ng/g), and 0.60-4.71 (ng/g) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and 2.49-4.77 (ng/L), 6.75-80.19 (ng/g), and 0.89-252.27 (ng/g) for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs). Results revealed that DDTs represent an ecotoxicological risk to the Hanjiang River Basin, as indicated by international sediment guidelines. This study serves as a basis for the future management of OCP concentrations in the Hanjiang River Basin, and exemplifies a pattern of OCP movement (like OCP partition among multimedia) from upstream to downstream. This pattern may be observed in similar rivers in China.

  2. Distribution and sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils from central China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun; Wang, Jingjing; Meng, Beidi; Cheng, Junqi; Lin, Guoping; Chen, Jiachun; Zheng, Dan; Yu, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    There is little information on the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in agricultural soils of Wuhan, the largest city in central China. Surface soil samples were collected from agricultural soils in Wuhan and analyzed to determine twenty-one OCPs. According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), heptachlor (HEPT), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and aldrin were the predominant compounds in soil. DDTs accounted for 77.10% of total OCPs, followed by HCHs (7.83%), aldrin (4.21%), HEPTs (2.82%) and HCB (1.53%). The total DDT concentrations ranged from nd to 1198.0ngg(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in Hannan and Xinzhou districts of Wuhan. The total HCH concentrations ranged from nd to 100.58ngg(-1) in soil and relatively higher levels were observed in soil samples from Huangpi and Hannan districts. Source analysis showed that OCPs residues except heptachlor originated mainly from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sites. Based on the China National Soil Quality Standard, DDT pollution in most samples of Wuhan agricultural soils could be considered as no and low contamination, while the level of HCHs was classified as no pollution. Our study indicated that there existed potential exposure risk of OCPs in Wuhan agricultural soils although the use of OCPs has been banned.

  3. Anthropogenic nexus on organochlorine pesticide pollution: a case study with Tamiraparani river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Kumarasamy, P; Govindaraj, S; Vignesh, S; Rajendran, R Babu; James, R Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ΣOCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ΣOCP residues are illustrated by GIS package.

  4. Occurrence, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soil of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Xue-Tong; Jia, Ying; Wang, Fei; Wu, Ming-Hong; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2009-10-30

    Surface soil samples from agricultural soil of Shanghai were collected and analyzed for 24 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations were in the ranges of nd-10.38 n gg(-1) for HCHs (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-HCH), 0.77-247.45 ng g(-1) for DDTs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDT), 0.84-10.08 ng g(-1) for CHLs (sum of heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor), nd-3.68 ng g(-1) for endosulfan (sum of alpha- and beta-endosulfan), 0.10-3.62 ng g(-1) for HCB and nd-5.69 ng g(-1) for other OCPs (sum of aldrin, dieldrin and endrin). The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 265.24 ng g(-1) and the main contaminated areas were distributed in the south regions of Shanghai (including Fengxian, Nanhui and Jinshan districts). According to the measured concentrations and detection frequencies, HCHs, DDTs, HCB and heptachlor epoxide were the most dominant compounds among the 24 OCPs. The different compositions of DDT, HCH, chlordane and endosulfan indicated that the residues of these compounds in most soil samples originated from historical application, besides slight recent introduction at some sampling locations. The correlation analysis showed no significant relationship between TOC and OCPs. The quality of Shanghai agricultural soil was classified as low pollution by OCPs.

  5. Risk assessment of bioaccessible organochlorine pesticides exposure via indoor and outdoor dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Min-Juan; Wu, Fu-Yong; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Dust, enriched by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), was defined as a new route of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) exposure, especially for children. Chemical analyses showed the medians of ∑OCPs were 171 (outdoor) and 520 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Guangzhou (GZ) while 130 (outdoor) and 115 (indoor) μg kg-1 in Hong Kong (HK). Significantly higher accumulative effect of OCPs occurred in the size fractions of <63 and 63-100 μm than 100-280 and 280-2000 μm, therefore 0-100 μm dust particles were used for risk evaluation. Different cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular live carcinoma cell (HepG2) and human skin keratinocyte cell line (KERTr) were found for extracts of indoor dust and outdoor dust from different functional areas. For total exposure (dust and food), OCPs intake via dust was low for adults (accounting for 0.16-3.78% of total exposure), while for children it was high (8.16-24.4% of total exposure). Non-carcinogenic OCPs exposure via dust was safe for adults; however DDT and Dieldrin exposure for children was higher than Reference Dose (RfD). The cancer risk related to indoor dust exposure for GZ and HK was moderate, below 10-4, while 42% of residences in GZ should be of concern (10-5). However, when bioaccessible OCPs used, daily intake and health risk were found to be greatly lower than the estimates without considering bioaccessibility.

  6. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  7. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of organochlorine pesticides in the US Mid-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Offenberg, John H.; Gigliotti, Cari L.; Totten, Lisa A.; Du, Songyan; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period January 2000-May 2001 at six locations as part of New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN). Gas phase, particle phase and precipitation concentrations of 22 OCP species, including chlordanes, DDTs, HCHs, endosulfan I and II, aldrin and diedrin, were measured. OCPs are found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons, representing over 95% of the total air concentrations. Most of the pesticides measured display highest concentrations at urban sites (Camden and New Brunswick), although in many cases the differences in geometric mean concentrations are not statistically significant. The relationship of gas-phase partial pressure with temperature was examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation; significant temperature dependencies were found for all OCPs, except aldrin. Atmospheric depositional fluxes (gas absorption into water+dry particle deposition+wet deposition) to the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary of selected OCPs were estimated at NJADN sites. Atmospheric concentrations of dieldrin, aldrin and the HCHs are similar to those measured by the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) in the Great Lake Region. In contrast, concentrations of DDTs, chlordanes and heptachlor are higher in the Mid-Atlantic compared to the Great Lakes, suggesting that the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary receives higher fluxes of these chemicals than the Great Lakes.

  8. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    PubMed

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  9. Levels and potential sources of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides at Korea background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Su-Yeong; Park, Jin-Soo; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Min-Jin; Sim, Ki-Tae; Kang, Hak-Gu; Kim, Il-Gyu; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Hwang, Seung-Ryul

    2013-04-01

    Data are presented for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) measured by high volume air samplers at three background sites (monthly for one site, seasonally for two sites) in South Korea during June 2008 and December 2009, and levels, seasonal variations and potential sources of high levels of OCPs and impact of long-range transport (LRT) were discussed. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations of OCPs in air samples (pg m-3) were highest for HCB (80, 15.0-256), HCH (71, 10.8-547), a currently used pesticide, DDT (3.50, ND-56.5), and Chlordane (1.15, ND-10.5). Other chemicals regularly detected included, Heptachlor (0.41, ND-2.59), Drins (0.61, ND-4.36) and Mirex (0.04, ND-0.78). Seasonal variation of OCPs was featured by higher concentrations in summer and lower in winter period. This could be associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization from historical source and recent application of some OCPs (such as dicofol, HCH etc). Ratios of specific OCPs isomers suggest that dominant source of air HCHs in Korea background sites is technical HCH with a little input of lindane in recent time, and dominant source of air DDT is old and used technical DDT with a little bit of dicofol type DDT, and current air chlordane in Korean background sites mainly come from the source of historically used chlordane. The results from this study will provide comparable and scientifically sound data of OCP in background air and will contribute to further long-term POPs monitoring program in East Asia.

  10. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides occurrence, origin, and character in agricultural and industrial soils in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Guang; Luo, Wei

    2009-10-01

    The origin and occurrence of organochlorine pesticides [OCPs; hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDTs)] in the surface and profile of soils from former OCPs production areas were compared with those of agricultural plots in Beijing, China in order to identify their characteristics, assess the eco-toxicological risk, and provide management suggestions. The comparison indicated heavier contamination caused by the production, storage, and waste disposal than the application of OCPs. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in topsoils varied by several orders of magnitude among different land-use groups. The concentrations (ng/g dry soil, geometric means) of HCHs (1958.2) and DDTs (3998.2) in the topsoils of former OCPs production factories were significantly higher than those in agricultural soils. The residue of DDTs and HCHs accumulated only on the surface of agricultural soil, but at depths ranging from 0 to 400 cm for the OCPs plant and warehouse. beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE dominated in the agricultural soils, whereas beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE were dominant in the industrial soils. The risk of examined OCPs in soils on human health was assessed in light of the Dutch and Canadian soil quality criteria, and the results indicated a high risk in the OCPs production factory area and the agricultural lands with large application. The results point to the need for urgent actions to evaluate long-term toxicity and preassessment for OCPs-related land-use management.

  11. Persistent organochlorinated pesticides and mechanisms of their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mrema, Ezra J; Rubino, Federico M; Brambilla, Gabri; Moretto, Angelo; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-05-10

    Persistent organic pollutants comprised of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and organochlorinated pesticides which have many characteristics in common. Once released in the environment they resist physical, biological, chemical and photochemical breakdown processes and thus persist in the environment. They are subject to long transboundary air pollution transport. They accumulate in the food chain due to their lipophilicity, bioaccumulation and biomagnification properties. Human exposure occurs through inhalation of air, ingestion of food and skin contact. Because most of them bioaccumulate and remain preferentially in fat, their long-term effects are still a matter of public health concern. They are condemned for health adverse effects such as cancer, reproductive defects, neurobehavioral abnormalities, endocrine and immunological toxicity. These effects can be elicited via a number of mechanisms among others include disruption of endocrine system, oxidation stress and epigenetic. However most of the mechanisms are not clear thus a number of studies are ongoing trying to elucidate them. In this review, the underlying possible mechanisms of action and their possible roles in adverse developmental and reproductive processes are discussed and where possible a linkage is made to some existing epidemiological data. Both genomic and nongenomic pathways are used to describe these effects. Understanding of these mechanisms will enable development of strategies to protect the public by reducing these adverse effects. This review is limited to persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and endosulfan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decontamination of organochlorine pesticides residue and heavy metal in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch by SFE.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjie; Bai, Lu; Ou, Yingfu; Li, Dan; Xin, Chunhong

    2009-01-01

    A method involving the simultaneous extraction and decontamination of 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and seven heavy metals (HM) from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was established using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). A gas chromatography (GC) method with electron capture detection was employed for the determination of the OCPs. The quantitative determination of active constituents (iridoid glycoside and catalpol) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was designed for the determination of seven HM, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Recovery of the determination of the 12 organochlorine pesticides in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 85.9%-101.4% by GC, and relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.9%-6.0%. Catalpol determination with HPLC in a Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch sample was 0.2486 and 0.2559 mg/mL before and after decontaminating OCPs by SFE, respectively. Those were 0.2486 and 0.2632 mg/mL before and after decontaminating HM by SFE, respectively. After a series of experiments to optimize the final SFE, the following conditions were used to determine the OCPs: pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, extraction temperature of 60 degrees C, extraction time of 30 min, flow rate at 35 kg/h, and the final SFE conditions of HM was pure CO(2), extraction pressure of 18 Mpa, extraction temperature of 50 degrees C, extraction time of 20 min, modifier at 2.5 mL/50 g. The SFE was used to remove the 12 OCP residues and seven HM residues from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch with less residue left and negligible loss of the active constituent catalpol.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides with emphasis on their presence in the needles of coniferous trees].

    PubMed

    Snjezana, Herceg Romanić

    2002-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are stable lipophilic compounds which persist in soil, water, sediments or biota for a very long time. As they can be transported by air over long distances, they were found in environmental samples in locations where they were not used. This environmental ubiquity and toxic effects, puts PCB and OCPs in the focus of scientific investigation. This review summarises physical and chemical properties of OCPs and PCBs, their use and distribution in the biosphere, and their effects on human health. Vegetation, particularly coniferous trees, are often used in biomonitoring of these compounds. Because of the widespread distribution of the pine trees, pollution monitoring is possible on local, regional and global scale, and this article compares monitoring results from Croatia and other countries. Despite the ban or restricted use of PCBs and OCPs, they are still present in the environment. Their levels in pine needles are relatively low (ng/g dry weight), except when there is a recent input of these pollutants occurs which increases their levels. This review suggests that pine needles are suitable for PCB and OCP monitoring and briefly describes analytical procedures involved, pointing out some methodological problems encountered in the process.

  16. Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wiebe, J.J.; Buckland, J.E.; Smith, Joe T.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (p<0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. A total of 24 adult alligators (8 males and 16 females) were housed in eight pens. Eight females in four pens were dosed with a mixture of p,p'-DDE, toxaphene, dieldrin, and chlordane at a rate of 0.2 ? 0.01 mg/kg/day for 274 ? 8 days. Treated females produced eggs containing higher OCP concentrations (12,814 ? 813 ng/g yolk) than controls (38 ? 4 ng/g yolk). Eggs of treated females exhibited decreased viability (13 ? 22%) as compared to controls (45 ? 20%). Results indicated that 0.6% of administered OCPs were maternally transferred to the eggs of American alligators, and that maternal exposure is associated with decreased egg/embryo viability in this species.

  17. Optimization of extractants, purifying packings, and eluents for analytical extraction of organochlorine pesticides in Hydragric Acrisols.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Xia, Liling; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xin; Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we screened for an economic, rapid, and efficient hypotoxic pretreatment method for organochlorine pesticides in soil samples for gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The analytical extraction efficiencies of 11 different extractants, nine types of solid-phase purification (SPP) cartridge packings, and three types of eluents for 13 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in spiked and natural Chinese red soil (Hydragric Acrisols) were evaluated using an ultrasonic extraction and solid-phase purification method. High percent recoveries (85-106%) were obtained for the 13 organochlorine pesticides in soil when petroleum ether/acetone/water (10:5:2, v/v) was used an extractant. They were purified using celite SPP cartridge packing and eluted with 9 mL of dichloromethane/petroleum ether (1:9, v/v). The OCPs purification pretreatment of Hydragric Acrisols, using the above method, meets the GC analysis requirements. Compared with other traditional pretreatment methods for OCPs in soil samples, this method has several advantages, such as a short extraction time, reducing the amount of solvent, having no emulsion phenomenon, and hypotoxicity to the laboratory technicians. The concentrations of 1,1,1,-trichloro-2(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDTs; 3.42-8.08 ng g(-1)) in field soils were higher than the hexachlorocyclohexane concentration (2.94-6.12 ng g(-1)). The 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p'-DDE) + 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane (p,p'-DDD)/p,p'-DDT ratio in this field soil was approximately 2.7, suggesting that no new DDT pollution source was introduced into the sampling site.

  18. Deposition of organochlorine pesticides into the surface snow of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Son, Min-Hee; Hur, Soon Do; Hong, Sungmin; Motoyama, Hideaki; Fukui, Kotaro; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in surface snow collected on a ~1400-km inland traverse beginning from the coastal regions of East Antarctica during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) of 2007/2008. Of the 22 OCPs, α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), γ-HCH, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were frequently detected in the snow with concentration ranges of 17.5-83.2, 33-137, and ND-182 pg L(-1), respectively. The most abundant pesticide was γ-HCH, with a mean concentration of 69.9 pg L(-1), followed by α-HCH, with an average concentration of 44.5 pg L(-1). The spatial variability of α-HCH and γ-HCH was narrow, and the concentrations of α-HCH and γ-HCH increased slightly with increasing altitude along the traverse route. Dome Fuji, the highest altitude sampling point, had the highest γ-HCH concentrations in the snow. Backward air trajectory analysis showed that the air masses at the sampling sites came mainly from the Indian and Atlantic Oceans and over the Antarctic continent, indicating that the OCPs were subjected to long-range atmospheric transport and were deposited in the surface snow. Our data suggest that the snow of Antarctica contains low levels of OCPs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticide-Mediated Induction of NADPH Oxidase and Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddharth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Wadhwa, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) are detected ubiquitously in human and have been shown to be associated with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. Aim To find out the effect of organochlorine pesticides in endothelial cell with regard to oxidative stress and associated expression of enzymes producing superoxide and Nitric Oxide (NO). Materials and Methods Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were cultured and treated with four OCPs which were found in human blood at a concentration of 0.1μM. The cells were tested for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, NO production and mRNA expression of NAPDH oxidase (p47phox) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). ROS generation was measured by using 2’, 7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) method. NO was analysed by Bioxytech nitric oxide assay kit method and mRNA of NADPH oxidase and eNOS was quantified by real time PCR. Data were expressed as the mean±SEM. Comparison between the groups were made by student’s t-test (2-tailed) or one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis depending on number of groups. For all statistical tests, p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results All the four pesticides generated ROS accompanied by enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase. Maximum effect was observed with β-endosulfan. Level of NO was found to be decreased significantly in endothelial cells treated with these pesticides accompanied by enhanced expression of eNOS. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS generation and enhanced NO formation. Pesticide-mediated ROS generation possibly reacts with NO forming peroxinitrite and thereby reducing the bioavailability of NO although eNOS expression is increased. Conclusion OCPs induce endothelial dysfunction through increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase expression and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. PMID:28273962

  20. Organochlorine Pesticide-Mediated Induction of NADPH Oxidase and Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cell.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddharth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Wadhwa, Neelam; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) are detected ubiquitously in human and have been shown to be associated with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. To find out the effect of organochlorine pesticides in endothelial cell with regard to oxidative stress and associated expression of enzymes producing superoxide and Nitric Oxide (NO). Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) were cultured and treated with four OCPs which were found in human blood at a concentration of 0.1μM. The cells were tested for Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, NO production and mRNA expression of NAPDH oxidase (p47phox) and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS). ROS generation was measured by using 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) method. NO was analysed by Bioxytech nitric oxide assay kit method and mRNA of NADPH oxidase and eNOS was quantified by real time PCR. Data were expressed as the mean±SEM. Comparison between the groups were made by student's t-test (2-tailed) or one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc analysis depending on number of groups. For all statistical tests, p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. All the four pesticides generated ROS accompanied by enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase. Maximum effect was observed with β-endosulfan. Level of NO was found to be decreased significantly in endothelial cells treated with these pesticides accompanied by enhanced expression of eNOS. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced ROS generation and enhanced NO formation. Pesticide-mediated ROS generation possibly reacts with NO forming peroxinitrite and thereby reducing the bioavailability of NO although eNOS expression is increased. OCPs induce endothelial dysfunction through increased ROS generation via NADPH oxidase expression and reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide.

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in surface soils from obsolete pesticide dumping ground in Hyderabad City, Pakistan: contamination levels and their potential for air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination levels in the surface soil and air samples together with air-soil exchange fluxes at an obsolete pesticide dumping ground and the associated areas from Hyderabad City, Pakistan. Among all the sampling sites, concentrations of OCPs in the soil and air samples were found highest in obsolete pesticide dumping ground, whereas dominant contaminants were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) (soil: 77-212,200 ng g(-1); air: 90,700 pg m(-3)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) (soil: 43-4,090 ng g(-1); air: 97,400 pg m(-3)) followed by chlordane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). OCPs diagnostic indicative ratios reflect historical use as well as fresh input in the study area. Moreover, the air and soil fugacity ratios (0.9-1.0) at the dumping ground reflecting a tendency towards net volatilization of OCPs, while at the other sampling sites, the fugacity ratios indicate in some cases deposition and in other cases volatilization. Elevated concentrations of DDTs and HCHs at pesticide dumping ground and its surroundings pose potential exposure risk to biological organisms, to the safety of agricultural products and to the human health. Our study thus emphasizes the need of spatio-temporal monitoring of OCPs at local and regional scale to assess and remediate the future adverse implications.

  2. Influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in soil-groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Li, Jiale; Xu, Liang; Liu, Ming; Du, Bin; Wang, Yanxin

    2013-07-01

    Serious shortage of water resources is one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of cropland and pasture land in northern and northwestern China. Although the reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation becomes a well established practice in these regions, many contaminants have been also introduced into the soil-groundwater systems such as persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). To study the influence of long-term sewage irrigation on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems, the groundwater flow field was investigated and 31 topsoil samples, 9 boreholes, 11 sewage effluents and 34 groundwater samples were collected in Xiaodian, Taiyuan city, one of the largest sewage irrigation districts, China. During sampling, three representative types of regions were considered including effluent-irrigated area, groundwater-irrigated area served as the control field and no-irrigated area as reference "background". The results showed over-exploitation of groundwater had changed the flow field of groundwater and wherever in soil or in groundwater, the concentration of OCPs in effluent-irrigation area presented the highest value, which indicated that the sewage irrigation had a strong influence on the distribution of OCPs in soil-groundwater systems. Principal component analysis for OCPs content in groundwater showed that the major influence factors on the occurrence and distribution of OCPs in groundwater systems attribute to the flow field of groundwater and to the current pesticide use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief communication: Organochlorine pesticides in an archived firn core from Law Dome, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigot, Marie; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Hawker, Darryl W.; Cropp, Roger; Teixeira, Camilla F.; Bengtson Nash, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were, for the first time, quantified in archived firn cores from East Antarctica representative of 1945-1957 and 1958-1967 (current era, C.E.). The core sections were melted under high-purity nitrogen atmosphere, and the meltwater was analysed. Methods allowed quantification of hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlor, trans-chlordane, dieldrin and endrin. While the core presented evidence of nominal contamination by modern-use chemicals, indicating handling and/or storage contamination, legacy OCP concentrations and deposition rates reported are orders of magnitude lower than those from Arctic regions, lending support for their validity. The study further provides a description of equipment used and suggests methods to overcome logistical challenges associated with trace organic contaminant detection in polar regions.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide levels in human breast milk from the Mediterranean city Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cok, Ismet; Yelken, Ciğdem; Durmaz, Emre; Uner, Mine; Sever, Barış; Satır, Funda

    2011-04-01

    In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels were determined in 100 human milk samples from the city of Antalya. The levels of seven major PCB congeners; 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and nine OCPs, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide, p.p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan-α and endosulfan-β were determined by gas chromatography with ECD detection. The levels of analyzed compounds were as follows: ΣPCBs 27.46 ± 11.58, ΣDDT 1,407 ± 123, and ΣBHC 160 ± 490 ng/g lipid wt.basis. PCB 153 and p,p'-DDE were the dominant contaminants. The results have been discussed and compared with similar studies from other regions of Turkey.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of <15% in the concentration range of 0.005-0.250 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) for all compounds met maximum residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  6. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  7. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and lindane induce cooperative toxicity in dopaminergic neurons: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heera; Zhang, Ping; Barber, David S; Liu, Bin

    2010-03-01

    Elevated environmental exposure to pesticides has been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive movement disorder resulted from degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dieldrin and lindane remain ubiquitous in the environment and food supply due to their resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation along the food chain. While prior studies have gained insight into the neurotoxic effects of individual OCPs such as dieldrin, the effect of combinations of coexisting OCPs is lacking. In this study, we determined the combined effect of dieldrin and lindane on DA neurons and potential mechanism of action. Combinations of dieldrin and lindane (5-25 microM) were more effective in causing toxicity in immortalized rat N27 DA neurons than when used alone. Mechanistically, dieldrin and lindane combination induced a rapid increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked the effect of dieldrin and lindane on ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and protected against dieldrin- and lindane-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperatively to induce DA neurotoxicity through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings may advance understanding of the role of pesticides in the multi-factorial etiology of PD. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides in precipitation in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Peng, Ping'an; Xu, Yi-Gang; Sun, Cui-Xiang; Deng, Hong-Mei; Deng, Yun-Yun

    2010-07-01

    We analyzed rainwater collected from multiple sites, Guangzhou, China, from March to August 2005, with the aim to characterize the distribution, regional sources and deposition fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in South China. Eight species of organochlorine pesticide were detected, including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfans. Volume-weighted mean monthly total concentrations varied from 3.65 ± 0.95 to 9.37 ± 2.63 ng L - 1 , and the estimated total wet deposition flux was about 11.43 ± 3.27 µg m - 2 during the monitoring period. Pesticides were mainly detected in the dissolved phase. Distribution coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases in March and April were generally higher than in other months. HCHs, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT in precipitation were attributed to both the residues and present usage of insecticides in Pearl River Delta. The concentrations of p,p'-DDD + p,p'-DDT were relatively high from April to August, which were related to the usage of antifouling paints containing DDT for fishing ships in seaports of the South China Sea in summer. In contrast, endosulfans were relatively high in March, which was related to their seasonal atmospheric transport from cotton fields in eastern China by the Asian winter monsoon. The consistency of the variation of endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT concentrations with the alternation of summer and winter monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon played an important role in the long-range transport of OCPs. In addition, the wet deposition of OCPs may influence not only Pearl River water but also the surface land distributions of pesticides in the Guangzhou area, especially for endosulfans, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT.

  9. Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Ge, Jing; Zhu, Yindi; Yang, Yuyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China, in order to assess health risk to the human via fish consumption. Two edible fish species (Aristichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were collected and analyzed for 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and eight heavy metals (HMs). Concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs, and ∑OCPs in fish samples were in the range of 0.37-111.20, not detected (nd)-123.61, and 2.04-189.04 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of OCPs in bighead carp (A. nobilis) were higher than those in silver carp (H. molitrix). Concentrations of ∑HMs in bighead carp and silver carp were 352.48 and 345.20 mg kg(-1) (dw), respectively. Daily exposure of OCPs and HMs for consumers was estimated by comparing estimated daily intake (EDI) with different criteria. The results revealed that the EDIs in our study were all lower than those criteria. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and risk ratio (R) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. As regard to non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, hazard quotients (THQ) of OCPs and HMs were both lower than 1.0, implying negligible non-carcinogenic risk via fish consumption in study area. Nevertheless, in view of carcinogenic effects of the contaminants, the total value of risk ratio (R) of OCPs was lower than the threshold of tolerable risk while the total value of risk ratio (R) of HMs was higher than the threshold of tolerable risk due to the high carcinogenic risk ratios of As and Cr, indicating high carcinogenic risks via fish consumption. The results demonstrated that HMs in edible fish from Wuhan, China, especially As and Cr required more attention than OCPs.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyekunle, J A O; Akindolani, O A; Sosan, M B; Adekunle, A S

    2017-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p'-DDE) to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p'-DDT) were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin) to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p'-DDT). The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs) for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users.

  12. Adsorption of Pb and Cd on the natural surface coatings (NSCs) in the presence of organochlorine pesticides: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuhai; Li, Yu; Liu, Liang; Hua, Xiuyi

    2008-07-01

    Adsorption of Pb and Cd in the presence and absence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on natural surface coatings (NSCs), which were collected in the Nanhu Lake in Changchun, China, was measured in order to investigate the effect of the OCPs on the adsorption of heavy metals on the NSCs. Adsorption of Pb/Cd was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions (mineral salt solution with defined species, ionic strength 0.05 mol/l, 25 degrees C and pH 6.0) with initial Pb and Cd concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 mol/l. The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate the equilibrium coefficients of the adsorption of Pb and Cd on the NSCs. Adsorption interference between Pb/Cd and the OCPs on the NSCs indicated that the adsorption of Pb/Cd on the NSCs was influenced by the OCPs, and competitive adsorption between Pb and the OCPs was observed while adsorption of Cd was enhanced by addition of the OCPs. Adsorption data fit the Langmuir isotherm well for the NSCs treated with the OCPs at different equilibrium concentrations. The results showed that the amount of adsorbed Pb decreased by more than 40% while the amount of adsorbed Cd increased by over 60% with an increase in the initial concentrations of the OCPs ranging from 0 to 5.0 microg/l and that adsorption of Pb/Cd on the NSCs was strongly affected by the OCPs. This preliminary study highlights the importance of the OCPs on the NSCs in controlling the transport, fate, biogeochemistry, bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals in aquatic environments.

  13. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  14. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in the soils of the Campania Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    For the last several decades, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been introduced into the environment through anthropogenic activity. Due to their volatility and persistence, OCPs may undergo long-range atmospheric transport and, as a result, can be redistributed globally. Exposure to OCPs can pose serious health risks, including certain cancers, birth defects, respiratory illness, dysfunctional reproductive and immune systems, greater susceptibility to disease and damages to the central and peripheral nervous systems. To date, only a handful of studies, have reported the OCPs contamination level in water, sediment and organisms in the Campania Region, however a regional study of the soil contamination is still lacking. In our study, the distribution, inventory and potential risk of OCPs, including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in soils of the Campania Plain. The specific objectives of this study were to (I) investigate the residual levels, distribution and possible sources of legacy OCPs, and further estimate their mass inventories in soils of the Campania Plain, (II) analyze the impact of soil properties on contaminant distribution, and (III) evaluate the potential ecological and health risks of OCPs. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs has a geometric mean (GM) of 0.05 ng/g, and 14.4 ng/g, respectively. The significant difference in spatial variations of OCPs (Kruskal-Wallis test, P<0.05) was observed in the Campania Plain. Two specific areas exhibited higher concentrations of OCP residues: one situated in the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation with elevated HCHs and DDTs; and the other in the Sarno River basin which contains elevated levels of DDTs. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use

  15. The effects of rice canopy on the air-soil exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides using paired passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaorui; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-05-01

    The rice canopy in paddy fields can influence the air-soil exchange of organic chemicals. We used paired passive air samplers to assess the exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy field, South China. Levels of OCPs and light PAHs were generally higher under the canopy than above it. We found that the rice canopy can physically obstruct the evaporation of most OCPs and light PAHs, and can also act as a barrier to the gaseous deposition of p,p'-DDT and heavy PAHs. Paddy fields can behave as a secondary source of OCPs and light PAHs. The homolog patterns of these two types of chemical varied slightly between the air below and above the rice canopy, implying contributions of different sources. Paired passive air samplers can be used effectively to assess the in situ air-soil exchange of PAHs and OCPs in subtropical paddy fields.

  16. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude.

  17. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-05

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources.

  18. Characterization of certified reference material for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in fish.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi; Numata, Masahiko

    2010-07-01

    Fish certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7404-a, for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Fish samples (Japanese seabass) used for the preparation of the CRM were collected from Tokyo Bay, and the edible part was freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved, homogenized, and sterilized by gamma-irradiation. This sample is in the form of a powder comprising approximately 10 g stored in a brown glass bottle. The certification was carried out using multiple analytical methods such as pressurized liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, saponification, and homogenization to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the certified values of target PCBs (PCB 28, PCB 70, PCB 105, PCB 153, and PCB 170) and OCPs (trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD) were 1.05-14.0 microg kg(-1) and 1.57-18.0 microg kg(-1) for PCBs and OCPs, respectively. This is the first fish powder CRM in which PCBs and OCPs were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

  19. [Pollutant distribution in organo-mineral aggregates in topsoils from a site contaminated by organochlorine pesticides].

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Xue, Nan-dong; Liang, Gang; Wang, Shi-jie; Zhu, Shu-quan; Li, Fa-sheng

    2008-09-01

    Four different soil particle-size fractions that is clay, silt, fine sand and coarse sand ( <2 microm, 2-20 microm, 20-200 microm, > 200 microm) from the topsoils in an organochlorine pesticide (OCP) field were separated by physical method to characterize the OCPs distribution in soils and to study the effect of organic matter and mineral composition in different separates on pollutants distribution. The results show that the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in silt with 463.1 mg x kg(-1) and 1225.6 mg x kg(-1) are higher than those in coarse sand, 157.8 mg x kg(-1) and 384.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There is a significant correlationship between IgKoc. and the contents of HCHs and DDTs in clay. The analysis on X-ray diffraction of organo-mineral aggregates demonstrates that clay and silt have a much higher content of the clay minerals than those in coarse sand within the contaminated soils. There are some differences with different particle-size fractions in the content and composition of the clay minerals in organo-mineral aggregates, which affect the OCP distribution in soils to some extents. The results also suggest that the distribution of HCHs and DDTs in the particle with more pollutants in the site is similar to that in airborne particles. So the environmental behavior of OCPs in topsoils from the contaminated site should be paid more attention especially in ambient air-soil interaction.

  20. An investigation on the sorption behaviour of montmorillonite for selected organochlorine pesticides from water.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Senar; Tor, Ali; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2012-06-01

    The sorption behaviour of montmorillonite towards organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solutions is reported. After preliminary investigation of the sorption capability of clay for selected OCPs, aldrin was used as a model compound for further experiments. The batch sorption experiments were carried out as functions of contact time, pH of the solution, initial aldrin concentration and dosage of the montmorillonite. After traditional liquid-liquid extraction, the determination of OCPs was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-microECD). The results indicated that sorption of aldrin followed the second-order kinetic model and that the equilibrium time depended on the initial aldrin concentration. The film diffusion was found to be a main sorption rate control mechanism. The removal was explained according to the electrostatic bonding mechanism. The Freundlich isotherm model better represented the sorption data than the Langmuir model. The montmorillonite was also used efficiently for the removal of OCPs from fortified tap and surface (lake) water samples.

  1. Current status and historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in the ecosystem of Deep Bay, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Ling-Li; Cheng, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Li, Xiang-Dong; Wai, Onyx W. H.

    2009-11-01

    To characterize the current status and historical trends in organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination in Deep Bay, an important water body between Hong Kong and mainland China with a Ramsar mangrove wetland (Maipo), samples from seawater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), surface sediment, sediment core and fish were collected to determine the OCPs concentrations. Sediment core dating was accomplished using the 210Pb method. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in water were 1.96, 0.71, 0.81 ng l -1, while in SPM were 36.5, 2.5, 35.7 ng g -1 dry weight, in surface sediment were 20.2, 0.50, 2.4 ng g -1 dry weight, and in fish were 125.4, 0.43, 13.1 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. DDTs concentrations in various matrices of Deep Bay were intermediate compared with those in other areas. Temporal trends of the targeted OCPs levels in sediment core generally increased from 1948 to 2004, with the highest levels in top or sub-surface sediment. Both DDT composition and historical trends indicated an ongoing fresh DDT input. A positive relationship between the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of target chemicals and the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficient ( Kow), and between the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and the Kow were observed in the Bay. The risk assessment indicated that there were potential ecological and human health risks for the target OCPs in Deep Bay.

  2. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  3. A novel pretreatment approach for fast determination of organochlorine pesticides in biotic samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dai B; Wang, Ya Q; Liu, Wen X; Tao, Shu

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies have focused on enantiomeric behaviors of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in biotic matrix because they provide insights into the biotransformation processes of chiral OCPs. In the present paper, a double in-line column chromatographic method was developed to effectively remove the lipid impurity in different biotic samples for clean-up of OCPs. After an initial Soxhlet extraction of OCPs from the biotic samples by a mixture of acetone and dichloromethane (DCM), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was directly added to the extract, and low boiling point solvents (acetone and DCM) were then evaporated. OCPs remained in DMSO were eluted via column 1 filled with silicon gel, and subsequently passed through column 2 packed with 15% deactivated florisil. This novel method was characterized by significant time and solvent savings. The recovery rates of alpha-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH were 78.5+/-3.1%, 72.4+/-7.7%, 72+/-4.0% and 70.0+/-8.7%, respectively, and 92.5+/-3.8%, 79.7+/-6.7% and 83.4+/-6.5% for 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4- chlorophenyl) ethylene (o,p'-DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro phenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDD) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (o,p'-DDT), separately. In addition, the separation efficiencies of the target compounds by both achiral and chiral gas chromatographic columns were satisfactory using the established method. Therefore, the double in-line column chromatography was a useful alternative method for pretreatment of OCPs in different biotic samples.

  4. Nutrient and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in American alligator eggs and their associations with clutch viability.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Wiebe, Janet E; Honeyfield, Dale C; Gross, Timothy S

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1900s, the lakes of the Ocklawaha basin in central Florida have experienced ecological degradation due to anthropogenic development. One species affected by this degradation is the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, which has suffered from poor clutch viability and embryo mortality. Although some studies indicate that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may be involved, OCPs do not account for all of the variation seen in hatch rates. Indeed, nutrition and non-OCP contaminants have been associated with developmental problems in fish and birds. Our study evaluated embryo mortality in alligators at reference and OCP-contaminated sites as a function of exposure to OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with egg nutrients (Zn, Se, and vitamins A, E, and B1). The four-pronged study consisted of a case-control cohort study, an expanded field study, a topical egg treatment thiamine amelioration experiment, and a topical egg treatment thiamine antagonist experiment. The results from the two field studies suggested that the total thiamine levels in the eggs were positively associated with clutch viability and negatively associated with the lipid content and certain OCPs measured in egg yolks. In addition, PCBs, PAHs, Zn, Se, and vitamins A and E were not found to be associated with the observed clutch viability defects. The thiamine levels in the eggs explained 38% of the variation in clutch survival in the case-control cohort study and 27% in the expanded field study. The topical egg treatment experiments were successful in elevating the thiamine concentrations in the albumin but not the yolk. No significant differences were noted among treatment groups in either egg treatment experiment with respect to clutch survival. In summary, thiamine egg concentrations explain some of the variation in the clutch viability of free-ranging alligators, but the cause-effect relationships are still unclear.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Tiber River and Estuary: Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Aurino, Sara; Garzonio, Fatima; Triassi, Maria

    2016-11-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in the Tiber River and its environmental impact on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. 32 PCBs and 17 OCPs (aldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, δ-BHC, lindane, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, methoxychlor) were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment samples. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 0.54 to 74.75ngL(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 3.73 to 79.30ngg(-1) dry weigh in sediment samples; while the concentrations of total OCPs collected in water (sum of DP and SPM) ranged from 0.07 to 7.04ngL(-1) and from 0.66 to 10.02ngg(-1) dry weigh in sediment samples. Contaminant discharges into the sea were calculated in about 227.08kgyear(-1) for PCBs and 24.91kgyear(-1) for OCPs, showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PCBs and OCPs to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The ∑TEQPCB from the sediment samples ranged from 0.0006 to 0.37ngg(-1) with an average level of 0.13ngg(-1). Based on Sediments Quality Guidelines, biological adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem were rare to occasional for PCB and OCP levels in Tiber water system.

  6. Seasonal variation of organochlorine pesticides in the gaseous phase and aerosols over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tianyi; Lin, Tian; Wang, Fengwen; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    Eighty paired gaseous phase and PM2.5 (particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter) samples, covering four seasons from October 2011 to August 2012 were collected simultaneously from a remote island in the East China Sea (ECS). The samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) to determine their seasonal variation and potential sources over the coastal marine environment. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the PM2.5 samples were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the reverse trend was observed for the measured OCP compounds (except hexachlorocyclohexanes, HCHs) in the gaseous phase. Principal component analysis revealed one trend that contributed 40% to PM2.5-bound OCPs characterized by β-HCH, α-HCH, p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p‧-DDD), p,p‧-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p‧-DDE), and chlordanes; whereas two seasonal trends, represented by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) or chlordanes and HCHs, were responsible for 38% and 23% of the gaseous OCPs, respectively. Continental outflow driven by the East Asian monsoon brought large quantities of particulate OCPs to the ECS, especially in winter. Possible fresh sources or net volatilization from the Yangtze River induced by both higher ambient temperature and higher discharge rates caused the higher gaseous DDT and chlordane levels observed in summer. However, the lower concentrations of gaseous HCHs observed in summer suggested that net volatilization had a relatively limited impact on gaseous HCHs due to the long-term prohibition of their use and their low residual levels in the catchment, whereas the elevated concentrations of gaseous HCHs in winter controlled by gas-particle partitioning, resulted from increased particulate HCHs producing a partial shift to gaseous HCHs over ECS.

  7. National survey of the levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in the breast milk of mothers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Wu, Yongning; Yin, Shian; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Huijing; Liu, Yinping; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in breast milk samples collected from mothers from twelve provinces in mainland China was investigated. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most prevalent agent, followed by HCHs and HCB, whereas levels of chlordane compounds, drins and mirex were lower. The relatively lower DDE/DDT ratio in the Fujian rural area suggested more recent exposure to DDT than in other areas. The mean level of DDTs in breast milk from the southern China was higher than those from northern China (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between concentration of DDTs in human milk and consumption of animal-origin food, suggesting that this parameter could play an important part in influencing OCPs burdens in lactating women. The mean estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for breastfed infants were lower than the tolerable daily intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls levels in human milk from Chelem, Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Rodas-Ortíz, Juan Pablo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; González-Navarrete, R L; Alvarado-Mejía, Jorge; Rodríguez-Hernández, Marissa E; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2008-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Chelem, Yucatan, Mexico were analyzed. Relatively high levels of p,p'-DDE, gamma-chlordane, beta-hexacyclohexane (beta-HCH) and PCB congeners 170, 28, and 44 were found. Concentration profiles by OCP groups followed the next order: SigmaDDTs > SigmaChlordanes > SigmaHCHs > SigmaChlorobenzenes > SigmaDrins. Total OCPs showed a decreasing tendency with number of births (primipara and multipara and age ranks) but these differences were not significant. SigmaDDT levels were lower than in other studies in Mexico, but 36% of the samples exceeded the JMPR-FAO/WHO acceptable daily intake (ADI). About 60.53% of samples exceeded the ADI value for heptachlors.

  9. Distribution, sources, and ecological risks of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Da, Chunnian; Liu, Guijian; Tang, Quan; Liu, Jingjing

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four surface sediment samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in order to provide information on levels, distribution and sources of these compounds in the Yellow River Estuary, China. The levels of the organochlorine pesticides in samples were detected by the technique of soxhlet extraction followed by analysis by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a mass selective detector. Total concentrations of OCPs ranged widely from 0.06 to 53.4 ng g(-1), with a mean value of 44.84 ng g(-1), at the mid level of pesticide concentrations compared to those reported in other regions worldwide. HCHs were the predominant species in the study area. The ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH indicated that the technical HCH contamination was mainly due to a recent input of lindane in upper reach of Yellow River Estuary. The ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs and DDD/DDE suggested that DDTs in sediments came mainly from the degradation of historical DDT in the environment, and DDT could be much easier to degrade into DDD under anaerobic conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) could conclude that most of the OCPs came from early input and historical degradation products in the study area. Based on the sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH and p'p-DDE would be of more concern for the ecotoxicological risk in this study area.

  10. Mobilization of soil bound residue of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an in-vitro gastrointestinal model

    PubMed Central

    TAO, SHU; LI, LI; DING, JUNNAN; ZHONG, JUNJUN; ZHANG, DIYU; LU, YAN; YANG, YIFENG; WANG, XILONG; LI, XIQING; CAO, JUN; LU, XIAOXIA; LIU, WENXIN

    2011-01-01

    A previous study on mobilization of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in contaminated soils from the field revealed that the total amount of OCPs measured in digestive fluid and chyme of an in-vitro gastrointestinal model was higher than the quantity directly extracted using a solvent extraction without digestion, providing a clue that the bound residue of OCPs might be mobilized. This hypothesis was tested in this study for both OCPs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Three contaminated surface soil samples with different organic carbon (OC) contents were collected from the field, and extracted with a solvent with and without digestion in an in-vitro gastrointestinal model. It was found that bound residues of OCPs and PAHs were mobilized to a certain extent during digestion. The ratios of the mobilized bound residues over the total quantities extracted after digestion (Rb) varied from 0 to 0.96 for individual compounds. The Rb was positively correlated with OC content. Among the five constitutes of digestive juice, bile salt was the only one that served to mobilize the bound residues and the extractability of bile salt was constant over a concentration range from 2 to 20 mg/mL. The mobilization process followed typical first-order kinetics. The calculated rate constants suggest that mobilization was fast and 90% of extracted bound residues of OCPs and PAHs were mobilized within 2.4 and 4.8 h, respectively. PMID:21175124

  11. Investigation of organochlorine pesticides from the Indus Basin, Pakistan: sources, air-soil exchange fluxes and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Jawairia; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Ali, Usman; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-11-01

    Present study aimed to evaluate the contamination status of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their associated potential for air-soil exchange and health risks from ecologically important sites of the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Among different OCPs investigated, ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs were more prevalent compounds in the agricultural soils and ambient air samples of the study area. The average concentrations for DDTs were found higher at downstream agricultural sites, particularly at Head Panjnad (Soil: 320 ng/g; Air: 743 pg/m(3)) and acting as an ultimate sink of ΣOCP burden in soils. Spatial distribution patterns inferred ubiquitous distribution of ΣDDTs in soils and air of the study area. Source diagnostic ratios demonstrated that studied OCPs either are illegally being used in agricultural practices or/and they are residues of past use in the environment. Fugacity fraction model revealed wide variations (ff=0.12-0.94) with 20% of OCPs above equilibrium range and net volatilization of α-endosulfan, β-HCH and o,p'-DDD. Assessment of cancer risks for OCPs indicated a higher cancer risk (CR>1×10(-6)) for the residents of the Indus Basin. According to the available soil quality guidelines, DDTs and HCHs were above the permissible limits and pose a threat to natural habitat and biodiversity of the Indus Basin.

  12. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision <10% RSD. The method developed significantly reduces sample preparation time, the amount of solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective.

  13. DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in tissues of four bird species from the Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in birds inhabiting in Africa. In the present study, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, drins, cyclodienes, and hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney, heart and brain of 4 bird species from the Rift Valley region, Ethiopia. Indoor residual spraying of DDT for malaria vector control, and indiscriminate and illegal use of pesticides underline the relevance of this study. Levels of ΣOCPs ranged from 1.87 to 4586ng/g wet weight, and the scavenger bird species Leptoptilos crumeniferus had the highest level in liver. In all tissues, contamination profiles of OCPs within the species were similar, with DDTs≫other OCPs. Among the DDTs, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant compound and had significantly a higher burden in all tissues. The risk characterization demonstrated potential risks to the studied birds associated with DDE exposure. Maximum hepatic levels of p,p'-DDE exceeded the levels reported to trigger adverse effects. The detection of p,p'-DDT in all bird tissues suggests the release of fresh DDT to the environment. This is the first study to assay OCPs in different tissues of birds from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, and henceforth the data will serve as a reference data for future studies.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in colostrums in case of normal and preterm labor (Iasi, Romania).

    PubMed

    Cioroiu, Mona; Tarcau, Doina; Mocanu, Raluca; Cucu-Man, Simona; Nechita, Bogdan; Luca, Maria

    2010-06-01

    Assessment of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human body is important for human health because they have weak estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects and are considered endocrine disrupters. We used colostrum of women as indicator for levels of OCPs in human body for mothers with normal and preterm labor from eastern part of Romania. Sixty- three samples of colostrum were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Analyses were carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). OCPs have been detected in all samples, with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) being at the highest concentrations. Of the organochlorines measured in clostrum samples from women in preterm labor, median levels of DDTs (470 ng/g) and HCHs (99 ng/g) were higher than for the same compounds from women in normal labor (median of DDTs=268 ng/g and median of HCHs=96 ng/g). Normal labor had higher median concentrations of HCB (19.5 ng/g) versus preterm labor (14 ng/g). Statistical data show high Spearman correlation coefficients between various OCPs. We found a good correlation between alpha-, gamma-, beta- and delta- HCH isomers (p<0.001) for both normal and preterm labor. The most abundant target compound was p,p'-DDE (median value 96 ng/g, and 137 ng/g for mother with normal and preterm labor, respectively) in all colostrum samples. The estimated daily intakes of HCHs by infants exceeded corresponding Health Canada guidelines. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides in ambient air in selected urban and rural residential areas in the Philippines derived from passive samplers with polyurethane disks.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Evangeline C; Cayetano, Mylene G

    2011-01-01

    The passive sampler with PUF disk was applied to investigate the types and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ambient air in three urban and rural residential areas simultaneously at different weather conditions in the Philippines. The concentrations of OCPs derived from the passive samplers indicated clear distinctions in the predominance of certain types and amounts of OCPs in air at different sampling sites and periods of sampling. Chlordanes were detected in concentrations ranging from 218 to 2,324 pg/m³ in the urban residential sites in all the sampling periods, indicating the possible use of these pesticides as termiticides in houses. Endosulfans were detected in two rural sites at 491 pg/m³ and 904 pg/m³ during one sampling period; indicating the possible use of the pesticide in the farm areas at that period.

  16. Distribution and ecological risk of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem O; Mostafa, Alaa; Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; El Sayed, Nadia B

    2013-09-01

    Organochlorine contamination in the Mediterranean coastal environment of Egypt was assessed based on 26 surface sediments samples collected from several locations on the Egyptian coast, including harbors, coastal lakes, bays, and estuaries. The distribution and potential ecological risk of contaminants is described. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) were widely distributed in the coastal environment of Egypt. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and chloropyrifos ranged from 0.29 to 377ngg(-1) dw, 0.07 to 81.5ngg(-1) dw, and below the detection limit (DL) to 288ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Other organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower. OCP and PCBs had higher concentrations at Burullus Lake, Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Eastern Harbor, and El Max Bay compared to other sites. OCP and PCB contamination is higher in the vicinity of possible input sources such as shipping, industrial activities and urban areas. PCB congener profiles indicated they were derived from more than one commercially available mixture. The ratios of commercial chlordane and heptachlor metabolites indicate historical usage; however, DDT and HCHs inputs at several locations appear to be from recent usage. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are similar to those observed in sediments from coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Ecotoxicological risk from DDTs and PCBs is greatest in Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria Harbor, and El-Max Bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction and clean-up methods for organochlorine pesticides determination in milk.

    PubMed

    Martins, Joana Gomes; Amaya Chávez, Araceli; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Colín Cruz, Arturo; García Fabila, María Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can cause environmental damage and human health risks since they are lipophilic compounds with high resistance to degradation and long half-lives in humans. As most persistent OCPs have been banned years ago, it is expected to find these compounds at trace levels in environment. Therefore, increasingly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques are required to ensure effective monitoring of these compounds. The aim of this review is to discuss extraction and clean-up methods used to monitor OCP residues in milk, reported in the last 20 years. To carry out this review, an exhaustive bibliographic review was conducted. Despite the disadvantages of conventional extraction and clean-up methods, such as liquid-liquid, solid-phase or Soxhlet extractions, these procedures are still used due to their reliability. New extraction methods, like solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion or QuEChERS, have not been thoroughly evaluated for OCP determination in milk. Almost all the methodologies analyzed in this review presented good performance characteristics according to the performance acceptability criteria set in SANCO's procedure. Comparison between limits of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD), for the reported methodologies, is not always possible due to the heterogeneity of the units. Thus, researchers should take into account an homogenization of LOD and LOQ units, according to the international regulations and MRLs established. Finally, more research is necessary to obtain the ideal methodology for OCPs determination in milk, which comprises the environmentally friendly characteristics of the new techniques and the reliability of the traditional methodologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Presence of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk samples from Colombian women.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Squella, Ximena; Santos, Laura; Baumann, Wolfram; Landaeta, Diana; Jaimes, Adriana; Correa, Juan C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo

    2013-05-01

    The presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in biological and environmental samples has been studied for decades in many countries. Nonetheless, studies in Latin American countries like Colombia have been scarce. Determining the presence of OCPs in breast milk will be of relevance to assess exposures, potential health risks, and for surveillance among Latin American populations. Thirty-two breast-feeding mothers were selected to voluntarily participate in the study. Breast milk samples were analyzed for 10 OCPs (α-, β-, γ-, δ-HCH, Heptachlor, α-, γ-Chlordane, 4,4' DDT, 4,4' DDE, 4,4' DDD). Milk samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by sulfuric acid clean-up, and quantified using GC/μECD. Results were confirmed by GC/MS. OCPs concentrations were normalized using fat content. In all but one sample, 4,4' DDE was quantified in concentrations ranging between<17 and 14948 ng g(-1) (ng of OCP per g of lipids), with a mean value of 203 ng g(-1). One woman had 4,4' DDE concentrations that were orders of magnitude above the average concentrations observed worldwide. Concentrations of 4,4' DDE in a second breast milk sample collected in a different time period of lactation from a sub-group of 13 women from the original participants, showed no statistically significant difference with the concentrations found in the first sample. Based on the results obtained from the Persistent Organic Pollutants Global Monitoring Plan report of 2009 of the Stockholm Convention, Colombia ranks fourth from bottom to top in terms of 4,4' DDE average concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations and Age of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development, however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. Objective To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocylohexane (β-HCH), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. Methods In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8–9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003–2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with physician-assessed pubertal onset. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations had later mean ages of TV > 3 mL and P2+ (but not G2+). Mean age at attaining TV > 3 mL was delayed 3.6 (95% CI: −2.6, 9.7), 7.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 14.0), and 4.7 months (95% CI: −1.4, 10.9) for HCB Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.06). Boys with higher HCB concentrations reached P2+ 0.1 months earlier (95% CI: −5.8, 5.6) for Q2, 4.7 months later (95% CI: −1.0, 10.3) for Q3 and 4.6 months later (95% CI: −1.1, 10.3) for Q4 compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.04). There were no associations of serum β-HCH and p,p′-DDE concentrations with age of pubertal onset. Conclusion Higher prepubertal serum HCB concentrations were associated with later age of gonadarche and pubarche. PMID:25118086

  20. Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sverko, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A “performance based” process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and “fast GC” using GC–ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low

  1. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat from Konya region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Guler, G O; Cakmak, Y S; Dagli, Z; Aktumsek, A; Ozparlak, H

    2010-05-01

    The present study has been carried out to evaluate the organochlorine pesticide contamination in wheat from Konya region. This region is the largest area of cereal production in Turkey. The contamination level has been determined according to the European Community Directives. Different wheat samples (36) were obtained from local farmers and wheat factories in this region. All the wheat samples examined were found to be contaminated by organochlorine pesticide residues of cis-Chlordane and methoxychlor. Chlordane isomers, methoxychlor, DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, beta HCH, heptachlor and lindane have been found to be the highest organochlorine pesticide residues. In some of these samples, various organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined to be higher than European Community maximum residual limits. The residues of aldrin in one sample, trans-Chlordane in one sample, oxy-chlordane in eight samples and methoxychlor in one sample were found to be in excess of EC MRLs. Since most of the samples have been found to be contaminated with residues and some residues exceed EC MRLs, a control of organochlorine pesticide residues in wheat is necessary. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides, and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, Susan A.; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although environmental levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and certain organochlorine pesticides – hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolite, dichlorodiphenyl dicloroethene (DDE) – are generally on the decline, early-life exposures to these prevalent contaminants continue. This review will describe current understanding of the potential neurodevelopmental consequences of low-level exposures to these contaminants. Findings Animal models suggest that early-life exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE, or HCB are associated with decreased cognitive or behavioral function in later development. However, despite almost 30 years of research, results of human studies are inconsistent regarding the nature of the observed effects and their persistence over time. Overall, epidemiologic studies support modest associations of primarily prenatal PCB exposures with differences in neuromotor development, decrements in cognition, and behavioral deficits, particularly regarding attention and impulse control. There are limited published human data regarding potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of early-life exposures to DDT/DDE and HCB. Summary Exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE and HCB are likely detrimental to neurodevelopment. Effective control of exposure is complicated by variable exposure sources and variable contaminant levels in food, particularly fish, for which it is important to balance the risk of contaminants with nutritional benefits. PMID:18332718

  4. [Organochlorine pesticide residues in human adipose tissue in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Barquero, M; Constenla, M A

    1986-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were found in 82 samples of human adipose material from 82 surgical cases in 16 Costa Rica hospitals. Identification was made by gas-liquid chromatography. The highest pesticide concentration was that of DDT and its metabolites (33.16 micrograms/g). Residues of almost all commercial pesticides were also found. Concentrations of alpha-chlordane. Aldrin and Polychlorinated biphenyls were not significant.

  5. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application.

  6. Occurrence, profile and spatial distribution of organochlorines pesticides in soil of Nepal: Implication for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Shakya, Pawan Raj

    2016-12-15

    Nepal is a landlocked country located between world's two most populous countries-India and China where high level of organochlorines pesticides has been reported from multi-environmental matrices. In this study, we investigated the occurrence, distributions and profile of selected OCP chemicals in surface soil samples (N=72) from four major cities of Nepal. Overall, the sum of total OCPs in soil ranged from 20 to 250ng/g with Biratnagar being the most polluted site in Nepal. DDTs and endosulfans were the most abundant OCP chemicals in soil samples. The concentration of DDTs ranged from 8 to 230ng/g, 8-56ng/g, 8-63ng/g, and 8-27ng/g in surface soil, while endosulfans were in the range of 2.9-3.3ng/g, 2.8-8.7ng/g, 2.8-3.4ng/g, 2.8-3.2ng/g in Biratnagar, Kathmandu, Pokhara and Birgunj, respectively. The isomeric ratio of DDT and their metabolites suggested the ongoing usages of technical DDT as well as dicofol in this region. Lower ratio of α/β-endosulfan indicated past application of endosulfans in Nepal. HCHs were less detected OCPs in soil sample accounting only 4-9% of ∑OCPs. The isomeric ratio of α-/γ-HCH indicated that the HCHs may be originated from mixed source of technical HCH as well as lindane use. Scattered plot of TOC and BC showed they were weakly and positively related with concentration of OCPs in soil. Health risk assessment modeling study of OCPs in soil suggested moderate cancer risk with ingestion being the most potential pathway of OCPs exposure.

  7. Occurrence and sources of selected organochlorine pesticides in the soil of seven major Indian cities: Assessment of air-soil exchange.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sivakumar, A; Jones, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    India is an agricultural country and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) accounts for nearly three fourth of the annual pesticide consumption. Selected OCPs were therefore quantified in 81 soil samples along urban-suburban-rural transect from New Delhi and Agra in the north, Kolkata in the east, Mumbai and Goa in the west and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern part of India. ΣOCPs ranges from 2 to 410 ng/g dry weight (Mean, 35) with dominance of endosulfan sulfate in the rural sites. Urban centers and suburbs reflects OCP usage for vector control. Lower winter temperature in New Delhi favored site-specific deposition of most OCPs in soil. Volatilization of OCPs from soil occurred in the Indian cities having higher ambient temperature. Due to the compounded impact of past and ongoing usage of selected OCPs like DDT, a sporadic cycle of emission and re-emission from Indian soil is expected to continue for many more years to come.

  8. Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in a sealed chamber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Han, Baolu; Xue, Nandong; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng

    2015-01-01

    So far little is known about air-soil exchange under any sealed circumstances (e.g., in plastic and glass sheds), which however has huge implications for the soil-air-plant pathways of persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A newly designed passive air sampler was tested in a sealed chamber for measuring the vertical concentration profiles of gaseous phase OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)). Air was sampled at 5, 15, and 30 cm above ground level every 10th day during a 60-day period by deploying polyurethane foam cylinders housed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-covered cartridges. Concentrations and compositions of OCPs along the vertical sections indicated a clear relationship with proximity to the mixture of HCHs and DDTs which escapes from the soils. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between air temperatures and concentrations of HCHs and DDTs. These results indicated revolatilization and re-deposition being at or close to dynamic pseudo-equilibrium with the overlying air. The sampler used for addressing air-soil exchange of persistent organic pollutants in any sealed conditions is discussed.

  9. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters of Konya Closed Basin, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β-HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015–0.065 μg/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μg/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μg/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: Mn < Cu < Ni < As < Cr < Fe. In some samples, As, Fe, and Cr concentrations exceeded the drinking water quality recommended by EU, US EPA, WHO, and Turkish Regulation, while Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations are below the guideline values. The levels of both OCPs and heavy metals were also compared with other previously published data. PMID:23533363

  10. Spatial trends of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Atlantic Anguillid eels.

    PubMed

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen, Brown R; Trottier, Steve; Backus, Sean; Keir, Michael; Couillard, Catherine M; Casselman, John; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-02-01

    The bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can result in a reduction in fitness and spawner quality in eels and may be a factor in Anguillid sp. population declines. Contaminant concentrations in eels have been studied extensively in Europe, but data for American eels are severely lacking. Concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were determined in American eel from eastern Canada and New York, USA, along with European eel from Belgium. Principal component analysis revealed that eels captured in the St. Lawrence estuary were a mixture of upstream migrants from the St. Lawrence River watershed, and fish captured in local tributaries. Contaminant concentrations were dependent on origin, related to the local environment, and were lower than historic values. In Canada, concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in eel tissues were below the Canadian human consumption guidelines for contaminants in fish, indicating that the current risk to consumers is low. However, concentrations of PCBs, total DDT, and mirex in eels from L. Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence R. were above Great Lakes guidelines for the protection of piscivorous predators. Concentrations of penta-BDE homologs exceeded the Canadian guideline for environmental quality in over half of the eels in this study, but concentrations of the other homolog groups were below the guideline.

  11. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Veerasingam Armugam; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2013-02-01

    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

  12. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  13. Kinetic differences of legacy organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Vietnamese human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Minh, Tu Binh; Nhat, Bui Hong; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the current contamination status and evaluated several kinetic-related features of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs in human breast milk collected from northern Vietnam. The variation in the levels of these contaminants was found to be strongly associated with total lactation time and dietary habits. OCPs exhibited the characteristics of steadily declining compounds: the overall levels of DDTs and HCHs in the population decreased with a half-time of only 5years and it can be suggested that OCPs depurated relatively fast with breastfeeding (5% per month). PCBs were slower in both regards, with a temporal decrease half-time of 12years and a suggested depuration rate via breastfeeding of 2.5% per month, indicating that the exposure level was still high relative to the human body burden. It was found that the PCB exposure levels of infant from breastfeeding exceeded the reference dose, and this situation may continue for the next two or three decades. Knowledge of these kinetic-related characteristics not only is useful for risk assessment and prediction of future trends of legacy contaminants but also may provide insight regarding similar kinetic processes of emerging persistent pollutants.

  14. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs, chicken and meat in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafat; Salem, Nida' M; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2010-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in 519 samples; comprising eggs, chicken and meat (lamb and beef), collected from Jordan were determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The samples were Soxhlet extracted for 8h in 250mL petroleum ether. The cleanup of the samples was performed by Florisil column chromatography and analysis was done on a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 28% (38/134), 20% (23/115) and 49% (131/270) of the examined eggs, chicken and meat samples, respectively, were contaminated with OCP residues. HCHs and DDTs are the most prominently noticed compounds, as they were detected at a high incidence. On the other hand, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin and endrin compounds were only present in less than 7% of the analyzed samples. These residues are present despite complete ban on the use of OCPs for agricultural purposes in Jordan. No residues of op'-DDD, op'-DDT, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were detected. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uptake of organochlorine pesticides by zucchini cultivars grown in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, L; Pompi, V; Faraci, A; Conte, E

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this trial was to verify the occurrence and the distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in zucchini cultivated varieties grown in glasshouses and in open field with different levels of pollutants in soil. Residues of OCPs have been detected in soils and crops in the province of Latina, an intensively agricultural area of Lazio Region, in Italy. The study has been focused at crop harvest in less contaminated glasshouses and during crop life cycle in contaminated field in spring-summer time. Dieldrin distribution in different part of plant is similar among zucchini cultivars grown in contaminated field. In crop grown in field and in glasshouses with soil pollution >0.01 mg/kg, we found dieldrin in all zucchini fruits and flowers, at the same level or higher than the maximum residue limit (RML) fixed by European law for edible vegetables (0.02 mg/kg). Instead in soil with pollution < or = 0.01 mg/kg total OCPs it would be possible to grow zucchini cultivars.

  16. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in surface waters of Konya closed basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α -, β -, γ -, and δ -hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, chlordane I, chlordane II, and heavy metals, such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni in surface water samples from the Konya closed basin were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. Among all HCH isomers, β -HCH is the main isomer with a concentration range of 0.015-0.065 μ g/L. DDE, DDD, and DDT were almost determined in all samples, in which DDE isomer had the highest concentration ranged from not detected to 0.037 μ g/L. In all studied OCPs, aldrin showed the highest concentration at 0.220 μ g/L. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples were observed with order: MnOCPs and heavy metals were also compared with other previously published data.

  17. Concentrations and mass fluxes estimation of organochlorine pesticides in Three Gorges Reservoir with virtual organisms using in situ PRC-based sampling rate.

    PubMed

    Temoka, Cedrique; Wang, Jingxian; Bi, Yonghong; Deyerling, Dominik; Pfister, Gerd; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. Due to their persistence and toxicity, it is important to know their fluxes and spatial and temporal distribution in the environment. In this study, a new procedure to estimate OCP concentration based on a set of performance reference compounds (PRCs) was used. Their occurrence and mass fluxes were assessed on a regional scale ranging from Chonqging to Maoping in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) as part of Yangtze River. The results are based on three sampling campaigns in 2009 (twice) and 2011. Due to different factors, the measured concentrations varied from 410 to 1418 pg/L. The highest total OCP concentration was localized in Wanzhou while the lowest was downstream Maoping near the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The highest load of OCP mass fluxes was observed at Wanhzou with 9.6 mg/s and the lowest load at Maoping with 2.97 mg/s. Studies at Maoping show an increase in OCP water concentration from 2009 to 2012. Comparison between free dissolved OCP water concentration and total OCP water concentration in TGR 2009, 2011 and 2012 show a slight variation, indicating the important role of dilution in the OCP removal process in TGR.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides residue in lakes of Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Fayzieva, Dilorom; Saito, L.; Lamers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Khorezm province in northwest Uzbekistan is a productive agricultural area within the Aral Sea Basin that produces cotton, rice and wheat. Various organochlorine pesticides were widely used for cotton production before Uzbekistan's independence in 1991. In Khorezm, small lakes have formed in natural depressions that receive inputs mostly from agricultural runoff. Samples from lake waters and sediments, as well as water from the Amu Darya River (which is the source of most of the lake water) have been analyzed to study variations in the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides residues during the year. Low concentrations of DDT, DDD, DDE, a-HCH and y-HCH compounds were found in water and sediment samples. The concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (DDT and HCH) in water and sediment is much lower than the maximum permissible concentrations that exist for water and soil. According to these preliminary results, the investigated lakes in Khorezm appear to be suitable for recreation or for aquaculture.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton, Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Siriwong, W; Thirakhupt, K; Sitticharoenchai, D; Borjan, M; Robson, M

    2008-12-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10-3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Sigma endosulfan > Sigma HCH > Sigma heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Sigma HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p

  2. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment from the international Anzali Wetland, north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Javedankherad, Islam; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader

    2013-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs were determined in water and sediment from the Anzali Wetland, north of Iran. The total concentrations of OCPs were 71.75-315.16 ng/l, 1.8-12.68 ng/g dry wt in water and sediments respectively, and those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the two phases were: nd-141.09 ng/l and 0.39-2.64 ng/g dw, respectively. Also, the results indicated that β-HCH, DDE were the most common organochlorine pesticides contaminants. In this study, the ∑PCB/∑DDT reflect the relative importance of agricultural than industrial sources in this area. a significant difference was observed between the stations. Station number 3 showed the highest range of the pollutants studied.

  3. [Source and distribution characteristic of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-qing; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Xian-zhi; Zou, Shi-chun; Qi, Shi-hua

    2008-12-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during the winter and spring cruise to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) in 2003 and were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Meanwhile, air samples were collected at land-based sites in Guangzhou and Zhongshan for comparison. Results indicated that the detected OCPs were mainly of HCHs, DDTs and chlordane, its concentration ranged between 13-99, 73-390, 63-224 pg/m3 and 10-106, 429-1003, 1724-9638 pg/m3 during the winter and spring cruise, respectively. In general, the concentrations of OCPs were higher during spring cruise than in winter cruise. The measured OCPs concentration in the atmosphere over the PRE and adjacent SCS were found higher at sites close to continent and lower in outer sea, it is suggested that land-based source were to play a key role in the delivery of atmospheric OCPs. The alpha-HCH concentrations had significantly declined, higher gamma-HCH level may attribute to the present usage of lindane. Dicofol application and antifouling paints for fishing ships was suggested to be the important current "fresh" DDT source. The observed high level of chlordane during spring cruise could be related to the large amount usage of chlordane for termite control, as well as the long range transport from the west pacific region.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks.

    PubMed

    Barnhoorn, I E J; van Dyk, J C; Genthe, B; Harding, W R; Wagenaar, G M; Bornman, M S

    2015-02-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and to perform a human health risk assessment using a standard protocol described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Fish were collected from the polluted Roodeplaat-(RDPD), Rietvlei-(RVD) and Hartbeespoort (HBPD) Dam impoundments located in the north-eastern regions of South Africa. GC-MS analyses showed levels of various OCPs in fish muscle samples from all three impoundments. For fish collected from the RDPD, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan, lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the most prevalent OCPs detected, while p,p'-DDE and endosulfan were the most predominant in fish from the RVD. Lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the main OCPs detected in fish from the HBPD. Dieldrin was the only OCP detected at concentrations for which a cancer risk and a hazard index above the acceptable risk levels were estimated. This was the case for fish from both the RDPD and RVD impoundments. No toxic risk was estimated should fish from the HBPD be consumed.

  5. High serum organochlorine pesticide concentrations in diabetics of a cotton producing area of the Benin Republic (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Azandjeme, Colette S; Delisle, Hélène; Fayomi, Benjamin; Ayotte, Pierre; Djrolo, Francois; Houinato, Dismand; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-08-01

    The Borgou region of northern Benin is a major cotton producing area and consistently uses higher amounts of pesticides than other areas of the country. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), poorly handled, have been widely used and are still illegally present. We therefore hypothesized that serum OCP levels would be high in Borgou. As part of a case-control study on diabetes status and pesticide exposure, we measured the distribution of serum concentrations of 14 OCPs by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A sample of 118 diabetic subjects was selected using a four-stage cluster sampling with 54.2% of men and 45.8% of women; 43% lived in urban areas, 14.4% were obese and 39.8% had high economic status. The four detected OCPs were p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and trans-nonachlor with respective geometric means (geometric standard deviation) of 497.1 (4.5), 20.6 (7.9), 2.9 (3.4), and 2.0 (2.3) ng/g of total serum lipids. OCP levels were significantly higher in obese, wealthier and more educated subjects and in those living in urban areas as compared to the other groups, particularly for p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH. Levels of DDT and DDE were higher than reported in other countries where DDT is no longer permitted. The low DDT/DDE ratio of 0.05 suggests past human exposure through food contamination. There is thus a need to reinforce governmental regulations for a more responsible use of pesticides in the country, in order to reduce health risks associated with persistent organic pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. The four study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil at each of the four sites, and ge

  7. Relationship between occupational social class and exposure to organochlorine pesticides during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Amaya, Esperanza; Fernández, Mariana F; González-Galarzo, M Carmen; Ramos, Rosa; Molina-Molina, Jose M; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas

    2011-04-01

    Little evidence is available on the influence of socioeconomic factors on exposure to persistent organic pollutants, especially during vulnerable periods such as pregnancy and early life. To investigate the relationship of maternal social class with placental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their combined estrogenic activity measured with a biomarker of exposure. Exposure to 16 OCPs (DDTs, endosulfans, and seven other compounds) and the total effective xenoestrogenic burden (TEXB) were analyzed in placentas from a mother-child cohort. OCP concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and TEXB was assessed with the E-Screen bioassay. Social class was classified according to maternal occupation. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine variations in pesticide exposure and TEXB as a function of maternal social class in 257 subjects. Placental p,p'-DDT concentrations were higher in social classes III and IV than in classes I-II (the most affluent); concentrations of the sum of DDTs were higher in class IV; and exposure to the sum of endosulfans was greater in class III. HCB concentrations were higher among women in class IV than in classes I-II and among manual (classes III-V) than non-manual workers. However, the trend across social classes was only statistically significant for HCB. Social class significantly explained 10% of the variability in concentrations of the sum of endosulfans. There is a need to explore whether more disadvantaged populations suffer higher levels of exposure to pesticides or other environmental chemicals and how different social processes contribute to this exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in female adipose tissue from Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Sanchez, K; Caba, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Valencia Quintana, R; Infanzon, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in adipose tissue of females living in Puebla, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 75 abdominal adipose tissue samples taken during 2010 by autopsy at the Forensic Services of Puebla. The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. In analyzed samples the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.464 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.0.% of samples at mean 0.105 mg/kg; op'DDT in 89.3% of monitored samples at mean 0.025 mg/kg and β-HCH in 94.7% of the samples at mean 0.108 mg/kg. To show if organochlorine pesticide levels in monitored female's adipose tissues are age dependant, the group was divided in three ages ranges (13-26, 26-57 and 57-96 years). The mean and median levels of all organochlorine pesticides increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to second and from the first to third group. At the same time, the increase of mean and medians levels from the second to third group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The present results compared to previous ones from 2008 indicates an increase in the concentrations during the 2010 study, but only the differences for pp'DDE and op'DDT were statistically significant. The 2010 group of females was older compared to the 2008 group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues is still observed, indicating uniform and permanent exposure to the pesticides by Puebla inhabitants.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. Methods: A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. Results: The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. Conclusion: The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds. PMID:26478886

  10. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenlys and organochlorinated pesticides in women from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Onur Kenan; Çok, Ismet; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aydin, Banu; Çoban, Asuman; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-03-01

    The human body is not a chemically uncontaminated system. Every simple action that humans undertake, such as drinking water, eating, nursing, and even breathing air, puts the system under environmental xenobiotic exposure stress. Environmental chemicals have been shown to produce unwanted effects on health and remove the right to healthy living, starting from the first encounter in utero to geriatrics, throughout the lifespan. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, important members of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been detected before in human breast milk and also in the adipose tissue of women from different regions of Turkey; however, there was no information about the blood levels of these chemicals. This study generated the first information that evaluates OCP and PCB contamination levels in the blood of the women living in Turkey. The current study measured the blood concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in 58 healthy women (age 20-41 years; mean age 28 years) who were living in Istanbul, Turkey, in the years 2010-2012. Samples were analyzed for 29 OCPs and 18 PCB congeners using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCB 153 was the predominant congener (643.2 pg/g lipid), followed by PCB 138 and PCB 180. 4,4'-DDE (24872.8 pg/g lipid) was the most common organochlorinated pesticide contaminant in studied blood samples. Results for analyzed chlorinated compounds were as follows: ∑PCB 2682 ± 3300 pg/g lipid; ∑DDT 25,938 ± 28,644 pg/g lipid; and ∑HCH 2930 ± 2222 pg/g lipid, respectively. The mean concentration of ∑WHOPCB-TEQ was 0.037 pg/g on a lipid basis. This information will be important base data during the assessment of the general health concerns of women, as well as for studies about how endocrine disruptors affect humans for forthcoming studies.

  11. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys.

    PubMed

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L; Lee, Mary M; Korrick, Susan A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Burns, Jane S; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M; Patterson, Donald G; Hauser, Russ

    2015-11-01

    Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development. We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (βHCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys. From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) ≥ 20 mL in either testis. In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV ≥ 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: -1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: -3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: -1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of βHCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6-9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend < 0.001), βHCH (trend p = 0.01), and p,p´-DDE (p trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between p,p´-DDE and Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth or TV ≥ 20 mL. Higher prepubertal serum HCB and βHCH concentrations were associated with a later age at attainment of sexual maturity. Only the highest quartile of serum p,p´-DDE was associated with later pubic hair maturation. Lam T, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Hauser R. 2015. Prepubertal serum

  12. Organochlorine Pesticides and Risk of Endometriosis: Findings from a Population-Based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Thompson, Mary Lou; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Holt, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is considered an estrogen-dependent disease. Persistent environmental chemicals that exhibit hormonal properties, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), may affect endometriosis risk. Objective: We investigated endometriosis risk in relation to environmental exposure to OCPs. Methods: We conducted the present analyses using data from the Women’s Risk of Endometriosis (WREN) study, a population-based case–control study of endometriosis conducted among 18- to 49-year-old female enrollees of a large health care system in western Washington State. OCP concentrations were measured in sera from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases (n = 248) first diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 and from population-based controls (n = 538). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, reference date year, serum lipids, education, race/ethnicity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Results: Our data suggested increased endometriosis risk associated with serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.8; highest vs. lowest quartile OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.8, 2.4) and mirex (highest vs. lowest category: OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). The association between serum β-HCH concentrations and endometriosis was stronger in analyses restricting cases to those with ovarian endometriosis (third vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5, 5.2; highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3). Conclusions: In our case–control study of women enrolled in a large health care system in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, serum concentrations of β-HCH and mirex were positively associated with endometriosis. Extensive past use of environmentally persistent OCPs in the United States or present use in other countries may affect the health of reproductive-age women. Citation: Upson K, De Roos AJ, Thompson ML, Sathyanarayana S, Scholes D, Barr DB, Holt VL. 2013

  13. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transplacental Transfer of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Diphenylethers, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Ringed Seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Ross, P S; Reimer, K J

    2016-01-01

    The transplacental transfer of persistent organic pollutants in marine mammals takes place at a formative developmental period, thereby exposing the fetus to endocrine-disrupting compounds. We evaluated the transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in five pregnant ringed seals in Northern Labrador, Canada. PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs were transferred from the mother to the fetus with average concentrations in the fetuses ranging from 0.3 ng/g lipid weight (lw) of mirex to 94 ng/g lw of PCBs. The average percent transferred to the blubber in the fetus was very low with <0.02 % for each of the compounds studied. Based on relationships observed, transfer for full-term fetuses is estimated to range from 0.03 to 0.27 %. Log K(ow) explained the transfer of PCBs (r (2) = 0.67, p < 0.001) and OCPs (r (2) = 0.62, p < 0.001) with those PCB congeners and OCP compounds having a log K(ow) of <6.0 and 4.6, respectively, because they are preferentially transferred to the fetus. Adult females transferred a contaminant mixture to their fetuses, which correlated with estimated fetal age (p < 0.001; r (2) = 0.697), with younger fetuses showing a greater proportion of compounds with low K(ow) compared with later-term fetuses. The implications for the prenatal exposure to these developmental toxicants remains unknown because current toxicity thresholds in marine mammals have only been derived from juveniles or adults.

  15. [Characteristics of organochlorine pesticide residues in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jin-Gang; Bi, Chun-Juan; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Zhou, Jie-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thirty surface soil samples were collected to investigate the residue concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soil of Chongming Island in July 2008. Those samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-microECD). Results showed that the concentrations of OCPs (dry weight) ranged between 3.11-117.47 ng x g(-1), with mean value of 26.25 ng x g(-1). Two major contaminants of OCPs were DDTs and HCHs, the concentration of which varied from 0.14 ng x g(-1) to 77.89 ng x g(-1) and from 1.14 ng x g(-1) to 22.43 ng x g(-1), respectively. At the same times, hexachlorobenzene (0.23-11.63 ng x g(-1)), aldrin (0.03-0.75 ng x g(-1)), heptachlor epoxide (0.05-1.44 ng x g(-1)), dieldrin (0.05-5.33 ng x g(-1)), endrin (ND-14.66 ng x g(-1)) and mirex (0.03-10.58 ng x g(-1)) could also be detected. Most of DDTs had been degraded to DDD and DDE, with the major compounds of DDE (about 64.7%), and the recent existed DDT was the residue of early input. All of the four isomers of HCHs were detected, and the contents of alpha-HCH (about 48.1%) and beta-HCH (about 33.4%) were the maximum. The highest OCPs residues appeared in the soil of farm cultivation compared to greenhouse cultivation and ordinary open-air cultivation.

  16. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water. © 2013.

  17. Association of serum organochlorine pesticides concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhizhun; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Chonggang; Chen, Meng; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a total of 178 women were studied. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in serum were determined using Gas Chromatography Mass-Mass Spectrometer. No differences with statistical significance in the mean HCH, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE concentrations were observed between the patients with PCOS and the control group. Serum p,p'-DDT (P = 0.016) and o,p'-DDT (P = 0.000) levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the control group. The results of the association between OCPs levels and hormone levels indicated that o,p'-DDT may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS by affecting hormones levels. Further trials should be investigated with the findings in this study to obtain new pathogenesis of PCOS.

  18. Development of a rapid screening technique for organochlorine pesticides using solvent microextraction (SME) and fast gas chromatography (GC).

    PubMed

    de Jager, L S; Andrews, A R

    2000-11-01

    A novel, fast screening method for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples has been developed. Total analysis time was less than 9 min, allowing 11 samples to be screened per hour. The relatively new technique of solvent microextraction (SME) was used to extract and preconcentrate the pesticides into a single drop of hexane. The use of a conventional carbon dioxide cryotrap was investigated for introduction of the extract onto a micro-bore (0.1 mm) capillary column for fast GC analysis. A pulsed-discharge electron capture detector was used which yielded selective and sensitive measurement of the pesticide peaks. Fast GC conditions were optimised and tested with the previously developed SME procedure. Calibration curves yielded good linearity and concentrations down to 0.25 ng mL-1 were detectable with RSD values ranging from 12.0 to 28% and LOD for most OCPs at 0.25 ng mL-1. Spiked river water samples were tested and using the developed screen we were able to differentiate between spiked samples and samples containing no OCPs.

  19. Comparison of different mass spectrometric approaches coupled to gas chromatography for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Wu, Qian; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Hongzhi; Xu, Shunqing; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-01-01

    Gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQMS) was applied for the determination of eight organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human serum. OCPs were extracted from the serum sample by solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) under two data acquisition modes, namely selected ion monitoring (SIM) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), were compared. The use of MRM generally provided higher selectivity and sensitivity because less interference from the sample matrix existed. The EI mode is more suitable for less electronegative compounds such as dichlorodiphenyldichloroethanes (DDDs) with detection limits ranging from 0.0060 to 0.060ng/mL. In the NCI mode, MRM analysis provided good and lower detection limits (0.0011-0.0030ng/mL) for pesticides containing more chlorines. The methods were validated by analyzing the pesticides in spiked serum at different levels with recoveries ranged from 83% to 116% and relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The developed method was applied for the determination of the OCPs in real human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring in Shanxi Province, China: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Li, Zhiwen; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Qiu, Xinghua; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in placental tissue have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Our case-control study was performed to explore the association between maternal serum OCP concentration and NTD risk in offspring. Serum samples were collected from 117 mothers who delivered NTD infants (case group) and 121 mothers who delivered healthy infants (control group). Only three of the 25 OCPs were detected in more than half of the maternal serum samples. The median concentration of total OCPs in the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, no dose-response relationships between higher levels of any individual OCP or total OCPs and the risk of NTDs or subtypes were observed in either the unadjusted binary unconditional logistic regression model or the model adjusted by potential confounders. We conclude that no clear association between maternal serum OCP residues and NTD risk in offspring was observed in this population. PMID:24911776

  1. Predicting bioavailability and accumulation of organochlorine pesticides by Japanese medaka in the presence of humic acid and natural organic matter using passive sampling membranes.

    PubMed

    Ke, Runhui; Luo, Jianping; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Zijian; Spear, Philip A

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption to dissolved organic matter (DOM) may significantly decrease the freely dissolved concentration of many hydrophobic organic compounds and, hence, result in reduced bioavailability to aquatic organisms. Here, the suitability of using triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) as a biomimetic surrogate to assess the bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water in the presence of DOM was explored. The accumulation of OCPs was measured in TECAM and pelagic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) in the laboratory after 12 h exposure to water containing different levels of Aldrich humic acid. Further, OCP uptake by TECAM and medaka in real aqueous environments was evaluated after 30 d exposures in two sites. Laboratory results showed that OCP uptake by medaka consistently decreased with increasing levels of humic acid in the range of 0-15 mg C/L in sample solutions. This tendency was closely mimicked by OCP accumulation in TECAM under the same conditions. Field results showed that TECAM accumulated similar OCP patterns as medaka (r2 = 0.92 for site 1 and r2 = 0.94 for site 2), although comparison of the in-field eight OCP concentrations in TECAM to those in medaka yielded approximately a factor of 3 (on a wet weight basis). These results suggest that the TECAM method can be used as a simple and useful tool to predict the bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of poorly biotransformed organic compounds in pelagic fish in aqueous environment.

  2. Current use pesticide and legacy organochlorine pesticide dynamics at the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface in resolute passage, Canadian Arctic, during winter-summer transition.

    PubMed

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A; Burt, Alexis E; Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F; Macdonald, Robie W; Barber, David G; Geilfus, Nicolas-X; Rysgaard, Søren

    2017-02-15

    Here, we present the first detailed analysis of processes by which various current use pesticides (CUPs) and legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are concentrated in melt ponds that form on Arctic sea ice in the summer, when surface snow is melting and ice eventually breaks up. Four current use pesticides (dacthal, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, and pentachloronitrobenzene) and one legacy organochlorine pesticide (α-hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in ponds in Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic, in 2012. Melt-pond concentrations changed over time as a function of gas exchange, precipitation, and dilution with melting sea ice. Observed increases in melt-pond concentrations for all detected pesticides were associated with precipitation events. Dacthal reached the highest concentration of all current use pesticides in ponds (95±71pgL(-1)), a value exceeding measured concentrations in the under-ice (0m) and 5m seawater by >10 and >16 times, respectively. Drainage of dacthal-enriched pond water to the ocean during ice break-up provides an important ice-mediated annual delivery route, adding ~30% of inventory in the summer Mixed Layer (ML; 10m) in the Resolute Passage, and a concentrating mechanism with potential implications for exposures to organisms such as ice algae, and phytoplankton.

  3. Gene-environment interaction in preterm delivery with special reference to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, M D; Banerjee, B D; Ahmed, Rafat S; Tripathi, A K; Guleria, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association between glutathione S-transferases mu1 (GSTM1), theta 1 (GSTT1), Cytochrome P450IA1-T6235C (rs4646903, CYP1A1m1) and CYP1A1-1462V (rs1048943, CYP1A1m2) gene polymorphisms, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) level with risk of preterm delivery (PTD). Maternal and cord blood samples of PTD (n = 156) cases and subjects of full-term delivery (FTD, n = 151) were collected at the time of delivery/after delivery. Women occupationally exposed to OCPs and other high-risk factors such as anemia, hypertension and dietary habit were excluded. The OCP levels were estimated by gas chromatography, and polymorphic analysis of GSTM1/GSTT1 and CYP450 genes was carried out using multiplex PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. The frequency of GSTM1/GSTT1 (null) genotype was significantly higher in PTD cases than in the controls. Significantly high levels of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), γ-HCH and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p'p'-DDE) were observed in maternal blood, while significantly high levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and p'p'-DDE were found in the cord blood of PTD cases compared with the controls. A significant association was seen between β-HCH and GSTM1 genotype when interaction between GSTM1 gene polymorphism, maternal blood OCP levels and period of gestation (POG) was ascertained. A significant reduction in POG was observed. Similarly, cord blood dieldrin levels were significantly associated with CYP1A1m2 (Aa/aa) with reduction in POG. Our observations indicate that higher levels of OCPs in pregnant women may be associated with increased risk of 'idiopathic' PTD. Furthermore, this study shows that the interaction between high OCPs levels and polymorphism in CYP1A1m2 and GSTM1 null genotypes may magnify the risk of PTD, thus providing evidence for a gene-environment interaction in pregnant women.

  4. The neurotoxicity of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine and pyrethroid compounds represent an old and a new class, respectively, of insecticides. Organochlorines such as DDT, dieldrin, or chlordecone, have been banned, primarily because of environmental issues. DDT is still used in certain countries to fight malaria-bearing mosquitoes, while lindane still finds some limited used against head lice. In contrast, pyrethroids find widespread use because of their efficacy, low environmental persistence, and relatively low mammalian toxicity. Like all insecticides, organochlorines and pyrethroids target the nervous system of insects and of nontarget species. All pyrethroids and DDT interact with the sodium channel; by keeping it open longer, they increase the likelihood of action potentials developing, thus creating a condition of hyperexcitability, whose main clinical sign is tremors. Most other organochlorines (except chlordecone), as well as certain (type II) pyrethroids, block the chloride channels of the GABA-A receptor, and cause seizures. Evidence of an association between exposure to organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease) is weak, at best.

  5. Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2011-12-01

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Waliszewski, S.M. ); Szymczynski, G.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Since organochlorine pesticides were introduced for plant protection and sanitation, they have been of great benefit in the control of pest populations and in combating the spread of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, they accumulate in the environment and this has resulted in a ban on their use. Nevertheless, they are still widely used in tropical countries as the insecticides of choice. An analytical procedure was elaborated to find out the extent of contamination of the human body by persistent residues of organochlorine pesticides and to determine the gradient between adipose tissue and biological fluids, which correlates with bioaccumulation and dissipation processes. The method has two important advantages: it is a simple, low-cost semi-micro, and it makes it possible to determine free and bound pesticides.

  8. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    PubMed

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and female puberty in South Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Bapayeva, Gauri; Issayeva, Raushan; Zhumadilova, Akmaral; Nurkasimova, Raushan; Kulbayeva, Saltanat; Tleuzhan, Renata

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the puberty of females living in cotton-growing regions of South Kazakhstan, where organochlorine pesticides are widely used. The physical growth and sexual development were assessed; organochlorine pesticides, gonadotropic and steroid hormones, as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 in the peripheral blood were determined. 524 females (adolescents aged 10-17) were examined. They were divided into 2 groups, depending on their place of residence. The clinical research included the assessment of physical and sexual development. All examined females lived in rural areas, i.e. they were comparable in terms of social, welfare, and climatographic factors. A high concentration of organochlorine pesticides (lindane-18.51±0.16mg/l, dieldrin-169.16±3.13mg/l, DDT-177.78±2.71mg/l, endrin-37.57±0.9mg/l) in the blood of females living in regions exposed to pesticides compared to their peers (4.05±0.41mg/l, 30.8±3.7mg/l, 109.7±2.58mg/l, 4.85±0.69mg/l respectively) was found (p<0.001). The physical and sexual development of such females was delayed. The research established a correlation between the concentration of pesticides and the endocrine status, as well as with the insulin-like growth factor 1. This shows the adverse effect of organochlorine pesticides on the development of the female reproductive system during puberty.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in squamate reptiles from southern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Dobrovolny, Marianne; Torres, Chelsea; Torres, Cassie; Goode, Matt; Rainwater, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J; Anderson, Todd A

    2013-06-01

    Despite recognition of the lack of reptile ecotoxicology data, the taxon remains poorly studied. Contaminant body burdens are useful in demonstrating exposures to contaminants do occur and may provide insight regarding risks. The purpose of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticide burdens in various tissues of terrestrial reptiles opportunistically collected in Arizona. Heptachlor, DDE, and endrin were the most common analytes detected in fat samples. Liver samples contained methoxychlor and heptachlor at greater frequency than other organochlorines. Investigations into chronic low-level exposures are rare for reptiles and research is needed to determine critical body residues associated with adverse impacts.

  11. PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and reproduction in river otters from Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Linscombe, G.; Kinler, N.; Stafford, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Reproductive tracts from 89 3-year-old female river otters (Lutra canadensis), from Louisiana were examined. Eighteen of these were in a reproductive phase out of synchrony with the expected population norms. Eight of 32 otters had fewer embryos than corpora lutea, indicating intrauterine mortality in 25% of the sample. Chemical analyses of liver tissue from 57 otters revealed a low prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide contamination. These low Ievels of organochlorine compounds were not associated with atypical reproductive synchrony or intrauterine mortality.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina

    2014-01-01

    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported.

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in breast milk and maternal psychopathologies and infant growth from suburban area of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, Songul Siddika; Örün, Emel; Yalçın, Suzan; Aykut, Osman

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the breast milk; to assess the effect of detectable OCPs on maternal-infant characteristics and; to evaluate the relation between OCPs and the maternal psychopathologies [Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ), Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)] and infant growth. DDT, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin and heptachlor were detected in 89.3, 70.7, 58.7 and 34.7 % of the samples, respectively. Mothers with low monthly family income had detectable DDTs less frequently. The frequencies of detectable heptachlor epoxide were significantly higher in mothers with gestational nausea. Anaemic mothers had more frequently detectable alpha-HCH. Z scores of head circumference were inversely correlated with beta-HCH and DDT levels. The heptachlor epoxide levels were positively correlated with PBQ, MIBS and indexes of BSI. No relation was detected between EPDS and OCPs. Further studies are needed for changes in maternal psychopathologies.

  14. Determination of Henry's law constants of organochlorine pesticides in deionized and saline water as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Banu; Ozer, Serdar; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa

    The Henry's law constant ( H) is an important parameter that is required to estimate the air-water exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds. Henry's law constants for 17 banned/restricted/currently used organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were experimentally determined using a gas-stripping technique in deionized and saline water (3%) over a temperature range of 5-35 °C. H values (at 25 °C) ranged between 0.066±0.037 Pa m 3 mol -1 (endosulfan II) and 62.0±24.2 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor) in deionized water while the range in saline water was 0.28±0.03 Pa m 3 mol -1 ( γ-HCH) and 135.2±31.3 Pa m 3 mol -1 (heptachlor). The increase in dimensionless Henry's law constants ( H') for OCPs over the studied temperature range was between 3 ( γ-HCH)-19 times (chlorpyrifos) and 3 (endosulfan II)-80 times ( trans-nonachlor) in deionized and saline water, respectively. The calculated enthalpies of phase change (Δ HH) were within the ranges previously reported for OCPs and other organic compounds (23.8-100.2 kJ mol -1). The salting-out constant, ks, ranged between 0.04 ( γ-HCH) and 1.80 L mol -1 (endosulfan II) indicating the importance of assessing the H values of OCPs in saline water to accurately determine their partitioning and fate in seawater.

  15. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    PubMed Central

    Dhananjayan, V.; Muralidharan, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE) concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research. PMID:24288666

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of Guangzhou and Hong Kong: Regional sources and long-range atmospheric transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Guo, Lingli; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Lee, Celine S. L.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period of December 2003-December 2004 at four sampling sites in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of 8 OCP species, including trans-chlordane ( t-CHL), cis-chlordane ( c-CHL), p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDT, α-endosulfan, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), were studied. OCPs were found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons. t-CHL, c-CHL, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan had significantly ( p<0.001) higher concentrations than other OCPs, with mean values (gas+particle) typically ranging from 103 to 1440 pg m -3. In general, the concentrations of OCPs in summer were higher than that in winter, except for α-HCH which showed no clear seasonal pattern. Higher levels of γ-HCH and o, p'-DDT found in Guangzhou could be attributed to the present usage of lindane and dicofol in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The very high concentrations of p, p'-DDT and α-endosulfan were observed at all sampling sites. The results of 7 days air back trajectory analysis indicated that the unusual high p, p'-DDT levels in summer in both cities could be related to the seasonal usage of DDT containing antifouling paints for fishing ships in the upwind seaports of the region. The high concentrations of α-endosulfan in winter in the study area suggested an atmospheric transport by the winter monsoon from the East China, where endosulfan is being used as insecticide in cotton fields. The consistency of the seasonal variation of concentrations and isomeric ratios of DDTs and α-endosulfan with the alternation of winter monsoon and summer monsoon suggested that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in the long-range atmospheric transport of OCPs.

  17. Three-year atmospheric monitoring of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar regions and the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-05-15

    XAD-2 resin based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for three one-year periods at the Korean polar and South Pacific research stations at Ny-Ålesund (2005-2009), King George Island (2005-2007), and Chuuk (2006-2009) to investigate long-range transport, local sources, and temporal trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The highest hexachlocyclohexane (HCH) concentration (35.2-78.9 pg·m(-3)) over the entire sampling period was detected at Ny-Ålesund, in the Arctic. α-HCH was the dominant OCP (31.1-67.1 pg·m(-3)), contributing about 50% of the total OCP load. Additionally, a high and consistent α/γ-HCH ratio was observed at Ny-Ålesund. HCHs might reach Arctic sites more easily than other OCPs from surrounding countries through long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Interestingly, high levels of the current-use OCP endosulfan-particularly endosulfan-I--were detected at almost all sampling sites, including in Antarctica, ranging 12.2-88.5, 17.7-130, and ND-59.7 pg·m(-3) at King George Island, Ny-Ålesund, and Chuuk, respectively. Specific OCP and PCB patterns, such as low trans/cis-chlordane ratios and a prevalence of lighter PCB congeners, were observed in all three regions (excepting one site at Ny-Ålesund and one site in the South Pacific affected by local sources) during all sampling periods. This indicates that these Polar and remote South Pacific sites are mainly influenced by LRAT. Over the entire sampling period, a decreasing trend of HCHs (α- and γ-HCH) and an increasing trend of endosulfan-I were observed at the Ny-Ålesund sites.

  18. Concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in pine needles of typical regions in Northern Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoning; Ran, Dan; Lu, Jianjiang; Du, Zhijian; Liu, Zilong

    2015-02-01

    The residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 29 pine needle samples of typical regions (including Shihezi, Beitun, and Kanas) in Northern Xinjiang was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Total OCPs concentrations in pine needles ranged from 2.94 to 186 ng/g dry weight, with a mean concentration of 39.63 ng/g. The results indicated that Beitun was the most polluted region while Kanas was the least polluted one. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the predominant species in samples. Analysis of the sources of contamination showed that HCHs in the needles were derived from an old mixed source of technical HCHs or lindane. For DDTs, it was suspected to have recent application at some sites, which were derived mainly from a mixture of technical DDTs and dicofol containing DDT impurities. Categorical principal component analysis was performed in finding out more about the degradation behavior of DDTs and HCHs, which was identical with the results of source analysis.

  19. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and pyrethroids in Chinese teas.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jie; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Huiqin; Wu, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2007-02-28

    In this work, microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) extraction method followed by gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) was developed for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and pyrethroids in the Chinese teas. MASD is a combination of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques. Water vapor generated by microwave irradiation is used to accelerate desorption of the analytes from the sample, and the nonpolar organic solvent used for trapping the analytes is kept from direct contact with the sample by the water. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained compared to the method directly using organic solvent as extraction solvent, such as ultrasonic extraction (USE). Microwave power of 200W and irradiation time of 2min was found to be the optimum conditions for the MASD process, and n-heptane was chosen as the analyte-trapping solvent in the study. Five OCPs (alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, dicofol, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT) and two pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenvalate) were determined using this extraction method in the tea samples. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the analytes varied from 2.2 to 8.4%, and the method detection limits (MDLs) found were lower than 0.23mug/kg. The recoveries of the seven compounds in the Jasmine tea sample were between 84.04 and 110.1%. Comparative results obtained by MASD and USE were also discussed in the study.

  20. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  1. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for multi-residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in soil.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Ahmed; Westbom, Rikard; Megersa, Negussie; Mathiasson, Lennart; Björklund, Erland

    2007-06-08

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedure capable of performing simultaneous extraction and clean-up has been demonstrated for multi-residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil. The final method was performed at 100 degrees C for 3 x 10 min using acetone/n-heptane (1:1, v/v). Florisil was placed inside the extraction cell downstream the sample to remove interfering compounds. Extraction of two soil samples by SPLE gave a recovery which was over 80% for beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE compared to PLE with off-line clean-up. The same trend was observed when applying the SPLE method to a certified reference soil sample (CRM 811-050) containing 13 OCPs, where the SPLE method gave 80-90% recovery vis-à-vis the PLE method with off-line clean-up. Feasibility of the SPLE method was further demonstrated by applying it to five real soil samples collected in Ethiopia.

  2. Carbonized polydopamine as coating for solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Chua, Pey Ee; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-06-19

    A facile preparation route for coating a stainless steel fiber with carbonaceous material derived from polydopamine is reported in this work. The self-oxidation induced polymerization of dopamine in alkaline solution enables growth of polydopamine on the inert surface of the fiber. The robust adhesion of dopamine to metal oxides ensured sufficient stability of the polymer coating. After carbonization of the polymer coating, the obtained carbon coated fiber was utilized for solid-phase microextraction and exhibited effectiveness in the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solution. Extraction time, agitation speed and salt addition were optimized. The possible interference of humic acid on the extraction of these analytes was also investigated. The results showed that most of the analytes could be detected efficiently in the presence of humic acid at a concentration of 20mg/L. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors of 102-757 were obtained for the selected OCPs in aqueous solution. The proposed method provided low limits of detection (1.4-15 ng/L), good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9971) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations<16.3%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A simplified procedure for the determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls in edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jindong; Liu, Donghui; Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenting; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-05-15

    A one-step extraction-purification multiresidue method for the determination of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible vegetable oils based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) has been developed. The experimental parameters affecting the recoveries and the efficiency of the cleanup procedure were thoroughly evaluated. Under an optimised condition, 0.5 g of oil sample was blended with 3.5 g of sulfuric acid-impregnated silica and 0.8 g of silica gel was used as co-column absorbent. The PCBs and OCPs were eluted by 10 mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Good recoveries were obtained in the range of 69.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) values below 15% in most cases. The limits of detection (LOD), based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, were in the range of 0.04-0.74 ng/g. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hierarchical Graphene coating for highly sensitive solid phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuxin; Liu, Shuqin; Yang, Hao; Zheng, Juan; Qiu, Junlang; Xu, Jianqiao; Tong, Yexiang; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Graphene, a novel class of carbon nanostructures, has received great attention as sorbents due to its fascinating structures, ultrahigh specific surface area, and good extraction ability. In this paper, a new type of hierarchical graphene was synthesized through employing a mild and environment-friendly method. Such 3D interconnected graphene own a high specific surface area up to 524m(2)g(-1), which is about 2.5 fold larger than the graphene, since the synthetic material has interlayer pores between nanosheets and in-plane pores. Then a superior solid-phase microextraction fiber was fabricated by sequentially coating the stainless steel fiber with silicone sealant film and hierarchical graphene powder. Since the novel hierarchical graphene possessed large surface area and good adsorption property, the as-prepared fiber exhibited good extraction properties of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). As for the analytical performance, the as-prepared fiber achieved low detection limits (0.08-0.80ngL(-1)) and wide linearity (10-30,000ngL(-1)) under the optimal conditions. The repeatability (n=5) for single fiber were between 5.1% and 11%, while the reproducibility (n=3) of fiber-to-fiber were range from 6.2% to14%. Moreover, the fiber was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs in the Pearl River water.

  5. Multiyear Measurements of Flame Retardants and Organochlorine Pesticides in Air in Canada's Western Sub-Arctic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Hung, Hayley; Alexandrou, Nick; Roach, Pat; Nordin, Ken

    2015-07-21

    Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 14 non-BDE flame retardants (FRs), and 25 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in air samples collected at Little Fox Lake (LFL) in Canada's Yukon Territory from August 2011 to December 2014. LFL is a long-term monitoring station operated under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) and one of only a few stations that contribute to the assessment of air pollution levels and pathways to the sub-Arctic region. BDE-47 was the most abundant congener among the 14 PBDEs, followed by BDE-99. Non-BDE FRs pentabromotoluene (PBT) and dechlorane plus (DP) were detected in all the samples. Dechlorane 602, 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) were also detected in >75% of all samples. PBDEs have shown a decreasing tendency as of 2013, which may reflect the phase-out of penta- and octa-BDE mixtures has led to significant decline in the atmosphere. The highest concentrations of OCPs were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), with a median concentration of 61 pg/m(3), followed by α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and α-endosulfan. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) highlights Northern Canada, Pacific, and East Asia as potential sources in warm seasons; whereas in cold seasons, the chemicals mainly came from the Pacific Rim.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Residual levels and identify possible sources of organochlorine pesticides in Korea atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Soo; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    The nationwide monitoring program was established in 2008 to monitor of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Korea. Under this program, it was observed air concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 37 sites from January to October of 2008, to determine the residue levels and identify possible sources in Korea atmosphere. Samples of OCPs including HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide were collected with high volume air sampler and analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The concentrations were in the range of 41.2-344.3 pg m -3 for HCB, ND-47.55 pg m -3 for DDTs (sum of p, p'-DDT, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, o, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDD), ND-38.97 pg m -3 for chlordanes (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane), ND-9.19 pg m -3 for heptachlors (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide) and ND-4.32 pg m -3 for dieldrin. The predominant compound in air was HCB. However, HCB itself has not ever been registered and used as a pesticide in Korea. The elevated concentration of HCB in Korea might be contributed to geographical location and long range transport. For DDTs, it was found that no more fresh input occurred recently and technical type DDTs was prevailing in Korea. Higher concentration of chlordane was observed in winter, which was contributed to the fresh input technical chlordane and long range transport. Relatively lower levels of heptachlor and dieldrin despite much more consumption than other pesticides were resulted from shorter half-lives in environment.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  9. Deposition of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs (Aroclor 1268), and PBDEs in selected plant species from a Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Sajwan, Kenneth S; Senthil Kumar, Kurunthachalam; Kelley, Sarah; Loganathan, Bommanna G

    2009-04-01

    Deposition of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in Loblolly pine needles (Pinus taeda) collected in and around a Linden Chemicals and Plastics (LCP) Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA. For the comparison, foliage of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) was also collected to monitor contaminant levels. This study revealed that concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 0.75-10, 3.4-15 to 0.05-3, ng/g wet wt, respectively in both plant species. Total OCPs concentrations in pine needles decreased from 10 to 2.3 ng/g; and total PCBs decreased from 28 to 9.3 ng/g between 1997 and 2006. To our knowledge, this is the first report on PBDEs concentrations in pine needles and red cedar foliage samples from the Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA.

  10. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Campoy, C; Jiménez, M; Olea-Serrano, M F; Moreno-Frías, M; Cañabate, F; Olea, N; Bayés, R; Molina-Font, J A

    2001-11-01

    In the face of evidence of human milk contamination by organochlorine pesticides, an analysis was performed on samples of milk obtained from healthy lactating women in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in Southern Spain. The samples were obtained by the Neonate Section of the Department of Pediatrics of Granada University Hospital (Neonatology Division) and by the Neonatal Service of Poniente Hospital in El Ejido, Almería. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed. The cleaning of the sample before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) used silica Sep-Pak. Among other pesticides, aldrin, dieldrin, DDT and its metabolites, lindane, methoxychlor and endosulfan were identified. The presence of these products was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The identification and quantification of these organochlorine molecules is important because they have estrogenic effects.

  12. Atmospheric bulk deposition measurements of organochlorine pesticides at three alpine summits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Körner, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Moche, Wolfgang; Weiss, Peter; Schaub, Marcus; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected at three elevated summits in different parts of the Alps from 2005 to 2010. Deposition samples were analyzed for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). HCHs, DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordanes, cis-heptachlor, HCB, dieldrin and endrin were found in all samples, only aldrin was found less frequently. Differences in the mean deposition rates between the three sites reflect the different amounts of precipitation at these sites. At the northern edge of the Alps with the highest annual total precipitations, mean annual deposition rates were at least twice those at the Swiss site for most of the investigated OCP. Average annual deposition of α-HCH amounted to 602, 461 and 216 ng m-2 year-1, the sum of DDT, DDD and DDE to 579, 210 and 144 ng m-2 year-1 and the sum of trans- and cis-chlordane to 35, 47, 16 ng m-2 year-1 at Zugspitze, Sonnblick, and Weissfluhjoch, respectively. A quite distinct seasonal pattern of OPC deposition was observed at all three locations. For most of the HCH isomers, higher deposition rates were observed in summer than in winter at all three sites, which may be caused by enhanced re-volatilization due to higher summer temperatures and the ongoing application of HCH-containing products in some regions as well. For the other investigated OCPs, higher summer deposition rates were found only at Weissfluhjoch. This site is more often affected by air masses crossing the river Po basin than the other two sites, an area exhibiting higher summer temperatures compared to other regions adjacent to the Alps.

  13. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P < 0.05) differences while other OCPs show no significant differences between historical cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied.

  15. Phthalate esters and organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils and vegetables from fast-growing regions: a case study from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Zhiheng; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-10-13

    The present study investigated phthalate esters (PAEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils and vegetables from eastern China. The concentrations of PAEs ranged from 109 to 5560 ng/g in soils and 60.1 to 2390 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 946 and 601 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs ranged from <0.1 to 662 ng/g in soils and <0.1 to 42.8 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 134 and 11.6 ng/g, respectively. OCPs were mainly in the 0-30 cm surface soil layers, while PAEs could infiltrate in deep soil profiles to 70-80 cm layer. Potential source analysis traced the occurrence of OCPs to both historical application and current usage, whereas building materials and agricultural plastic film were possible input sources of PAEs in the ambient environment. OCPs showed no apparent effect on soil microbial communities, whereas significant negative relationship was observed between PAEs and fungi in soils (R = -0.54, p < 0.01). Human health risk assessment data revealed marginal noncarcinogenic risks and low carcinogenic risks in these soils. Notably, PAEs posed a comparable or higher risk level compared with that of OCPs. This study suggests the need for better regulation on pollution control and management of PAE-elevated sites to protect soil quality and food safety.

  16. Assessment and investigation on the fate of organochlorine pesticides in water and sediments of international Amir-kalaye wetland in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Azadeh Nekouei; Hassani, Amir Hessam; Farshchi, Parvin; Morowati, Mohssen; Moatar, Faramarz; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2012-06-01

    A total of 48 water samples and 24 sediment samples were collected at four sampling stations along the wetland during four seasons from 2009 to 2010 and analyzed by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). In water the total concentration of OCPs was 0.33, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.07 mg/L in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively. The most frequent OCP compounds detected were endrin and chlordane (0.08 and 0.07 mg/L), heaxachlorobenzene and chlordane (0.06, 0.02 mg/L), and chlordane (0.07 mg/L) in summer, winter and spring, respectively. The maximum concentration of ΣOCPs was found in samples collected from station 1 in summer (0.26 mg/L). In sediments the total concentrations of OCPs were 15.84 and 2.62 mg/g-dry weight (dw) in summer and winter, respectively. Chlordane was the most frequently found OCP compound, followed by lindane, 9.92 and 2.47 mg/g-dry weight (dw), respectively, in summer. While, lindane (2.52 mg/g-dw) and endosulfan I (0.1 mg/g-dw) were the highest OCP compounds detected in winter. The results obtained in this study show that there still exist a variety of organochlorine pesticide residues in the water and sediments from the Amir-kalaye wetland in Iran.

  17. Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and infant birth weight in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huan; Jin, Yinlong; Cheng, Yibin; Leaderer, Brian; Lin, Shaobin; Holford, Theodore R.; Qiu, Jie; Zhang, Yawei; Shi, Kunchong; Zhu, Yong; Niu, Jianjun; Bassig, Bryan A.; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Yonghong; Hu, Xiaobin; Chen, Qiong; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2014-01-01

    In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is thought to be potentially harmful to fetal development. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal and cord serum OCPs levels with infant birth weight in China. In this study, we measured serum levels of 18 OCPs in 81 mother-infant pairs, including DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlors, chlordanes, endosulfan-I, and mirex using a high-resolution-gas-chromatography with high-resolution-mass-spectrometry method. We found that p,p’-DDE and β-BHC had the highest detection rate in both maternal and cord blood serum (97.2% and 96.7%, respectively), followed by HCB (93.0%, 51.7%), p,p’-DDT (88.7%, 36.7%), and p,p’-DDD (83.1%, 60.0%). Among all OCPs, the concentration of p,p’-DDE was the highest (mothers geometric mean (GM): 203.54 ng/g, newborns GM: 116.14 ng/g), followed by HCB (70.62 ng/g, 65.16 ng/g), and β-BHC (67.67 ng/g, 33.39 ng/g). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that each 1 ng/g increment of cord serum p,p’-DDE, total DDT, and β-BHC was associated with a 0.10g, 0.10g, and 0.92g decrease in infant birth weight, respectively, and as the cord serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p’-DDD, HCB and mirex increased, the infant birth weight was also decreased, although the associations were not statistically significant due to the relatively small sample size. These results suggest that p,p’-DDE, β-BHC, and HCB were the predominant OCPs in the serum of Chinese pregnant women and cord blood of their newborns. Prenatal exposure to DDT, β-BHC, HCB, and mirex were associated with a decrease in birth weight, but these results need validation in larger sample-sized studies. PMID:24880592

  18. Fate of brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pesticides in urban soil: volatility and degradation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fiona; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Bidleman, Terry F

    2012-03-06

    As the uses of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) are being phased out in many countries, soils could become a secondary emission source to the atmosphere. It is also anticipated that the demand for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) will grow, but little is known about their environmental fate in soils. In this study, the volatility and degradation of BFRs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil was investigated. A low organic carbon (5.6%) urban soil was spiked with a suite of BFRs and OCPs, followed by incubation under laboratory condition for 360 days. These included BDE- 17, -28, -47, -99; α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH), β-1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO), and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), OCPs: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and (13)C(6)-α-HCH, trans-chlordane (TC), and (13)C(10)-TC. The volatility of spiked chemicals was investigated using a fugacity meter to measure the soil-air partition coefficient (K(SA)). K(SA) of some spiked BFRs and OCPs increased from Day 10 to 60 or 90 and leveled off afterward. This suggests that the volatility of BFRs and OCPs decreases over time as the chemicals become more strongly bound to the soil. Degradation of alternative BFRs (α- and β-TBECH, β-TBCO, DPTE), BDE-17, and α-HCH ((13)C-labeled and nonlabeled) was evident in soils over 360 days, but no degradation was observed for the BDE-28, -47, -99, and TC ((13)C-labeled and nonlabeled). A method to separate the enantiomers of α-TBECH and β-TBCO was developed and their degradation, along with α-HCH ((13)C-labeled and nonlabeled) was enantioselective. This is the first study which reports the enantioselective degradation of chiral BFRs in soils. Discrepancies between the enantiomer fraction (EF) of chemicals extracted from the soil by dichloromethane (DCM) and air were found. It is suggested that DCM removes both the sequestered and loosely bound fractions of chemicals in soil, whereas

  19. Detection of some organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardio, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Infanzon, R M; Rivera, J

    1996-01-01

    This monitoring study of 192 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean DDT and HCH levels were 0.057 and 0.098 mg/kg respectively expressed on fat basis and are within FAO tolerances and similar to those found in other tropical countries.

  20. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls by loaches living in rice paddy fields of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Xianbo; Zhang, Yichi; Ma, Xindong; Wang, Shuqiu; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in two loach species (Misgurnus mohoity and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) and the soils of their inhabiting rice paddies from three typical rice production bases of Northeast China to explore the main factors influencing the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of ∑18PCBs and ∑21OCPs in loaches were determined to be in the ranges of 0.14-0.76 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 1.19-78.53 ng g(-1) ww, respectively. Most of loaches showed the considerably high contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which accounted for over 97% of the total OCPs. The much lower maximum allowable loach consumption rates (<15 g d(-1)) indicated a high carcinogenic risk that results from the consumption of rice-field loaches. The field biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) was calculated as a main measure of bioaccumulation potential. The comparisons of BSAF values and the results of multivariate analysis indicated that habitat-specific environmental conditions, mainly the paddy soil contamination levels and average temperature, decisively affected the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. When the influence of lipid contents was offset, M. mohoity loaches were found to have a higher potential to accumulation PCBs and OCPs than P. dabryanus loaches, while the bioaccumulation potentials did not exhibit significant differences between juvenile and adult loaches and between male and female loaches. The octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) was the main chemical factor influencing bioaccumulation potentials. The BSAF values presented an increasing tendency with increasing log KOW values from 6.0 to approximately 7.0, followed by a decreasing tendency with a continuous increase in log KOW values. Moreover, loaches exhibited an isomeric-selective bioaccumulation for p

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in fish from southern Italian rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive use of pesticides in agricultural and municipal fields contributed all over the world to an effective increase of production and to a limitation of the vector injuries to health. However the large quantities of synthetic chemical products employed to achieve these purposes have resulted in an extended environmental pollution, especially worrying about the organochlorine insecticides that are very persistent and suspected of carcinogenicity. For these reasons, this group of pesticides has been banned or strongly restricted in many countries including Italy, where just Lindane and Endosulfan are now allowed in agriculture, representing only 7% of the annual use of synthetic pesticides. In order to control the amount of contamination of surface water from organochlorine pesticides, some surveys were carried out in northern and central Italy, but information regarding situation in southern Italy is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and the magnitude of chlorinated pesticide aquatic pollution in southern Italy by the analysis of some permanent freshwater fish species.

  2. A novel HS-SBSE system coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paula; Olivares, Igor R B; de Freitas, Diego R; Lancas, Fernando M

    2008-10-01

    A methodology to analyze organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples has been accomplished by using headspace stir bar sorptive extraction (HS-SBSE). The bars were in house coated with a thick film of PDMS in order to properly work in the headspace mode. Sampling was done by a novel HS-SBSE system whereas the analysis was performed by capillary GC coupled mass spectrometric detection (HS-SBSE-GC-MS). The extraction optimization, using different experimental parameters has been established by a standard equilibrium time of 120 min at 85 degrees C. A mixture of ACN/toluene as back extraction solvent promoted a good performance to remove the OCPs sorbed in the bar. Reproducibility between 2.1 and 14.8% and linearity between 0.96 and 1.0 were obtained for pesticides spiked in a linear range between 5 and 17 ng/g in water samples during the bar evaluation.

  3. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  5. Short-term variation in ambient concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of organochlorine pesticides in Izmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Cetin, Eylem; Bozacioglu, Sevde Seza; Sener, Gaye Devrim; Odabasi, Mustafa

    Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4 pg m -3 (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306 pg m -3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites. Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius-Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate ( p<0.1) and was not significant for other compounds (0-21% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). In addition to temperature, the effect of wind speed and direction was also investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and these three parameters together explained the 2% (aldrin) to 72% (endosulfan II) of the variability in gas-phase OCP concentrations. Results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that wind speed was a statistically significant factor for most of the OCPs and wind direction was important for some compounds. The temperature-dependent diurnal cycling of most OCPs was probably masked by the higher wind speeds observed during daytime periods with high temperatures, different source sectors and ongoing sources. The lack of correlation for heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p-p'-DDT) with temperature, wind speed and direction suggested that their concentrations were affected by long-range transport. The partitioning of OCPs between particle and gas phases was investigated and compared to KOA (octanol/air partition coefficient) absorption model. The overall agreement between experimental and modeled log K p (gas/particle partition coefficient) values was good ( p<0.01, slope=0.94). Prediction of absorption model for

  6. Organochlorine pesticide levels in breast milk in Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Dávila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2014-09-01

    In Mexico, organochlorine pesticides were used in public health and agriculture programs, causing chronic exposure to the population. Human breast milk samples were collected from 171 mothers who were residents from Guerrero, Mexico. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Median concentrations (mg/kg on fat basis) for the following pesticides were: HCB, 0.009; β-HCH, 0.004; pp'DDE, 0.760; op'DDT, 0.016; pp'DDT, 0.045; and Σ-DDT, 0.833. These values are lower than in other States in Mexico, and in some countries where the use of these pesticides was banned more than 30 years ago. Differences were found in HCB, pp'DDE and pp'DDT concentrations in groups divided according to age (p < 0.05). The older age groups had higher concentrations, except for the comparison between groups 21-23/24-28 years, which were 0.913 and 0.530 mg/kg of pp'DDE, respectively. Given the restrictions on use, a greater decrease in organochlorine pesticide levels in human milk is expected in a few years.

  7. Bioaccumulation and human health risk assessment of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in an apex aquatic predator from a premier conservation area.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Ruan; Smit, Nico J; Van Vuren, Johan H J; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Wepener, Victor

    2016-04-15

    With the second highest gross domestic product in Africa, South Africa is known to have a high pesticide usage, including the highly persistent and banned group of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). South Africa is also one of few countries to still actively spray DDT as malaria vector control. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aquatic biota in selected rivers of the world renowned Kruger National Park (KNP) are exposed to by use of OCPs in the catchments outside the KNP and how this exposure relates to human health. Tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) are economically important apex predators and was selected as bioindicator for this study. Fish were sampled from the KNP sections of the Luvuvhu, Letaba and Olifants rivers during the high and low flow periods from 2010 to 2011 within the KNP and 19 OCPs were determined in muscle tissue using GC-ECD techniques. Significant flow related and spatial OCP bioaccumulation was observed. Tigerfish from the Luvuvhu River displayed the highest OCP bioaccumulation. Concentrations of the majority of the OCPs including the DDTs were the highest levels ever recorded from South African freshwater systems and in many cases the concentrations were higher than most contaminated areas from around the world. The concentrations found in H. vittatus muscle also exceeded maximum residue levels in edible fat as set by the European Union. The health risk assessment also demonstrated that the levels of OCPs pose very high cancer risks to the local populations consuming tigerfish, as high as 2 in 10 increased risk factor. This is of concern not only when managing the water resources of the conservation area but also for surrounding communities consuming freshwater fish. Contaminants enter the park from outside the borders and pose potential risks to the mandated conservation of aquatic biota within the KNP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent organochlorine pesticide levels in bovine fat from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, S M; Gomez-Arroyo, S; Infanzon, R M; Carvajal, O; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Trujillo, P; Maxwell, M

    2004-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in agriculture as a seed dresser, in sanitation, in malaria control programmes and in livestock to combat ectoparasites. The pesticides applied drift to areas where cattle graze and plants grow. Because of their chemical stability, they accumulate in the lipid-rich tissues of the body. In the body, they circulate throughout all compartments and accumulate in adipose fat. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in bovine muscle fat and kidney fat from cows living in an endemic malaria zone, where the environmental contamination can be suspected as being higher. Two hundred samples (100 muscle fat, 100 kidney fat) were analysed by gas chromatography. From the pesticides, only hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), gamma-HCH, pp'-1.1.1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), op'-DDT and pp'-DDE, were detected frequently and at levels above the detection limits. The HCB mean level was low at 0.009 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomers, beta-HCH mean concentration was 0.039 mg kg(-1) and gamma-HCH was 0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. Among DDTs, pp'-DDT was the major constituent (0.032 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDE (0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) and op'-DDT (0.023 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis). The DDT total (sigma DDT) level was 0.067 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. Comparing the previous study (1994) and the present one (2002-03), organochlorine pesticide levels were decreased. HCB decreased 3.7 times from 0.033 to 0.009 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis; beta-HCH decreased 3.8 times from 0.149 to 0.039 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis; pp'-DDE did not reveal a significant difference at 0.026 versus 0.025 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. However, pp'-DDT decreased substantially, 6.7 times from 0.215 to 0.032 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. The DDT total decreased 3.5 times from 0.236 to 0.067 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. The tendency for reduced concentrations in organochlorine pesticide

  9. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni.

    PubMed

    Bussolaro, D; Filipak Neto, F; Glinski, A; Roche, H; Guiloski, I C; Mela, M; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Brazilian native freshwater fish. In order to evaluate the bioavailability, potential risk to human exposure and the effects of POPs in the fish Hypostomus commersoni, muscle and liver samples of thirteen specimens were collected in a lake located in the city of Ponta Grossa (Parana State, Southern Brazil). Also, the liver and gills were considered for histopathological studies, and oxidative stress was investigated in the liver. Expressive concentrations of POPs were observed in the liver and muscle, with a total of 427 ± 78.7 and 69.2 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) dry weights of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Negative correlations between the concentration of several POPs and glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found. Otherwise, the cholinesterase activity in the muscle and brain presented positive correlations with the concentration of POPs. The hepatic bioaccumulation of some banned pesticides like aldrin, dieldrin and DDT was associated with various histopathological findings in the liver and gills. Necrotic areas, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of macrophage centers were observed in the liver, indicating both chronic exposure and immunological suppression. Neoplasic changes were observed in the gills, confirming the carcinogenic potential reported for some of the investigated pollutants. The current work was the first to study the bioaccumulation of POPs in H. commersoni, an important species in ecological aspects and as a vehicle to human exposure to PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).

  10. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10(-5)Ω(-1)m(-1), 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t1/2=22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature.

  11. Using a passive air sampler to monitor air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the pasture of the central Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2017-02-15

    Air-soil exchange is a key process controlling the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the "sink effect" of soil for POPs in Tibetan pasture has not been clear. In NamCo, in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) where the land is covered by grass, a modified passive air sampler (PAS) (thickness: 2cm) was tested. Using the PAS, the atmospheric gaseous phase organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 11 heights from close-to-surface (2cm) to 200cm above ground, in summer and in winter, were measured. Concentrations of OCPs in summer were higher than those in winter. Both in summer and winter, atmospheric concentrations of OCPs decreased with decreasing height from 200 to 2cm, indicating that OCPs were being deposited from air to soil. Air deposition of OCPs was possibly driven by wind speed. Furthermore, based on air OCPs at 0-3cm near the surface, the interface exchange of OCPs between air and soil was studied by the fugacity method. The results showed that pastural soil in the TP was a "sink" of OCPs even in summer. The mean deposition fluxes of α-HCH, γ-HCH and o,p'-DDT were 0.72, 0.24 and 0.54pg/h/m(2), respectively, and it was estimated that the level of these pollutants in the soil will double every 24, 66 and 206years, respectively. This study will contribute to the further understanding of global cycling of POPs in different land covers.

  12. Effect of organochlorine pesticides exposure on the maize root metabolome assessed using high-resolution magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Claire; Khelalfa, Farid; Reynaud, Stéphane; Fauvelle, Florence; Raveton, Muriel

    2016-07-01

    (1)H-HRMAS NMR-based metabolomics was used to better understand the toxic effects on maize root tips of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely lindane (γHCH) and chlordecone (CLD). Maize seedlings were exposed to 2.5 μM γHCH (mimicking basic environmental contaminations) for 7 days and compared to 2.5 μM CLD and 25 μM γHCH for 7 days (mimicking hot spot contaminations). The (1)H-HRMAS NMR-based metabolomic profiles provided details of the changes in carbohydrates, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and fatty acids with a significant separation between the control and OCP-exposed root tips. First of all, alterations in the balance between glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were observed with sucrose depletion and with dose-dependent fluctuations in glucose content. Secondly, observations indicated that OCPs might inactivate the TCA cycle, with sizeable succinate and fumarate depletion. Thirdly, disturbances in the amino acid composition (GABA, glutamine/glutamate, asparagine, isoleucine) reflected a new distribution of internal nitrogen compounds under OCP stress. Finally, OCP exposure caused an increase in fatty acid content, concomitant with a marked rise in oxidized fatty acids which could indicate failures in cell integrity and vitality. Moreover, the accumulation of asparagine and oxidized fatty acids with the induction of LOX3 transcription levels under OCP exposure highlighted an induction of protein and lipid catabolism. The overall data indicated that the effect of OCPs on primary metabolism could have broader physiological consequences on root development. Therefore, (1)H-HRMAS NMR metabolomics is a sensitive tool for understanding molecular disturbances under OCP exposure and can be used to perform a rapid assessment of phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security.

  14. Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in surface and vertical sediments from the Zha Long Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangmin; Li, Jinchunzi; Yin, Lili; Liu, Liyan; Qi, Hong; Wu, Yining

    2011-08-01

    The Zha Long Wetland, the first water bird conservation area in China, lies on the northern bank of the Song Nen Plain with an area of 2,100 km(2). In many areas of the Zha Long Wetland, water pollution has led to a decrease in the wetland's ecological function, vegetation degradation, a decrease in the number of bird species, and the depletion of fish resources. The sediments used in this study were collected from the surface sediment of seven sites and from different depths in three types of marshes in the Zha Long Wetland in northeast China in late October 2006. The levels and distribution patterns of 17 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, and methoxychlor) in surface sediments as well as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in vertical sediments were investigated. The concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, heptachlors, aldrin, and methoxychlor in surface sediments ranged from 10.44 to 41.97 ng/g, nd (undetectable levels) to 211.88 ng/g, nd to 69.89 ng/g, nd to 28.10 ng/g, 9.81 to 623.83 ng/g, and from nd to 3.99 ng/g, respectively. The highest levels of OCPs were detected in Tangtugangzi at a total concentration of 727.72 ng/g, where the dominant compound was endrin at a concentration of 483.04 ng/g. In the vertical sediments, the HCHs and DDTs were in the ranges of nd-136.00 and nd-214.06 ng/g, respectively. Different distributions of HCHs, DDTs, and other OCPs indicated that they originated from different contamination sources. Composition analyses in surface sediments indicated recent OCP usage or discharge at some sample sites in the Zha Long Wetland.

  15. Sources of organochlorine pesticides in air in an urban Mediterranean environment: volatilisation from soil.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Gerhard; Klánová, Jana; Erić, Ljiljana; Ilić, Predrag; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kovacić, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) cycling was studied in the area of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over 3 days in summer with high temporal (4 h-means) and spatial (3 sites distanced 3-6 km) resolutions. Elevated levels of DDX compounds (i.e. o,p'- and p,p'-isomers of DDT, DDE and DDD, 44-74 pg m(-3) at the urban sites and 27 pg m(-3) as a background level), HCH (α-, β- and γ-isomers, 52-70 vs. 147 pg m(-3)), HCB (34-48 vs. <0.1 pg m(-3)) and pentachlorobenzene (6.8-9.9 vs. 6.0 pg m(-3)) were found. The variation of OCP levels at the two urban sites was not in phase, except for most DDX compounds. This was related to background levels, which for HCH were higher than in the urban area. Vertical profiles between samples collected from 1.1 and 2.3 m (part of the time 0.6 and 2.3 m) above a soil, which was only moderately contaminated by OCPs (0.12 ng g(-1) HCH, 0.11 ng g(-1) DDX, 0.44 ng g(-1) HCB) were analysed. Volatilisation from the ground caused negative vertical concentration gradients of HCH isomers (day and night), but not for HCB (except for 1 day-time sample) and DDX compounds (except p,p'-DDD, day-time, sporadically). The concentration in air and the vertical concentration gradient of the HCH isomers varied with air temperature (day-time maxima), while the variation of the HCB concentration was inversely related to air temperature and was determined by mixing (night-time maxima). α- and β-HCH were volatilised from soil throughout the three days, even during periods of cooling. Fugacity calculations, based on the absorption in soil organic matter as the process determining retention in soil, underestimated the volatilisation of β-HCH and p,p'-DDD. It is concluded that the representativeness of point measurements of OCPs in urban areas is limited by the spatial variability of soil contamination.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Replacing fish meal by food waste in feed pellets to culture lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of organochlorine pesticides: health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Man, Yu-Bon; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Li, Kai-Bing; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-12-01

    The present study used food waste (collected from local hotels and restaurants) feed pellets in polyculture of low-trophic level fish [bighead (Aristichtys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella)] aiming at producing safe and quality products for local consumption. The results indicated that grass carp (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) <0.03; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) 1.42-3.34 ng/g ww) and bighead carp (HCHs<0.03; DDTs 1.55-2.56 ng/g ww) fed with food waste feed pellets were relatively free of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The experimental ponds (water and sediment) were relatively free of OCPs, lowering the possibility of biomagnification of OCPs in the food chains within the ponds. The raw concentrations of OCPs extracted from the fish were not in the bioavailable form, which would ultimately reach bloodstream and exert adverse effects on human body. Health risk assessments based on digestible concentrations are commonly regarded as a more accurate method. The results of health risk assessments based on raw and digestible concentrations showed that the fish fed with food waste feed pellets were safe for consumption from the OCP perspective.

  18. Multiresidue analysis of 30 organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk powder by gel permeation chromatography-solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guocan; Han, Chao; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Meiwen; Wang, Chengjun; Shen, Yan

    2014-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of the 30 organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in milk and milk powder samples has been developed. Prior to the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the residual OCP in samples were extracted with n-hexane and acetone mixture (1/1, vol/vol) and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric data acquisition to identify and quantify the OCP. To avoid the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration solutions ranging from 2 to 50 ng/mL were used to record the calibration curve. Limits of quantification of all OCP were 0.8 μg/kg. With the exception of endrin, limits of quantification are significantly lower than maximum residue limits set by the European Union and China. The average recoveries were in the range of 70.1 to 114.7% at 3 spiked concentration levels (0.8, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/kg) with residual standard deviation lower than 12.9%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the OCP in commercial milk products. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic graphene as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Li, Xue; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Zai-Gen; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-07

    In this study, magnetic graphene was used as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tobacco. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS procedure toward target analytes, several parameters affecting the clean-up efficiency including the amount of the adsorbent and clean-up time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a method for the determination of 26 OCPs residues in tobacco was established by coupling the modified QuEChERS procedure to on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). The limits of detection of proposed method for 26 OCPs residues ranged from 0.01275 to 3.150ng/g. And good linearities of the proposed method were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9985 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility of method was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, the relative standard deviations were less than 11.1 and 15.0%, respectively. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 64-126% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of OCPs residues in tobacco, the proposed method has the advantages of simple to operate, low cost and high clean-up ability. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs residues in real samples.

  20. Novel magnetic SPE method based on carbon nanotubes filled with cobalt ferrite for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in honey and tea.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhuo; Liu, Miao; Li, Gongke

    2013-10-01

    A novel magnetic SPE method based on magnetic cobalt ferrite filled carbon nanotubes (MFCNTs) coupled with GC with electron capture detection was developed to determine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in tea and honey samples. The MFCNTs were prepared through the capillarity of carbon nanotubes for drawing mixed cobalt and iron nitrates solution into their inner cavity followed by heating to 550°C under Ar to form the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM images provided visible evidence of the filled cobalt ferrite nanoparticles in the multiwalled nanotubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated no adhesion of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and metal salts on the outer surface of the MFCNTs. Eight OCPs were extracted with the MFCNTs. The enrichment factors were in the range of 52-68 for eight OCPs. The LODs for the eight OCPs were in the range of 1.3-3.6 ng/L. The recoveries of the OCPs for honey and tea samples were 83.2-128.7 and 72.6-111.0%, respectively. The RSDs for these samples were below 6.8%. The new method is particularly suited to extract nonpolar and weakly polar analytes from a complex matrix and could potentially be extended to other target analytes.

  1. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida are exposed to high levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and dietary uptake is a significant route of exposure for these apex predators. The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary effects of two organochlorine pesticides (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; p, p' DDE and methoxychlor; MXC) on the reproductive axis of largemouth bass. Reproductive bass (late vitellogenesis) were fed one of the following diets: control pellets, 125ppm p, p'-DDE, or 10ppm MXC (mg/kg) for 84days. Due to the fact that both p,p' DDE and MXC have anti-androgenic properties, the anti-androgenic pharmaceutical flutamide was fed to a fourth group of largemouth bass (750ppm). Following a 3 month exposure, fish incorporated p,p' DDE and MXC into both muscle and ovary tissue, with the ovary incorporating 3 times more organochlorine pesticides compared to muscle. Endpoints assessed were those related to reproduction due to previous studies demonstrating that these pesticides impact the reproductive axis and we hypothesized that a dietary exposure would result in impaired reproduction. However, oocyte distribution, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin, and plasma sex steroids (17β-estradiol, E2 and testosterone, T) were not different between control animals and contaminant-fed largemouth bass. Moreover, neither p, p' DDE nor MXC affected E2 or T production in ex vivo oocyte cultures from chemical-fed largemouth bass. However, both pesticides did interfere with the normal upregulation of androgen receptor that is observed in response to human chorionic gonadotropin in ex vivo cultures, an observation that may be related to their anti-androgenic properties. Transcriptomics profiling in the ovary revealed that gene networks related to cell processes such as leukocyte cell adhesion, ossification, platelet function and inhibition, xenobiotic metabolism, fibrinolysis, and thermoregulation

  2. [Organochlorine pesticides in the general adult population of Biscay (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Zubero, Miren Begoña; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Ibarluzea, Jesús M; Goñi, Fernando; López, Raúl; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Rodríguez, Carlos; Sáenz, José Ramón

    2010-01-01

    To identify and analyze levels of seven organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), heptachlor epoxide, beta-endosulfan, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT)] in the serum of adults of four areas of Biscay (Spain) not exposed to known sources of pesticides. We analyzed 283 individual samples from volunteers recruited from the census. The volunteers were interviewed using a questionnaire with items on demographic variables and consumption. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for discrete variables and analysis of variance and multiple linear regression models for continuous variables. We detected p,p'-DDE in 100% of the volunteers (mean: 191.43ng/g lipid), while 31% had detectable levels of p,p'-DDT (mean: 18.9ng/g lipid). Detectable levels of HCB were found in 96.5% of the volunteers (mean: 78.56ng/g lipid), β-HCH in 90.4% (mean: 42.78ng/g lipid) and γ-HCH in 3.5%. Heptachlor epoxide and beta-endosulfan were not detected. In the regression model higher levels of all pesticides were found with increasing age (p<0.05). There were no significant differences by area of residence, except for HCB and p,p'-DDE. Women had significantly higher levels of HCB and β-HCH (p<0.001). Body mass index showed a significant positive gradient in HCB and β-HCH (p<0.05). There was no association between pesticides and other variables, breast feeding, occupation or social class. These results indicate that the general adult population of Biscay has been and is exposed to organochlorine pesticides. However, their levels are within the range observed by other authors. Copyright © 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Prepubertal Serum Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides and Age at Sexual Maturity in Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development. Objective We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (βHCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys. Methods From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) ≥ 20 mL in either testis. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV ≥ 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: –1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: –3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: –1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of βHCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6–9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend < 0.001), βHCH (trend p = 0.01), and p,p´-DDE (p trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between p,p´-DDE and Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth or TV ≥ 20 mL. Conclusions and relevance Higher prepubertal serum HCB and βHCH concentrations were associated with a later age at attainment of sexual maturity. Only the highest quartile of serum p,p´-DDE was associated with later pubic hair maturation. Citation Lam T, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Birnbaum LS, Burns JS, Sergeyev O

  4. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Lake Awassa in the Ethiopian Rift Valley: human health risks.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Skipperud, Lindis; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2014-08-01

    Dietary intake of fish containing organic contaminants poses a potential threat to human health. In the present work, an assessment has been carried out to look at the human health risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) in certain fish species collected from Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia. The health risk assessment was made by comparing the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in fish muscle tissues with reference doses given in the USEPA guidelines. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, PCBs and chloridanes were identified in fish species collected from Lake Hawassa. The most predominant pesticides were DDTs, with mean concentrations of ΣDDT ranging from 19 to 56 ng g(-1) wet weights. The highest concentrations of DDTs were found in Barbus intermedius, representing the highest trophic level. PCBs, DDT and endosulfan concentrations found in B. intermedius exceeded the reference dose for children between the ages of 0-1 year (with hazard index of above 1.0). Therefore, consumption of fish from a high trophic level (e.g. B. intermedius) from Lake Hawassa may pose a special health risk to children.

  5. Sources and fate of chiral organochlorine pesticides in western U.S. National Park ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan A; Hageman, Kimberly J; Ackerman, Luke K; Usenko, Sascha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2011-07-01

    The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), cis-, trans-, and oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were measured in 73 snow, fish, and sediment samples collected from remote lake catchments, over a wide range of latitudes, in seven western U.S. National Parks/Preserves to investigate their sources, fate, accumulation and biotransformation in these ecosystems. The present study is novel because these lakes had no inflow or outflow, and the measurement of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) EFs in snowpack from these lake catchments provided a better understanding of the OCP sources in the western United States, whereas their measurement in fish and sediment provided a better understanding of their biotic transformations within the lake catchments. Nonracemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from continental U.S. National Parks, and racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the Alaskan parks, suggesting the influence of regional sources to the continental U.S. parks and long-range sources to the Alaskan parks. The α-HCH EFs measured in trout collected from the lake catchments were similar to the α-HCH EFs measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the same lake catchments, suggesting that these fish did not biotransform α-HCH enantioselectively. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediment collected from Sequoia, indicating that it had not undergone significant enantioselective biotransformation in urban soils since its use as a termiticide in the surrounding urban areas. However, nonracemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediments from the Rocky Mountains, suggesting that cis-chlordane does undergo enantioselective biotransformation in agricultural soils. The trout from these lakes showed preferential biotransformation of the (+)-enantiomer of cis-chlordane and the (-)-enantiomer of trans-chlordane.

  6. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources and Fate of Chiral Organochlorine Pesticides in Western U.S. National Park Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Genualdi, Susan A.; Hageman, Kimberly J.; Ackerman, Luke K.; Usenko, Sascha; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2011-01-01

    The enantiomer fractions (EFs) of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), cis-, trans-, and oxychlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were measured in 73 snow, fish, and sediment samples collected from remote lake catchments, over a wide range of latitudes, in seven western U.S. National Parks/Preserves in order to investigate their sources, fate, accumulation and biotransformation in these ecosystems. The present study is novel because these lakes had no inflow or outflow and the measurement of chiral organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) EFs in snowpack from these lake catchments provided a better understanding of the OCP sources in the Western U.S., while their measurement in fish and sediment provided a better understanding of their biotic transformations within the lake catchments. Non-racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from continental U.S. National Parks, while racemic α-HCH was measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the Alaskan parks, suggesting the influence of regional sources to the continental U.S. parks and long-range sources to the Alaskan parks. The α-HCH EFs measured in trout collected from the lake catchments were similar to the α-HCH EFs measured in seasonal snowpack collected from the same lake catchments, suggesting that these fish did not biotransform α-HCH enantioselectively. Racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediment collected from Sequoia, indicating that it had not undergone significant enantioselective biotransformation in urban soils since its use as a termiticide in the surrounding urban areas. However, non-racemic cis-chlordane was measured in seasonal snowpack and sediments from Rocky Mountain, suggesting cis-chlordane does undergo enantioselective biotransformation in agricultural soils. The trout from these lakes showed preferential biotransformation of the (+)-enantiomer of cis-chlordane and the (−)-enantiomer of trans-chlordane. PMID:21462235

  8. Levels, seasonal variations and sources of organochlorine pesticides in ambient air of Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Li, Deliang; Mu, Dehai

    Air samples were collected at an urban site and a suburban site of Guangzhou city, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations and sources. The average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane and ∑DDTs in the air were 93, 287 and 351 pg m -3 at the urban site, and 94, 2258 and 399 pg m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. OCPs in the air were predominantly in gas phase in this study but their concentrations in particle phase were still not neglectable. The air concentrations and seasonal variations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs at the urban and suburban sites were similar without obvious difference. The seasonal variations of ∑chlordane concentrations were extremely different at the two sampling sites and the air concentrations were unusually high at suburban site, especially in April and May 2005. The potential sources of HCHs in the air of Guangzhou might come from lindane due to the relative low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios. Technical chlordane was likely used, especially at or near the suburban site, because the t-chlordane/ c-chlordane ratios were >1.2 and the air concentrations of chlordane were extremely high. Present usage of dicofol at or near Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was implied by the much higher ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) and o, p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT. The air concentrations of aldrich were low, and dieldrin and endrin were detected in none of the samples.

  9. Comparison of the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides by semipermeable membrane devices and caged fish (Carassius carassius) in Taihu Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ke, R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, S.; Wang, Z.; Huckins, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by crucian carp (Carassius carassius) was studied in Taihu Lake, a shallow, freshwater lake in China. Crucian carp and SPMDs were deployed side by side for 32 d. The first-order uptake rate constants of individual PAHs and OCPs for the two matrices were calculated and compared to relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the matrices to dissolved water concentrations. On a wet-weight basis, total concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp fillets averaged 49.5 and 13.6 ng/g, respectively, after the 32-d exposure, whereas concentrations in whole SPMDs averaged 716.9 and 62.3 ng/g, respectively. The uptake rate constants of PAHs and OCPs by SPMDs averaged seven- and fivefold higher, respectively, than those for crucian carp; however, the patterns of uptake rate constants derived from test chemical concentrations in the crucian carp and SPMDs were similar. Although equilibrium was not reached for some PAHs and OCPs during the 32-d exposure period, a reasonably good correlation between the concentration factors (CFs) and octanol/water partition coefficient (K ow) values of PAHs and OCPs in SPMDs (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) was observed when potential sorption to dissolved organic carbon was taken into account. Similar efforts to correlate the CFs and Kow values of PAHs and OCPs in crucian carp (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) were less successful, likely because of PAH metabolism by finfish. Overall, the present results suggest that SPMDs may serve as a surrogate for contaminant monitoring with fish in freshwater lake environments. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  10. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in internal organs of coypu, Myocastor coypus.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Ryszard; Beutling, Dorothea; Budzyk, Jolanta; Pietrzak, Marian; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    A highly selective and sensitive method based on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to identify and quantify persistent organochlorine pesticides, (18 compounds including primary compounds and metabolites), in animal internal organs (kidneys, liver, and brain) has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimized for each target compound in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode to obtain maximum sensitivity. Prior to instrumental analysis, a sample preparation method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by acidic digestion with sulfuric acid to reduce matrix co-extractives was employed. Analyses of real samples were carried out on coypus (Myocastor coypus) from the autumn slaughter of 19 animals. In the analyzed samples, three of the target compounds, namely DDE-pp' (DDT metabolite), HCB and lindane, were detected. Their concentration levels fell in the ranges of 0.003-0.007, 0.003-0.025, and 0.003-0.021 mg kg(-1) (0.005, 0.010, and 0.010 mg kg(-1) on average) in the case of DDE-pp', HCB and lindane, respectively. Although low quantities of organochlorine pesticides do not pose an immediate danger to consumers' health, they should be of public health concern considering long-term, low-dose exposure.

  11. Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Distribution and enantiomeric profiles of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent Arctic areas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meiqing; Fu, Jie; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Lina; Li, An

    2017-03-01

    The spatial distribution, compositional profiles, and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and chlordanes (CHLs), in the surface sediments in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent areas were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs varied from 0.64 to 3.17 ng/g dw, 0.19-0.65 ng/g dw, and 0.03-0.16 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea for most pollutants except for trans-CHL, ΣCHLs (sum of trans- and cis-chlordane) and p,p'-DDD. Concentration ratios (e.g., α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT) indicated that the contamination in the studied areas may result from inputs from multiple sources (e.g., historical usage of technical HCHs as well as new input of dicofol). Chiral analysis showed great variation in the enantioselective degradation of OCPs, resulting in excess of (+)-enantiomer for α-HCH in thirty of the 32 detectable samples, preferential depletion of (-)-enantiomer for o,p'-DDT in nineteen of the 35 detectable samples, and nonracemic in most samples for trans- and cis-chlordane. The ecological risks of the individual OCPs as well as the mixture were assessed based on the calculation of toxic units (TUs), and the results showed the predominance of DDT and γ-HCH in the mixture toxicity of the sediment. Overall, the TUs of OCPs in sediments from both the Bering and Chukchi Seas are less than one, indicating low ecological risk potential.

  13. Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides in cattle meat and organs slaughtered in selected towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Letta, Bayessa D; Attah, Louis E

    2013-01-01

    Residue levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in a total of 90 cattle samples comprising meat, liver and kidney collected from carcasses slaughtered in six towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia, (Ambo, Guder, Ginchi, Gedo, Holeta and Tikur Inchini), have been determined. The pesticides were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A good linearity (r(2) > 0.998) was found in the range 0.001-7.00 mg/kg for the samples studied. Most of the pesticides had recoveries in the range 81-99% and values of relative standard deviation (RSD) <7.2% for repeatability and reproducibility, showing good accuracy and precision of the method. The concentration level of the studied organochlorines followed the order: p, p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) > endosulfan>o,p'-DDT >lindane>dieldrin>endrin>aldrin>chlorothanolin while the order of contamination in the analyzed organs was liver > kidney > meat. Heat treatment of the meat, kidney and liver samples (boiling for 90 min.) produced an overall reduction of 62.2%, 44.5%, 37.7%, 29%, 31%, 34.3% and 30.8% in lindane, o, p'-DDT, endosulfan, p, p'-DDT, chlorothanolin, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin, respectively. Although the residual contents of the organochlorines detected in all the contaminated samples analyzed from the six cities were below the respective maximal permissible levels set by international organizations, samples from Holeta town were more contaminated and may necessitate effective monitoring as bioaccumulation of these residues may pose health problems in human beings.

  14. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area.

  15. Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: A case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin

    PubMed Central

    Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3 mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August–October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17β-estradiol (E2), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E2). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E2 had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E2 may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. PMID:23041725

  16. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated lake sediment using activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yao, Fu-Bing; Guo, Min; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment were a potential damage for humans and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of carbon materials remedy hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in sediment. Two different carbon materials including activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in the present research. Sediment treated with 2 wt% AC and MWCNTs after 150 d contact showed 97%, and 75% reduction for HCH, and 93% and 59% decrease for DDTs in aqueous equilibrium concentration, respectively. Similarly, the reduction efficiencies of DDT and HCH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) treated with AC (MWCNTs) were 97% (75%) and 92% (63%), respectively under the identical conditions. Furthermore, for 2 wt% AC (MWCNTs) system, a reduction of XAD beads uptake up to 87% (52%) and 73% (67%) was obtained in HCH and DDT flux to overlying water in quiescent system. Adding MWCNTs to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium concentration and DDTs and HCH availability in SPMDs compared to AC treatment. A series of results indicated that AC had significantly higher remediation efficiency towards HCH and DDTs in sediment than MWCNTs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of two organic pollutants improved with increasing material doses and contact times. The greater effectiveness of AC was attributed to its greater specific surface area, which was favorable for binding contaminants. These results highlighted the potential for using AC as in-situ sorbent amendments for sediment remediation.

  17. Ascorbic acid requirements and metabolism in relation to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Street, J C; Chadwick, R W

    1975-09-30

    Those organochlorine pesticides which possess both high lipoid solubility and high resistance to biodegradation are prone to accumulation in animal tissues and produce relatively long-term effects as toxicants. Such compounds, typified by DDT, Dieldrin, and Lindane, are profound inducers of hepatic microsomal enzymes, including parts of the glucuronic acid and ascorbic acid biosynthetic pathways. Consequently, administering such pesticides to rats in accompanied by enhanced formation and excretion of D-glucuronic acid and L-ascorbic acid, or D-glucaric acid in the case of guinea pigs. Secondarily, the efficiency in biodegrading the pesticides is reduced in ascorbic-acid-deficient guinea pigs with correspondingly greater residue accumulation in tissue. This would aggravate chronic toxic effects of the compounds. Finally, the capacity of the liver to adapt to the presence of such toxicants through enhanced microsomal enzymatic levels appears to be sensitive to its ascorbate status. Impaired enzyme induction is apparent quite early during ascorbic acid depletion in guinea pigs. The enhanced turnover of ascorbate produced by such pesticides, the poor enzymatic adaptation to them during ascorbate depletion and the dependency of the oxidase system upon adequate ascorbate, all point to the central significance of ascorbate status in the liver, and possibly other tissues, as a determinant of their chronic toxicity.

  18. A novel fully automated on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography technique used for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco and tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dawei; Fei, Ting; Sha, Yunfei; Wang, Leijun; Li, Gang; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan

    2014-12-29

    In this study, a novel fully automated on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography (LC-GC) technique was reported and applied for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) in tobacco and tobacco products. Using a switching valve to isolate the capillary pre-column and the analytical column during the solvent evaporation period, the LC solvent can be completely removed and prevented from reaching the GC column and the detector. The established method was used to determinate the OCPs in tobacco samples. By using Florisil SPE column and employing GPC technique, polarity impurities and large molecule impurities were removed. A dynamic range 1-100ng/mL was achieved with detection limits from 1.5 to 3.3μg/kg. The method exhibited good repeatability and recoveries. This technology may provide an alternative way for trace analysis of complex samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solvent-based de-emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of trace organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Roubos, Konstantinos; Dhima, Kico

    2010-09-17

    In this work, we propose solvent-based de-emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-DLLME) as a simple, rapid and efficient sample pretreatment technique for the extraction and preconcentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from environmental water samples. Separation and analysis of fifteen OCPs was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. The detection limits were in the range of 2-50 ng L(-1) using selective ion monitoring (SIM). The precision of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied between 3.5 and 10.2% (n=5). Results from the analysis of spiked environmental water samples at the low-ppb level met the acceptance criteria set by the EPA.

  20. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels <5.0 μg Pb/dL. Urinary As levels ranged from 5.4 to 199 μg As/L with an average value of 31.0 μg As/L. Levels > 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  1. Exposure Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides, Arsenic, and Lead in Children From the Major Agricultural Areas in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I.; Balderas-Cortés, José J.; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L.; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6–12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17–9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels <5.0 μg Pb/dL. Urinary As levels ranged from 5.4 to 199 μg As/L with an average value of 31.0 μg As/L. Levels > 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies. PMID:23254566

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in River Brahmaputra from the outer Himalayan Range and River Hooghly emptying into the Bay of Bengal: Occurrence, sources and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Khuman, Sanjenbam Nirmala; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Sampath, Srimurali; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Bang, John J; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios

    2016-12-01

    River Brahmaputra (RB) from the outer Himalayan Range and River Hooghly (RH), a distributary of River Ganga, are the two largest transboundary perennial rivers supplying freshwater to the northeastern and eastern states of India. Given the history of extensive usage of organochlorine pesticides and increasing industrialization along the banks of these rivers we investigated selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surface water of River Brahmaputra and River Hooghly. Geomean of ΣOCPs (53 ng L(-1)) and Σ19PCBs (108 ng L(-1)) was higher in RH compared with geomean of ΣOCPs (24 ng L(-1)) and Σ19PCBs (77 ng L(-1)) in RB. Among OCPs, γ-HCH showed maximum detection frequency in both the rivers reflecting ongoing lindane usage. DDT and endosulfan residues were observed at specific locations where past or ongoing sources exist. Elevated concentrations of heavier congeners (penta-hepta) were observed in those sites along RH where port and industrial activities were prevalent including informal electronic waste scrap processing units. Furthermore along River Hooghly PCB-126 was high in the suburban industrial belt of Howrah district. PCBs were found to be ubiquitously distributed in RB. Atmospheric transport of tri- and tetra-PCB congeners from the primary source regions might be a major contributor for PCBs in RB. Heavier congeners (penta-nona) in the urban centers of RB were likely due to industrial wastewater runoff from the oil refineries in the Brahmaputra valley. Σ19PCBs concentrations in this study exceeded the USEPA recommended limit for freshwater. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed the possibility of adverse impact on the organisms in the lower trophic level due to DDT and lindane contamination. Impact of endosulfan on fishes might be of considerable concern for aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides levels and associated factors in a group of blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Kuno, Rúbia; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Kussumi, Tereza Atsuko; Nakano, Viviane Emi; Rocha, Sonia Bio; de Oliveira, Maria Celeste Cardeal; de Albuquerque Kimura, Iracema; Gouveia, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is a worldwide public health concern given that high levels of these compounds in humans and animals can lead to serious health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the serum of 547 blood donors in the São Paulo metropolitan region (SPMR) in 2009 and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of these compounds. The OCPs were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were employed to determine the factors associated with higher levels. Only β-HCH and p,p'-DDE had a significant number of samples above the limit of quantification. Factors associated with higher levels of β-HCH were age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 3.1 [1.05-9.09]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 18.27 [6.89-48.91]), and female gender (OR = 0.44 [0.24-0.82] for men). p,p'-DDE levels were associated with age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 2.65 [1.20-3.45]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 4.59 [2.64-7.92]), female gender (OR = 0.86 [0.43-0.94] for men), and previous work with pesticides (OR = 2.88 [1.22-6.84]). Lower levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with an income of 3 to 5 minimum wages (OR = 0.38 [0.19-0.75]) and with intake of foods from animal origin up to twice a week (OR = 0.15 [0.03-0.72]) and more than twice a week (OR = 0.10 [0.02-0.47]). The results of this study indicate that the study group was not exposed to high levels of OCPs.

  4. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in organically-farmed vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zohair, Azza; Salim, Abou-Bakr; Soyibo, Adeola A; Beck, Angus J

    2006-04-01

    The residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils from organic farms and their uptake by four varieties of organic-produced potatoes and three varieties of organic carrots from England were investigated. Samples of the soils, crop peels and cores were all Soxhlet-extracted in triplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analysed by a multi-residue analytical method using gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in soils from organic farms ranged from 590+/-43 to 2301+/-146 microg/kg, 3.56+/-0.73 to 9.61+/-1.98 microg/kg and 52.2+/-4.9 to 478+/-111 microg/kg, respectively. Uptake by different crop varieties were 8.42+/-0.93 to 40.1+/-4.9 microg/kg sigmaPAHs, 0.83+/-0.19 to 2.68+/-0.94 microg/kg sigmaPCBs and 8.09+/-0.83 to 133+/-27 microg/kg sigmaOCPs. Residue uptake from soils depended on plant variety; Desiree potato and Nairobi carrot varieties were more susceptible to PAH contamination. Likewise, uptake of PCBs and OCPs depended on potato variety. There were significant positive correlations between the PCB and OCP concentrations (P<0.05) in soils and carrots but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of any contaminants in soils and potatoes. Peeling carrots and potatoes was found to remove 52-100% of the contaminant residues depending on crop variety and the properties of the contaminants. Soil-crop bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased with increasing logK(ow) for PAHs up to about 4.5 and for PCBs up to about 6.5, above which no changes were discernible for either class of contaminants. No relationship was observed between soil-crop BCFs and logK(ow) for OCPs, most likely because their concentrations were low and variable.

  5. Evaluation of activated carbon fiber filter for sampling of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Moriyama, Noboru; Mitobe, Hideko; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Takase, Yuuya; Shimizu, Ken ichi; Kitayama, Yoshie

    2003-08-01

    A simple method for quantitative analyses of organic chlorine pesticides (OCPs) in environmental water samples such as rainwater, river water and seawater using activated carbon fiber filters (ACFF) is described. ACFF was used as adsorbent to collect the chemicals in water samples. The collection of OCPs was completed almost for one day by stirring the mixture of the sample and the ACFF chips at room temperature. The adsorbed OCPs on the ACFF could be extracted easily with toluene-ethanol (4:1) mixed solvent. The purified extract by a florisil column chromatograph was followed by the analysis using high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer. Recoveries of OCPs spiked to actual samples such as rainwater, river water and seawater samples were approximately more than 80%, and the coefficients of variations were within 10%. This method was applied to the actual samples and was confirmed to be applicable for monitoring sub-ng/l level OCPs in environmental water samples.

  6. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  7. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  8. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  9. Human health risk assessment and dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides through air, soil and food crops (wheat and rice) along two tributaries of river Chenab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-09-01

    To assess the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination and their probable hazardous effects on human health; cereal crops (wheat and rice; n=28) agricultural soil (n=28) and air (n=6) samples were collected from Gujranwala division, Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs concentration ranged between 123 and 635 pg m(-3), 31 and 365 ng g(-1) (dw), 2.72 and 36.6 ng g(-1) (dw), 0.55 and 15.2 ng g(-1) (dw) for air, soil, rice and wheat samples, respectively. DDTs were the predominant over other OCPSs detected from screened samples while the source apportionment analysis suggested the new inputs of DDTs in the study area. EDI (estimated daily intake) of ∑OCPs through rice and wheat was found 39 and 40 ng kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) on the basis 95th percentile concentrations were exceeding the integrity for most of the investigated OCP in rice and wheat. The results revealed that there is a severe risk to the human population of the study area through consumption of contaminated cereal crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial trends, sources, and air-water exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes basin using low density polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-08-19

    Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air-water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m(3). Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression implied that both cropland and urban areas within 50 and 10 km buffer zones, respectively, were critical parameters to explain the total variability in atmospheric concentrations. Freely dissolved OCP concentrations (nondetect to 114 pg/L) were lower than previously reported. Aqueous half-lives generally ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 years. Nonetheless, concentrations of p,p'-DDE and chlordanes were higher than New York State Ambient Water Quality Standards for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in both lakes were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Flux calculations indicated net deposition of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor-epoxide, and α- and β-endosulfan (-0.02 to -33 ng/m(2)/day) and net volatilization of heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (0.0 to 9.0 ng/m(2)/day) in most samples.

  11. Spring Melt and the Redistribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Sea-Ice Environment: A Comparative Study between Arctic and Antarctic Regions.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Marie; Hawker, Darryl W; Cropp, Roger; Muir, Derek Cg; Jensen, Bjarne; Bossi, Rossana; Bengtson Nash, Susan M

    2017-08-15

    Complementary sampling of air, snow, sea-ice, and seawater for a range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was undertaken through the early stages of respective spring sea-ice melting at coastal sites in northeast Greenland and eastern Antarctica to investigate OCP concentrations and redistribution during this time. Mean concentrations in seawater, sea-ice and snow were generally greater at the Arctic site. For example, α-HCH was found to have the largest concentrations of all analytes in Arctic seawater and sea-ice meltwater samples (224-253 and 34.7-48.2 pg·L(-1) respectively compared to 1.0-1.3 and <0.63 pg·L(-1) respectively for Antarctic samples). Differences in atmospheric samples were generally not as pronounced however. Findings suggest that sea-ice OCP burdens originate from both snow and seawater. The distribution profile between seawater and sea-ice showed a compound-dependency for Arctic samples not evident with those from the Antarctic, possibly due to full submersion of sea-ice at the former. Seasonal sea-ice melt processes may alter the exchange rates of selected OCPs between air and seawater, but are not expected to reverse their direction, which fugacity modeling indicates is volatilisation in the Arctic and net deposition in the Antarctic. These predictions are consistent with the limited current observations.

  12. Spatial distribution and partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide in water and sediment from Sarno River and Estuary, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Nardone, Antonio; Esposito, Francesco; Triassi, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The Sarno River is nicknamed "the most polluted river in Europe". The main goal of this study is to enhance our knowledge on the Sarno River water and sediment quality and on its environmental impact on the gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) in order to become a useful assessment tool for the regional administrations. For these reasons, 32 selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and aldrin, α-BHC, β-BHC, δ-BHC, γ-BHC (lindane), 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulphate, endrin, endrin aldehyde, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide (isomer B) and methoxychlor were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 1.4 to 24.9 ng L(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 1.01 to 42.54 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. The concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) obtained in water (sum of DP and SPM) ranged from 0.54 to 7.32 ng L(-1) and from 0.08 to 5.99 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. Contaminant discharges of PCBs and OCPs into the sea were calculated in about 1,247 g day(-1) (948 g day(-1) of PCBs and 326 g day(-1) of OCPs), showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PCBs and OCPs to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

  13. Hollow fiber based liquid phase microextraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in ecological textiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jin'an; Chen, Guosheng; Qiu, Junlang; Jiang, Ruifen; Zeng, Feng; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) coupled gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was firstly developed to determine 10 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in ecological textiles. The present method can offer high separation efficiencies with minimal sample and solvent consumption. The extraction conditions were optimized, including the types of hollow fiber and organic solvent, the extraction time, the stirring and the salinity. Under the optimized conditions, the linear ranges of OCPs in cotton, terylene and fur samples were 5-1000 ng/g, 10-1000 ng/g and 10-800 ng/g, respectively, and the detection limit of the three samples were 0.07-2.30 ng/g, 0.89-1.66 ng/g and 0.06-1.04 ng/g, respectively. The optimized method was then successfully used to determine the OCPs in 3 kinds of spiked real samples, including cotton, terylene and fur. The good recoveries and RSDs of the quantification in real textile samples were obtained and the results were confirmed by the traditional liquid extraction method (GB/T 18412-2006). This study proved that the HF-LPME method, which was simple, low-cost and virtually solvent-free, was reliable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the harmful OCP residues in ecological textiles.

  14. Evaluation of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-µECD) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Jinglu; Jin, Miao; Fan, Chengxin

    2011-01-01

    The extraction efficiency of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method coupled with gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-µECD) for the simultaneous determination of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples was evaluated. The optimum conditions of DLLME for OCP measurement in water sample were determined with 10 µL of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and 1.5 mL of acetone as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively, all measurements were conducted under room temperature without the addition of salt. OCPs were extracted with good recoveries (60.35 - 107.89%) by the proposed method, except for heptachlor and aldrin due to the specific physico-chemical properties of these chemicals. Quantitative analysis showed that the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 9% and rather wider linear ranges (LRs) of 0.1 - 50 µg/L were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.21 - 11.65 ng/L and no significant matrix effects were observed. Obtained results demonstrated that DLLME coupled with GC-µECD was rapid, convenient and efficient for OCP analysis in water samples.

  15. The status of organochlorine pesticide contamination in the soils of the Campanian Plain, southern Italy, and correlations with soil properties and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chengkai; Albanese, Stefano; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Doherty, Angela L; Piccolo, Alessandro; Arienzo, Michele; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-09-01

    The distribution, inventory, and potential risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and their correlation with soil properties and anthropogenic factors were investigated in soils of the Campanian Plain. The total concentrations of HCHs and DDTs ranged from 0.03 to 17.3 ng/g (geometric mean: GM = 0.05 ng/g), and 0.08-1231 ng/g (GM = 14.4 ng/g), respectively. In general, the concentration of OCPs in farmland and orchards was higher than on land used for non-agricultural purposes. There are significant differences in the concentration of OCPs in the soils across the region, more specifically, the Acerra-Marigliano conurbation (AMC) and Sarno River Basin (SRB) are recognized as severely OCP-contaminated areas. The recent application of technical HCHs and DDTs in large quantities appears unlikely in light of the ratio of α-HCH/β-HCH and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE, and the prohibition of the use of these chemicals in Italy nearly forty years ago. The clear correlation between the concentration of DDTs and organic carbon suggests a typical secondary distribution pattern. The mass inventory of OCPs in soils of the Campanian Plain is estimated to have a GM of 17.3 metric tons. There is no clear evidence linking the impact of geographical distribution of OCPs on the incidence of cancer, and the 95% confidence interval of total incremental lifetime cancer risk (TILCR) data falls below the internationally accepted benchmark value of 1 × 10(-5).

  16. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface water of a megacity in central China: seasonal-spatial distribution and fate in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Wei, Liangfu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Surface water quality closely correlating with human health suffered increasing organochlorine pesticide (OCP) pollution due to the intensive anthropogenic activities in megacities. In the present study, 112 water samples collected from 14 lakes and 11 drinking water source sites in Wuhan were detected for the residues of OCPs in November 2013 and July 2014, respectively. The ΣOCPs ranged from 5.61 to 13.62 ng L(-1) in summer with the maximum value in Yezhi Lake and 3.18 to 7.73 ng L(-1) in winter with the highest concentration in Yandong Lake. Except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), OCP concentrations in summer were significantly higher than those in winter mostly due to the non-point source pollution including land runoff in summer. Source apportionment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs revealed the historical use of technical HCH and lindane and the new input of DDT, respectively. The spatial distribution of OCPs was not uniform in the surface water of Wuhan because of the significant influence of land development and fishery. The risk assessments showed the heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide in most sampling sites exceeded the threshold set by the European Union, indicating the possible adverse effects for aquatic lives. Negligible non-carcinogenic risks for drinking and bathing as well as carcinogenic risks for bathing were found in the surface water. However, the total carcinogenic risks of all OCPs (∑Rs) caused by drinking in summer were higher than the safe level of 10(-7) in all sampling sites. It was implied that the surface water in Wuhan was not safe for directly drinking without effective purification.

  18. [Pollution characteristics and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in groundwater at Xiaodian Sewage Irrigation Area, Taiyuan City].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-le; Zhang, Cai-xiang; Wang, Yan-xin; Liao, Xiao-ping; Yao, Lin-lin; Liu, Min; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sewage irrigation has been widely used in areas of water shortage in northern China, and it may introduce organic contaminants into groundwater. To characterize the organic contaminants in groundwater in sewage irrigation area, the Xiaodian sewage irrigation area in Shanxi Province was chosen as the case study area. A total of 16 groundwater samples (13 from shallow aquifer, 3 from deep aquifer) were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were ainalyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged from 13.98 to 505.89 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 115.67 ng x (L)(-1). The 2 and 3 ring-PAHs were the main components, while naphthalene and phenanthrene were most frequently detected. The concentrations of OCPs were in the range of 13.91-103.23 ng x L(-1) with an average concentration of 40.99 ng x L(-1), while alpha-HCH, delta-HCH, o,p'-DDD, Aldrin, Endosulfan-sulfate and HCB were most frequently detected. Overall, shallow aquifers appeared more contaminated with these pollutants than deep aquifers. In the area, the order of the organic contaminants concentration in groundwater was: East Main Channel < Beizhang Drainage < Taiyu Drainage, which indicated the quality of groundwater was influenced by the sewage irrigation.

  19. Micro-solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides using porous metal-organic framework MIL-101 as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-07-03

    In this study, a metal-organic framework material, MIL-101, used as a micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) sorbent for efficient enrichment of five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including α-HCH, Aldrin, α-Chlordane, Dieldrin and p,p'-DDD from water samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, is reported. This study demonstrated a new application of MIL-101 using μ-SPE, an advantage of the latter being its ability to process complex aqueous matrices, due to the protection of the sorbent afforded by the hollow fiber membrane bag. Key factors affecting extraction efficiency were studied, including elution solvent, extraction and desorption time. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the calibration plots were linear from 0.05 to 50 ng/mL for α-HCH and p,p'-DDD, and 0.1 to 50 ng/mL for the other three analytes. The limits of detection were between 0.0025 and 0.016 ng/mL. The relative recoveries of the OCPs spiked into real water samples (at 5 ng/mL of each analyte) ranged from 87.6 to 98.6% with relative standard deviations of <10%.

  20. Bioconcentration of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in algae is an important contaminant route to higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yao-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y; Qiu, Hanlin; Yu, Kefu; Cai, Shuqun

    2017-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) present in water may be bioconcentrated in phytoplankton and further transferred into higher trophic levels. In the present study, seawater, sediment, phytoplankton and macroalgae (Ulva lactuca L.) samples were collected from two estuarine bays in South China and analyzed for 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentrations of PBDE congeners except BDE-209 were low in both phytoplankton and Ulva. BDE-209 was the predominant congener in phytoplankton and Ulva, accounting for 89.5% and 86.6% of the total average concentrations of PBDEs (48.5 and 4.1ngg(-1)dw), respectively. The average concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDMU) in phytoplankton were 398, 241 and 11.3ngg(-1)dw, respectively, while those of DDTs and HCHs in Ulva were 8.4 and 33.1ngg(-1)dw. The levels of both PBDEs and OCPs were an order of magnitude higher in phytoplankton than in Ulva, indicating that phytoplankton with larger surface areas have higher uptake efficiency for POPs than Ulva. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of DDT and PBDE in phytoplankton from the two bays were in the range of 10(5)-10(6), suggesting that bioconcentration may be one of the key sources of POPs and algae can be an important route for POPs to move toward higher trophic levels.

  1. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible fish species from the Shadegan Marshes (Iran).

    PubMed

    Davodi, Morteza; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Bahramifarr, Nader

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in 8 fish species collected during October and November 2007 from the largest Iranian wetland, the Shadegan Marshes. Fishes were selected on the basis of their importance in the local diet and feeding behavior. In all samples, OCPs were found in higher concentrations than PCBs. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) had the highest OCs (1680 ng/g lipid wt.), with DDTs being most prevalent and p,p'-DDE contributing by 53-88% to the total DDTs. In all samples, OCs were found in order of DDTs>HCHs>PCBs>HCB. The highest concentration of HCHs was found in common carp (410±180 ng/g lipid wt.) and α-HCH was the predominant compound among HCH isomers (range 70-90%, mean 82%) in all species. All samples contained PCBs and CB 28 (37%) and CB 52 (26%) were the most frequently occurring congeners. common barbel (Barbus barbulus) (70±17 ng/g lipid wt.) exhibited the highest concentrations of HCB. OC levels in fish were relatively low, but the levels of several OCs in some of our specimens exceed the guidelines for food safety issued by the European Union (EU) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  2. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residue in sediment and water from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Atiemo, Sampson Manukure; Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei; Blankson-Arthur, Sarah; Tutu, Anita Osei; Fosu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the aquatic ecosystem from the Densu river revealed varying levels of concentration in water and the sediment samples. Three locations were sampled along the river to evaluate the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in the river. Sediment and surface water samples were extracted by soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively and analyzed using Gas Chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The other pesticides that were investigated are gamma-chlordane, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The order of increasing frequency of detection of samples was higher in sediment than water. In sediment, the mean concentration ranged from 0.030 μg kg(-1) dry weight (endrin) to 10.98 μg kg(-1) dry weight (aldrin). The highest detected concentration of organochlorine in water was endosulfan sulfate with mean concentration of 0.185 μg L(-1). Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for most organochlorine pesticide residue in the sediment sampled from the various locations. Some of the levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water were relatively high compared to guideline values set by World Health Organization and Australia and thus could be harmful if the trend is not checked.

  3. Application of the QuEChERS method for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in Brazilian fruit pulps by GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Paz, Mário; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Vidal, Carla B; Becker, Helena; Longhinotti, Elisane; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-01-02

    The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide. The results showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9916) and the overall average recoveries were considered satisfactory obtaining values between 69 and 110%, RSD of 2-15 %, except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in açai, acerola and guava pulp samples. The OCPs were detected in guava (α-HCH; lindane) and soursop (α, β-HCH isomers) samples. The QuEChERS method and GC-ECD were successfully used to analyze OCPs in commercially available Brazilian fruit pulps and can be applied in routine analytical laboratories.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of 17 organochlorine pesticides in natural medicines by GC/MS with negative chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji; Takagi, Sokichi; Satsuki, Yuka; Nakamura, Akihiko; Okihashi, Masahiro; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Obana, Hirotaka; Kitagawa, Mikiya

    2007-07-01

    Many methods for the determination of pesticide residues in food have been reported. Although natural medicines should be confirmed to be as safe as food, few methods for the determination of pesticide residues in natural medicines have been reported. In this study, 17 organochlorine pesticides were detected in natural medicines using GC/MS with negative chemical ionization (NCI). GC/MS with NCI can detect halogenated pesticides selectively and thus is suitable for the detection of organochlorine pesticides. This study indicates that GC/MS with NCI is useful for analyzing organochlorine pesticides in natural medicines.

  5. Selected organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of major Indian cities: levels, regional versus local variations, and sources.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    India has extensive production and usage of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for agriculture and vector control. Despite this, few data are available on the levels and distribution of OCPs in the urban atmosphere of India. Passive and active air sampling was therefore conducted between Dec 2006 and March 2007 in 7 metropolitan cities: New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Goa, and Agra. Concentrations (pg·m(-3)) were as follows: HCHs 890-17000 (mean: 5400 ± 4110); DDTs 250-6110 (1470 ± 1010); chlordanes 290-5260 (1530 ± 790); endosulfans 240-4650 (1040 ± 610); and hexachlorobenzene 120-2890 (790 ± 510). HCHs observed in India appear to be the highest reported across the globe. Chlordanes and endosulfans are lower than levels reported from southern China. Passive sampling enabled within- and between-city variations to be assessed. As expected, paired-sample t-test analysis revealed higher regional than local variation. Comparisons with the limited data available from studies conducted in 1989 suggest general declines of HCHs and DDTs for most regions. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal, reflecting widespread use of Lindane in India, although the isomeric composition in Kolkata suggests potential technical HCH use. High o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios in northern India indicate recent DDT usage. High HCB levels in the industrial areas of New Delhi and Kolkata indicate ongoing sources. Correlation between trans- and cis-chlordane implies ongoing usage. Endosulfan sulfate generally dominated the endosulfan signal, but high values of α/β-endosulfan at Chennai, Mumbai and Goa suggest ongoing usage. Backward trajectories were computed using the NOAA HYSPLIT model to trace the air mass history. Result shows local/regional sources of OCPs within India.

  6. Residue patterns of currently, historically and never-used organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils across China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Siyu; Liu, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with different usage states, such as currently, historically or never used, may show different behaviors and potential risks in the environment. It is essential to identify their distribution patterns and fates and to assess their associated health risks to humans. In this study, based on a nationwide sampling campaign across China, we determined the concentrations of currently (endosulfan), historically (chlordane and heptachlor) and never-used (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) OCPs in agricultural soils. The total residue inventories of ∑Endosulfans, ∑Chlordanes, heptachlor and ∑Drins in soils were 260, 64.3, 54.2 and 88.6 t, respectively. The residues of endosulfan were influenced by current usage, showing a latitude transect trend. Drins were mainly from long-range transport, but the illegal usage in China still affected their residues. This finding indicates that endosulfan and drins in Chinese agricultural soils mainly follow the primary and secondary distribution pattern, respectively. Both primary and secondary distribution have a great impact on the distribution pattern of chlordane, which had been banned for only 4 years at the time we sampled. The health risks of these OCPs were estimated based on their concentrations. There were 0.813% and 1.63% of samples that exceeded the target values for chlordane and endrin according to the Netherlands guideline for unpolluted soil. Their residues in most of the samples posed no or few non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to human beings. The results from this study will provide powerful support for pollution control and management.

  7. Evaluation of enhanced soil washing process and phytoremediation with maize oil, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, and vetiver grass for the recovery of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from a pesticide factory site.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Liu, Zongtang; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Gu, Chengang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in a mixed contaminated site. Elevated temperature (60 °C) combined with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 50 mL L(-1) maize oil and 45 g L(-1) carboxylmethyl-β-cyclodextrin were effective in extracting pollutants from the soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total OCPs, mirex, endosulfans, chlordanes, Cd, and Pb were approximately 94.7%, 87.2%, 98.5%, 92.3%, 91.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. Cultivation of vetiver grass and addition of nutrients for 3 months further degraded 34.7% of the residual total OCPs and partially restored the microbiological functions of the soil. This result was indicated by the significant increase in the number, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p < 0.05). After the treatment, the residual OCPs and heavy metals existed as very slowly desorbing fraction and residual fraction, as evaluated by Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model and sequential extraction. Moreover, the secondary environmental risk of residual pollutants in the remediated soil was at an acceptable level. The proposed combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly.

  8. The legacy of organochlorine pesticide usage in a tropical semi-arid region (Jaguaribe River, Ceará, Brazil): Implications of the influence of sediment parameters on occurrence, distribution and fate.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, André H B; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Duaví, Wersângela C; Fernandes, Gabrielle M; Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Queiroz, Maria E L R; Mendonça, Kamila V

    2016-01-15

    Between the 1940s and 1990s, immeasurable amounts of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were used in endemic disease control campaigns and agriculture in the tropical semi-arid regions of Brazil. The present study evaluated the legacy of banned OCP usage, considering the levels, ecological risk and dependence on sediment physicochemical properties for the fate and distribution in the Jaguaribe River. The sum concentration of OCPsOCPs) ranged from 5.09 to 154.43 ng·g(-1), comparable to the levels found in other tropical and subtropical regions that have traditionally used OCPs. The environmental and geographical distribution pattern of p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD and p,p-DDE shows that the estuarine zone contained more than 3.5 times the levels observed in the fluvial region, indicating that the estuary of the Jaguaribe River is a sink. The temporal pattern indicates application of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) in the past; however, there is evidence of recent input of these pesticides. High ecological risk was observed for levels of γ-hexachlorocyclohexanes (γ-HCH) and heptachlor, and moderate ecological risk was observed for levels of DDTs in sediments from the Jaguaribe River. The heptachlor, γ-HCH and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations depend on the organic and inorganic fractions of sediment from the Jaguaribe River, whereas the p,p-DDE, p,p-DDD, p,p-DDT and α-endosulfan concentrations depend solely on the organic fraction of the sediment.

  9. The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from iSimangaliso Wetland Park: Ecological risks and implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Buah-Kwofie, Archibold; Humphries, Marc S

    2017-10-01

    The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km(2) and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay). ∑HCH and ∑DDT were the dominant contaminants detected with concentrations in the range of 26.29-282.5 ng/g and 34.49-262.4 ng/g, respectively. ∑DDT concentrations revealed a distinctive gradient, with significantly higher concentrations at Kosi Bay and Lake Sibaya attributed to the application of DDT for malaria control. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the dominant isomers detected, but the detection of p,p'-DDT in a number of samples reflects recent inputs of technical DDT. Highest concentrations of HCH, endosulfan and heptachlor were detected in sediments from Mkhuze and reflect the substantial residue load these wetlands receive from agricultural activities within the catchment area. Isomeric compositions indicate that endosulfan and heptachlor residues are derived mainly from historical application, while inputs of HCH, aldrin and endrin could be attributed to more recent usage at several sites. OCP sediment concentrations from iSimangaliso represent the highest yet recorded in South Africa and some of the highest reported globally this century. Sediments found within the lakes and wetlands of iSimangaliso represent large reservoirs of contaminants that pose ecotoxicological threats to this globally important biodiversity hotspot. Detailed investigation into the bioaccumulation and toxicological risks of OCPs within

  10. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residue in fishes from the Densu river basin, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kuranchie-Mensah, Harriet; Yeboah, Philip O; Nyarko, Elvis; Golow, Abledze A

    2013-04-01

    The study was carried out to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in five fish species Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Heterotis niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus from the Densu river basin (Weija) in Ghana. The fishes sampled from the Weija fish landing site were selected on the basis of their importance to local human fish consumption. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), δ-Hexachlorocyclohexane, aldrin and dieldrin. Others investigated were alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The total contamination levels of the individual fishes varied in the decreasing order of 9.19 ng g(-1) (O. niloticus), 4.16 ng g(-1) (T. zilli), 3.69 ng g(-1) (C. nigrodigitatus), 3.68 ng g(-1) (H. odoe) and 3.09 ng g(-1) (H. niloticus). The highest organochlorine pesticide residue recorded in the study was alpha-endosulfan while dieldrin was the least pesticide observed. Analysis of variance indicated significant statistical differences for most organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples. The levels of organochlorine pesticides found in fish samples in the study were below maximum residue limit for food safety stipulated by EU, US FDA, FAO, Italy and Australia and thus safe for human consumption.

  11. Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    A mortality study of workers at four organochlorine pesticide manufacturing factories was updated through 1987. The cohorts included all white male workers employed for at least 6 months before December 31, 1964 at the four factories. The workers had been exposed to the following organochlorine pesticides: chlordane, heptachlor, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Workers at one factory had been exposed to the organobromine pesticide dibromochloropropane. The total number of deaths for the period from 1976 through 1987 was 650. Mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms was lower than expected at each of the factories. Cerebrovascular disease mortality was elevated for three of the four factories. The most important result was the statistically significant increase in liver/biliary tract cancer among workers at the facility where aldrin and dieldrin were the primary organochlorine pesticides produced and the nonsignificant increase at the facility where DDT was manufactured.

  12. Sexually dimorphic transcriptomic responses in the teleostean hypothalamus: a case study with the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2013-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as dieldrin are a persistent class of aquatic pollutants that cause adverse neurological and reproductive effects in vertebrates. In this study, female and male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) were exposed to 3mg dieldrin/kg feed in a 2 month feeding exposure (August-October) to (1) determine if the hypothalamic transcript responses to dieldrin were conserved between the sexes; (2) characterize cell signaling cascades underlying dieldrin neurotoxicity; and (3) determine whether or not co-feeding with 17β-estradiol (E(2)), a hormone with neuroprotective roles, mitigates responses in males to dieldrin. Despite also being a weak estrogen, dieldrin treatments did not elicit changes in reproductive endpoints (e.g. gonadosomatic index, vitellogenin, or plasma E(2)). Sub-network (SNEA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that neuro-hormone networks, neurotransmitter and nuclear receptor signaling, and the activin signaling network were altered by dieldrin exposure. Most striking was that the majority of cell pathways identified by the gene set enrichment were significantly increased in females while the majority of cell pathways were significantly decreased in males fed dieldrin. These data suggest that (1) there are sexually dimorphic responses in the teleost hypothalamus; (2) neurotransmitter systems are a target of dieldrin at the transcriptomics level; and (3) males co-fed dieldrin and E(2) had the fewest numbers of genes and cell pathways altered in the hypothalamus, suggesting that E(2) may mitigate the effects of dieldrin in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    PubMed

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in rice hull from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China: temporal trend, source, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Liao, Chunyang; Fu, Jianjie; Lv, Jungang; Xue, Qinzhao; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-02-01

    The residue levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 16 selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in rice and rice hull collected from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China were investigated from 2005 to 2007. PAHs and OCPs also were measured in ten mollusk species (soft tissues) collected in an adjacent bay in 2007. Individual PAHs were frequently found in the entire sample set (including the rice, hull, and mollusk samples) with a detection rate of 73 %. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) and 16 OCPsOCPs) were in the range of 40.8-432 ng/g dry weight (mean: 171 ng/g) and 2.35-925 ng/g (122 ng/g), respectively, which were comparable or higher than those reported in some polluted areas. Statistical comparisons suggested that the concentrations of contaminants in hull gradually decreased from 2005 to 2007 and the residue levels were generally in the order of mollusk, hull, and rice, on a dry weight basis. Principal component analysis in combination with diagnostic ratios implied that combustion of coal, wood, and plastic wastes that are closely associated with crude e-waste recycling activities is the main source of PAHs. The finding of decreasing trend of concentrations of PAHs in this area is consistent with the efforts of local authorities to strengthen regulations on illegal e-waste recycling activities. Composition analysis suggested that there is a recent usage or discharge of hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane into the tested area. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of ΣPAHs and ΣOCPs (calculated from mean concentrations) through rice and mollusk consumption was 0.411 and 0.921 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day, respectively.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with <54% hatch rates (1,119 vs. 201 pmol/g). These results suggest that thiamine deficiency might be playing an important role in alligator embryo survival but not in reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, north-western New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy B; Ghadiri, Hossein; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Harden, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and DDE have been detected in the surface 0.2m of Vertisols in the lower Namoi Valley of north western New South Wales, Australia even though they have not been applied to crops since 1982. However, their presence in the deeper soil horizons has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if OCPs were present to a depth of 1.2m in Vertisols under irrigated cotton farming systems in the lower Namoi Valley of New South Wales. Soil was sampled from the 0-1.2m depths in three sites, viz. the Australian Cotton Research Institute, ACRI, near Narrabri (149°36'E, 30°12'S), and two cotton farms near Wee Waa (149°27'E, 30°13'S) and Merah North (149°18'E, 30°12'S) in northern New South Wales, Australia. The OCPs detected and their metabolites were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, DDD, DDE, DDT and endrin. The metabolite DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, was the most persistent OCP in all depths analysed. Endosulfan sulphate was the second most persistent followed by endrin>α-endosulfan>β-endosulfan>DDT and DDD. DDT was sprayed extensively in the lower Namoi Valley up to the early 1980s and may explain the persistence of DDE in the majority of soil samples. Dicofol and Dieldrin, two OCPs previously undocumented in Vertisols were also detected. The movement of OCPs into the subsoil of Vertisols may occur when irrigation or rain transports soil colloids and organic matter via preferential flow systems into the deeper layers of a soil profile. Persistence of OCPs was closely correlated to soil organic carbon concentrations. The persistence in soil of OCP's applied to cotton crops grown more than two decades ago suggests that they could enter the food chain. Their presence at depths of 1.2m suggests that they could move into groundwater that may eventually be used for domestic and stock consumption. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in umbilical cord blood and related lifestyle and dietary intake factors among pregnant women of the Huaihe River Basin in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Pu, Yabing; Tian, Haoyuan; Cheng, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tao, Yun; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Xin; Mei, Surong

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with highly lipophilic properties, long half-lives, and persistence in the environment, are prevalent in the environment even though they have been banned for >30years. We aimed to investigate the current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from healthy pregnant women residing in the Huaihe River Basin, China, and examined the association between OCP levels and dietary habits and lifestyle factors. In this study, we measured the exposure levels of 17 OCPs in the umbilical cord blood from 999 healthy pregnant women; we also administered 1000 self-reported questionnaires regarding the general characteristics and dietary habits of those women. Our results showed that ρ,ρ'-DDE, ρ,ρ'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor, which had higher measured concentrations (2.01±1.89, 4.31±5.68, 7.29±8.74, 5.27±7.65, and 0.98±1.42ng/mL, respectively) and detection frequencies (99.69%, 100.00%, 81.79%, 75.00%, and 74.49%, respectively), were the predominant OCPs in cord blood, and the higher levels of DDTs, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor were mainly due to recent use. In addition, most of the HCHs in cord blood were derived not only from historical use of technical HCH, but also from the additional use of lindane. In addition, we found that the education level of the pregnant women and monthly household income were positively correlated with OCP levels, particularly ρ,ρ'-DDE, aldrin, and dieldrin. Furthermore, the consumption of red meat (pork, beef, and lamb), fish, and bean products may be an important contributing factor to the increased concentrations of OCPs in cord blood, while the intake of poultry and pickles was negatively correlated with aldrin level. This study is the first to provide adequate data on current OCP exposure levels in cord blood from pregnant women in the Huaihe River Basin.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa. A.; Sjödin, Andreas; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Zerbo, Ousseny; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Objectives: We aimed to determine whether prenatal exposure to PCBs and OCPs influences offspring risk of ASD and intellectual disability without autism (ID). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study among Southern California births, including children with ASD (n = 545) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and ID (n = 181), as well as general population (GP) controls (n = 418). Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners and 2 OCPs measured in banked second-trimester serum samples were compared between the diagnostic groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for associations with ASD, and separately for ID, compared with GP controls, by quartiles of analyte concentrations in primary analyses. Results: Geometric mean levels of several PCB congeners were higher in the ASD group than in the ID and GP groups. ASD risk was elevated for a number of PCB congeners, particularly for the highest vs. lowest quartile of PCB138/158 (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.71) and PCB153 (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.02), and for highest deciles of other congeners in secondary analyses. PCB138/158 was also associated with increased ID (AOR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.91), though no trend was suggested. OCPs were not associated with increased risk of ASD in primary analyses, whereas nonmonotonic increases in risk of ID were found with p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Our results suggest higher levels of some organochlorine compounds during pregnancy are associated with ASD and ID. Citation: Lyall K, Croen LA, Sjödin A, Yoshida CK, Zerbo O, Kharrazi M, Windham GC. 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples: association with

  19. Accidental organochlorine pesticide contamination of soil in Porrino, Spain.

    PubMed

    Vega, F A; Covelo, E F; Andrade, M L

    2007-01-01

    In the 1960s at Porriño, Spain, soil from a pesticide factory dump was placed in an uncontrolled land infill during demolition. Since then, organochlorine pesticides have degraded and migrated from their original location. Concentrations of lindane, DDT, dicofol, and related side products or degradation products were determined at depths of 0 to 20, 20 to 60 and 60 to 100 cm along a 300-m transect running between the land infill and a nearby river. Depthwise nonmonotonicities (lowest concentrations of DDT and dicofol were found in the 20- to 60-cm layer) were attributed to the occurrence of several successive spill episodes; in general, concentrations were highest or near-highest in the 0- to 20-cm layer. At the dump site, the analyte contents of the 0- to 20-cm layer were as follows: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), 25 mg kg-1; beta-HCH, 15 mg kg-1; gamma-HCH (lindane), 1.3 mg kg-1; delta-HCH, 0.5 mg kg-1; DDT, 2.5 mg kg-1; dicofol, 0.05 mg kg-1; DDD+DDE, 2.2 mg kg-1. The alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH ratio was higher than in commercial products, and the DDT/(DDD + DDE) ratio lower, suggesting the degradation of lindane and DDT with time. In general, the concentrations of HCH isomers, DDT, and dicofol fell with increasing distance from the dump site; in particular, the rapid fall in HCH concentrations illustrates the marked immobility of these species in the soil. By contrast, the combined concentration of the DDT degradation products DDD and DDE rose with distance from the dump site, which is attributed to their higher mobility.

  20. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  1. Distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticide in the water environment in Lanzhou section of Yellow River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Zhao, X.; Shen, J. M.; Chen, Z. L.; Wang, X. C.; Qiu, H. R.

    2017-04-01

    Surface water, surface sediments and suspended particles in the Lanzhou section of Yellow River were collected. After the samples were lyophilised, extracted, concentrated, purified and separated, organochlorine pesticides in the samples were analysed by GC-MS. Results showed that organochlorine pesticide contents in surface water, surface sediments and suspended particles ranged from 28.63 ng/L to 123.2 ng/L, from 0.86 ng/g to 4.51 ng/g and from 23.29 ng/g to 126.14 ng/g, respectively. HCHs, DDTs and HCB were high; among these contents, HCH contents ranged from 1.49 ng/L to 18.1 ng/L, from 0.04ng/g to 1.53 ng/g and from 2.74ng/g to 25.64 ng/g, respectively. DDT contents ranged from 1.49 ng/Lto 18.1 ng/L, from 0.04 ng/g to 1.53 ng/g and from 2.74 ng/g to 25.64 ng/g, respectively. Component analysis results showed that organochlorine pesticide in the Lanzhou section of Yellow River was mainly from early residues or soil after pesticides were applied and long-term weathering occurred. Correlation analysis results showed that total organic carbon was an important factor affecting the distribution of organochlorine pesticide in sediments. Moderate organochlorine pesticide contents were detected in surface water in Lanzhou section of Yellow River compared with other rivers in our country and in other countries. Furthermore, the ecological risk of organochlorine pesticide in surface sediments was low.

  2. Magnetic porous carbon derived from a bimetallic metal-organic framework for magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides from drinking and environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaxi; Gao, Zongjun; Wu, Ri; Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Chan, T-W Dominic

    2017-01-06

    In this work, magnetic porous carbon material derived from a bimetallic metal-organic framework was explored as an adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The synthesized porous carbon possessed a high specific surface area and magnetization saturation. The OCPs in the samples were quantified using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The experimental parameters, including the desorption solvent and conditions, amount of adsorbent, extraction time, extraction temperature, and ionic strength of the solution, were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the developed method displayed good linearity (r>0.99) within the concentration range of 2-500ngL(-1). Low limits of detection (0.39-0.70ngL(-1), signal-to-noise ratio=3:1) and limits of quantification (1.45-2.0ngL(-1), signal-to-noise ratio=10:1) as well as good precision (relative standard deviation<10%) were also obtained. The developed method was applied in the analysis of OCPs in drinking and environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between organochlorine pesticides and stress indicators in hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at Punta Xen (Campeche), Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Nelly; Ortíz Arana, Alejandro; González Jáuregui, Mauricio; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico). Of the 30 sampled sea turtles, endosulfans, aldrin related (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endrin ketone, endrin aldehyde) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) families were detected in 17, 21 and 26, respectively. Significant correlation existed between the size of sea turtles with the concentration of methoxychlor, cholinesterase activity in plasma and heptachlors family, and catalase activity and hexachlorohexane family. Cholinesterase activity in washed erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation were positively correlated with glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant enzyme actions seem adequate as no lipids damages were correlated with any OCPs. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of OCPs on males of the area due to the significant detection of methoxychlor, which target endocrine functioning and increases its concentration with sea turtles size.

  4. Preconcentration of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop after SPE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rakh, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    SPE joined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) as a novel technique combined with GC with electron-capture detection has been developed as a preconcentration technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples. Aqueous samples were loaded onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes as sorbent. After the elution of the desired compounds from the sorbent by using acetone, the DLLME-SFO technique was performed on the obtained solution. Variables affecting the performance of both steps such as sample solution flow rate, breakthrough volume, type and volume of the elution, type and volume of extraction solvent and salt addition were studied and optimized. The new method provided an ultra enrichment factor (8280-28221) for nine OCPs. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.5-1000 ng/L, and the LODs ranged from 0.1-0.39 ng/L. The RSD, for 0.01 μg/L of OCPs, was in the range of 1.39-13.50% (n = 7). The recoveries of method in water samples were 70-113%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in captive giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) from China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Cheng; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Jia-Yin; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Cheng-Lin; Guo, Wei; Xu, Mu-Qi; Mai, Bi-Xian; Weit, Fu-Wen

    2008-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were investigated in captive giant and red panda tissues from China. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues ranged from 16.3 to 888 ng/g lipid weight (lw), 24.8 to 854 ng/g lw, and 16.4 to 2158 ng/g lw, respectively. p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH were major OCP contaminants. PCBs 99, 118, 153/132, 170, 180, and 209 were the major contributing congeners determined. Among PBDEs, congener BDE-209 was the most frequent and abundant, followed by BDE-206, BDE-208, BDE-207, BDE-203, BDE-47, and BDE-153. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was detected in 87 and 71% of the giant and red panda samples with concentrations up to 863 ng/g lw, respectively. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 and DeBDethane may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of BFRs in China. The positive significant correlation between concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in captive pandas may suggest that the exposure routes of PBDEs and PCBs to panda are similar. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of DeBDethane in captive wildlife samples. Therefore, further studies are warranted to better understand DeBDethane production, transport, uptake, and toxicological effect.

  6. [Vertical distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment core from Lake Nansihu].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-li; Li, Guo-gang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Hong; Gong, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Chen; Lian, Jun

    2007-07-01

    The organochlorinne pesticides (OCPs) and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment core collected from Lake Nansihu were quantificationally analyzed by GC-ECD. The pollution history of OCPs and PCBs in this area was reconstructed by analysis of the concentrations of OCPs and PCBs connected with the deposition time by 210Pb isotope dating method. The results indicated that the concentration ranges of OCPs, HCHs, DDTs and PCBs were 1.64 - 17.9, 0.66 - 12.5, 0.24 - 2.99 and 7.84 - 42.8 ng g(-1) respectively. The sediment rate and the average mass sedimentation were calculated to be 0.330 cm a(-1) and 0.237 g (cm2 a)(-1), and the sediment time of this core sample ranged from 1899 to 2000. OCPs and PCBs had the peak value at 1960s and 1970s. The source analysis showed HCH came from HCH products and lindane, and HCH and DDT came from historic using. The source of PCBs had been deduced to be the blench process of paper making and incinerator emission. Except the concentration of beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and aldrin at 14 - 16 cm depth, the other concentrations of OCPs and PCBs were all less than the low ecologic risk value. The whole sediment core of Lake Nansihu belonged to the low ecologic risk level.

  7. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations and enantiomer fractions for chlordane in indoor air from the US cornbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Andi D.; Ulrich, Elin M.; Bodnar, Colleen E.; Falconer, Renee L.; Hites, Ronald A.

    Thirty-seven indoor air samples were collected and analyzed to determine if enantioselective degradation of past-use organochlorine pesticides, occurs indoors and to increase the available information on concentrations in homes. Samples were collected from homes in the US cornbelt region and analyzed for the concentrations of 11 pesticides and the enantiomer signature of chlordanes. Residues were found for all pesticides analyzed in at least several of the samples, with chlordane dominating in most samples. Racemic residues were seen for the chlordane enantiomers in all samples. Since levels of organochlorine pesticides in urban areas are often an order of magnitude above ambient levels, emissions from house foundations may be a source of these compounds to ambient air. Past research has shown that selective enantiomeric degradation occurs in many environmental samples resulting in non-racemic residues. Knowledge of the enantiomer signatures of chlordane and other pesticides in different media may be useful for distinguishing sources of chlordane to ambient air.

  9. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Eman E

    2015-01-01

    Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries.

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  11. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  13. Atmospheric concentrations and loadings of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB): Spatial and temporal analysis (1992-2012).

    PubMed

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Gawor, Anya; Hung, Hayley; Brice, Kenneth A; Su, Ky; Alexandrou, Nick; Dryfhout-Clark, Helena; Backus, Sean; Sverko, Ed; Shin, Cecilia; Park, Richard; Noronha, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring data for POPs are required to determine the effectiveness of source reduction measures and factors controlling air concentrations. Air samples were collected between 1992 and 2012 at three sites with different geographical characteristics (Burnt Island, Egbert and Point Petre) in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using high-volume samplers and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Spatial and temporal trends of gas-phase concentrations of OCPs, selected PCB congeners and ƩPCBs (84 congeners) were assessed. Egbert had the highest concentrations of some OCPs due to historical [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), dieldrin, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] and current (endosulfan) applications of these pesticides in the surrounding agricultural cropland. This shows that agricultural areas are a source of OCPs to the GLB. High o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios were determined and an increasing trend was observed at Point Petre and Burnt Island up to 2004; indicating that the GLB is influenced by dicofol-type DDT sources, which have higher o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios than technical DDT. Atmospheric PCB concentrations at Egbert and Point Petre are higher than those measured at Burnt Island, likely due to urban influence and greater populations. Loadings calculations suggest that the atmosphere is a source of α-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT to the lakes and the opposite is true for p,p'-DDE. Long-term decreasing trends were observed for both OCPs and PCBs; consistent with control measures implemented in North America. Atmospheric PCB concentrations are decreasing relatively slowly, with halflives in the range of 9-39 years. Chlordane, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT-related substances showed halflives in the range of 7-13 years. α-HCH and γ-HCH were decreasing rapidly in air, with halflives of 5 years. Long-term declining trends of PCBs and OCPs suggest that regulatory efforts to reduce emissions

  14. Pollution by organochlorine pesticides in Navachiste-Macapule, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montes, Adriana M; González-Farias, Fernando A; Botello, Alfonso V

    2012-03-01

    The lagoon system of Navachiste-Macapule is located in northern Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, with an area of 24,000 ha. The main economic activity in the area is agriculture, and the lagoon lies next to the irrigation district ID-063 which covers 116,615 ha. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of pollution generated by organochlorine pesticides (OC) in the surface sediments of the lagoon and in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 that are supposedly transported into the system as a result of agricultural activities and runoff from adjacent land. For this, between 2006 and 2007, 45 surface sediment samples were collected (warm dry, rainy and cold dry) from 15 sampling sites, during the three climatic seasons. Of these, eight were located inside the lagoon in marine conditions (salinity >31 PSU) and seven in the agricultural drains of the ID-063 in freshwater conditions (salinity <5 PSU). The average concentration of the OC in the sediments was 44.75 ng g(-1), among which the group of the alicyclic compounds presented the greatest concentrations. The average value of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the sediments of the system was 0.90%. The sediments collected inside the lagoon had an average OC concentration of 18.97 ng g(-1), and the predominant type of sediment was fine to very fine sand. The average OC concentration in the sediments collected in the agricultural drains was 75.69 ng g(-1), where fine sediments (silt) were predominant. The presence of methoxychlor, endrin and heptachlor suggested that these compounds were continuously used in the system, even though their use is forbidden in Mexico.

  15. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  16. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  17. Butyltins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and bivalve mollusks in a mid-latitude environment from the Patagonian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta G; Franco, Marcos A; Gomes Costa, Patricia; Castro, Italo B; Fillmann, Gilberto; Bigatti, Gregorio; Esteves, José L; Nievas, Marina L

    2015-12-01

    Butyltins (BTs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in a mid-latitude environment of the Patagonian coast, distant from significant pollutant sources. Bioaccumulation processes through bottom sediment resuspension were suggested by BTs level (expressed as ng of tin [Sn] g(-1) dry wt) found in surface sediment (OCPs in sediments were 0.53 ± 0.34 ng g(-1) dry weight and ranged from organochlorines pollution was clearly related to atmospheric global transport, indicating that in the studied area, OCPs and PCBs experience permanent or temporal deposition during their migration to southern zones. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Association of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 gene polymorphisms and organochlorine pesticides with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Yadav, Chandra Shekhar; Singh, Satyender; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that steroidal hormones (testosterone and estrogen) increase benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) risk. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes especially CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 metabolize these hormones. Apart from that, several endocrine disrupting organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are reported to mimic the activity of these steroidal hormones. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in these genes and exposure to such pesticides may increase BPH risk further. Our study included 100 newly diagnosed BPH subjects and 100 age-matched healthy male controls. CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP17 polymorphisms were studied using PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR method. OCP levels in blood were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Levels of p,p'-DDE and endosulfan α were found to be significantly higher amongst BPH subjects as compared to controls (p-values=0.001 and 0.03 respectively) and CYP17 polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with BPH subjects as compared to controls (p-values=0.03), indicating that these factors may be important risk factors for BPH. However, further studies are required before unequivocal conclusion.

  19. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cortada, Carol; Vidal, Lorena; Pastor, Raul; Santiago, Noemi; Canals, Antonio

    2009-09-07

    A rapid and simple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed to preconcentrate eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples prior to analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studied variables were extraction solvent type and volume, disperser solvent type and volume, aqueous sample volume and temperature. The optimum experimental conditions of the proposed DLLME method were: a mixture of 10 microL tetrachloroethylene (extraction solvent) and 1 mL acetone (disperser solvent) exposed for 30 s to 10 mL of the aqueous sample at room temperature (20 degrees C). Centrifugation of cloudy solution was carried out at 2300 rpm for 3 min to allow phases separation. Finally, 2 microL of extractant was recovered and injected into the GC-MS instrument. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors ranged between 46 and 316. The calculated calibration curves gave a high-level linearity for all target analytes with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9967 and 0.9999. The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviation, varied between 5% and 15% (n=8), and the detection limits were in the range of 1-25 ng L(-1). The LOD values obtained are able to detect these OCPs in aqueous matrices as required by EPA methods 525.2 and 625. Analysis of spiked real water samples revealed that the matrix had no effect on extraction for river, surface and tap waters; however, urban wastewater sample shown a little effect for five out of eighteen analytes.

  20. Transport of sediment-bound organochlorine pesticides to the San Joaquin River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Suspended sediment samples were collected in westside tributaries and the main stem of the San Joaquin River, California, in June 1994 during the irrigation season and in January 1995 during a winter storm. These samples were analyzed for 15 organochlorine pesticides to determine their occurrence and their concentrations on suspended sediment and to compare transport during the irrigation season (April to September) to transport during winter storm runoff (October to March). Ten organochlorine pesticides were detected during the winter storm runoff; seven during the irrigation season. The most frequently detected organochlorine pesticides during both sampling periods were p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and chlordane. Dissolved samples were analyzed for three organochlorine pesticides during the irrigation season and for 15 during the winter storm. Most calculated total concentrations of p,p'-DDT, chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. At eight sites in common between sampling periods, suspended sediment concentrations and streamflow were greater during the winter storm runoff median concentration of 3,590 mg/L versus 489 mg/and median streamflow of 162 ft3/s versus 11 ft3/s. Median concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT), chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene on suspended sediment were slightly greater during the irrigation season, but instantaneous loads of organochlorine pesticides at the time of sampling were substantially greater during the winter storm. Estimated loads for the entire irrigation season exceeded estimated loads for the January 1995 storm by about 2 to 4 times for suspended transport and about 3 to 11 times for total transport. However, because the mean annual winter runoff is about 2 to 4 times greater than the runoff during the January 1995 storm, mean winter transport may be similar to irrigation season transport. This conclusion

  1. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  2. Residues and chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides in mollusks from the coastal regions of the Yangtze River Delta: source and health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Tang, Qiaozhi; Jin, Meiqing; Liu, Weiping; Niu, Lili; Ye, Hui

    2014-11-01

    The residues and enantiomeric fractions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 11 mollusk species collected from the coastal areas along the Yangtze River Delta to evaluate the status, potential sources, and health risks of pollution in these areas. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes ranged from 6.22 to 398.19, 0.66-7.11, and 0.14-4.08 ng g(-1) based on wet weight, respectively; DDTs and HCHs have the highest values, globally. The DDTs increased and the HCHs decreased compared to historical data. Both the box-and-whisker plots and the one-way ANOVA tests indicated that the OCP levels varied little between sampling locations and organism species. The compositions of the DDTs and HCHs suggested a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered technical products. The comparative EF values for the α-HCH between the sediments and mollusks, as well as the lack of any discernible difference in the relative proportions of HCH isomers among different species from the same sampling site implied that the HCH residues in the mollusks came directly from the surrounding environment. However, the biotransformation of DDTs in mollusks cannot be precluded. The assessments performed based on several available guidelines suggested that although no significant human health risks were associated with the dietary intake of OCPs, the concentrations of DDTs exceeded the maximum residual limits of China and many developed nations. Moreover, an increased lifetime cancer risk from dietary exposure to either DDTs or HCHs remains a possibility. Because non-racemic OCP residues are common in the mollusk samples, our results suggest a need to further explore the levels and toxicity of the chiral contaminants in mollusks and other foodstuff to develop the human risk assessment framework based on chiral signatures.

  3. Characterising the individual health risk in infants exposed to organochlorine pesticides via breast milk by applying appropriate margins of safety derived from estimated daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Hernik, A; Góralczyk, K; Struciński, P; Czaja, K; Korcz, W; Minorczyk, M; Lyczewska, M; Ludwicki, J K

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion being an important way of elimination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) poses a concern due to potential risk for breastfed infants. This study aims to provide a tool for assessing such risks to infants exposed to OCPs (through accumulation in the mother's body), using calculated individual margins of safety (MoS). Selected OCPs included; p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, γ-HCH and HCB which were analysed in 28 samples of maternal milk. The highest intakes were recorded for p,p'-DDE (at 2.90 μg kg(-1)bw d(-1)) whilst the lowest was for γ-HCH, (at 0.019 μg kg(-1)bwd(-1)). For the risk characterisation purposes MoSs were calculated for the compounds for which toxicological reference values (e.g. ADI, TDI) were adopted. The MoS for average ∑DDT concentrations was found to be relatively low (2.82) somewhat similar to that for HCB at 7.08, and for γ-HCH, the MoS was substantially higher at 263.1. This, however does not take into account the extremely high individual concentrations. Thus, it was decided to calculate estimated daily intake (EDI) values based on OCP levels in individual milk samples. MoS levels of <1 (meaning unacceptable risk) were noted both for HCB in one sample as well as for ∑DDT in 3 samples indicating likely threats to infant's health. The lowest MoS noted for γ-HCH equalled to 60.6, indicating that this compound was not a threat to the health of any of the breastfed infants from the study group.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from the Jiulong River Estuary, China: levels, distributions, influencing factors, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuling; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Yongyu; Ya, Miaolei; Luo, Hui; Hong, Huasheng

    2017-04-01

    Estuarine systems play an important role in the transportation and transformation of organic pollutants from rivers. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in water of the Jiulong River Estuary (JRE), China, were investigated to characterize their distribution, possible source, and potential ecological risk as well as the influencing factors. The total concentrations of PBDEs, OCPs, and PAHs varied from 5.2 to 12.3 pg L(-1), from 29.1 to 96.4 ng L(-1), and from 28.6 to 48.5 ng L(-1), respectively. Their compositions were all consistent at different stations; even the input pathways were multifarious. A source analysis showed that PBDEs may come from the flame retardant usages of penta-BDE and deca-BDE; hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were from the use of technical HCHs, while DDTs were attributed to early residuals of industrial sources, and PAHs were mainly from pyrolytic sources. The spatial distributions of PBDEs and OCPs were quite similar with their concentrations, decreasing along the estuary and then increasing when passing the Xiamen Harbor. PAH concentrations were similar along the whole estuary, suggesting that local sources and hydrological conditions might be the influencing factors. The concentrations of these pollutants changed with tidal conditions and were positively correlated with SPM, DOC, and chlorophyll a but negatively correlated with salinity. The ecological risk assessment revealed that OCPs and PAHs posed slightly higher potential risks to aquatic organism in the study area.

  5. Metal-organic framework-199/graphite oxide hybrid composites coated solid-phase microextraction fibers coupled with gas chromatography for determination of organochlorine pesticides from complicated samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suling; Du, Zhuo; Li, Gongke

    2013-10-15

    The hybrid material of a copper-based metal-organic framework (MOF-199) and graphite oxide (GO) was explored as the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating for the first time. This fiber was fabricated by using 3-amino-propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the cross-linking agent, which enhanced its durability and allowed more than 140 replicate extractions. With the incorporation of GO, the MOF-199/GO fibers with GO contents ranging from 5 to 15 wt% exhibited enhanced adsorption affinity to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) compared to MOF or GO individually. This improvement was linked to the enhanced dispersive forces (increased volume of small pores) that provided by the dense carbon layers of GO. Combining the superior properties of high porosity of MOFs and the unique layered character of GO, the MOF-199/GO (10 wt%) fiber exhibited higher adsorption affinity to some OCPs than commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibers. This new fiber was developed for headspace (HS) SPME of eight OCPs followed by GC/ECD analysis. The limits of detection were 2.3-6.9 ng/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for five replicate extractions using one fiber ranged from 5.3% to 8.8%. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was 5.2-12.8%. This method was successfully used for simultaneous determination of eight OCPs from river water, soil, water convolvulus and longan with satisfactory recoveries of 90.6-104.4%, 82.7-96.8%, 72.2-107.7% and 82.8-94.3%, respectively. These results indicated the MOF-199/GO composite provided a promising alternative in sample pretreatment.

  6. Effect of landscape tree cover, sex and season on the bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides in fruit bats of riparian corridors in eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Carolina; Sosa, Vinicio J

    2017-05-01

    Riparian forests are recognized as important ecosystems for biodiversity conservation in transformed landscapes. Many animal species that use this type of vegetation facilitate its recovery through pollination and seed dispersal. In landscapes dominated by agrosystems and cattle ranching, persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the riparian system may have an effect on the physiology and fitness of animals. In this study, we measured bioaccumulation of OCPs in the most abundant frugivorous bat, Sturnira hondurensis, from the upper part of La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico and, from these data, estimated accumulation by the frugivorous bat community of riparian forests in contrasting, transformed (TL) and forested (FL) landscapes. Concentration of ΣDDT, Σdrines, Σclordano, ΣHCH, Σheptachlor and Σendosulfan was measured by gas-chromatography in 23 female and 33 male adult Sturnira captured during the dry and rainy seasons. Using censored data statistics, we found that the sex of the individual was significant for ΣHCH, and that interactions of landscape type (TL vs. FL) and season (dry vs. wet), and sex and season were significant for Σendosulfan and Σdrines, respectively. Mean ΣDDT (6.86 μg/g) and ΣHCH (28.22 μg/g) concentrations were lower than those reported for frugivorous bats in India but concentrations of Σdrines (13.86 μg/g) were higher than those reported in insectivorous bats. In our study sites, frugivorous bats are bioaccumulating higher amounts of OCPs in TL than in FL. We discuss the potential of this species as a bio-indicator of OCPs contamination in river basins.

  7. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  9. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in raw food samples from open markets in two African cities.

    PubMed

    Nuapia, Yannick; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the level of organochlorine pesticides in the raw food from open markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Johannesburg, South Africa. It assesses the potential health risks associated with the organochlorine pesticide residues. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method has been developed for sample preparation. A total of 120 food samples (beans, cabbage, beef, and fish) were obtained from the open markets. The mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in raw foods collected from the Johannesburg market were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those from the Kinshasa market. DDE recorded the highest mean concentration (253.58 ± 4.78 μg kg(-1)) in beef from Johannesburg, and α-BHC recorded the lowest mean concentration (38.54 ± 7.46 μg kg(-1)) in beans from Kinshasa. The investigation of health risk estimates revealed that the number of organochlorine pesticides exceeded the reference dose in the collected food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequential reductive and oxidative conditions used to biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides by native bacteria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Correa-Torres, S. N.; Plata, A.

    2016-07-01

    Despite restrictions and bans on the use of many organochlorine pesticides in the 1970s and 1980s, they continue to persist in the environment today. This is the case of Agustin Codazzi, Cesar where the organochlorine pesticides were buried without control in the soil in 1999, after being banned their use. Nowadays is necessary to find the best method, which allows remediation of this soils. Reductive dechlorination is the first and limiting step in the metabolism of many organochlorine pesticides by anaerobic bacteria. In this study the reductive conditions were enhanced by addition of biogas as an auxiliary electron donors.The soil sample was taken from the zone at Agustin Codazzi, Cesar, and their characteristics correspond to a loam soil with low nutrient and slight compaction. The experimental tests were performed by varying the exposure time of a reducer to oxidative environment. Reductive conditions were enhanced by methane from biogas and oxidative environment was generated by air blown to stimulate a metabolic process of the soil native bacteria. Removals between 70 and 78.9% of compounds such as 4,4'-DDT, 4, 4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE, Endrin and Trans- Chlordane, detected by gas chromatography analysis, were achieved under reductive/oxidative conditions during 120 days. Furthermore, bacterial strains capable of degrading organochlorine pesticides were selected from the native bacteria, and identified by the purified and identified based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequencing.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  12. Vertical distributions of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in an agricultural soil core from the Guanzhong Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongxuan; Liu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an agricultural soil core in the Guanzhong Basin, China were determined. Overall, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were dominant contaminants and accounted for approximately 48.4 and 23.3% of the total detected DDTs. Low chlorinated PCBs (PCB 28 and PCB 52) were generally detected at higher concentrations and more frequently than high chlorinated PCBs. The peak values of ∑DDT (12.92 ng/g), ∑HCH (2.25 ng/g), and ∑PCB (3.44 ng/g) occurred in the 10-15, 15-20, and 5-10 cm sections, respectively. The negative correlation between the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations and the soil depths and the relatively high p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the surface soils indicated that these chemicals were recently used illegally, despite their official ban in 1983. The increase in the ratio of α-/γ-HCH with increasing soil depth indicated that the use of lindane decreased relative to the use of technical HCHs in recent years.

  13. Matrix solid phase dispersion-Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Gao, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2005-11-01

    A novel method combining matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with Soxhlet simultaneous extraction clean-up (SSEC) was developed. Being a single-step extraction and clean-up procedure, it could be used instead of multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up. It not only reduces sample contamination during the procedure, but it also decreases the amount of organic solvent needed. The retention times of standards were used to qualitatively assess the method, and the external standard method was used to quantitatively assess it. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in tobaccos were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD), and their identities were confirmed by the standard addition method (SAM). The performance of the method was evaluated and validated: the detection limit was 0.01-0.02 microg g(-1), relative standard deviations were 5-26%, and recoveries were 72-99% at fortification levels of 0.10, 1.00 and 10.0 microg g(-1). The analytical characteristics of MSPD-SSEC compared very favorably with the results from the classical multistep solvent extraction and Florisol column clean-up method.

  14. Rapid determination of organochlorine pesticides in fish using selective pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minkyu; Lee, In-Seok; Jung, Rae-Hong

    2016-08-15

    A rapid automated extraction and cleanup method using selective pressurized liquid extraction was developed and validated for 14 organochlorine pesticides in fish. The lipid-removal efficiencies achieved by adding alumina, Florisil, acid-treated silica gel, and silica gel to the extraction cell were determined and optimized. In the optimized method, fish (2-3g) was placed above alumina (30 g) in the extraction cell, then the sample was extracted using a 7:3 mixture of hexane and dichloromethane. The method was validated using certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1946 and 1974c), spiked fish, and four lipid-rich fish samples. The mean low- and high-concentration spike recoveries were 91% and 93% with RSD<20%, respectively. Measured concentrations of target OCPs showed good agreement with the certified concentrations in certified reference materials. It suggests the good accuracy and precision of the SPLE method. The proposed method met the most important requirements of an extraction and cleanup procedure, including having a short preparation (cleanup and concentration) time and minimal sample contamination and being able to be automated.

  15. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A; Bidleman, Terry F; Alvarado, Víctor; Angeles, Felipe; Galarza, Alfredo Avila; Bandala, Erick R; Hinojosa, Idolina de la Cerda; Estrada, Ignacio Galindo; Reyes, Guillermo Galindo; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Zamora, Jose Vinicio Macías; Murguía-González, Joaquín; Espinoza, Elias Ramirez

    2009-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in air across Mexico was investigated by deploying passive samplers at eleven stations across the country during 2005-2006. Integrated samples were taken over three-month periods and quantified for DDT compounds, endosulfans, toxaphenes, components of technical chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dieldrin. Enantiomers of chiral chlordanes and o,p'-DDT were determined on chiral stationary phase columns as an indicator of source and age. Results are discussed in combination with pumped air samples taken at four other stations in southern Mexico during 2002-2004. DDT and its metabolites, endosulfan and toxaphene were the most abundant OCs detected in all sampling sites. Atmospheric concentrations of SigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE + o,p'-DDE + p,p'-DDD + o,p'-DDD) ranged from 15 to 2360 pg m(-3) with the highest concentrations found in southern Mexico and the lowest found in northern and central Mexico. A fresher DDT residue was observed at sites with greater DDT use and in the southern part of the country, as shown from the higher FDDTe = p,p'-DDT/(p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) and nearly racemic o,p'-DDT. This agrees with the former heavy use of DDT in the endemic malarious area of the country. A local hotspot of endosulfan was identified at an agricultural area in Mazatlan, Sinaloa, with a annual mean concentration of SigmaENDO (endosulfans I + II + endosulfan sulfate) = 26,800 pg m(-3). At this site, higher concentrations of SigmaENDO were recorded during the winter (November to February) and spring (February to May) periods. From back trajectory analysis, this coincides with a shift in the air mass coming from the Pacific Ocean (May to November) to the inland agricultural area (November to May). The elevated SigmaENDO observed is likely due to the local agricultural usage. HCHs, chlordanes, transnonachlors, and dieldrin were more evenly distributed across the country likely due to

  16. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in soils and rye plant tissues in a field study.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Carvajal, Octavio; Infanzon, Rosa M; Trujillo, Patricia; Aguirre, Angel A; Maxwell, Mary

    2004-11-17

    The organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic and persistent and tend to accumulate in soils and growing plants. The contamination of growing plants occurs by adhesion of volatile substances from the air to the plant surface and by the migration of contaminants through xylem in inner ascendant transport. Persistent organochlorine pesticides (HCB, alpha,gamma-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT, pp'DDT) levels were determined in soils and rye plants. The aims of the study were the monitoring of organochlorine pesticide concentrations and the comparison of these levels among soil, rye straw, and rye grains. Fifty soil samples and 50 rye plant (50 straw and 50 grains) samples were taken. The GLC-ECD chromatographic results indicated the following contamination levels distributed among soil, straw, and grains: HCB (0.7-1.2-0.7 microg.kg(-1)), alpha-HCH (0.6-3.4-1.2 microg.kg(-1)), gamma-HCH (1.8-27.3-4.4 microg.kg(-1)), Sigma-HCH (2.5-30.7-5.6 microg.kg(-1)), pp'DDE (1.0-7.8-5.5 microg.kg(-1)), op'DDT (16.1-20.4-17.0 microg.kg(-1)), pp'DDT (38.0-41.7-49.6 microg.kg(-1)), and Sigma-DDT (54.2-63.2-72.1 microg.kg(-1)). The study verified the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the Mexican agricultural environment and their migration from soil to the growing rye plants. However, DDT has been banned since 1999 for sanitary reasons, and Lindane is applied only in some cases as a seed dresser. The determined organochlorine pesticide levels in rye plants are low, at residual levels that are below Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum residue limits.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in Southern Right Whales (Eubalaena australis) breeding at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Miglioranza, K S B; Uhart, M M; Gonzalez, M; Commendatore, M

    2015-06-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in blubber from 35 dead Southern Right Whales (SRW - Eubalaena australis) stranded at Península Valdés, Argentina. The life cycle includes a feeding period in high productivity areas of the South West Atlantic and a reproductive period in coastal template waters of Argentina. Organochlorine pesticides showed higher concentrations (22.6±13.8 ng·g(-1)ww) than PCBs (7.5±10 ng·g(-1)ww). Among pesticides, HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, dieldrin, chlordans, heptachlor epoxide, and trans-nonachlor were detected. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were present in 69% and 26% of samples, respectively. p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio showed low values (<0.33) as a result of aged DDT inputs. However, the occurrence of only p,p'-DDT in some samples suggests a recent pesticide input. α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio (organochlorine compounds are forbidden they were bioaccumulated in the blubber of SRW with a predominance of endosulfans, the more recently used pesticide. The absence of data on chemical pollutants in stranded dead whales is highlighted as a priority for research. This is the first study on levels, compositional patterns, and organochlorine sources in SRW. Moreover, more research including milk, and other tissues/organs is recommended considered that in the studied specimens, mostly calves, pollutants are likely transferred from the mother during pregnancy

  18. Residues of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in honey, an indicator of ambient environment, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Malhat, Farag M; Haggag, Mohamed N; Loutfy, Naglaa M; Osman, Mohamed A M; Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic

    2015-02-01

    Samples of honey were screened to monitor residues of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. The study meant to examine the quality of honey, and to use honey as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Residue levels were determined by gas chromatography (GC-μECD). Samples had a wide spectrum of organochlorine and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides, with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as the most frequently detected organochlorine, followed by permethrin, heptachlor epoxide. Only one sample had a concentration of γ-HCH higher than maximum residue limit of honey (0.01 mg kg(-1)). Residues of organochlorines detected, indicate the presence of some fresh supplies, despite the ban imposed on their use. The study confirmed that honey bee and beehive matrices could be used as gauge for monitoring environment contamination. From public health point of view, the observed levels of pesticide residues in honey do not pose a serious health risk to the consumers, but raises questions of the source of organochlorines.

  19. Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in human adipose tissue, data from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Rodríguez Díaz, S S; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Infanzón, R

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT in 150 adipose tissue of inhabitants of Tabasco, Mexico. The following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of samples at mean 1.034 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 96.7% at mean 0.116 mg/kg; o,p'-DDT in 78.7% at mean 0.022 mg/kg and β-HCH in 58.0% at mean 0.049 mg/kg. The pooled sample was divided according to sex of donors (75 female and 75 male). Significantly higher levels of all organochlorine pesticides in females were found. The sample was divided into three age's ranges (15-28, 29-45 and 46-84 years). The mean and median levels of β-HCH, p,p'-DDE and Σ-DDT increase significantly (p < 0.05) from the first to the second and third group. The presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in Tabasco inhabitants is still observed, indicating sources of exposure to the pesticides.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  1. Characterization of zebrafish Abcc4 as an efflux transporter of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment.

  2. Characterization of Zebrafish Abcc4 as an Efflux Transporter of Organochlorine Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xing; Long, Yong; Lin, Li; Sun, Rongze; Zhong, Shan; Cui, Zongbin

    2014-01-01

    DDT and lindane are highly toxic organochlorine pesticides and posing adverse effects on the environment and public health due to their frequent usage in developing countries. ABCC4/MRP4 is an organic anion transporter that mediates cellular efflux of a wide range of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as cyclic nucleotides and anti-cancer drugs; however, it remains unclear whether ABCC4 and its orthologs function in the detoxification of organochlorine pesticides. Here, we demonstrated the roles of zebrafish Abcc4 in cellular efflux of DDT and lindane. Zebrafish abcc4 was maternally expressed in the oocytes and its transcripts were detected in the lens, pancreas, gills, liver, intestine and bladder of developing embryos and in adult tissues examined. DDT and lindane were able to induce the expression of abcc4 gene and overexpression of Abcc4 significantly decreased the cytotoxicity and accumulation of DDT and lindane in LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos. In contrast, overexpression of an Abcc4-G1188D mutant abolished its transporter function without effects on its substrate binding activity, and sensitized LLC-PK1 cells and developing embryos to toxic pesticides. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) was involved in the efflux of cellular pesticides and ATPase activity in developing embryos can be induced by DDT or lindane. Thus, zebrafish Abcc4 plays crucial roles in cellular efflux of organochlorine pesticides and can be used a potential molecular marker for the monitor of DDT and lindane contamination in the aquatic environment. PMID:25478949

  3. [Residuals of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in Radix Ophiopogonis and Ophiopogon japonicus growing soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianting; Guo, Qiaosheng; Ye, Zhengliang

    2010-05-01

    To determine the residues of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in Radix Ophiopogonis and Ophiopogon japonicus. The residues of 4 isomers of benzene hexa chloride (BHC) and 4 isomers of dichloro dipheny trichloroethane (DDT) were determined by gas chromatography. The contents of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg and As were determined by ICP. The residues of organochlorine pesticides in Radix Ophiopogonis were lower than the permissible maximum limits of the Chinese national standard except hexachloride (BHC) in Radix Ophiopogonis from Cixi as well as Cu in soil of Luojiang. The enrichment capacity of Radix Ophiopogonis for (BHC) and Hg is higher. It is suggested that we should try to select herbs-growing soil for O. japonicus with a particular emphasis on the pesticides residues in soil.

  4. Organochlorine Pesticides in Gonad, Brain, and Blood of Mice in Two Agricultural Areas of Sinaloa.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, Ernestina; Osuna-Martinez, Ulises-Giovanni; Herrera-Moreno, Maria-Nancy; Rodriguez-Meza, Guadalupe-Durga; Gonzalez-Ocampo, Hector-A; Bucio-Pacheco, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    The adverse effect of pesticides on non-target wildlife and human health is a primary concern in the world, but in Mexico, we do not know which wildlife species are at the greatest risk. The aim of this study was to determine organochlorine pesticides in mice of two agricultural fields in Sinaloa, Culiacan and Guasave. Procedures of extraction, analysis, and quantification were followed according to the modified EPA 8081b method. In three mouse tissues (gonad, brain, and blood), γBHC and decachlorobiphenyl with a frequency higher than 50% and endosulfan sulfate with 43% were observed. The wildlife fauna living in agricultural areas are at great risk due to: (1) diversity of the chemicals used for pest control, like mice, and (2) variety of organochlorine pesticides in direct or indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals and humans (toxic effects and accumulation).

  5. A survey of organochlorine pesticide residues in cheese samples from three Mexican regions.

    PubMed

    Albert, L A; Alpuche, L; Bárcenas, C; Rendón, J

    1990-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were determined in cheese samples from three Mexican regions. All samples were found to be contaminated by these residues: p,p'-DDE was present in 100% of the samples. Other pesticides found with high frequencies were HCB, three of the BHC isomers, as well as heptachlor and its epoxide. Also found, although less frequently, were residues of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin. Samples from the region known as Comarca Lagunera had the highest number of pesticides per sample. The highest concentrations of residues were found in cheese samples from the Soconusco and the Comarca Lagunera regions.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human primary cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Peyre, Ludovic; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of organic or chemicals that adversely affect human health and are persistent in the environment. These highly toxic compounds include industrial chemicals, pesticides such as organochlorines, and unwanted wastes such as dioxins. Although studies have described the general toxicity effects of organochlorine pesticides, the mechanisms underlying its potential carcinogenic effects in the liver are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of three organochlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlore and endosulfan) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultured human hepatocytes. We found that these compounds modified the hepatocyte phenotype, inducing cell spread, formation of lamellipodia structures and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in stress fibers. These morphological alterations were accompanied by disruption of cell-cell junctions, E-cadherin repression and albumin down-regulation. Interestingly, these characteristic features of dedifferentiating hepatocytes were correlated with the gain of expression of various mesenchymal genes, including vimentin, fibronectin and its receptor ITGA5. These various results show that organochlorines and TCDD accelerate cultured human hepatocyte dedifferentiation and EMT processes. These events could account, at least in part, for the carcionogenic and/or fibrogenic activities of these POPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in green mussel, Perna viridis, from the Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Cattini, Chantal; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Oh, Jae

    2012-11-01

    The green mussel, Perna viridis, was used to measure bioaccumulated levels of organochlorine pesticides in the marine environment of Cuba. Samples were collected in the Cienfuegos Bay between January and December 2010. The organochlorine pesticides (i.e. DDT, Dieldrin, Chlordane, Endosulfan, HCB, Aldrin, Heptachlor and Lindane) were quantified by gas chromatography. The sum of all organochlorine pesticides in P. viridis was 6.31 ng g(-1). The concentration ranged from 3.53 to 4.42 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for DDTs (i.e. sum of pp' DDT, pp' DDD, op' DDE and pp' DDE); 1.7-1.9 ng g(-1) dw for Dieldrin; 0.17-0.20 ng g(-1) dw for Chlordanes; 0.14-0.16 ng g(-1) dw for Endosulfan; 0.11-0.17 ng g(-1) dw for HCB; 0.07-0.11 ng g(-1) dw for Aldrin; 0.046-0.054 ng g(-1) dw for Heptachlor and 0.035-0.039 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane. These levels can be considered as low when compared to reported values from similar studies conducted elsewhere in the world. The concentrations of all organochlorines residues detected in this study fell below the EU Maximum Residue Limits.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bringas, Laura M; Ponce-Vélez, Guadalupe; Calva, Laura G; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazamamberth; Botello, Alfonso V; Díaz González, Gilberto

    2008-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticides (OP) are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002) and organisms collected in April and July (2002) from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982) (sediments) and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986) (organisms) methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, p,p'-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p'-DDD y delta-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (gamma-HCH) was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993).

  9. Accumulation levels of organochlorine pesticides in human adipose tissue and blood

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kumiko; Ishizaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Takashi; Takeda, Mitsuharu; Uchiyama, Mitsuru )

    1991-05-01

    Because of their persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, the use of organochlorine pesticides, technical hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and pp{prime}-DDT, has been prohibited since 1971 in Japan. Furthermore, chlordane which had been applied for termite control has the potential for bioaccumulation and the use of it has been also prohibited since 1986. These chemicals can enter human body through a food chain or by inhalation of vapors. However, few data on chlordane residue in human adipose tissue are available in Japan. The aims of the present study were to assess the levels of organo-chlorine chemicals in adipose tissue and blood of Japanese and to examine the relationship between them.

  10. The association between prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid hormone levels in newborns in Yancheng, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengcheng; Cheng, Yibin; Tang, Quan; Lin, Shaobin; Li, Yonghong; Hu, Xiaojian; Nian, Juan; Gu, Heng; Lu, Yifu; Tang, Hong; Dai, Shougui; Zhang, Hongqun; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Haijing; Jin, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yinlong

    2014-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides can interfere with the thyroid hormones that play an important role in early neurodevelopment. Although organochlorine pesticides have been banned in China since 1983, their residues are still detectable in the environment. However, few studies have investigated the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues on newborns in China. The present study, conducted in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China, aimed to examine the association between the levels of organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera and to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in cord serum. Eleven organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera were measured in 247 mother-infant pairs recruited from Yancheng City between February 2010 and June 2010. The concentration of the thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were determined in cord serum. Among the 11 tested organochlorine pesticides, the detectable levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocycolohexane (β-HCH) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in both maternal and cord sera were above 50%. The levels of β-HCH and p,p'-DDE in maternal sera were positively associated with the levels in cord sera (r=0.421, P<0.01; r=0.288, P<0.01). After adjusting for confounders, the TSH level in cord serum samples was negatively associated with the HCB level (OR=0.535, 95% CI=(0.304-0.941)). Our data demonstrated that DDT, β-HCH and HCB residues bioconcentrate in maternal and cord sera. Moreover, the correlation analysis suggested that organochlorine pesticides in maternal blood can transfer through the placenta and affect newborn thyroid hormone levels.

  11. PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectes danae from Santos Bay, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, C A; Taniguchi, S; Cascaes, M J; Montone, R C

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in crabs Hepatus pudibundus and Callinectesdanae was assessed from two different places inside of the Santos Bay and Moela Island near one of the most economically important metropolitan areas in Southern Brazil. Among POPs analyzed, ∑PCBs (222-923 ng g(-1)lipid weight) and ∑DDTs (154-410 ng g(-1)lw) exhibited the highest concentrations in the crabs. ∑HCHs ranged from 10.3 to 30.9 ng g(-1)lw and were found in all individuals. Other OCPs found in lower concentration was Mirex (7.6-41.6 ng g(-1)lw) and HCB (5.83-16.9 ng g(-1)lw). ∑PBDEs (24.1 ng g(-1)lw) were only found in one male individual from the species C. danae collected near to the submarine sewage of Santos. Male crabs showed higher POP concentrations than female crabs for those two species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2007-10-29

    The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.

  13. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with little solvent consumption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the pretreatment of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wan-Chun; Huang, Shang-Da

    2009-07-03

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with little solvent consumption (DLLME-LSC), a novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique with few solvent requirements (13 microL of a binary mixture of disperser solvent and extraction solvent in the ratio of 6:4) and short extraction time (90 s), has been developed for extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. In DLLME-LSC, much less volume of organic solvent is used as compared to DLLME. The new technique is less harmful to environment and yields a higher enrichment factor (1885-2648-fold in this study). Fine organic droplets were formed in the sample solution by manually shaking the test tube containing the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent. The large surface area of the organic solvent droplets increases the rate of mass transfer from the water sample to the extractant and produces efficient extraction in a short period of time. DLLME-LSC shows good repeatability (RSD: 4.1-9.7% for reservoir water; 5.6-8.9% for river water) and high sensitivity (limits of detection: 0.8-2.5 ng/L for reservoir water; 0.4-1.3 ng/L for river water). The method can be used on various water samples (river water, tap water, sea water and reservoir water). It can be used for routine work for the investigation of OCPs.

  14. Low-density magnetofluid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the fast determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples by GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhigang; He, Zeying; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Sun, Mingjing; Li, Jingdong; Liu, Donghui

    2013-09-02

    A new micro-extraction technique named low-density magnetofluid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LMF-DMMLE) has been developed, which permits a wider range of solvents and can be combined with various detection methods. Comparing with the existing low density solvents micro-extraction methods, no special devices and complicated operations were required during the whole extraction process. Dispersion of the low-density magnetofluid into the aqueous sample is achieved by using vortex mixing, so disperser solvent was unnecessary. The extraction solvent was collected conveniently with an external magnetic field placed outside the extraction container after dispersing. Then, the magnetic nanoparticles were easily removed by adding precipitation reagent under the magnetic field. In order to evaluate the validity of this method, ten organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were chosen as the analytes. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as extraction solvents, volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed high extraction efficiency with low limits of detection of 1.8-8.4 ng L(-1), good linearity in the range of 0.05-10.00 μg L(-1) and the precisions were in the range of 1.3-9.6% (RSD, n=5). Finally, this method was successfully applied in the determination of OCPs in real water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in soils and drinking water sources from cocoa farms in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Mensah, Benedicta Y; Okoffo, Elvis D; Darko, Godfred; Gordon, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides were determined in soils and drinking water sources in cocoa growing areas in Ghana. Soil samples analysed showed the presence of four organochlorine pesticide residues namely lindane (0.005-0.05 mg/kg), beta-HCH (<0.01-0.05 mg/kg), dieldrin (0.005-0.02 mg/kg), and p,p'-DDT (0.005-0.04 mg/kg), with dieldrin occurring most frequently. Similarly, organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the water samples were lindane (0.01-0.03 µg/l), alpha-endosulfan (0.01-0.03 µg/l), endosulfan-sulphate (0.01-0.04 µg/l), dieldrin (0.01-0.03 µg/l) and p,p'-DDT (0.01-0.04 µg/l), with heptachlor occurring most frequently. The concentrations of the detected organochlorine residues in the soil samples were below their respective US maximum residues limits (MRLs) for agricultural soils, except for lindane recorded at Kwakuanya (S4) and beta-HCH recorded at Krakrom (S3) and Kwakuanya (S4). Similarly, the organochlorine pesticide residues recorded in the water samples were below and within their respective WHO MRLs for drinking water except for alpha-endosulfan at Diabaa (S2) and Kwakuanya (S4) at distance 0-15 m and Kwakuanya (S4) at distance 16-30 m, endosulfan-sulfate at Nkrankwanta (S1) and Diabaa (S2) at distance 0-15 m and heptachlor at Krakrom (S3) at distance 16-30 m which were above their WHO MRLs. The presence of the banned organochlorine pesticide residues in soil and water samples from the study area indicates that these chemicals are still being used, illegally, on some cocoa farms. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in the study area is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution to minimize health risks.

  16. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    PubMed

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (<2.6 ng g(-1)) and its byproducts α-HCH (<3.5 ng g(-1)) and β-HCH (<0.6 ng g(-1)). Among the DDT and its metabolites, only two were found: p,p'-DDT was found in a cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards.

  17. Combined effects of organochlorine pesticides heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene on the promotion stage of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Walied; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; El-Sawak, Ahmed; Nikami, Hideki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the combined effect of organochlorine pesticides heptachlor (HEP) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were initially administered diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200mg/kgi.p.); after a 2-week non-dosing period, they were given diets containing HEP (5 or 25ppm), HCB (70 or 350ppm), or their mixtures (5 and 70ppm or 25 and 350ppm) for 6weeks. All rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy at week 3 and killed at week 8. We observed additive or synergistic effects of HEP and HCB in groups treated with mixtures of these pesticides. Number and area of preneoplastic foci positive for glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) were consistently higher in these groups than the sum of individual values in the groups treated with HEP or HCB alone. Consistent with these findings, HEP and HCB had additive or synergistic effects on cell proliferation induction within the preneoplastic foci and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1 and 3A1 induction, which may lead to more efficient metabolic activation of HEP and HCB. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that HEP and HCB have additive and synergistic effects on the development of GST-P-positive foci and that higher risks are associated with a combination of residual organochlorine pesticides in foods than with individual residual organochlorine pesticides.

  18. [Studies on simultaneous determination of 17 organochlorine and 9 pyrethroid pesticides of agricultural products].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, S; Tyuda, Y; Nagao, A; Sasaki, K; Toyoda, M

    1999-01-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of 17 organochlorine and 9 pyrethroid pesticides in agricultural products by capillary GC with ECD detection was studies. The samples were extracted with acetone under acidic conditions followed by Florisil column clean-up and then injected into a GC-ECD. The organochlorine pesticides used in this study included unstable captan and captafol in the homogenized preparations of fruits and vegetables. Captan and captafol were also found to decompose in rice and wheat samples when the samples were allowed to stand after the addition of water. Addition of phosphoric acid to the samples was effective in preventing the decomposition of captan and captafol. Recovery of the pesticides investigated in this study was not decreased by the addition of phosphoric acid. Addition of phosphoric acid was also effective in removing interfering substances from onion extract. Recovery of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides from samples spiked at levels of 0.05-0.25 ppm by the proposed method was 51.4-100.8% for rice and wheat and 60.1-119.0% for vegetables.

  19. Adipose tissue levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Delfino, Ralph J; Korrick, Susan; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kutz, Frederick W; Jones, Ellen L; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In this nested case-control study we examined the relationship between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and organochlorine pesticide exposure. We used a data set originally collected between 1969 and 1983 in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Adipose samples were randomly collected from cadavers and surgical patients, and levels of organochlorine pesticide residues were determined. From the original study population, 175 NHL cases were identified and matched to 481 controls; 173 controls were selected from accident victims, and 308 from cases with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Cases and controls were mainly from cadavers (> 96%) and were matched on sex, age, region of residence within the United States, and race/ethnicity. Conditional logistic regression showed the organochlorine pesticide residue heptachlor epoxide to be significantly associated with NHL [compared with the lowest quartile: third quartile odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.28; fourth quartile OR = 3.41, 95% CI, 1.89-6.16]. The highest quartile level of dieldrin was also associated with elevated NHL risk (OR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.58-4.61), as were higher levels of oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE [p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and ss-benzene hexachloride (ORs = 1.79, 1.99, and 2.47, respectively). The p-values for trends for these associations were significant. In models containing pairs of pesticides, only heptachlor epoxide and dieldrin remained significantly associated with risk of NHL. Limitations of this study include collection of samples after diagnosis and a lack of information on variables affecting organochlorine levels such as diet, occupation, and body mass index. Given the persistence of pesticides in the environment, these findings are still relevant today. PMID:15175172

  20. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in the blood of people living in areas of intensive pesticide use in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Ahmed B; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed M A; Elzorgani, Gafar A; Laing, Mark D

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-six human blood samples were collected from six locations that represent areas of intensive pesticide use in Sudan, which included irrigated cotton schemes (Wad Medani, Hasaheesa, Elmanagil, and Elfaw) and sugarcane schemes (Kenana and Gunaid). Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD). Residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), heptachlor epoxide, γ-HCH, and dieldrin were detected in blood from all locations surveyed. Aldrin was not detected in any of the samples analyzed, probably due to its conversion to dieldrin. The levels of total organochlorine burden detected were higher in the blood from people in the irrigated cotton schemes (mean 261 ng ml(-1), range 38-641 ng ml(-1)) than in the blood of people from the irrigated sugarcane schemes (mean 204 ng ml(-1), range 59-365 ng ml(-1)). The highest levels of heptachlor epoxide (170 ng ml(-1)) and γ-HCH (92 ng ml(-1)) were observed in blood samples from Hasaheesa, while the highest levels of DDE (618 ng ml(-1)) and dieldrin (82 ng ml(-1)) were observed in blood samples from Wad Medani and Kenana, respectively. The organochlorine levels in blood samples seemed to decrease with increasing distance from the old irrigated cotton schemes (Wad Medani, Hasaheesa, and Elmanagil) where the heavy application of these pesticides took place historically.

  1. Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Bioaccumulation by Eichhornia crassipes in Irrigation Canals in an Urban Agricultural System.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Borrayo, B M; Cram Heydrich, Silke; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Hernández Quiroz, Manuel; De León Hill, Claudia Ponce

    2015-01-01

    A natural wetland in Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the main suppliers of crops and flowers, and in consequence its canals hold a high concentration of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. There is also an extensive population of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is considered a plague; but literature suggests water hyacinth may be used as a phytoremediator. This study demonstrates bioaccumulation difference for the OC in vivo suggesting their bioaccumulation is ruled by their log K(ow), while all the OP showed bioaccumulation regardless of their log K(ow). The higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of the accumulated OC pesticides cannot be explained by their log K(ow), suggesting that the OC pesticides may also be transported passively into the plant. Translocation ratios showed that water hyacinth is an accumulating plant with phytoremediation potential for all organophosphorus pesticides studied and some organochlorine pesticides. An equation for free water surface wetlands with floating macrophytes, commonly used for the construction of water-cleaning wetlands, showed removal of the pesticides by the wetland with room for improvement with appropriate management.

  2. Desorption of organochlorine pesticides from historically contaminated sediments into water-biofuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-Diaz, M.; Demond, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gasoline spills in surface waters generally volatilize due to their low miscibility and high volatility. However, biofuel blends may contain ethanol, a compound completely miscible in water. As hazardous components of gasoline are more soluble in ethanol than in water, the presence of ethanol increases the solubilization of these components, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), in surface water. Furthermore, many of these spills may occur in water bodies that have sediments that are historically contaminated with persistent organic contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides. High concentrations of ethanol in the water column, along with solubilized components of gasoline, may increase the desorption of organochlorine pesticides from the sediment. Thus spills of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends have the potential of increasing concentrations of hazardous compounds in rivers and lakes, resulting in increased risk for human and ecological exposure. Using UNIFAC to calculate activity coefficients, one can predict the enhancement of the solubility of pesticides in the aqueous phase as the ethanol fraction increases. Moreover, by predicting the solubility of pesticides in both the aqueous phase and an organic liquid phase, one can construct ternary phase diagrams that show the partitioning behavior of pesticides as a function of ethanol fraction. Such information is useful in estimating the amount of desorption from contaminated sediments that may occur in the presence of biofuel spills. In order to confirm the predicted values, experiments have been conducted to measure the impact of ethanol on the partitioning coefficients of pesticides.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and water samples in the Northeastern part of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rissato, Sandra R; Galhiane, Mário S; Ximenes, Valdecir F; de Andrade, Rita M B; Talamoni, Jandira L B; Libânio, Marcelo; de Almeida, Marcos V; Apon, Benhard M; Cavalari, Aline A

    2006-12-01

    Detailed analyses of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs) and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and surface water from the northeastern São Paulo, Brazil allowed the evaluation of the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources. The pesticides and PCBs demonstrated markedly different distributions, reflecting different agricultural, domestic and industrial usage in each region studied. The ranges of HCH, DDT, and PCBs concentrations in the soil samples were 0.05-0.92, 0.12-11.01, 0.02-0.25 ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and in the surface water samples were 0.02-0.6, 0.02-0.58 and 0.02-0.5 ng l(-1), respectively. Overall elevated levels of DDT and PCB were recorded in region 2, a site very close to melting, automotive batteries industries, and agricultural practice regions. High ratios of metabolites of DDT to DDT isomers revealed the recent use of DDT in this environment. The sources of contamination are closely related to human activities, such as domestic and industrial discharge, street runoff, agricultural pesticides and soil erosion, due to deforestation as well as atmospheric transport.

  4. Uptake and excretion of organochlorine pesticides by Nereis virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Haya, K.; Burridge, L.E.

    1988-02-01

    The marine polychaete worm, Nereis virens, is resistant to organochlorine pesticides. When exposed to each of five pesticides (endosulfan, chlordane, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT) in concentrations ranging from 0.03 mg/L (DDT) to 22.0 mg/L (chlordane), only endosulfan and chlordane killed Nereis. In comparison, the same compounds were much more toxic to another marine invertebrate, Crangon septemspinosa. The authors wondered if the resistance of N. virens to organochlorines was related to their response to hypoxia. N. virens is a sediment dweller often found in intertidal regions and consequently may experience periods of severe oxygen deprivation; varying degrees of hypoxia can initiate a switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. When N. virens encounter hypoxic conditions, they can also exhibit a compensatory ventilation response. In the present study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of endosulfan, dieldrin, and DDT by N. virens under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  5. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  6. Assessment of the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Sarno River basin, Italy, and ecotoxicological survey by Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Cannatelli, Claudia; Aliberti, Francesco; Cicotti, Flavia; Qi, Shiuhua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-02-01

    We studied the contamination level of the soils of the Sarno River basin in southwestern Italy by combined acute toxicity test with Dapnia magna and chemical extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). For the ecotoxicological assessment, 188 samples were taken and coincided with those of a previous study (2013) where heavy metals were surveyed. For the organics assessment, 21 samples were selected nearby representative areas of elevated anthropic pressure. About 10.1 % of the samples showed noticeable sign of D. magna mortality, 61-100 %, and fall along the potentially floatable areas of Sarno and Solofrana basins with high degree of contamination by Cr, As, Zn, and Hg. High levels of ecotoxicity, 61-100 %, were determined in the lower Sarno River basin in areas of moderate or low degree of contamination by Cd, Cu Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn. Benzo(a)pyrene, indenopyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene were present at concentrations of 0.32, 0.23, and 0.18 mg kg(-1), respectively, 2- to 3-fold the law limits with most of the samples falling nearby the points where the ecotoxicity output was close to 100 %. Among OCPs, pp'-DDT had a mean of 0.225 mg kg(-1) and hence about more than 200- and 2-fold the residential, 0.01 mg kg(-1), and commercial/industrial limits, 0.1 mg kg(-1) and determined mainly in the central Sarno valley in an area where elevated concentrations of benzopyrene and D. magna mortality were also observed. The study evidenced the high rate of contamination by PAHs and OCPs of the soils and the need of urgent remediation actions.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in grass, yak muscle, liver, and milk in Ruoergai high altitude prairie, the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Gai, Nan; Tang, Hua; Chen, Shu; Chen, Dazhou; Lu, Guohui; Yang, Yongliang

    2014-09-01

    In highland pastures, where no agricultural and industrial activities exist, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are believed to be mainly coming from water-soil-grass system which is subject to air-water and air-soil exchanges and atmospheric precipitation. Samples of grass and yak muscle, liver, and milk were measured for OCPs and PCBs in the summer and winter of 2011. The total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, endosulfans, HCB, and PCBs in grass samples were in the range of 0.53-2.45, 1.6-6.0, 1.10-4.38, 0.30-1.24, 0.65-2.04 ng g(-1) dw (dry weight), with the means 1.38, 2.86, 2.06, 0.73, and 1.19 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. The mean concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in yak muscle were 1.65 and 0.55 ng g(-1) fw (fresh weight), respectively; no significant seasonal differences. The average total concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, HCB, endosulfans, and PCBs in yak milk were 4.46, 0.59, 1.00, 0.27, and 0.097 ng g(-1) fat, respectively. Among the POPs investigated, β-HCH and HCB were dominant in yak muscle and liver, whereas β-HCH dominated the yak milk. Consistent with the results of other studies, PCB 153, 138, and 180 were detected in yak milk that is in accordance with the case reported for farmed cow milk in China and other countries. A human health risk was conducted based on the intake of OCPs via consumptions of the yak muscle and milk. Since the daily intake of HCHs and DDTs was lower than WHO or USEPA's acceptable daily intake or minimal risk level, showing that the consumptions of the yak muscle and milk would not pose any immediate risk to local people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of liquid phase microextraction based on manual shaking and ultrasound-assisted emulsification method for analysis of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuo-Yang; Leong, Mei-I; Li, Yee; Huang, Shang-Da

    2011-12-23

    A novel method using sample preparation method, "ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction" (USAEME) with manual shaking, coupled with gas chromatography using and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in aqueous samples. The apparatus is simple and easy to operate. After manual shaking for 10s, ultrasound was used to accelerate emulsification of the organic solvent (1-decanol) in aqueous solution. Only 10 μL of the low-toxicity extraction solvent is used in this method; no dispersive solvent is required and the total extraction time is ∼4 min. Manual shaking before ultrasound-assisted emulsification enhances the extraction efficiency by >100%. The effects of horizontal and vertical orientation as well as the location of the sample within the ultrasonic bath were studied. After centrifugation, we used an improved solvent collection system (ISCS) to reduce the amount of extraction solvent required. A 1 μL sample of the extract was injected into the GC column. Under optimum conditions, the linear range of the method is 5-2500 ngL(-1) for most of the OCPs, and the limit of detection of the method ranged from 0.6 to 2.9 ngL(-1).The relative recoveries ranged from 75 to 107% for sea water and from 70 to 99% for field fresh water. The method, which provides good enrichment factors, low LODs and minimization of the consumption of organic solvent, provides a rapid, simple and environment-friendly procedure for determining OCPs in aqueous samples.

  9. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and OCP. PCB-126 was the most abundant non-ortho PCB, while among mono-ortho PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residues in woodcock, soils and earthworms in Louisiana, 1965

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLane, M.A.R.; Stickel, L.F.; Newsom, J.D.

    1971-01-01

    Woodcock (Philohela minor), earthworms, and soil samples were collected from January-March 1965, from fields in southeastern Louisiana approximately 3 years after discontinuance of areal treatments with heptachlor in this region. Heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.42 ppm (dry weight), conspicuously lower than in 1961 and 1962. Residues of DDE in woodcock averaged 3.62 pprn, higher than in birds taken in the same area in 1961-62. Earthworms and soils contained traces of several organochlorine pesticides.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in blood serum of inhabitants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB; α-, β-, γ-HCH; pp'DDE; op'DDT; and pp'DDT in blood serum of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 150 blood serum samples that constituted that which remained after clinical analyses, using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as milligrams per kilogram on fat basis and micrograms per liter on wet weight. Only the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in 100% of samples at mean 15.8 mg/kg and 8.4 μg/L; p,p'-DDT was presented in 41.3.% of monitored samples at mean 3.1 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L; β-HCH was found in 48.6% of the samples at mean 4.9 mg/kg and 2.7 μg/L; op'DDT was determined to be in only 3.3% of monitored samples at mean 2.7 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L. The pooled samples divided according to sex showed significant differences of β-HCH and pp'DDE concentrations in females. The samples grouped according to age presented the third tertile as more contaminated in both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with serum organochlorine pesticide levels in Veracruz inhabitants.

  13. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Qi-Shuang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Yang, Bin; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Wu, Wen-Jing; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2012-01-01

    The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low. PMID:23251107

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a contaminated site in southwestern China: Concentration, transmission, and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Tian, Yajun; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2017-07-01

    Remediation and management of contaminated sites have become a prevalent problem under the current situation in China. The present study was conducted to investigate the concentration, transmission, and health risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil, air, and vegetation at and around a typical pesticide-contaminated site located in southwestern China. Exchange flux between soil and air was calculated to investigate the transmission of OCPs. Hexachlorocyclohexane (ΣHCHs, top soil: 19.1 mg/kg d.w., air: 52.3 ng/m(3), vegetation: 0.17 mg/kg d.w.) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDTs, top soil: 200 mg/kg d.w., air: 130 ng/m(3), vegetation: 0.78 mg/kg d.w.) were the dominant pollutants at the contaminated site. Around the site, the soil, air, and vegetation samples had higher OCP concentrations than those in the normal areas, which were found to be dominated by ΣHCHs (top soil: 129 ng/g d.w., air: 5.09 ng/m(3), vegetation: 81.8 ng/g d.w.) and ΣDDTs (top soil: 360 ng/g, air: 7.47 ng/m(3), vegetation: 189 ng/g d.w.). The fugacity fractions of OCPs (>0.7) showed a net volatilization from soil into air, indicating that soil is an obvious pollution source for the atmosphere, especially at the site. Through human health risk evaluation, serious carcinogenic risk (CRn) and hazardous index (HIn) were found at the site (CRn: 7.4 × 10(-6)-1.04 × 10(-4), HIn: 0.02 to 8.97) and the nearby areas (CRn: 3.37 × 10(-6) for adults and 1.68 × 10(-6) for children on average). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in food from Egyptian local markets.

    PubMed

    Dogheim, S M; Gad Alla, S A; el-Syes, S M; Almaz, M M; Salama, E Y

    1996-01-01

    A market basket survey was conducted to monitor organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in potatoes, citrus fruits, and fish collected from local Egyptian markets. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in potatoes were exceeded in 8 samples and for DDT in 2 samples. The aging of HCH and DDT indicated a recent use of both pesticides during the potato storage period between cultivation seasons. However, such use is illegal because HCH mixture isomers (gammaxane) and DDT have been officially prohibited from agricultural use in Egypt since 1980. The highest residue levels of fenitrothion (3.8 ppm) in potatoes may be due to its repeated use before and after harvest. No organochlorine pesticide residues were found in citrus fruits. None of the detected organophosphorus pesticides exceeded their MRLs. HCH and DDT residue limits were exceeded in 5 and 7 fish samples, respectively, collected from 12 markets throughout the country. The heptachlor MRL was violated in only one fish sample (3.9 ppm).

  16. Temperature dependence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in Chicago air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Odabasi, Mustafa; Tasdemir, Yucel; Khalili, Nasrin R.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides measured in Chicago, IL between June and October 1995 were investigated using plots of the natural logarithm of partial pressures (ln P) vs. reciprocal mean temperatures (1/ T). For the eight lowest molecular weight PAHs, temperature dependence was statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) and temperature accounted for 23-49% of the variability in gas-phase concentrations. The relatively higher slopes for most of the PAHs suggested that volatilization from local sources and short-range transport influenced their concentrations. For pesticides, temperature dependence was statistically significant for DDD and for trans-nonachlor (at the 95% and 90% confidence levels), and was not statistically significant for the other five compounds (2-18% of the variability in their gas-phase concentrations). The relatively lower slopes for individual pesticides suggested that they have mostly non-urban and distant sources. Results of back trajectory analyses suggested that the region, southwest of Chicago, might be an important local or regional source sector for PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. No statistically significant relationship was observed between wind speed and PAH or pesticide concentrations. None of the variables (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, local and regional sources) could fully explain the variation in their concentrations measured in Chicago, therefore, this variation can be attributed to the combined effect of those factors.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

    SciTech Connect

    Smillie, R.H.; Waid, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Seals occupy a high trophic level in the marine ecosystem and have large reserves of subcutaneous fats. It is, therefore, not surprising that they accumulate high concentration of lipophilic substances such as organochlorine pesticides. Seal tissue concentration of pesticides are considered by some workers to be a good indication of local environmental loads. The Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks occupy a breading colony from which they can range into Bass Strait, Westernport Bay and Port Phillip Bay. It is, therefore, reasonable that results obtained for local seals should provide an indication of pesticides and PCBs in local squid and schooling fish. Previous results indicate that biota in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait, adjacent to the colony are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. The authors have determined PCB and pesticide levels in local seals.

  19. Limit of detection and limit of quantification development procedures for organochlorine pesticides analysis in water and sediment matrices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable values for method validity of organochlorine pesticides determination were investigated, in water by solid phase extraction and in sediment by Soxhlet extraction, followed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides are categorized as Persistent Organic Pollutants. Hence, critical decisions to control exposure to these chemicals in the environment are based on their levels in different media; it is important to find valid qualitative and quantitative results for these components. In analytical chemistry, internal quality procedures are applied to produce valid logical results. Result In this study, 18 organochlorine pesticides were targeted for analysis and determination in water and river sediment. Experiments based on signal-to-noise ratio, calibration curve slope and laboratory fortified blank methods were conducted to determine the limits of qualification and quantification. The data were compared with each other. The limitation values, following Laboratory Fortified Blank, showed significant differences in the signal-to-noise ratio and calibration curve slope methods, which are assumed in the results for the sample concentration factor to be 1,000 times in water and 10 times in sediment matrices. The method detection limit values were found to be between 0.001 and 0.005 μg/L (mean of 0.002 ± 0.001) and 0.001 and 0.005 μg/g (mean of 0.001 ± 0.001). The quantification limits were found to be between 0.002 and 0.016 μg/L (mean of 0.006 ± 0.004) and 0.003 and 0.017 μg/g (mean of 0.005 ± 0.003 μg/L) for water and sediment, respectively, based on the laboratory fortified blank method. Because of different slopes in the calibration methods, it was also found that the limitation values for some components from the internal standard were higher than from external standard calibration, because in the latter a factor for injection efficiency is applied for calibration

  20. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface ...

  1. INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATIONS OF ORGANOCHLORINE, ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN THE US: FOUR STUDIES, SIX STATES AND TWENTY YEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides used to control indoor pests have transitioned across the chemicals classes of organochlorine, organophosphate, and pyrethroid compounds from the 1980's to the present. This work summarizes the pesticide concentrations measured from the indoor air of homes from four st...

  2. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of obsolete banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface ...

  3. Parental exposure to pesticides and poor clutch viability in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Wiebe, Jon J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Scarborough, Janet E; Gross, Timothy S

    2007-08-01

    In central Florida, alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) produce eggs that have high OCP concentrations and low clutch viability (proportion of eggs in a clutch that yield a live hatchling) compared to those from less contaminated lakes (reference lakes). However, a clear dose-response relationship has not been established between OCPs and poor clutch viability. In order to better elucidate a cause and effect relationship between OCP exposure and clutch viability, we conducted concurrent field and laboratory studies. Our field study reaffirmed that eggs of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated lakes and wetlands continue to have lower clutch viability and higher OCP burdens than eggs from reference lakes. Our field study also demonstrated that OCP egg burdens were strongly correlated with clutch viability for some of the OCP-contaminated sites, but not all. To better test causal relationships, a parental exposure study was conducted using captive adult alligators. Our laboratory study demonstrated that dietary exposure of captive alligators to an ecologically relevant OCP mixture caused alligators to produce eggs with higher OCP burdens and reduced clutch viability, as compared to the captive-control population. The experimentally induced egg burdens and clutch viability reductions were similar to those of wild alligators from OCP-contaminated sites. Our field and laboratory results suggest parental OCP exposure may be contributing to low clutch viability in wild alligators inhabiting OCP-contaminated habitats, raising some concern for endangered crocodilians living in OCP-contaminated habitats.

  4. Effects of polychlorobiphenyls, polybromodiphenylethers, organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites on vitamin A status in lactating grey seals.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berghe, Marie; Weijs, Liesbeth; Habran, Sarah; Das, Krishna; Bugli, Céline; Pillet, Stéphane; Rees, Jean-François; Pomeroy, Paddy; Covaci, Adrian; Debier, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), are considered as endocrine disruptors in laboratory and wild animals. This study investigated whether these compounds and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs) may affect the homoeostasis of vitamin A, a dietary hormone, in the blubber and serum of twenty lactating grey seals sampled at early and late lactation on the Isle of May, Scotland. The effect of naturally produced compounds such as the methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs was also examined. Vitamin A levels in inner blubber (37±9 μg/g wet weight (ww) and 92±32 μg/g ww at early and late lactation, respectively) and serum (408±143 and 390±98 ng/ml at early and late lactation, respectively) appeared to be positively related to ΣPCBs, ΣPBDEs and several individual PCB and PBDE congeners in inner blubber and serum. These findings may suggest enhanced mobilisation of hepatic retinoid stores and redistribution in the blubber, a storage site for vitamin A in marine mammals. We have also reported that serum concentrations of ΣHO-PCBs and 4-OH-CB107 tended to increase with circulating vitamin A levels. Although the direction of the relationships may sometimes differ from those reported in the literature, our results are in agreement with previous findings highlighting a disruption of vitamin A homoeostasis in the blubber and bloodstream following exposure to environmental pollutants. The fact that vitamin A and PCBs appeared to share common mechanisms of mobilisation and transfer during lactation in grey seals (Debier et al., 2004; Vanden Berghe et al., 2010) may also play a role in the different relationships observed between vitamin A and lipophilic pollutants.

  5. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    PubMed

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides β-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. β-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood.

  7. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food.

    PubMed

    Gaido, K; Dohme, L; Wang, F; Chen, I; Blankvoort, B; Ramamoorthy, K; Safe, S

    1998-12-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses. This study focused on estrogenic chemicals in the diet and compared the relative potencies or estrogen equivalents (EQs) of the daily consumption of xenoestrogenic organochlorine pesticides in food (2.44 micrograms/day) with the EQs in a single 200-ml glass of red cabernet wine. The reconstituted organochlorine mixture contained 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, endosulfan-1, endosulfan-2, p,p'-methoxychlor, and toxaphene; the relative proportion of each chemical in the mixture resembled the composition reported in a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration market basket survey. The following battery of in vitro 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-responsive bioassays were utilized in this study: competitive binding to mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); proliferation in T47D human breast cancer cells; luciferase (Luc) induction in human HepG2 cells transiently cotransfected with C3-Luc and the human ER, rat ER-alpha, or rat ER-beta; induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with E2-responsive cathepsin D-CAT or creatine kinase B-CAT plasmids. For these seven in vitro assays, the calculated EQs in extracts from 200 ml of red cabernet wine varied from 0.15 to 3.68 micrograms/day. In contrast, EQs for consumption of organochlorine pesticides (2.44 micrograms/day) varied from nondetectable to 1.24 ng/day. Based on results of the in vitro bioassays, organochlorine pesticides in food contribute minimally to dietary EQ intake.

  8. Hybrid field-assisted solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in tobacco with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-01-03

    A novel one-step sample preparation technique termed hybrid field-assisted solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction (HF-SLSDE) was developed in this study. A simple glass system equipped with a condenser was designed as an extraction vessel. The HF-SLSDE technique was a three-phase dispersive extraction approach. Target analytes were extracted from the sample into the extraction solvent enhanced by the hybrid field. Meanwhile, the interfering components were adsorbed by dispersing sorbent. No cleanup step preceded chromatographic analysis. The efficiency of the HF-SLSDE approach was demonstrated in the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in tobacco with a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Various operation conditions were studied systematically. Low detection limits (0.3-1.6 μg/kg) and low quantification limits (1.0-4.5 μg/kg) were achieved under the optimized conditions. The recoveries of OCPs ranged from 70.2% to 118.2%, with relative standard deviations of <9.6%, except for the lowest fortification level. Because of the effect of the hybrid field, HF-SLSDE showed significant predominance compared with other extraction techniques. The dispersing sorbent with good cleanup ability used in this study was also found to be a microwave absorption medium, which could heat the nonpolar extraction solvent under microwave irradiation. Different microstructures of tobacco samples before and after extractions demonstrated the mechanism of HF-SLSDE was based on an explosion at the cell level. According to the results, HF-SLSDE was proved to be a simple and effective sample preparation method for the analysis of pesticide residues in solid samples and could potentially be extended to other nonpolar target analytes in a complex matrix. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. A mechanistic overview of health associated effects of low levels of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Hernandez, Antonio F; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2013-05-10

    Organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides are compounds that can be detected in human populations as a result of occupational or residential exposure. Despite their occurrence in considerably low levels in humans, their biological effects are hazardous since they interact with a plethora of enzymes, proteins, receptors and transcription factors. In this review we summarize the cell and molecular effects of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides with respect to their toxicity, with particular emphasis on glucose and lipid metabolism, their interaction with some members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, including the steroid and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors that changes the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. More importantly, evidence regarding the metabolic degradation of pesticides and their accumulation in tissues is presented. Potential non-cholinergic mechanisms after long-term low-dose organophosphate exposure resulting in neurodevelopmental outcomes and neurodegeneration are also addressed. We conclude that the mechanism of pesticide-mediated toxicity is a combination of various enzyme-inhibitory, metabolic and transcriptional events acting at the cellular and molecular level.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and parasites in Mugil incilis collected in Cartagena Bay, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz E; Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Ruiz-Garcés, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Nematode parasites of the Anisakides family are often found in people living in countries where fish is consumed raw or partially cooked. This research shows the histological changes in the liver and spleen of Mugil incilis, collected in Cartagena Bay. These changes are associated with pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their possible influence on the parasite. Organochlorine compounds were extracted using the headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique. Residual amounts in the muscle of M. incilis such as β-HCH, γ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, 4,4'-DDE, and dieldrin, among others, were identified by gas chromatography connected to an electron capture detector, indicating that the fauna of Cartagena Bay are exposed to these pollutants. Histological analysis was carried out on liver and spleen samples of M. incilis which were fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. The presence of melano-macrophages, granulomes, and trematodes in the liver was the most important changes observed. Larval prevalence for the Anisakis spp. was determined to be 1.6%; for Pseudoterranova spp., 25.3%, and for Contracaecum spp., 57.8%. Other parasites such as acanthocephalans were also reported for a total of 15.3%. Nevertheless, no significant correlation between parasites and organochlorines was found. This study is the first to correlate the presence of organochlorine compounds and histological damage in the liver and spleen of M. incilis, with the presence of parasites in fish from Cartagena Bay (Colombia).

  11. Use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDS) to determine bioavailable organochlorine pesticide residues in streams receiving irrigation drainwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, Jimmie D.; Huckins, James N.; Martin, D.B.; Adornato, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), consisting of a neutral lipid (triolein) enclosed in polyethylene layflat tubing, is very effective in sequestering bioavailable organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the environment. We used SPMDs to sequester OC pesticide residues in streams receiving irrigation drainwater and found toxaphene, the DDT complex, dieldrin, and endrin. Ambient water concentrations of the OC pesticides were calculated using an algorithm developed previously. Toxaphene residues were estimated to range from 300 to 7,000 ng/L.

  12. QuEChERS followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet method for organochlorine pesticides analysis in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Chen; Shu, Bin; Li, Shan; Yang, Zhao-Guang; Qiu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    A fast, sensitive and environmental-friendly method was developed to determine 13 organochlorine pesticides in fish tissue through gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sample was extracted initially by acetonitrile and then concentrated through dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO). Dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) was not a separate step but integrated to DLLME-SFO procedure. In order to separate the d-SPE sorbent, water and organic phase well, a modification to the glass centrifuge tube was made to achieving high centrifugal speed. The optimized method was validated with recoveries ranging from 88.1% to 121.2% (with relative standard deviations <15%) at three spiked levels for all of the pesticides. Good linearity was achieved at seven concentration levels from 6.25 to 625μgL(-1), which corresponded to 0.001-0.100mgkg(-1) in the sample. The limits of quantification and the limits of detection for 13 OCPs ranged from 1.94×10(-3) to 4.93×10(-3)mgkg(-1) and 6.50×10(-4) to 1.58×10(-3)mgkg(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze real fish samples.

  13. A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in ferruginous hawk eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ten Ferruginous Hawk nests in northeast Oregon were studied from 1978 to 1980. Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides in cow's milk from agricultural region in Northwestern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    La Riva, C. de ); Anadon, A. )

    1991-04-01

    During the past 30 years, the variety and usage of pesticides have increased in Spain and worldwide. Agricultural use of pesticides can be expected to result in residues in or food and feed. Several limited monitoring programs have received an extensive investigation in order to detect residues from organochlorine compounds in milk. This paper reports the findings of a pesticide residue study in cow's milk samples examined during the time period of one year between May of 1987 and March of 1988. The cow's milk samples destined to human consumption were collected from an agrarian area located at a geographic region of northwestern Spain. Analyses were conducted for DDT complex DDT{sub s}, DDD, DDE and isomers alpha, beta and gamma (lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, metoxichlor and mirex.

  15. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants.

    PubMed

    Barriada-Pereira, M; Concha-Graña, E; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2003-08-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane-ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained (75.5-132.7% for Soxhlet extraction and 81.5-108.4% for MAE) show that both methods are suitable for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in vegetation samples. The method using microwave energy was applied to grass samples from parks of A Coruña (N.W. Spain) and to vegetation from the contaminated industrial area of Torneiros (Pontevedra, N.W. Spain).

  16. Na+, K+-activated-ATPase inhibition in rainbow trout: A site for organochlorine pesticide toxicity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The Na+, K+-activated, Mg2+-dependent-ATPase enzyme system in a heavy microsomal fraction of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) brain was inhibited in vitro by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides.2. T50 (concentration at 50 per cent inhibition) values for dicofol, endosulfan and DDT were 5 × 10−6, 3 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−4 M respectively. Similar inhibition by these pesticides occurred in kidney and gill ATPase preparations.3. An unexpected finding was a failure of the classic inhibitor, ouabain, to block the Na+, K+-activated component of ATPase activity in the gill.4. It is suggested that inhibition of ATPase activity may be a causal factor in the toxic effects of organochlorine pesticides in fishes.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls: An analytical approach for ``combined`` analyses

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.M.; Allgood, J.C.; Benson, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis or organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography (GC) can be tedious and time consuming. One problem has been a need to separate the sample into two fractions before analysis because of problems with resolution. The second is that because of the extreme sensitivity of ECD detectors, strict operating parameters must be maintained. In response to these issues, the authors have developed a ``combined`` method to analyze OC pesticides and PCBs. Using a combination of temperature programming and column size, baseline resolution of 17 pesticides, 21 PCB congeners, and 2 internal standards can be achieved in a single GC run. By use of a spiked-laboratory control material, recoveries of the individual analytes may be monitored for quality control.

  18. Validation of the analytical method for the simultaneous determination of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human blood serum by gas chromatography with microelectron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Matuszak, Małgorzata; Minorczyk, Maria; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Liszewska, Monika; Czaja, Katarzyna; Korcz, Wojciech; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2016-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as other persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pose a significant hazard to human health, mainly due to interference with the endocrine system and carcinogenetic effects. Humans are exposed to these substances mainly through a food of animal origin. These pollutants are globally detected in human matrices which requires to dispose reliable and simple analytical method that would enable further studies to assess the exposure of specific human populations to these compounds. The purpose of this study was to modify and validate of the analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of selected PBDEs, PCBs and OCPs in human blood serum samples. The analytical measurement was performed by GC-µECD following preparation of serum samples (denaturation, multiple extraction, lipid removal). Identity of the compounds was confirmed by GC-MS. The method was characterised by the appropriate linearity, good repeatability (CV below 20%). The recoveries ranged from 52.9 to 125.0% depending on compound and level of fortification. The limit of quantification was set at 0.03 ng mL(-1) of serum. The modified analytical method proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of selected PBDEs, PCBs and OCPs in human blood serum by GC-µECD with good precision.

  19. A review of organochlorine pesticide residues in Swainson's hawk eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    U. s. Fish and Wildlife Service research projects during the last 10 years in the Pacific Northwest resulted in the collecting of a sample egg from 35 Swainson's Hawk nests (Henny and Kaiser, 1979. Murrelet 60:2-5; Henny et al. 1984. Raptor Research 18:41-48). Pesticide residues, eggshell thickness, and reproductive success from these nests will be reviewed. In addition, egg residues from other published studies in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be discussed.

  20. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on applying low-density organic solvent for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2012-08-24

    In this study, a polyethylene Pasteur pipette-based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) applying low-density organic solvent was successfully developed for the extraction of trace levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water samples and followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In this approach, a polyethylene Pasteur squeeze-type pipette was employed as a convenient extraction device and ultrasound radiation was applied to accelerate the emulsification of low-density organic solvent in aqueous solutions to enhance the microextraction efficiency of OCPs in water samples. Thirty microliters of extraction solvent (isooctane), of lower density than water, were injected into the aqueous sample solution held in the pipette. The latter was then immersed in an ultrasound water bath to form an emulsion. After 30s extraction, phase separation was achieved by centrifugation. The upper layer (isooctane) was collected and analyzed by GC-MS. No disperser solvent was required in this procedure. Significantly, fast analysis and high extraction efficiency were achieved. Another feature of the procedure was the use of the pipette as the extraction device, which permitted less dense than water organic solvent to be used as extraction solvent. This method broadens the applicability of USAEME to a wider range of solvent. Additionally, carry-over problems were avoided with the use of the disposable pipette. Parameters affecting the efficiency of polyethylene Pasteur pipette-based USAEME, such as the extraction solvent, extraction solvent volume, extraction and centrifugation time, ionic strength and extraction temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method provided good enrichment factors (EFs) in the range of 128 and 328, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.7% to 12.4%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.8 and 10ng/L depending on the analytes. The linearities were

  1. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Human Breast Milk from the Middle Governorates in Jordan in 2013/2014.

    PubMed

    Al Antary, Tawfiq M; Alawi, Mahmoud A; Estityah, Hussein; Haddad, Nizar

    2017-07-01

    One hundred samples of mother breast milk were gathered from six middle governorates and districts in Jordan in 2013/2014 to monitor Organochlorine pesticides pollutants. The results showed clearly that banned organochlorine pesticides are still detected in the monitored samples in low concentration despite banning of these persistent pollutants in Jordan since 36 years ago. However, the results indicated that 1% of the contaminated samples contained β-HCH, 5% γ-HCH, 3% p,p'-DDD, 2% heptachlor, 45% p,p'-DDE and 3% p,p'-DDT. In addition, these monitored samples had no residues of aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, HCB, o,p'-DD, o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDE. In conclusion, there was a decline in the residues of Organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT group members.

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Kajiwara, N; Le Boeuf, B J; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few microg/g to several hundreds of microg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several microg/g on a lipid weight basis.

  3. A method to determine residue levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk from Indonesian women.

    PubMed

    Burke, Emma R; Holden, Alexis J; Shaw, Ian C

    2003-01-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk using solvent extraction, Florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The recovery of analytes from spiked milk samples was in the range 53 +/- 1% to 109 +/- 7% (n = 9). A small number of samples were obtained from women in a rural and an urban area of Indonesia and analysed using the developed method. The results are reported on a milk fat basis. All samples contained detectable residues of p,p'-DDT (urban mean 0.11 +/- 0.18 mgkg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)) and p,p'-DDE (urban mean 0.05 +/- 0.04 m kg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.76 +/- 1.46 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)). Residues of HCB, betaHCH, alpha-endosulfan and dieldrin were also detected in some samples. There was no significant difference (at the 95% confidence level) in levels of pesticides between urban and rural areas. The levels of organochlorine pesticides in milk from Indonesian women were lower than those reported from Indonesian women exposed to DDT through malaria eradication schemes and were similar to levels reported from UK and Japan.

  4. Razorbill (Alca torda) feathers as an alternative tool for evaluating exposure to organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; García-Fernández, Antonio J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of feathers as a biomonitoring tool for organochlorine pesticides (OC) in a razorbill population (Alca torda). Fifteen OC were analyzed in feathers, including α-, β- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT, DDD, DDE, heptachlor and its epoxide. The geometric mean concentrations observed in this study were ∑DDT 67.40 ng/g, ∑HCH 62.88 ng/g, ∑Heptachlor 61.75 ng/g, ∑Endosulfan 19.70 ng/g, and ∑Drins 10.17 ng/g. The higher OC levels found in this study compared with other studies are probably affected by the razorbill diet and migration status. However, levels found in the feathers of the present study are related to concentrations in internal tissues below those which cause adverse reproductive and behavioral effects or other signs of organochlorine-pesticide poisoning in birds. Age does affect the concentration of OC pesticides in feathers. Thus, feathers would appear to be a promising tool for OC biomonitoring in seabirds, since it is possible to quantify OC compounds.

  5. Lead, cadmium and organochlorine pesticide residues in hunted red deer and wild boar from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Mario; Cortinovis, Cristina; Bertoletti, Marco; Alborali, Loris; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Ferretti, Enrica; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess heavy metal cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) from nine hunting areas and to evaluate related risk factors for the host animal. Over a period of 2 years, a total of 1055 and 210 masseters, 424 and 201 livers, 642 and 152 kidneys were collected from wild boar and red deer, respectively, and concentrations of Cd, Pb and organochlorine pesticides were determined. Comparing the two species, Cd concentration in the kidney (3.72 mg/kg), liver (0.67 mg/kg) and muscle (0.02 mg/kg) of wild boar was found to be significantly higher than in the organs of red deer (1.02 mg/kg in the kidneys, 0.07 mg/kg in the liver and 0.006 mg/kg in muscle). Mean Pb concentrations were found to be similar in both animals, with 0.39, 0.52 and 2.60 mg/kg detected in the wild boar kidney, liver and muscle, respectively, and 0.24, 0.21 and 2.04 mg/kg in the respective organs of the red deer. No difference in concentrations were found based on age class, location of tissue sample or contaminant in the case of wild boar. By contrast, a significantly lower Cd concentration was found in the kidney of the young red deer. The search for organochlorine pesticides in both red deer and wild boar produced negative results with values below the limits of detection. Due to the high levels of renal Cd and muscle Pb detected in wild boar and red deer, further research needs to be carried out in an effort to identify the source of contamination and preserve the health of animals and humans.

  6. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  7. [Occurrence of residues of organochlorine pesticides, nitromusk compounds and polychlorobiphenyls in Turkish canned fish products].

    PubMed

    Ozden, O; Kruse, R; Erkan, N

    2001-04-01

    In our study we elaborated an overview on the contamination grade of fish from Turkish waters by selected organochlorine pesticides, nitromusks and chlorobiphenyl congenres. We could demonstrate, that the tested fish species, being prior processed to canned products and brought to the market, contained particularly unmistakable amounts of the above mentioned analytes. Sardines, sardelles and trout gave results generally far below the German regulatory limits. However total DDT in pelamides reached an order of magnitude near the German limit of 0.5 mg/kg (based on wet weight). The necessity of enhanced systematic measurements for monitoring pollutants in fish from Turkish waters thus becomes evident.

  8. Heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms: risk evaluation for consumers.

    PubMed

    Marcotrigiano, G O; Storelli, M M

    2003-09-01

    This survey provides information on the levels of heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms to ascertain whether these concentrations exceeded the prescribed legal limits. In order to assess the potential human health impact, the weekly intake was estimated. Most of the organisms analysed showed higher levels of mercury than the maximum permissible limit, while cadmium and lead were below the proposed permissible limits in all samples. The estimated intake was far above the established Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for all metals, except for total mercury.

  9. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  10. Assessing the distribution and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from selected rivers.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2016-02-01

    Sediment samples from major agricultural producing areas in Edo state Nigeria were analysed for α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT with the aim of elucidating contamination profiles, distribution characteristics, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of these compounds in these regions. Analysis was done using a gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD), while health risk assessment was carried out using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) and the chronic daily intake (CDI). Results showed varying concentrations of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT pesticides in sediment samples with hexachlorocyclohexane (∑HCHs) (4.6 µg/g/dw) being the dominant contaminants as it was widely detected in all samples and stations. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs and DDT in sediments were attributed to both historical use and fresh usage of these pesticides. Risk estimates using ILCR and CDI showed that the risk of cancer and non-cancer effects was highest when exposure route was through ingestion. Furthermore, model projections highlights children as high risk population groups for non-dietary exposure to OCPs. These findings suggests the need for increased monitoring programmes, with a wider scope for both currently used pesticides and legacy/banned pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Can Inconsistent Association between Hypertension and Cognition in Elders be Explained by Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60–85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment. PMID:26630154

  12. Can Inconsistent Association between Hypertension and Cognition in Elders be Explained by Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides?

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-A; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Ho-Won; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.

  13. Long term exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid function in children from Cidade dos Meninos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula; Rosa, Ana Cristina; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-08-01

    A pesticide factory in Cidade dos Meninos village, Duque de Caxias County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, ended its activity in 1961, leading to widespread contamination of the environment by several organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in children residing in Cidade dos Meninos. In a population-based survey carried out between 2003 and 2004, serum concentration of 19 pesticides and levels of free thyroxine (T4), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 193 children younger than 15 years old. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to examine thyroid hormone levels according to quintiles of organochlorine exposure, controlling for age, gender and serum lipid content. Free T4 and TSH levels were within reference values (0.7-1.8 ng/dl and 0.35-5.5 mU/l), whereas total T3 was above the reference range (80-180 ng/dl) in 28% of children. More than 60% of the children had detectable levels of most organochlorine pesticides. With the exception of heptachlor and methoxychlor, total T3 levels showed a significant increasing linear trend regardless of pesticide type to which children were exposed. Free T4 levels were positively and significantly associated only with exposure to p,p'-DDD, endosulfan 1, and dieldrin. No significant trend was found for TSH. Data showed that exposure of children to organochlorine pesticides produced a significant increase in serum total T3 concentrations. The clinical implications of such a total T3 elevation and subsequent development are uncertain and warrant the need for health monitoring of these children.

  14. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods from rural areas of the Republic of Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Barron, Mace G; Ashurova, Zebunisso J; Kukaniev, Mukhamadcho A; Avloev, Hakbarqul K; Khaidarov, Karim K; Jamshedov, Jamshed N; Rahmatullova, Oygul S; Atolikshoeva, Sunbula S; Mamadshova, Sakina S; Manzenyuk, Oksana

    2017-05-01

    The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan. Each site was visited multiple times and over 500 samples of surface soil and raw foods were collected and analyzed for twenty legacy organochlorine pesticides. Various local food products were sampled to represent the range of raw foods potentially containing residues of banned pesticides, including dairy products, meat, edible plant and cotton seed products. The pesticide analytes included DDTs (DDT, DDD, DDE), lindane isomers (α, β, γ, δ BHC), endosulfan isomers (endosulfan I, II, sulfate), other cyclodienes (aldrin, α and γ chlordanes, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde and ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide), and methoxychlor. Pesticide analytes were selected based on availability of commercial standards and known or suspected historical pesticide use and burial. Pesticide contamination was highest in soil and generally low in meat, dairy, and plant products. DDT was consistently the highest measured individual pesticide at each of the four sampling areas, along with BHC isomers and endosulfan II. Soil concentrations of pesticides were extremely heterogeneous at the Vakhsh and Konibodam disposal sites with many soil samples greater than 10 ppm. In contrast, samples from farms in Chimbuloq and Garm had low concentrations of pesticides. Pesticide contamination in raw foods was generally low, indicating minimal transfer from the pesticide sites into local food

  15. Assessment of average exposure to organochlorine pesticides in southern Togo from water, maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Mawussi, G; Sanda, K; Merlina, G; Pinelli, E

    2009-03-01

    Drinking water, cowpea and maize grains were sampled in some potentially exposed agro-ecological areas in Togo and analysed for their contamination by some common organochlorine pesticides. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides were investigated in ten subsamples of maize, ten subsamples of cowpea and nine subsamples of drinking water. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues and their subsequent quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of pesticides were also determined. Pesticides residues in drinking water (0.04-0.40 microg l(-1)) were higher than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.03 microg l(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan levels (13.16-98.79 microg kg(-1)) in cowpea grains exceeded MRLs applied in France (10-50 microg kg(-1)). Contaminants' levels in maize grains (0.53-65.70 microg kg(-1)) were below the MRLs (20-100 microg kg(-1)) set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the WHO. EDIs of the tested pesticides ranged from 0.02% to 162.07% of the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Population exposure levels of dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide were higher than the FAO/WHO standards. A comprehensive national monitoring programme on organochlorine pesticides should be undertaken to include such other relevant sources like meat, fish, eggs and milk.

  16. Levels and profiles of POPs (organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs) in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Alvarez, Natalia; Martín, Vidal; Fernández, Antonio; Almunia, Javier; Xuriach, Aina; Arbelo, Manuel; Tejedor, Marisa; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-09-15

    The effect of anthropogenic pollution in marine mammals worldwide has become an important issue due to the high concentrations found in many areas. The present study represents the first report of pollutants in free-ranging cetaceans from the Canary Islands, where there are 12 marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), because of the presence of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We selected this resident population of dolphins as a bioindicator to gain knowledge concerning the toxicological status of the cetaceans of this protected area. In 64 biopsy samples of live free-ranging animals sampled from 2003 to 2011, we determined the concentrations of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found high levels of many of these pollutants, and some of them were detectable in 100% of the samples. The median value for ∑OCPs was 57,104 ng g(-1) lipid weight (lw), and the dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) accounted for 70% of this amount. Among PCBs, congeners 180, 153 and 138 were predominant (82% of ∑PCBs; median = 30,783 ng g(-1) lw). Concerning the analyzed PAHs, the total median burden was 13,598 ng g(-1) lw, and phenanthrene was the compound measured at the highest concentration followed by pyrene and by naphthalene. Surprisingly, we have found that organohalogen pollutants exhibit an upward trend in recent years of sampling. Thus, according to the guidelines outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive, further monitoring studies in Canary Islands are required to contribute to the conservation of the resident populations of marine mammals in this region.

  17. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The sediment load and deposition by river discharge and their relation to organochlorine pesticides pollutants in the sediment bottom of Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hoang Trung; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Based on previous results from the "River reef impact studies project that was carried out as a co-operation programme between ZMT (Germany) and NIO (Vietnam) from 2008-2012, the variation of sediment load and associated persistent organic pollutants were investigated in Nha Trang Bay. In northern parts of the bay, both suspended matter load and deposition rates are high during the rainy season (flood events). The total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate nitrogen (PN) concentration show variations both with season (dry and rainy seasons) and increasing distances from the coast: TSM ranged from 2.30 to 19.79 mgL-1; and PN concentration ranged from 0.006 to 0.055 mgL-1. High deposition rates occurred both near the shore and in mid-bay, ranging from 12.8 to 36.1 g m-2 d-1. In the southern section of the bay, sediment deposition was slightly lower, with little seasonal variation. The highest deposition rate was measured at the river estuarine site, amounting to 9.1 g m-2 d-1 (dry season) and 9.0 g m-2 d-1 (rainy season). Further, persistent organic pollutants (POP) concentrations in sediment samples and sediment cores clearly showed the presence of organo-chlorine pesticides (OCP pollutant). High accumulation levels of OCP components were found in almost all sediment samples of Nha Trang Bay. The DDT concentrations showed high levels in sediment located in the estuary at the northern part of the bay (ranged: 20.11µg kg-1 to 5.28µg kg-1), and in the southern part (B1) 3.76µg kg-1. This study provides essential data and information, which are needed to assess the long-term impacts of river input on the degradation of marine ecosystems in the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay.

  19. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides at the Korean Arctic and Antarctic research stations: implications for long-range transport and local pollution.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Wania, Frank; Ikonomou, Michael G; Yoon, Young-Jun; Park, Byong-Kwon; Hong, Sungmin

    2008-10-01

    To assess levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar regions, XAD-resin based passive air samplers were deployed for one year at the Korean polar research stations at Ny-Alesund, Norway (2005-2006) and King George Island, Antarctica (2004-2005). Backward trajectories suggest that these stations are affected by long-range transport from source regions in Northern Europe and Russia and the southern tip of South America, respectively. Relatively high levels of PCB-11, averaging 60 pg x m(-3), were observed in Antarctica, suggesting an unusual source of PCB-11 to the Southern Hemisphere. Reflecting the hemispheric distribution of global PCB emissions, the average level of sigma205PCB (excluding three mono-CBs and PCB-11) was five times higher in the Arctic (95 pg x m(-3)) than in the Antarctic (19 pg x m(-3)). Levels of sigma9PCB at Ny-Alesund were similarto those reported for other Arctic sites, while levels at King George Island were lower than at other sites on the Antarctic Peninsula but 1 order of magnitude higher than background levels measured at a more remote Antarctic site. Light homologues were predominant in all samples (except for one Arctic sample), consistent with the hypothesis of global fractionation and predictions of long-range transport potential. Dominance of heavy PCBs on the roof of the main building at Ny-Alesund and a concentration gradient with distance from the main building at King George Island strongly indicated the influence of local sources. OCP levels were also influenced by long-range transport but not by local sources. This study highlights the feasibility of using passive air sampling to assess both long-range transport and local pollution in remote regions.

  20. Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Thomsen, Cathrine; Frøshaug, May; Bremnes, Nanna Margrethe Bruun; Broadwell, Sharon Lynn; Granum, Berit; Kogevinas, Manolis; Knutsen, Helle Katrine

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children. The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children. Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women. Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important