Science.gov

Sample records for oriented wavefront sensor

  1. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-02-01

    Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics systems rely on several wavefront sensors, which measure the incoming turbulent phase along several field directions to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent phase. In this paper, we explore an alternative wavefront sensing approach that attempts to directly measure the turbulent phase present at a particular height in the atmosphere: a layer-oriented cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). In an experiment at the Dunn Solar Telescope, we built a prototype layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS system conjugated to two separate atmospheric heights. We present the data obtained in the observations and complement these with ray-tracing computations to achieve a better understanding of the instrument's performance and limitations. The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that a layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS is not a practical design to measure the wavefront at a high layer in the atmosphere.

  2. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: reply.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich

    2014-11-10

    We appreciate the thoughtful comments by Kellerer [Appl. Opt.53, 7643 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.007643] to our recent study [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685] in which we evaluate the practicability of a layer-oriented wavefront sensing approach suggested for use in solar multiconjugate adaptive optics. After careful review of Kellerer's comment, we remain cautious about the feasibility of a solar-layer-oriented Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, we strongly encourage further analysis and proof-of-concept work that addresses the difficulties outlined in our original paper and that demonstrates the operating principles behind such an instrument.

  3. Fixed mount wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.

  4. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system.

  5. Alternative pyramid wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Veran, Jean Pierre; Bradley, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of a lenslet-based pyramid wavefront sensor (L-PWFS) and a double roof prism-based PWFS (DR-PWFS) as alternatives to a classical PWFS are investigated in this work. Traditional PWFSs require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Lenslet arrays and roof prisms, on the other hand, are both common optical components that can be used as a PWFS. Characterizing these alternative pyramids and understanding how they differ from a traditional pyramid will allow the PWFS to become more widely used. The sensitivity of the SUSS microOptics 300-4.7 array and two ios Optics roof prisms are compared with a double PWFS (D-PWFS), as well as the simulated performance of an idealized PWFS for varying amounts of modulation and induced wavefront error. In response to low-order Zernike modes, the L-PWFS shows much lower performance and quicker saturation for large amounts of wavefront errors. The DR-PWFS, on the other hand, performs as well as the D-PWFS for the tests conducted. We conclude from this that the DR-PWFS does provide a feasible alternative to the classical pyramid in a range of applications.

  6. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  7. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Alford, W. J.; Gruetzner, James K.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed.

  8. Wavefront modifier with integrated sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Mike; Laycock, Leslie; Rowe, Duncan; Cairns, Lee

    2009-09-01

    We present a novel method for integrating a wavefront sensor into a deformable mirror. This development should simplify the design of laser and electro-optic systems, and lead to smart mirrors which need no external control systems. In operation, a small fraction of the incident light is transmitted through the mirror coating and is sampled by a Hartmann Mask. Options include open loop, traditional closed loop or fully integrated operation whereby the wavefront sensor is used to provide direct feedback to the mirror actuators, enabling automatic alignment or phase conjugation.

  9. Broadband, Common-path, Interferometric Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James Kent (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid sensors comprising Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (S-HWFS) and Zernike Wavefront Sensor (Z-WFS) capabilities are presented. The hybrid sensor includes a Z-WFS optically arranged in-line with a S-HWFS such that the combined wavefront sensor operates across a wide dynamic range and noise conditions. The Z-WFS may include the ability to introduce a dynamic phase shift in both transmissive and reflective modes.

  10. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Daniel R.

    1996-04-25

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  11. Virtual pyramid wavefront sensor for phase unwrapping.

    PubMed

    Akondi, Vyas; Vohnsen, Brian; Marcos, Susana

    2016-10-10

    Noise affects wavefront reconstruction from wrapped phase data. A novel method of phase unwrapping is proposed with the help of a virtual pyramid wavefront sensor. The method was tested on noisy wrapped phase images obtained experimentally with a digital phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer. The virtuality of the pyramid wavefront sensor allows easy tuning of the pyramid apex angle and modulation amplitude. It is shown that an optimal modulation amplitude obtained by monitoring the Strehl ratio helps in achieving better accuracy. Through simulation studies and iterative estimation, it is shown that the virtual pyramid wavefront sensor is robust to random noise.

  12. X-ray wavefront characterization with two-dimensional wavefront sensors: shearing interferometers and Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin L.

    2012-10-01

    Phase reconstructions from a two-dimensional shearing interferometer, based on two orthogonal phase gratings in a single plane, and a Hartmann sensor are compared. Design alternatives for both wavefront sensors are given and simulated performance of both the two-dimensional x-ray shearing interferometer and Hartmann wavefront sensor are presented for two different phase profiles. The first comparison is an evaluation of metrology on DT ice layers in an inertial confinement fusion capsule and the second comparison is a high frequency "asterisk" phase profile. Both of these sensors can measure the two-dimensional wave-front gradient of an x-ray beam, as well as the x-ray absorption. These instruments measure the two-dimensional wave-front gradient in a single measurement and the wavefront sensor is located in a single plane making them much less sensitive to vibrations than most other wavefront sensing techniques.

  13. Digital pyramid wavefront sensor with tunable modulation.

    PubMed

    Akondi, Vyas; Castillo, Sara; Vohnsen, Brian

    2013-07-29

    The pyramid wavefront sensor is known for its high sensitivity and dynamic range that can be tuned by mechanically altering its modulation amplitude. Here, a novel modulating digital scheme employing a reflecting phase only spatial light modulator is demonstrated. The use of the modulator allows an easy reconfigurable pyramid with digital control of the apex angle and modulation geometry without the need of any mechanically moving parts. Aberrations introduced by a 140-actuator deformable mirror were simultaneously sensed with the help of a commercial Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The wavefronts reconstructed using the digital pyramid wavefront sensor matched very closely with those sensed by the Hartmann-Shack. It is noted that a tunable modulation is necessary to operate the wavefront sensor in the linear regime and to accurately sense aberrations. Through simulations, it is shown that the wavefront sensor can be extended to astronomical applications as well. This novel digital pyramid wavefront sensor has the potential to become an attractive option in both open and closed loop adaptive optics systems.

  14. An achromatic low-order wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Allain, Guillaume; Thibault, Simon; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Many wavefront sensors have been developed over the years, but most are not well suited for the photon-limited regime of coronagraphs designed for 10-9 contrast ratios and small inner working angles (IWAs). To meet current coronagraphs low-order wavefront sensing requirements, it is essential to have a method that offers high sensitivity and preferably a linear response. We propose an innovative low-order wavefront sensor (LOWFS) design that is both achromatic and near free of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs).

  15. Performance of wavefront sensors in strong scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchers, Jeffrey D.; Fried, David L.; Link, Donald J.; Tyler, Glenn A.; Moretti, William; Brennan, Terry J.; Fugate, Robert Q.

    2003-02-01

    The estimation accuracy of wavefront sensors in strong scintillation is examined. Wave optical simulation is used to characterize the performance of several wavefront sensors in the absence of measurement noise. The estimation accuracy of a Schack-Hartmann sensor is shown to be poor in strong scintillation due primarily to the presence of branch points in the phase function. The estimation accuracy of a unit-shear, shearing interferometer is found to be significantly better than that of a Hartmann sensor in strong scintillation. The estimation accuracy of a phase shifting point diffraction interferometer is shown to be invariant with scintillation.

  16. Reconfigurable wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses.

    PubMed

    Bock, Martin; Das, Susanta Kumar; Fischer, Carsten; Diehl, Michael; Börner, Peter; Grunwald, Ruediger

    2012-04-01

    A highly flexible Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulse diagnostics is presented. The temporal system performance is studied in detail. Reflective operation is enabled by programming tilt-tolerant microaxicons into a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator. Nearly undistorted pulse transfer is obtained by generating nondiffracting needle beams as subbeams. Reproducible wavefront analysis and spatially resolved second-order autocorrelation are demonstrated at incident angles up to 50° and pulse durations down to 6 fs.

  17. X-ray wavefront characterization with two-dimensional wavefront sensors: shearing interferometers and Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kevin L.

    2013-02-01

    Phase reconstructions from a two-dimensional shearing interferometer, based on two orthogonal phase gratings in a single plane, and a Hartmann sensor are compared. Design alternatives for both wavefront sensors are given, and simulated performance of both the two-dimensional x-ray shearing interferometer and Hartmann wavefront sensor are presented for two different phase profiles. The first comparison is an evaluation of metrology on deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layers in an inertial confinement fusion capsule, and the second comparison is a high frequency "asterisk" phase profile, which tests the ability of these wavefront sensors to detect spikes of ablator material seen in DT fuel capsule implosions. Both of these sensors can measure the two-dimensional wavefront gradient of an x-ray beam, as well as the x-ray absorption. These instruments measure the two-dimensional wavefront gradient in a single measurement, and the wavefront sensor is located in a single plane, making them much less sensitive to vibrations than most other wavefront sensing techniques.

  18. Curvature sensor for ocular wavefront measurement.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio O

    2006-08-01

    We describe a new wavefront sensor for ocular aberration determination, based on the curvature sensing principle, which adapts the classical system used in astronomy for the living eye's measurements. The actual experimental setup is presented and designed following a process guided by computer simulations to adjust the design parameters for optimal performance. We present results for artificial and real young eyes, compared with the Hartmann-Shack estimations. Both methods show a similar performance for these cases. This system will allow for the measurement of higher order aberrations than the currently used wavefront sensors in situations in which they are supposed to be significant, such as postsurgery eyes.

  19. Laboratory test of a pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Simone; Feeney, Orla; Riccardi, Armando

    2000-07-01

    A laboratory characterization of a new wavefront sensor for adaptive optics applications called a pyramid sensor is presented. This characterization is aimed at establishing the sensor accuracy and sensitivity. To investigate the operation of the sensor in low and high order correction adaptive optics systems, its behavior for different amplitudes of incoming wavefront aberrations is studied. The sensor characterization is carried out using a two arm optical set-up that allows the comparison of the PS measurements with those of a commercial Fizeau interferometer. This is done when a certain aberration is introduced into the optical path of both instruments via a deformable mirror. The experimental data are analyzed and discussed using both geometrical and diffractive optics theory. The closed loop sensor accuracy is investigated experimentally and demonstrates closed loop wavefront correction down to 30 nm root mean square for starting aberrations whose root mean square ranges from 170 nm to 300 nm. Modal noise propagation coefficients are determined and are compared with Shack-Hartmann sensor coefficients.

  20. Specialized wavefront sensors for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Mansell, J. D.; Gruetzner, James K.; Morgan, R.; Warren, Mial E.

    1995-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive optical system is strongly dependent upon correctly measuring the wavefront of the arriving light. The most common wavefront measurement techniques used to date are the shearing interferometer and the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Shack-Hartmann sensors rely on the use of lenslet arrays to sample the aperture appropriately. These have traditionally been constructed using MLM or step and repeat technology, and more recently with binary optics technology. Diffractive optics fabrication methodology can be used to remove some of the limitations of the previous technologies and can allow for low-cost production of sophisticated elements. We have investigated several different specialized wavefront sensor configurations using both Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer principles. We have taken advantage of the arbitrary nature of these elements to match pupil shapes of detector and telescope aperture and to introduce magnification between the lenslet array and the detector. We have fabricated elements that facilitate matching the sampling to the current atmospheric conditions. The sensors were designed using a far-field diffraction model and a photolithography layout program. They were fabricated using photolithography and RIE etching. Several different designs are presented with some experimental results from a small-scale adaptive optics brass-board.

  1. A Wavefront Sensor to Detect Dim Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, M.; Guyon, O.; Hart, M.; Codona, J.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present the progress made towards building the non-linear Curvature wavefront sensor (nlCWFS) to be used in an adaptive optics system for the direct imaging of exoplanets without the use of a laser guide star (LGS). Commonly used wavefront sensors such as the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) do a good job of reconstructing high order modes but due to design limitations are poor at reconstructing low order modes. The nlCWFS is able to use the full spatial coherence of the pupil allowing it to reconstruct all spatial frequencies equally well. The nlCWFS senses at the diffraction limit as opposed to the SHWFS which senses at the seeing limit. This awards the nlCWFS a gain in flux of (D/r0)2. In this paper we present results from putting the nlCWFS on the 6.5m MMT Observatory and detail the progress being made to build the nlCWFS for the 1.5 m Air Force Research Laboratory/RDS Optics Division telescope.

  2. Integration and alignment of components for curvature wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilburn, James R.

    1997-03-01

    The components used in curvature wavefront sensors are described with respect to mounting and adjustment requirements. In particular, the techniques used in the construction of the wavefront sensor employed in the adaptive optics bonnette at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope are described in detail. Descriptions include methods of mounting components, design and adjustment of optics and of fiber-optic feeds for avalanche photo-diodes, and ways of monitoring wavefront sensor alignment and performance during operation.

  3. Pyramidal Wavefront Sensor Demonstrator at INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Anctil, Geneviève; Bourqui, Pascal; Châteauneuf, François; Gauvin, Jonny; Goyette, Philippe; Lagacé, François; Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min

    2014-08-01

    Wavefront sensing is one of the key elements of an Adaptive Optics System. Although Shack-Hartmann WFS are the most commonly used whether for astronomical or biomedical applications, the high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range of the Pyramid-WFS (P-WFS) technology is promising and needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) applications. At INO, center for applied research in optics and technology transfer in Quebec City, Canada, we have recently set to develop a Pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS), an option for which no other research group in Canada had any experience. A first version had been built and tested in 2013 in collaboration with NRC-HIA Victoria. Here we present a second iteration of demonstrator with an extended spectral range, fast modulation capability and low-noise, fast-acquisition EMCCD sensor. The system has been designed with compactness and robustness in mind to allow on-sky testing at Mont Mégantic facility, in parallel with a Shack- Hartmann sensor so as to compare both options.

  4. Calibrating the interaction matrix for the LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianyu; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Conrad, Albert R; Herbst, Thomas M; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Bertram, Thomas; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Schreiber, Laura; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Kuerster, Martin; Bizenberger, Peter; Meschke, Daniel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Mohr, Lars; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan

    2012-03-26

    LINC-NIRVANA is a near-infrared Fizeau interferometric imager that will operate at the Large Binocular Telescope. In preparation for the commissioning of this instrument, we conducted experiments for calibrating the high-layer wavefront sensor of the layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system. For calibrating the multi-pyramid wavefront sensor, four light sources were used to simulate guide stars. Using this setup, we developed the push-pull method for calibrating the interaction matrix. The benefits of this method over the traditional push-only method are quantified, and also the effects of varying the number of push-pull frames over which aberrations are averaged is reported. Finally, we discuss a method for measuring mis-conjugation between the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor, and the proper positioning of the wavefront sensor detector with respect to the four pupil positions.

  5. Closed-loop performance of pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Feeney, Orla

    2000-07-01

    We consider the performance of the wavefront reconstruction process when a Pyramid wavefront Sensor is used in a closed loop Adaptive Optics System. The Pyramid Sensor sensitivity in closed loop operations has been the subject of a first heuristic analysis showing that the sensor sensitivity is higher than that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor, at least when low order modes are considered. In this paper we evaluate the sensor accuracy by determining the closed loop reconstruction matrix. This is done using a diffractive analysis of the sensor behavior. Furthermore, knowledge of this matrix enables us to quantify the effect of error sources like sensor non linearity and photon noise on the reconstructed wavefront accuracy. Finally, a comparison of the performance of the Shack-Hartmann and Pyramid wavefront sensors is given.

  6. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  7. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  8. Z-View diffractive wavefront sensor: principle and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueai; Warden, Laurence; Dillon, Keith; Mills, Gary; Dreher, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    A novel wavefront sensor (Z-View TM) using a two dimensional diffractive grating has been developed at Ophthonix, Inc. Based on the Talbot self-imaging theory, a CMOS camera is placed behind the grating to capture the first Talbot image of the aberrated wavefront. This captured Talbot image is analyzed to recover the wavefront aberration. The diffractive grating wavefront sensor has been used in Ophthonix's Z-View Aberrometer, an objective refractive vision assessment system which is now commercially used in optometrist's offices/clinics across the United States of America. Coupled with a deformable mirror and other auxiliary optics systems, Z-View wavefront sensor forms the A-View adaptive optic vision correction system at Ophthonix. This A-View system is used to study the effect of complete wavefront correction in human vision, and has potential application in prescribing Ophthonix's wavefront-guided iZon TM lenses. In this paper, the wavefront sensing principle of this novel diffractive wavefront sensor and its applications will be discussed.

  9. The NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor for ERIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Antichi, J.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.; Carbonaro, L.; Agapito, G.; Biliotti, V.; Briguglio, R.; Di Rico, G.; Dolci, M.; Ferruzzi, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Xompero, M.; Marchetti, E.; Fedrigo, E.; Le Louarn, M.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Amico, P.; Hubin, N.

    2014-07-01

    ERIS is the new Single Conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for VLT in construction at ESO with the collaboration of Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, ETH-Institute for Astronomy and INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. The ERIS AO system relies on a 40×40 sub-aperture Pyramid Wavefront Sensor (PWFS) for two operating modes: a pure Natural Guide Star high-order sensing for high Strehl and contrast correction and a low-order visible sensing in support of the Laser Guide Star AO mode. In this paper we present in detail the preliminary design of the ERIS PWFS that is developed under the responsibility of INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in collaboration with ESO.

  10. Wavefront sensors for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of 640x640 μm in size with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017 λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ. Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slope estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomial expansion, deformable mirror response function expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  11. Wavefront sensors for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    A high precision Shack-Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640x640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ . Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourier-demodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  12. High-speed SPGD wavefront controller for an adaptive optics system without wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Xinyang; Li, Mei; Ye, Jongwei; Chen, Bo

    2010-10-01

    A non-conventional adaptive optics system based on direct system performance metric optimization is illustrated. The system does not require wave-front sensor which is difficult to work under the poor condition such as beam cleanup for the anomalous light beam. The system comprises a high speed wavefront controller based on Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD) Algorithm, a deformable mirror, a tip/tilt mirror and a far-field system performance metric sensor. The architecture of the wave-front controller is based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and floating-point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The Zernike coefficient information is applied to improve the iteration speed. The experimental results show that the beam cleanup system based on SPGD keep a high iteration speed. The controller can compensate the wavefront aberration and tilt excursion effectively.

  13. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  14. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  15. Zonal wavefront sensor with reduced number of rows in the detector array.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Bosanta R; Das, Abhijit

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we describe a zonal wavefront sensor in which the photodetector array can have a smaller number of rows. The test wavefront is incident on a two-dimensional array of diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The periodicity and the orientation of the grating rulings of each grating can be chosen such that the +1 order beam from the gratings forms an array of focal spots in the detector plane. We show that by using a square array of zones, it is possible to generate an array of +1 order focal spots having a smaller number of rows, thus reducing the height of the required detector array. The phase profile of the test wavefront can be estimated by measuring the displacements of the +1 order focal spots for the test wavefront relative to the +1 order focal spots for a plane reference wavefront. The narrower width of the photodetector array can offer several advantages, such as a faster frame rate of the wavefront sensor, a reduced amount of cross talk between the nearby detector zones, and a decrease in the maximum thermal noise. We also present experimental results of a proof-of-concept experimental arrangement using the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  16. Sparse aperture mask wavefront sensor testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Hari; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Riggs, A. J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Coronagraphic exoplanet detection at very high contrast requires the estimation and control of low-order wave- front aberrations. At Princeton High Contrast Imaging Lab (PHCIL), we are working on a new technique that integrates a sparse-aperture mask (SAM) with a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) to make precise estimates of these low-order aberrations. We collect the starlight rejected from the coronagraphic image plane and interfere it using a sparse aperture mask (SAM) at the relay pupil to estimate the low-order aberrations. In our previous work we numerically demonstrated the efficacy of the technique, and proposed a method to sense and control these differential aberrations in broadband light. We also presented early testbed results in which the SAM was used to sense pointing errors. In this paper, we will briefly overview the SAM wavefront sensor technique, explain the design of the completed testbed, and report the experimental estimation results of the dominant low-order aberrations such as tip/tit, astigmatism and focus.

  17. Optical differentiation wavefront sensor based on binary pixelated transmission filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, J.; Travinsky, A.; Ding, G.; Dorrer, C.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution wavefront sensors are used in a wide range of applications. The Shack-Hartmann sensor is the industry standard and mostly used for this kind of analysis. However, with this sensor the analysis can only be performed for narrowband radiation, the recoverable curvature of the wavefront slopes is also restricted by the size of a single lens in the microlens array. The high-resolution Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (>128×128) is also significantly expensive. The optical differentiation wavefront sensor, on the other hand, consists of only simple and therefore inexpensive components, offers greater signal to noise ratio, allows for high-resolution analysis of wavefront curvature, and is potentially capable of performing broadband measurements. When a transmission mask with linear attenuation along a spatial direction modulates the far field of an optical wave, the spatial wavefront slope along that direction can be recovered from the fluence in the near field after modulation. With two orthogonal measurements one can recover the complete wavefront of the optical wave. In this study the characteristics of such a wavefront sensor are investigated when the linear transmission modulation is implemented with a pixelated binary filter. Such a filter can be produced as a gray-scale quasi-continuous transmission pattern constructed using arrays of small (e.g., 10-micron) transparent or opaque pixels and therefore it can simply be fabricated by conventional lithography techniques. Simulations demonstrate the potential ability of such a pixelated filter to match the performance of a filter with continuously varying transmission, while offering the advantage of better transmission control and reduction of fabrication costs.

  18. Fast modulation and dithering on a pyramid wavefront sensor bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Bradley, Colin; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; Lardiere, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    A pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) bench has been setup at NRC-Herzberg (Victoria, Canada) to investigate, first, the feasibility of a double roof prism PWFS, and second, test the proposed pyramid wavefront sensing methodology to be used in NFIRAOS for the Thirty Meter Telescope. Traditional PWFS require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Roof prisms, on the other hand, are common optical components and can easily be made to the desired specifications. Understanding the differences between a double roof prism PWFS and traditional PWFS will allow for the double roof prism PWFS to become more widely used as an alternative to the standard pyramid, especially in a laboratory setting. In this work, the response of the double roof prism PWFS as the amount of modulation is changed, is compared to an ideal PWFS modelled using the adaptive optics toolbox, OOMAO in MATLAB. The object oriented toolbox uses physical optics to model complete AO systems. Fast modulation and dithering using a PI mirror has been implemented using a micro-controller to drive the mirror and trigger the camera. The various trade offs of this scheme, in a controlled laboratory environment, are studied and reported.

  19. Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A; Sedat, John W

    2010-02-24

    A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity.

  20. Preprocessed cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition: a fast wavefront reconstruction method for pyramid wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Shatokhina, Iuliia; Obereder, Andreas; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Ramlau, Ronny

    2013-04-20

    We present a fast method for the wavefront reconstruction from pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) measurements. The method is based on an analytical relation between pyramid and Shack-Hartmann sensor (SH-WFS) data. The algorithm consists of two steps--a transformation of the P-WFS data to SH data, followed by the application of cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition, a wavefront reconstructor from SH-WFS measurements. The closed loop simulations confirm that our method provides the same quality as the standard matrix vector multiplication method. A complexity analysis as well as speed tests confirm that the method is very fast. Thus, the method can be used on extremely large telescopes, e.g., for eXtreme adaptive optics systems.

  1. Tomographic wavefront error using multi-LGS constellation sensed with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors.

    PubMed

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Gratadour, Damien; Schreiber, Laura; Fusco, Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Noise effects induced by laser guide star (LGS) elongation have to be considered globally in a multi-LGS tomographic reconstruction analysis. This allows a fine estimation of performance and the comparison of different launching options. We present a modal analysis of the wavefront error with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors based on quasi-analytical matrix formalism. Including spot elongation and the Rayleigh fratricide effect, edge launching produces similar performance to central launching and avoids the risk of possible underestimation of fratricide scatter. Performance improves slightly with an optimized centroid estimator and is not affected by a slight field-of-view truncation of the subapertures. Finally we discuss detector characteristics for a LGS Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

  2. Two-photon Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Sinefeld, David; Li, Bo; Xu, Chris

    2017-03-15

    We introduce a simple wavefront sensing scheme for aberration measurement of pulsed laser beams in near-infrared wavelengths (<2200  nm), where detectors are not always available or are very expensive. The method is based on two-photon absorption in a silicon detector array for longer wavelengths detection. We demonstrate the simplicity of such implementations with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and discuss the detection sensitivity of this method.

  3. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Michie, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.

  4. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.

    1996-02-20

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.

  5. First laboratory results with the LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianyu; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Conrad, Albert R.; Bertram, Thomas; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Thomas M.; Kuerster, Martin; Bizenberger, Peter; Meschke, Daniel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Mohr, Lars; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan; Schreiber, Laura; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano

    2011-08-01

    In the field of adaptive optics, multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can greatly increase the size of the corrected field of view (FoV) and also extend sky coverage. By applying layer oriented MCAO (LO-MCAO) [4], together with multiple guide stars (up to 20) and pyramid wavefront sensors [7], LINC-NIRVANA (L-N for short) [1] will provide two AO-corrected beams to a Fizeau interferometer to achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution on the Large Binocular Telescope. This paper presents first laboratory results of the AO performance achieved with the high layer wavefront sensor (HWS). This sensor, together with its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349), is being operated in one of the L-N laboratories. AO reference stars, spread across a 2 arc-minute FoV and with aberrations resulting from turbulence introduced at specific layers in the atmosphere, are simulated in this lab environment. This is achieved with the Multi-Atmosphere Phase screen and Stars (MAPS) [2] unit. From the wavefront data, the approximate residual wavefront error after correction has been calculated for different turbulent layer altitudes and wind speeds. Using a somewhat undersampled CCD, the FWHM of stars in the nearly 2 arc-minute FoV has also been measured. These test results demonstrate that the high layer wavefront sensor of LINC-NIRVANA will be able to achieve uniform AO correction across a large FoV.

  6. First laboratory results with the LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianyu; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Conrad, Albert R; Bertram, Thomas; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Thomas M; Kuerster, Martin; Bizenberger, Peter; Meschke, Daniel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Mohr, Lars; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan; Schreiber, Laura; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano

    2011-08-15

    In the field of adaptive optics, multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can greatly increase the size of the corrected field of view (FoV) and also extend sky coverage. By applying layer oriented MCAO (LO-MCAO) [4], together with multiple guide stars (up to 20) and pyramid wavefront sensors [7], LINC-NIRVANA (L-N for short) [1] will provide two AO-corrected beams to a Fizeau interferometer to achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution on the Large Binocular Telescope. This paper presents first laboratory results of the AO performance achieved with the high layer wavefront sensor (HWS). This sensor, together with its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349), is being operated in one of the L-N laboratories. AO reference stars, spread across a 2 arc-minute FoV and with aberrations resulting from turbulence introduced at specific layers in the atmosphere, are simulated in this lab environment. This is achieved with the Multi-Atmosphere Phase screen and Stars (MAPS) [2] unit. From the wavefront data, the approximate residual wavefront error after correction has been calculated for different turbulent layer altitudes and wind speeds. Using a somewhat undersampled CCD, the FWHM of stars in the nearly 2 arc-minute FoV has also been measured. These test results demonstrate that the high layer wavefront sensor of LINC-NIRVANA will be able to achieve uniform AO correction across a large FoV. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Comparison of wavefront sensor models for simulation of adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwen; Enmark, Anita; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Andersen, Torben

    2009-10-26

    The new generation of extremely large telescopes will have adaptive optics. Due to the complexity and cost of such systems, it is important to simulate their performance before construction. Most systems planned will have Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Different mathematical models are available for simulation of such wavefront sensors. The choice of wavefront sensor model strongly influences computation time and simulation accuracy. We have studied the influence of three wavefront sensor models on performance calculations for a generic, adaptive optics (AO) system designed for K-band operation of a 42 m telescope. The performance of this AO system has been investigated both for reduced wavelengths and for reduced r(0) in the K band. The telescope AO system was designed for K-band operation, that is both the subaperture size and the actuator pitch were matched to a fixed value of r(0) in the K-band. We find that under certain conditions, such as investigating limiting guide star magnitude for large Strehl-ratios, a full model based on Fraunhofer propagation to the subimages is significantly more accurate. It does however require long computation times. The shortcomings of simpler models based on either direct use of average wavefront tilt over the subapertures for actuator control, or use of the average tilt to move a precalculated point spread function in the subimages are most pronounced for studies of system limitations to operating parameter variations. In the long run, efficient parallelization techniques may be developed to overcome the problem.

  8. Miniaturized Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for starbugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Michael; Richards, Samuel; Zheng, Jessica; Lawrence, Jon; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Argyros, Alexander; Alcalde, Belen

    2014-07-01

    The ability to position multiple miniaturized wavefront sensors precisely over large focal surfaces are advantageous to multi-object adaptive optics. The Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) has prototyped a compact and lightweight Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor that fits into a standard Starbug parallel fibre positioning robot. Each device makes use of a polymer coherent fibre imaging bundle to relay an image produced by a microlens array placed at the telescope focal plane to a re-imaging camera mounted elsewhere. The advantages of the polymer fibre bundle are its high-fill factor, high-throughput, low weight, and relatively low cost. Multiple devices can also be multiplexed to a single lownoise camera for cost efficiencies per wavefront sensor. The use of fibre bundles also opens the possibility of applications such as telescope field acquisition, guiding, and seeing monitors to be positioned by Starbugs. We present the design aspects, simulations and laboratory test results.

  9. Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or

  10. A linear phase retrieval wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Xin-Yang; Jiang, Wen-Han

    2008-12-01

    A method to retrieve small phase aberration from a single far-field image is proposed. It only needs to calibrate the inherent aberration of the imaging system once, and then the difference between a single measured image with aberration and the calibrated image with inherent aberration is got to retrieve the disturbed phase aberration by an approximate linear relationship. Computer simulations are employed to analyze the performance of this linear phase retrieval (LPR) wave-front sensor. The dynamic range of this method is discussed without noise to judge how small it is needed to satisfy the method. The results show that the proposed small phase retrieval method works well when the RMS phase error is less than 1.6 rad. The Linear Phase Retrieval wave-front sensor and the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor are compared on the same stochastic wave-front aberration. The influence of different calculation condition on the retrieval results is compared and analyzed. After analyzing the target resolution, it is thought that a reasonable target size is advantageous to the retrieval precision. At the same time, the LPR sensor can realize the alike precision measurement by using less detect cell, such as 8 pixelx8 pixel in our experiment. From the retrieval results of different orders, the error rate are less than 0.25 and it is comparatively accurate to retrieve pre-35 order aberrations.

  11. AIS wavefront sensor: a robust optical test of exposure tools using localized wavefront curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Zhou, Xibin; Goldstein, Michael; Ashworth, Dominic; Cummings, Kevin; Fan, Yu-Jen; Shroff, Yashesh; Denbeaux, Greg; Kandel, Yudhi; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    We present an update of the AIS wavefront sensor, a diagnostic sensor set for insertion in the upgraded 0.5 NA SEMATECH Albany and Berkeley METs. AIS works by using offset monopole illumination to probe localized regions of the test optic pupil. Variations in curvature manifest as focus shifts, which are measured using a photodiode- based grating-on- grating contrast monitor, and the wavefront aberrations are reconstructed using a least-squares approach. We present results from an optical prototype of AIS demonstrating an accuracy of better than λ/30 rms for Zernike polynomials Z4 through Z10. We also discuss integration strategies and requirements as well as specifications on system alignment.

  12. Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity. PMID:24392198

  13. One dimensional wavefront sensor development for tomographic flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.; Pierson, R.; Chen, E.

    1995-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are extremely useful in fluid mechanics because they generally have high inherent bandwidth, and are non-intrusive. However, since optical probe measurements inherently integrate all information along the optical path, it is often difficult to isolate out-of-plane components in 3-dimensional flow events. It is also hard to make independent measurements of internal flow structure. Using an arrangement of one-dimensional wavefront sensors, we have developed a system that uses tomographic reconstruction to make two-dimensional measurements in an arbitrary flow. These measurements provide complete information in a plane normal to the flow. We have applied this system to the subsonic free jet because of the wide range of flow scales available. These measurements rely on the development of a series of one-dimensional wavefront sensors that are used to measure line-integral density variations in the flow of interest. These sensors have been constructed using linear CCD cameras and binary optics lenslet arrays. In designing these arrays, we have considered the coherent coupling between adjacent lenses and have made comparisons between theory and experimental noise measurements. The paper will present examples of the wavefront sensor development, line-integral measurements as a function of various experimental parameters, and sample tomographic reconstructions.

  14. Diffractive pyramid wave-front sensor used for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan; Ding, Xiaona; Wang, Kun; Wei, Hongyan; Yang, Huan; Cai, Dongmei

    2012-10-01

    Wave-front sensor, as the main component of Adaptive optics system, detects light from the astronomic object or reference sources. It aims to improve the utilization of light, especially for AO system work with the faint objects. Compared with Shack-Hartmann sensor, pyramid wave-front sensor is a relatively new one with increased pupil sampling and spatial resolution. Pyramid wave-front sensor uses a refractive element (the pyramid) to produce four images of the entrance pupil. Usually, Single pyramid prototypes are made using the classical figuring and polishing techniques. This approach, however, is not only very time consuming but also does not guarantee a uniform repeatability of the optical characteristics of the pyramids. The loss of low frequency component increases due to the roofs existing on its vertexes. Moreover, stray light is introduced in the four images. We therefore are investigating a modified pyramidal optical components based on the binary optical concept. In this article we describe the diffractive pyramid prototypes using the micro fabrication technique. The parameters of the pyramid are discussed.

  15. Myopic aberrations: Simulation based comparison of curvature and Hartmann Shack wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basavaraju, Roopashree M.; Akondi, Vyas; Weddell, Stephen J.; Budihal, Raghavendra Prasad

    2014-02-01

    In comparison with a Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor, the curvature wavefront sensor is known for its higher sensitivity and greater dynamic range. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the merits of using a curvature wavefront sensor, in comparison with a Hartmann Shack (HS) wavefront sensor, to analyze aberrations of the myopic eye. Aberrations were statistically generated using Zernike coefficient data of 41 myopic subjects obtained from the literature. The curvature sensor is relatively simple to implement, and the processing of extra- and intra-focal images was linearly resolved using the Radon transform to provide Zernike modes corresponding to statistically generated aberrations. Simulations of the HS wavefront sensor involve the evaluation of the focal spot pattern from simulated aberrations. Optical wavefronts were reconstructed using the slope geometry of Southwell. Monte Carlo simulation was used to find critical parameters for accurate wavefront sensing and to investigate the performance of HS and curvature sensors. The performance of the HS sensor is highly dependent on the number of subapertures and the curvature sensor is largely dependent on the number of Zernike modes used to represent the aberration and the effective propagation distance. It is shown that in order to achieve high wavefront sensing accuracy while measuring aberrations of the myopic eye, a simpler and cost effective curvature wavefront sensor is a reliable alternative to a high resolution HS wavefront sensor with a large number of subapertures.

  16. The LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor laboratory experiment: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianyu; Conrad, Albert R.; Meschke, Daniel; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Thomas M.; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bizenberger, Peter; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Laura; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Kuerster, Martin; De Bonis, Fulvio; Mohr, Lars; Farinato, Jacopo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan; Brangier, Matthieu

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is a near infrared interferometric imager with a pair of layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems (ground layer and high layer) for the Large Binocular Telescope. To prepare for the commissioning of LINC-NIRVANA, we have integrated the high layer wavefront sensor and its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349) in a laboratory, located at Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, in Heidelberg, Germany. Together with a telescope simulator, which includes a rotating field and phase screens that introduce the effects of the atmosphere, we tested the acquisition of multiple guide stars, calibrating the system with the push-pull method, and characterizing the wavefront sensor together with the deformable mirror. We have closed the AO loop with up to 200 Zernike modes and with multiple guide stars. The AO correction demonstrated that uniform correction can be achieved in a large field of view. We report the current status and results of the experiment.

  17. Development of a Pyramid Wave-front Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, Kacem; Vignaux, Mael; Fusco, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Within the framework of the E-ELT studies, several laboratories are involved on some instruments: HARMONY with its ATLAS adaptive optics [AO] system, EAGLE or EPICS. Most of the AO systems will probably integrate one or several pyramidal wavefront sensors, PWFS (R. Ragazzoni [1]). The coupling in an AO loop and the control in laboratory (then on sky) of this type of sensor is fundamental for the continuation of the projects related to OA systems on the E-ELT. LAM (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) is involved in particular in the VLT-SPHERE, ATLAS, EPICS projects. For the last few years, our laboratory has been carrying out different R&D activities in AO instrumentation for ELTs. An experimental AO bench is designed and being developed to allow the validation of new wave-front sensing and control concepts [2]. One the objectives of this bench, is the experimental validation of a pyramid WFS. Theoretical investigations on its behavior have been already made. The world's fastest and most sensitive camera system (OCAM2) has been recently developed at LAM (J.L Gach [3], First Light Imaging). Conjugating this advantage with the pyramid concept, we plan to demonstrate a home made Pyramid sensor for Adaptive Optics whose the speed and the precision are the key points. As a joint collaboration with ONERA and Shaktiware, our work aims at the optimization (measurement process, calibration and operation) in laboratory then on the sky of a pyramid sensor dedicated to the first generation instruments for ELTs. The sensor will be implemented on the ONERA ODISSEE AO bench combining thus a pyramid and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. What would give the possibility to compare strictly these two WFS types and make this bench unique in France and even in Europe. Experimental work on laboratory demonstration is undergoing. The status of our development will presented at the conference.

  18. Aligning a more than 100 degrees of freedom wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafatto, Luca; Bergomi, Maria; Brunelli, Alessandro; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Viotto, Valentina; Bertram, Thomas; Bizenberger, Peter; Brangier, Matthieu; Briegel, Florian; Conrad, Albert; De Bonis, Fulvio; Herbst, Tom; Hofferbert, Ralph; Kittmann, Frank; Kürster, Martin; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the Fizeau beam combiner for the LBT, with the aim to retrieve the sensitivity of a 12m telescope and the spatial resolution of a 22.8m one. Despite being only one of the four wavefront sensors of a layer-oriented MCAO system, the GWS, which is retrieving the deformation introduced by the lower atmosphere, known to be the main aberration source, reveals a noticeable internal opto-mechanical complexity. The presence of 12 small devices used to select up to the same number of NGSs, with 3 optical components each, moving in a wide annular 2'-6' arcmin Field of View and sending the light to a common pupil re-imager, and the need to obtain and keep a very good super-imposition of the pupil images on the CCD camera, led to an overall alignment procedure in which more than a hundred of degrees of freedom have to be contemporary adjusted. The rotation of the entire WFS to compensate for the sky movement, moreover, introduces a further difficulty both in the alignment and in ensuring the required pupil superposition stability. A detailed description of the alignment procedure is presented here, together with the lessons learned managing the complexity of such a WFS, which led to considerations regarding future instruments, like a possible review of numerical versus optical co-add approach, above all if close to zero read-out noise detectors will be soon available. Nevertheless, the GWS AIV has been carried out and the system will be soon mounted at LBT to perform what is called the Pathfinder experiment, which consists in ground-layer correction, taking advantage of the Adaptive Secondary deformable Mirror.

  19. WFS1D4.3. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.

    1995-12-12

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  20. A Phase-Shifting Zernike Wavefront Sensor for the Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Crawford, Sam; Loya, Frank; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    A phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor has distinct advantages over other types of wavefront sensors. Chief among them are: 1) improved sensitivity to low-order aberrations and 2) efficient use of photons (hence reduced sensitivity to photon noise). We are in the process of deploying a phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor to be used with the realtime adaptive optics system for Palomar. Here we present the current state of the Zernike wavefront sensor to be integrated into the high-order adaptive optics system at Mount Palomar's Hale Telescope.

  1. Mid-infrared Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor fully cryogenic using extended source for endoatmospheric applications.

    PubMed

    Robert, Clélia; Michau, Vincent; Fleury, Bruno; Magli, Serge; Vial, Laurent

    2012-07-02

    Adaptive optics provide real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. The correction quality relies on a key element: the wavefront sensor. We have designed an adaptive optics system in the mid-infrared range providing high spatial resolution for ground-to-air applications, integrating a Shack-Hartmann infrared wavefront sensor operating on an extended source. This paper describes and justifies the design of the infrared wavefront sensor, while defining and characterizing the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor camera. Performance and illustration of field tests are also reported.

  2. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument

  3. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/diameter) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output plane. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective, and second the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and can be made arbitrarily large. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument.

  4. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument

  5. Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/diameter) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output plane. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective, and second the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and can be made arbitrarily large. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument.

  6. Herschel Space Observatory Telescope characterization with Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovillaire, Guillaume; Wang, Yong; Toth, Rémy; Porcar-Guézénec, Raphael

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory Telescope is the first of its kind to cover the 60-670 μm far infrared spectral band. Its optical characterization, performed in the visible range, was a true technological challenge requiring very large dynamic range coupled to very high accuracy. A specific Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (HWFS) was designed to meet the demanding specifications of the measurement. The metrological system used by the EADS Astrium team to characterize the silicon car-bide based telescope will be presented as well as the main features of the specifically developed HWFS. The large expected wavefront error was measured in a double path set-up using the HWFS positioned in an extra-focal plane and a point source in the focal plane. The auto-collimation was carried out thanks to several liquid mirrors covering the M1 pupil plane and located in the conjugation plane of the HWFS sub-apertures. The results on the wavefront error obtained at the Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL) in Belgium will be shown as well as the simulated Point Spread Function to be compared to the real PSF obtained during on flight measurements. The thermally induced focal length variations are also presented as the telescope is meant to operate at 70°K in space.

  7. Laser guide star spot shrinkage for affordable wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Hugot, Emmanuel; Fusco, Thierry; Neichel, Benoit; Ferrari, Marc; Correia, Carlos; Pueyo, Laurent; Dohlen, Kjetil; Pascal, Sandrine; Vola, Pascal; Sauvage, Jean-François; El Hadi, Kacem; Gach, Jean Luc

    2016-07-01

    Innovative optical designs allow tackling the spot elongation issues in Shack-Hartman based laser guide star wavefront sensors. We propose two solutions using either a combination of two arrays of freeform microlenses, or a combination of freeform optics, to perform a shrinkage of the laser spots as well as a magnification of the SH focal plane. These approaches will drastically reduce the number of needed pixels, thus making possible the use of existing detectors. We present the recent advances on this activity as well as the estimation of performance, linearity and sensitivity of the compressed system in presence of aberrations.

  8. Holographic imaging with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hai; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2016-06-27

    A high-resolution Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been used for coherent holographic imaging, by computer reconstruction and propagation of the complex field in a lensless imaging setup. The resolution of the images obtained with the experimental data is in a good agreement with the diffraction theory. Although a proper calibration with a reference beam improves the image quality, the method has a potential for reference-less holographic imaging with spatially coherent monochromatic and narrowband polychromatic sources in microscopy and imaging through turbulence.

  9. Demonstration of depth-resolved wavefront sensing using a swept-source coherence-gated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyu; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2015-03-01

    In this report we demonstrate results of measuring wavefront aberrations from different depths in a fabricated phantom using a coherence-gated Shack-Hartman wavefront sensing technique (CG-SH/WFS). The SH/WFS is equipped with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and the coherence gate operates on principles of swept source (SS) interferometry. The CG-SH/WFS is able to differentiate wavefront signals from different depths separated by a depth resolution of 7.1 micron. The CG-SH/WFS delivers a similar SH spot pattern as that provided by a conventional SH/WFS. Due to the coherence gate, the sensor is capable of eliminating stray reflections. Hereby we present the results of measuring depth-resolved wavefront aberrations. The method is robust and all depth-resolved aberrations are recorded simultaneously without any mechanical movement. This technique has the potential of providing depth resolved correction in adaptive optics assisted ophthalmology imaging and in nonlinear microscopy.

  10. Telescope interferometers: an alternative to classical wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault, F.

    2008-07-01

    Several types of Wavefront Sensors (WFS) are nowadays available in the field of Adaptive Optics (AO). Generally speaking, their basic principle consists in measuring slopes or curvatures of Wavefront Errors (WFE) transmitted by a telescope, subsequently reconstructing WFEs digitally. Such process, however, does not seem to be well suited for evaluating co-phasing or piston errors of future large segmented telescopes in quasi real-time. This communication presents an original, recently proposed technique for direct WFE sensing. The principle of the device, which is named "Telescope-Interferometer" (TI), is based on the addition of a reference optical arm into the telescope pupil plane. Then incident WFEs are deduced from Point Spread Function (PSF) measurements at the telescope focal plane. Herein are described two different types of TIs, and their performance are discussed in terms of intrinsic measurement accuracy and spatial resolution. Various error sources are studied by means of numerical simulations, among which photon noise sounds the most critical. Those computations finally help to define the application range of the TI method in an AO regime, including main and auxiliary telescope diameters and magnitude of the guide star. Some practical examples of optical configurations are also described and commented.

  11. A laser guide star wavefront sensor bench demonstrator for TMT.

    PubMed

    Lardiere, Olivier; Conan, Rodolphe; Bradley, Colin; Jackson, Kate; Herriot, Glen

    2008-04-14

    Sodium laser guide stars (LGSs) allow, in theory, Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to reach a full sky coverage, but they have their own limitations. The artificial star is elongated due to the sodium layer thickness, and the temporal and spatial variability of the sodium atom density induces changing errors on wavefront measurements, especially with Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) for which the LGS elongation is larger. In the framework of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope project (TMT), the AO-Lab of the University of Victoria (UVic) has built an LGS-simulator test bed in order to assess the performance of new centroiding algorithms for LGS Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (SH-WFS). The design of the LGS-bench is presented, as well as laboratory SH-WFS images featuring 29x29 radially elongated spots, simulated for a 30-m pupil. The errors induced by the LGS variations, such as focus and spherical aberrations, are characterized and discussed. This bench is not limited to SH-WFS and can serve as an LGS-simulator test bed to any other LGS-AO projects for which sodium layer fluctuations are an issue.

  12. Shack-Hartmann and Interferometric Hybrid Wavefront Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    the focal plane to estimate local wavefront tilts, which can be reconstructed into wavefront estimates. Self-referencing-interferometer (SRI) WFS’s use...pupil- plane interferogram-intensity measurements to estimate the phase of the incident optical field. The SRI and SH WFS’s have strengths and...intensity measurements at the focal plane to estimate local wavefront tilts, which can be reconstructed into wavefront estimates. Self-referencing

  13. Wide dynamic range wavefront sensor using sub-wavelength grating array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Ke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new zonal wavefront sensor with a very wide dynamic range. The proposed sensor uses a sub-wavelength grating array to subdivide the input wavefront and produce transmitted light spots on CCD. The wavefront tilts are calculated from the transmissions of a sub-wavelength grating array. The dynamic range and resolution of the proposed sensor are respectively decided by the grating parameters and the sub-unit size of the array. So these two performances of the sensor are independent of one another, which enables the realization of wide dynamic range and high resolution simultaneously. We introduce the principle of the sensor by both Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis and Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods. A simulation is designed to validate our proposed method, and the measurement errors are analyzed. The sensor performs good sensitivity for wide incident angles, which is particularly suitable for spherical input wavefront.

  14. Calibration and performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor for the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesa, S.; Dainty, J. C.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the calibration and performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor designed for use in a retinal imaging camera. The effect of the image modulation and the sensor binning on the measurements are explained in detail and various tests to validate the performance are described. The wavefront sensor was incorporated into an adaptive optics system that used a magnetically actuated deformable mirror, and results on static test optics are shown.

  15. Wavefront sensors and algorithms for adaptive optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    The results of recent works related to techniques and algorithms for wave-front (WF) measurement using Shack-Hartmann sensors show their high efficiency in solution of very different problems of applied optics. The goal of this paper was to develop a sensitive Shack-Hartmann sensor with high precision WF measurement capability on the base of modern technology of optical elements making and new efficient methods and computational algorithms of WF reconstruction. The Shack-Hartmann sensors sensitive to small WF aberrations are used for adaptive optical systems, compensating the wave distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. A high precision Shack-Hartmann WF sensor has been developed on the basis of a low-aperture off-axis diffraction lens array. The device is capable of measuring WF slopes at array sub-apertures of size 640×640 μm with an error not exceeding 4.80 arcsec (0.15 pixel), which corresponds to the standard deviation equal to 0.017λ at the reconstructed WF with wavelength λ . Also the modification of this sensor for adaptive system of solar telescope using extended scenes as tracking objects, such as sunspot, pores, solar granulation and limb, is presented. The software package developed for the proposed WF sensors includes three algorithms of local WF slopes estimation (modified centroids, normalized cross-correlation and fast Fourierdemodulation), as well as three methods of WF reconstruction (modal Zernike polynomials expansion, deformable mirror response functions expansion and phase unwrapping), that can be selected during operation with accordance to the application.

  16. Expected gain in the pyramid wavefront sensor with limited Strehl ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Bergomi, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2016-09-01

    Context. One of the main properties of the pyramid wavefront sensor is that, once the loop is closed, and as the reference star image shrinks on the pyramid pin, the wavefront estimation signal-to-noise ratio can considerably improve. This has been shown to translate into a gain in limiting magnitude when compared with the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, in which the sampling on the wavefront is performed before the light is split into four quadrants, which does not allow the quality of the focused spot to increase. Since this property is strictly related to the size of the re-imaged spot on the pyramid pin, the better the wavefront correction, the higher the gain. Aims: The goal of this paper is to extend the descriptive and analytical computation of this gain that was given in a previous paper, to partial wavefront correction conditions, which are representative for most of the wide field correction adaptive optics systems. Methods: After focusing on the low Strehl ratio regime, we analyze the minimum spatial sampling required for the wavefront sensor correction to still experience a considerable gain in sensitivity between the pyramid and the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Results: We find that the gain can be described as a function of the sampling in terms of the Fried parameter.

  17. Improving the Sensitivity of Astronomical Curvature Wavefront Sensor Using Dual-Stroke Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Blain, Celia; Takami, Hideki; Hayano, Yutaka; Hattori, Masayuki; Watanabe, Makoto

    2008-06-01

    Curvature wavefront sensors measure wavefront phase aberration by acquiring two intensity images on either side of the pupil plane. Low-order adaptive optics (AO) systems using curvature wavefront sensing (CWFS) have proved to be highly efficient for astronomical applications: they are more sensitive, use fewer detector elements, and achieve, for the same number of actuators, higher Strehl ratios than AO systems using more traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. In higher-order systems, however, curvature wavefront sensors lose sensitivity to low spatial frequencies wavefront aberrations. This effect, often described as “noise propagation,” limits the usefulness of curvature wavefront sensing for high-order AO systems and/or large telescopes. In this paper, we first explain how this noise propagation effect occurs and then show that this limitation can be overcome by acquiring four defocused images of the pupil instead of two. This solution can be implemented without significant technology development and can run with a simple linear wavefront reconstruction algorithm at >kHz speed. We have successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that the four conjugation planes can be sequentially obtained at >kHz speed using a speaker-vibrating membrane assembly commonly used in current curvature AO systems. Closed loop simulations show that implementing this scheme is equivalent to making the guide star 1 to 1.5 magnitude brighter for the configuration tested (188 actuator elements on 8-m telescope). Higher sensitivity gains are expected on curvature systems with higher number of actuators.

  18. Laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Quiròs Pacheco, Fernando; Xompero, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensor and the results of the closed loop tests performed in laboratory. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope. It is designed to implement a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction for LUCI, an infrared imaging camera and multi-object spectrograph, using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The WFS is configured as a Shack-Hartman sensor having a 15 x 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. In the WFS each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS are arranged on a single lenslet array and detector by the use of off-axis optics in the final part of the WFS. The units of WFS are in the integration and testing phase at Arcetri Observatory premises. We describe here the test aimed to demonstrate the functionality of the WFS in an adaptive optics closed loop performed using the internal light sources of the WFS and a MEMS deformable mirror.

  19. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.

  20. A hierarchical wavefront reconstruction algorithm for gradient sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharmal, Nazim; Bitenc, Urban; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard

    2013-12-01

    ELT-scale extreme adaptive optics systems will require new approaches tocompute the wavefront suitably quickly, when the computational burden ofapplying a MVM is no longer practical. An approach is demonstrated here whichis hierarchical in transforming wavefront slopes from a WFS into a wavefront,and then to actuator values. First, simple integration in 1D is used to create1D-wavefront estimates with unknown starting points at the edges of independentspatial domains. Second, these starting points are estimated globally. By thesestarting points are a sub-set of the overall grid where wavefront values are tobe estimated, sparse representations are produced and numerical complexity canbe chosen by the spacing of the starting point grid relative to the overallgrid. Using a combination of algebraic expressions, sparse representation, anda conjugate gradient solver, the number of non-parallelized operations forreconstruction on a 100x100 sub-aperture sized problem is ~600,000 or O(N^3/2),which is approximately the same as for each thread of a MVM solutionparallelized over 100 threads. To reduce the effects of noise propagationwithin each domain, a noise reduction algorithm can be applied which ensuresthe continuity of the wavefront. To apply this additional step has a cost of~1,200,000 operations. We conclude by briefly discussing how the final step ofconverting from wavefront to actuator values can be achieved.

  1. A Broad-Band Phase-Contrast Wave-Front Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric; Wallace, J. Kent

    2005-01-01

    A broadband phase-contrast wave-front sensor has been proposed as a real-time wave-front sensor in an adaptive-optics system. The proposed sensor would offer an alternative to the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors now used in high-order adaptive-optics systems of some astronomical telescopes. Broadband sensing gives higher sensitivity than does narrow-band sensing, and it appears that for a given bandwidth, the sensitivity of the proposed phase-contrast sensor could exceed that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Relative to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, the proposed sensor may be optically and mechanically simpler. As described below, an important element of the principle of operation of a phase-contrast wave-front sensor is the imposition of a 90deg phase shift between diffracted and undiffracted parts of the same light beam. In the proposed sensor, this phase shift would be obtained by utilizing the intrinsic 90 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in an ideal (thin, symmetric) beam splitter. This phase shift can be characterized as achromatic or broadband because it is 90deg at every wavelength over a broad wavelength range.

  2. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  3. Wavefront Sensing with the Fine Guidance Sensor for James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David; Dean, Bruce H.; Howard,Joe; Shiri, Ron

    2008-01-01

    An analysis is presented that utilizes the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) for focal-plane wavefront sensing (WFS) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WFS with FGS increases the number of wavefront measurements taken in field of the telescope, but has many challenges over the other JWST instruments that make it unique, such as; less sampling of the Point Spread Function (PSF), a smaller diversity-defocus range, a smaller image detector size, and a polychromatic object or source. Additionally, presented is an analysis of sampling for wavefront sensing. Results are shown based on simulations of flight and the cryogenic optical testing at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  4. Pyramid wavefront sensor aboard AdOpt@TNG and beyond: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Esposito, Simone; Ghedina, Adriano; Baruffolo, Andrea; Cecconi, Massimo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo; Fini, Luca; Marchetti, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Tordi, Massimiliano; Vernet-Viard, Elise

    2002-02-01

    The concept of Pyramid Wavefront sensor has been introduced as a more compact and flexible alternative to Shack--Hartmann wavefront sensing. In the past five years, however, such a novel concept promised a much larger sensitivity and an inherent easiness to be implemented in a multiple reference wavefront sensor. AdOptTNG, a natural guide star based adaptive optics module implemented at the 3.5m TNG telescope is equipped with such a sensor. We report here on the updated status, including on-sky experimental verification of various of the several features of such a sensor. We discuss the results obtained, their scalability and the lessons learned in building, aligning and operating it. Some comparison with theoretical and laboratory-based result, is also tentatively reported.

  5. Shack - Hartmann wavefront sensor for measuring the parameters of high-power pulsed solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A G; Zavalova, V E; Kudryashov, A V; Rukosuev, A L; Sheldakova, Yu V; Samarkin, V V; Romanov, P N

    2010-06-23

    The wavefront of the radiation of two types from high-power solid-state (Ti:sapphire and Nd:glass) lasers is experimentally studied. The measurements are performed using a Shack - Hartmann wavefront sensor. The technical and functional potential of this sensor in measuring laser-based schemes is demonstrated. The results of measuring both static and dynamic wavefront aberrations are discussed. The estimated dynamics of defocus aberration is in agreement with the experimental data. (measurement of laser radiation parameters)

  6. Simple broadband implementation of a phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    The most critical element of an adaptive optics system is its wavefront sensor, which must measure the closed-loop difference between the corrected wavefront and an ideal template at high speed, in real time, over a dense sampling of the pupil. Most high-order systems have used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, but a novel approach based on Zernike's phase contrast principle appears promising. In this paper we discuss a simple way to achromatize such a phase contrast wavefront sensor, using the pi/2 phase difference between reflected and transmitted rays in a thin, symmetric beam splitter. We further model the response at a range of wavelengths to show that the required transverse dimension of the focal-plane phase-shifting spot, nominally lambda/D, may not be very sensitive to wavelength, and so in practice additional optics to introduce wavelength-dependent transverse magnification achromatizing this spot diameter may not be required. A very simple broadband implementation of the phase contrast wavefront sensor results.

  7. Simple broadband implementation of a phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    The most critical element of an adaptive optics system is its wavefront sensor, which must measure the closed-loop difference between the corrected wavefront and an ideal template at high speed, in real time, over a dense sampling of the pupil. Most high-order systems have used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, but a novel approach based on Zernike's phase contrast principle appears promising. In this paper we discuss a simple way to achromatize such a phase contrast wavefront sensor, using the pi/2 phase difference between reflected and transmitted rays in a thin, symmetric beam splitter. We further model the response at a range of wavelengths to show that the required transverse dimension of the focal-plane phase-shifting spot, nominally lambda/D, may not be very sensitive to wavelength, and so in practice additional optics to introduce wavelength-dependent transverse magnification achromatizing this spot diameter may not be required. A very simple broadband implementation of the phase contrast wavefront sensor results.

  8. Wavefront sensor testing in hypersonic flows using a laser-spark guide star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Hedlund, Eric; Lederer, Melissa; Collier, Arnold S.; Spring, Charles; Gruetzner, James K.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Mansell, Justin D.

    1997-11-01

    The flight environment of next-generation theater missile defense interceptors involves hypersonic speeds that place severe aero-thermodynamic loads on missile components including the windows used for optical seekers. These heating effects can lead to significant boresight error and aberration. Ground-based tests are required to characterize these effects. We have developed methods to measure aberrations in seeker windows using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Light from a laser or other source with a well known wavefront is passed through the window and falls on the sensor. The sensor uses an array of micro-lenses to generate a grid of focal spots on a CCD detector. The positions of the focal spots provide a measure of the wavefront slope over each micro-lens. The wavefront is reconstructed by integrating the slopes, and analyzed to characterize aberrations. During flight, optical seekers look upstream through a window at 'look angles' angles near 0 degrees relative to the free stream flow. A 0 degree angle corresponds to large angles approaching 90 degrees when measured relative to the normal of the window, and is difficult to simulate using conventional techniques to illuminate the wavefront sensor during wind tunnel tests. For this reason, we developed a technique using laser- induced optical breakdown that allows arbitrary look angles down to 0 degrees.

  9. End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars

    2011-09-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.

  10. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T. C.

    2010-07-01

    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration.

  11. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T.C.

    2010-01-01

    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration. PMID:20799824

  12. Testing highly aberrated large optics with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Pulaski, Paul; Raymond, Thomas D.; Neal, David A.; Wang, Quandou; Griesmann, Ulf

    2003-12-01

    We have adapted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) to the measurement of highly aberrated large optics. The experiment uses a concave mirror operating at the radius point with a small lens to re-collimate the light onto the wavefront sensor. It is used to test large (300 mm) fused silica wafers in double pass transmission. The optic under test is placed in the intermediate path near the large return mirror. The aberrations of the large mirror, beam splitter and other optics are subtracted by recording a reference set of focal spot on the SHWFS without the wafer. The wavefront error for some of these wafers is nearly 100 waves, yet we are able to make accurate measurements with the wavefront sensor by selecting a sensor with the appropriate combination of focal length and lenslet diameter. The special sensor that we developed uses a megapixel camera with an arrangement of 100 X 100 lenslets. This sensor could achieve several hundred waves of dynamic range with better than λ/20 accuracy. Additional wafer thickness measurements that were made at NIST with the XCALIBIR interferometer corroborate the SHWFS results.

  13. High-speed DSP assembly-language code for processing wavefront sensor pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas G.; Shelton, J. Christopher

    2000-06-01

    For CCD wavefront sensor pixel input and processing the Adoptics software in use at the Mt. Wilson 100-inch Hooker telescope utilizes hand-crafted assembly code to maximize use of the Texas Instruments C40 DSP processor's bandwidth. For flexibility the software is built around a conceptual framework that allows compact implementation of wavefront sensor-specific operations as well as adaptability to different CCD architectures. Designed for use in multi-DSP systems, such as those used at Mt. Wilson, the software framework will support many different DSP network topologies and facilitates distributing pixel-processing operations across the network.

  14. Time series analysis of Adaptive Optics wave-front sensor telemetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Palmer, D

    2004-03-22

    Time series analysis techniques are applied to wave-front sensor telemetry data from the Lick Adaptive Optics System. For 28 fully-illuminated subapertures, telemetry data of 4096 consecutive slope estimates for each subaperture are available. The primary problem is performance comparison of alternative wave-front sensing algorithms. Using direct comparison of data in open loop and closed-loop trials, we analyze algorithm performance in terms of gain, noise and residual power. We also explore the benefits of multi-input Wiener filtering and analyze the open-loop and closed-loop spatial correlations of the sensor measurements.

  15. An ocular wavefront sensor based on binary phase element: design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Anurag

    2012-07-01

    A modal wavefront sensor for ocular aberrations exhibits two main advantages compared to a conventional Shack-Hartmann sensor. As the wavefront is detected in the Fourier plane, the method is robust against local loss of information (e.g. local opacity of ocular lens as in the case of cataract), and is not dependent on the spatial distribution of wavefront sampling. We have proposed a novel method of wavefront sensing for ocular aberrations that directly detects the strengths of Zernike aberrations. A multiplexed Fourier computer-generated hologram has been designed as the binary phase element (BPE) for the detection of second-order and higher-order ocular aberrations (HOAs). The BPE design has been validated by comparing the simulated far-field pattern with the experimental results obtained by displaying it on a spatial light modulator. Simulation results have demonstrated the simultaneous wavefront detection with an accuracy better that ∼λ/30 for a measurement range of ±2.1λ with reduced cross-talk. Sensor performance is validated by performing a numerical experiment using the City data set for test waves containing second-order and HOAs and measurement errors of 0.065 µm peak-to-valley (PV) and 0.08 µm (PV) have been obtained, respectively.

  16. High-speed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor design with commercial off-the-shelf optics.

    PubMed

    Widiker, Jeffrey J; Harris, Scott R; Duncan, Bradley D

    2006-01-10

    Several trade-offs relevant to the design of a two-dimensional high-speed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor are presented. Also outlined are some simple preliminary experiments that can be used to establish critical design specifications not already known. These specifications include angular uncertainty, maximum measurable wavefront tilt, and spatial resolution. A generic design procedure is then introduced to enable the adaptation of a limited selection of CCD cameras and lenslet arrays to the desired design specifications by use of commercial off-the-shelf optics. Although initially developed to aid in the design of high-speed (i.e., megahertz-frame-rate) Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, our method also works when used for slower CCD cameras. A design example of our procedure is provided.

  17. Testing the pyramid truth wavefront sensor for NFIRAOS in the lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Etsuko; Rosensteiner, Matthias; van Kooten, Maaike; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Lardiere, Olivier; Herriot, Glen

    2016-07-01

    For today and future adaptive optics observations, sodium laser guide stars (LGSs) are crucial; however, the LGS elongation problem due to the sodium layer has to be compensated, in particular for extremely large telescopes. In this paper, we describe the concept of truth wavefront sensing as a solution and present its design using a pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) to improve NFIRAOS (Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System), the first light adaptive optics system for Thirty Meter Telescope. We simulate and test the truth wavefront sensor function under a controlled environment using the HeNOS (Herzberg NFIRAOS Optical Simulator) bench, a scaled-down NFIRAOS bench at NRC-Herzberg. We also touch on alternative pyramid component options because despite recent high demands for PWFSs, we suffer from the lack of pyramid supplies due to engineering difficulties.

  18. Seeing trends from deployable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, MMT Observatory, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Duane; Williams, G. Grant; Trebisky, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Deployable Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFS) for the f/5 and f/9 secondary configurations have been used at the 6.5-meter MMT Observatory (MMTO) since 2003. Probe mirrors for these WFS's are moved into the optical path of the telescope between scientific observations multiple times each night. Results from the wavefront measurements are then used to bend the primary mirror (M1) and to reposition the secondary mirror (M2) to correct for wavefront errors. In addition to measuring the optical wavefront error, the Shack-Hartmann data are used to determine the delivered seeing using the measured spot sizes. This study attempts to analyze the more than 75,000 WFS measurements and associated seeing values obtained at the MMTO since 2003. The overall WFS data reduction and analysis procedure is discussed. This data analysis includes: 1) finding the spots in each image, 2) centroiding the spots, 3) measuring a point-spread function, 4) determining an average spot width and a derived seeing value, and 5) computing the best-fit Zernike polynomial coefficients. Wavefront slopes are calculated from spot displacements and wavefront aberrations are fit with a 19-term Zernike polynomial. As part of this study, the WFS-derived seeing values are correlated with other observing parameters, such as mirror-air temperature contrasts. Finally, seasonal climate and local weather (e.g., prevailing wind direction) effects on astronomical seeing are evaluated.

  19. EUV Hartmann sensor for wavefront measurements at the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöter, Bernhard; Juranić, Pavle; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Mann, Klaus; Plönjes, Elke; Schäfer, Bernd; Tiedtke, Kai

    2010-08-01

    A compact, self-supporting Hartmann wavefront sensor was developed for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray range. The device is adapted to the characteristics of the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). It operates in a wavelength range from 6 to 30 nm with the capability to measure the wavefront quality of individual free-electron laser (FEL) pulses for beam characterization as well as for beamline alignment and monitoring behind user experiments. We report on online-Hartmann wavefront measurements at beamline BL2 with λ13.5 nm/90 accuracy for wavefront rms (wrms). The results were used to align the ellipsoidal focusing mirror at the beamline, decreasing the residual root mean square (rms) wavefront aberrations by more than a factor of 3 to 2.6 nm. The spot size of 31 μm (x) and 27 μm (y) full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) as well as other beam parameters evaluated from wavefront and intensity data are consistent with independent profile measurements in the focal region, employing both a high-resolution EUV camera and poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) imprints.

  20. Orientation Insensitivity for Electrochemical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromer, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Using a wettable polypropylene wick, performance of an electro-chemical hydrazine sensor is made independent of its orientation. Wick keeps all electrodes in constant contact with electrolyte solution so that one or more of the electrodes do not become isolated from the electrolyte if the sensor is tilted or vibrated.

  1. Experimental study of an optimised Pyramid wave-front sensor for Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Charlotte Z.; El Hadi, Kacem; Sauvage, Jean-François; Correia, Carlos; Fauvarque, Olivier; Rabaud, Didier; Lamb, Masen; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Over the last few years the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) has been heavily involved in R&D for adaptive optics systems dedicated to future large telescopes, particularly in preparation for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Within this framework an investigation into a Pyramid wave-front sensor is underway. The Pyramid sensor is at the cutting edge of high order, high precision wave-front sensing for ground based telescopes. Investigations have demonstrated the ability to achieve a greater sensitivity than the standard Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor whilst the implementation of a Pyramid sensor on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has provided compelling operational results.1, 2 The Pyramid now forms part of the baseline for several next generation Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). As such its behaviour under realistic operating conditions must be further understood in order to optimise performance. At LAM a detailed investigation into the performance of the Pyramid aims to fully characterise the behaviour of this wave-front sensor in terms of linearity, sensitivity and operation. We have implemented a Pyramid sensor using a high speed OCAM2 camera (with close to 0 readout noise and a frame rate of 1.5kHz) in order to study the performance of the Pyramid within a full closed loop adaptive optics system. This investigation involves tests on all fronts, from theoretical models and numerical simulations to experimental tests under controlled laboratory conditions, with an aim to fully understand the Pyramid sensor in both modulated and non-modulated configurations. We include results demonstrating the linearity of the Pyramid signals, compare measured interaction matrices with those derived in simulation and evaluate the performance in closed loop operation. The final goal is to provide an on sky comparison between the Pyramid and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor, at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (ONERA-ODISSEE bench). Here we

  2. Negating effects from sodium profile variations for TMT: the MOR truth wavefront sensor of NFIRAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, David R.; Conan, Rodolphe; Ellerbroek, Brent; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    The Moderate Order Radial (MOR) Truth Wavefront Sensor (TWFS) of NFIRAOS, the facility AO system for TMT, is a visible light order 12x12 subaperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Its role is to sense radial wavefront errors arising from variations in the Sodium layer profile that are not sensed by the on-instrument near infrared tip-tilt focus wavefront sensor at a sampling frequency on the order of one Herz. It works in concert with the High Order Low bandwidth (HOL) TWFS, which will use a 120x120 subaperture Shack-Hartmann WFS that senses slow variations in telescope flexure and the rotation of the pupil. Top-level requirements for NFIRAOS leave little margin for degradation in sky coverage or additional implementation wavefront errors introduced by the operation of the MOR TWFS. In this paper, we explore MOR TWFS design trade studies on the number of subapertures, sampling rate, the width of the MOR TWFS visible bandpass, and the split in light between the MOR and HOL TWFS, and present a design for a system which meets the top level requirements by not degrading the high sky coverage of NFIRAOS (50% sky coverage at the Galactic poles) and rejecting the radial modes with a residual wavefront error of 10nm.

  3. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  4. Concepts, laboratory, and telescope test results of the plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J. L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The plenoptic camera has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects within the context of the design of the European Solar Telescope (EST), but it can also be used with point sources. Originated in the field of the Electronic Photography, the plenoptic camera directly samples the Light Field function, which is the four - dimensional representation of all the light entering a camera. Image formation can then be seen as the result of the photography operator applied to this function, and many other features of the light field can be exploited to extract information of the scene, like depths computation to extract 3D imaging or, as it will be specifically addressed in this paper, wavefront sensing. The underlying concept of the plenoptic camera can be adapted to the case of a telescope by using a lenslet array of the same f-number placed at the focal plane, thus obtaining at the detector a set of pupil images corresponding to every sampled point of view. This approach will generate a generalization of Shack-Hartmann, Curvature and Pyramid wavefront sensors in the sense that all those could be considered particular cases of the plenoptic wavefront sensor, because the information needed as the starting point for those sensors can be derived from the plenoptic image. Laboratory results obtained with extended objects, phase plates and commercial interferometers, and even telescope observations using stars and the Moon as an extended object are presented in the paper, clearly showing the capability of the plenoptic camera to behave as a wavefront sensor.

  5. Improvement of Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor measurement for extreme adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, M; Fusco, T; Rousset, G; Michau, V

    2004-12-01

    The development of high-performance adaptive optics systems requires the optimization of wave-front sensors (WFSs) working in the high-order correction regime. We propose a new method to improve the wave-front slope estimation of a Shack-Hartmann WFS in such a regime. Based on a detailed analysis of the different errors in the slope estimation with a classical centroid and with the new method, the gain in terms of wave-front-sensing accuracy in both the detector and the photon noise regimes is stressed. This improvement is proposed without major system disruption.

  6. A wavefront orientation method for precise numerical determination of tsunami travel time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, I. V.; Thomson, R. E.

    2013-04-01

    We present a highly accurate and computationally efficient method (herein, the "wavefront orientation method") for determining the travel time of oceanic tsunamis. Based on Huygens principle, the method uses an eight-point grid-point pattern and the most recent information on the orientation of the advancing wave front to determine the time for a tsunami to travel to a specific oceanic location. The method is shown to provide improved accuracy and reduced anisotropy compared with the conventional multiple grid-point method presently in widespread use.

  7. Zernike Wavefront Sensor Modeling Development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xu; Wallace, J. Kent; Shi, Fang

    2015-01-01

    WFIRST-AFTA design makes use of an existing 2.4m telescope for direct imaging of exoplanets. To maintain the high contrast needed for the coronagraph, wavefront error (WFE) of the optical system needs to be continuously sensed and controlled. Low Order Wavefront Sensing (LOWFS) uses the rejected starlight from an immediate focal plane to sense wavefront changes (mostly thermally induced low order WFE) by combining the LOWFS mask (a phase plate located at the small center region with reflective layer) with the starlight rejection masks, i.e. Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC)'s occulter or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC)'s field stop. Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS) measures phase via the phase-contrast method and is known to be photon noise optimal for measuring low order aberrations. Recently, ZWFS was selected as the baseline LOWFS technology on WFIST/AFTA for its good sensitivity, accuracy, and its easy integration with the starlight rejection mask. In this paper, we review the theory of ZWFS operation, describe the ZWFS algorithm development, and summarize various numerical sensitivity studies on the sensor performance. In the end, the predicted sensor performance on SPC and HLC configurations are presented.

  8. Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce

    2004-05-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems take sampled measurements of the wave-front phase. Because in the general case the spatial-frequency content of the phase aberration is not band limited, aliasing will occur. This aliasing will cause increased residual error and increased scattered light in the point-spread function (PSF). The spatially filtered wave-front sensor (SFWFS) mitigates this phenomenon by using a field stop at a focal plane before the wave-front sensor. This stop acts as a low-pass filter on the phase, significantly reducing the high-spatial-frequency content phase seen by the wave-front sensor at moderate to high Strehl ratios. We study the properties and performance of the SFWFS for open- and closed-loop correction of atmospheric turbulence, segmented-primary-mirror errors, and sensing with broadband light. In closed loop the filter reduces high-spatial-frequency phase power by a factor of 10(3) to 10(8). In a full AO-system simulation, this translates to a reduction by up to 625 times in the residual error power due to aliasing over a specific spatial frequency range. The final PSF (generated with apodization of the pupil) has up to a 100 times reduction in intensity out to lambda/2d.

  9. The low-order wavefront sensor for the PICTURE-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, Christopher B.; Brown, Joshua; Martel, Jason; Howe, Glenn A.; Hewasawam, Kuravi; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Douglas, Ewan S.; Mawet, Dimitri; Guyon, Olivier; Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Marinan, Anne D.

    2015-09-01

    The PICTURE-C mission will fly a 60 cm off-axis unobscured telescope and two high-contrast coronagraphs in successive high-altitude balloon flights with the goal of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing visible scattered light from exozodiacal dust in the interior 1-10 AU of nearby exoplanetary systems. The first flight in 2017 will use a 10-4 visible nulling coronagraph (previously flown on the PICTURE sounding rocket) and the second flight in 2019 will use a 10-7 vector vortex coronagraph. A low-order wavefront corrector (LOWC) will be used in both flights to remove time-varying aberrations from the coronagraph wavefront. The LOWC actuator is a 76-channel high-stroke deformable mirror packaged on top of a tip-tilt stage. This paper will detail the selection of a complementary high-speed, low-order wavefront sensor (LOWFS) for the mission. The relative performance and feasibility of several LOWFS designs will be compared including the Shack-Hartmann, Lyot LOWFS, and the curvature sensor. To test the different sensors, a model of the time-varying wavefront is constructed using measured pointing data and inertial dynamics models to simulate optical alignment perturbations and surface deformation in the balloon environment.

  10. Improving the accuracy of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor on extended scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, M.; Morel, J.-M.; Thiebaut, C.; Delvit, J.-M.; Facciolo, G.

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve higher resolutions, current earth-observation satellites use larger lightweight main mirrors which are usually deformed over time, impacting on image quality. In the context of active optics, we studied the problem of correcting this main mirror by performing wavefront estimation in a closed loop environment. To this end, a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor (SHWFS) used on extended scenes could measure the incoming wavefront. The performance of the SHWFS on extended scenes depends entirely on the accuracy of the shift estimation algorithm employed, which should be fast enough to be executed on-board. In this paper we specifically deal with the problem of fast accurate shift estimation in this context. We propose a new algorithm, based on the global optical flow method, that estimates the shifts in linear time. In our experiments, our method proved to be more accurate and stable, as well as less sensitive to noise than all current state-of-the-art methods.

  11. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor: a hybrid focal-plane sensor for the high-contrast imaging of circumstellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Snik, F.; Korkiakoski, V.; Pietrow, A. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The raw coronagraphic performance of current high-contrast imaging instruments is limited by the presence of a quasi-static speckle (QSS) background, resulting from instrumental Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs). Rapid development of efficient speckle subtraction techniques in data reduction has enabled final contrasts of up to 10-6 to be obtained, however it remains preferable to eliminate the underlying NCPEs at the source. In this work we introduce the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS), a new wavefront sensor suitable for real-time NCPE correction. This combines the Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph with a holographic modal wavefront sensor to provide simultaneous coronagraphic imaging and focal-plane wavefront sensing with the science point-spread function. We first characterise the baseline performance of the cMWS via idealised closed-loop simulations, showing that the sensor is able to successfully recover diffraction-limited coronagraph performance over an effective dynamic range of ±2.5 radians root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error within 2-10 iterations, with performance independent of the specific choice of mode basis. We then present the results of initial on-sky testing at the William Herschel Telescope, which demonstrate that the sensor is capable of NCPE sensing under realistic seeing conditions via the recovery of known static aberrations to an accuracy of 10 nm (0.1 radians) rms error in the presence of a dominant atmospheric speckle foreground. We also find that the sensor is capable of real-time measurement of broadband atmospheric wavefront variance (50% bandwidth, 158 nm rms wavefront error) at a cadence of 50 Hz over an uncorrected telescope sub-aperture. When combined with a suitable closed-loop adaptive optics system, the cMWS holds the potential to deliver an improvement of up to two orders of magnitude over the uncorrected QSS floor. Such a sensor would be eminently suitable for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of

  12. History of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and its impact in ophthalmic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiegerling, Jim

    2014-09-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is a technology that was developed at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona in the late 1960s. It is a robust technique for measuring wavefront error that was originally developed for large telescopes to measure errors induced by atmospheric turbulence. The Shack Hartmann sensor has evolved to become a relatively common non-interferometric metrology tool in a variety of fields. Its broadest impact has been in the area of ophthalmic optics where it is used to measure ocular aberrations. The data the Shack Hartmann sensor provides enables custom LASIK treatments, often enhancing visual acuity beyond normal levels. In addition, the Shack Hartmann data coupled with adaptive optics systems enables unprecedented views of the retina. This paper traces the evolution of the technology from the early use of screen-type tests, to the incorporation of lenslet arrays and finally to one of its modern applications, measuring the human eye.

  13. Electron density characterization by use of a broadband x-ray-compatible wave-front sensor.

    PubMed

    Baker, K L; Brase, J; Kartz, M; Olivier, S S; Sawvel, B; Tucker, J

    2003-02-01

    The use of a Hartmann wave-front sensor to accurately measure the line-integrated electron density gradients formed in laser-produced and z-pinch plasma experiments is examined. This wave-front sensor may be used with a soft-x-ray laser as well as with incoherent line emission at multikilovolt x-ray energies. This diagnostic is significantly easier to use than interferometery and moiré deflectometry, both of which have been demonstrated with soft-x-ray lasers. This scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the visible region by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor and a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator to simulate a phase profile that could occur when an x-ray probe passes through a plasma. The merits of using a Hartmann sensor include a wide dynamic range, broadband or low-coherence-length light capability, high x-ray efficiency, two-dimensional gradient determination, multiplexing capability, and experimental simplicity. Hartmann sensors could also be utilized for wavelength testing of extreme-ultraviolet lithography components and x-ray phase imaging of biological specimens.

  14. Analysis of stellar interferometers as wave-front sensors.

    PubMed

    Hénault, François

    2005-08-01

    The basic principle and theoretical relationships of an original method are presented that allow the wave-front errors of a ground or spaceborne telescope to be retrieved when its main pupil is combined with a second, decentered reference optical arm. The measurement accuracy of such a telescope-interferometer is then estimated by means of various numerical simulations, and good performance is demonstrated, except in limited areas near the telescope pupil's rim. In particular, it permits direct phase evaluation (thus avoiding the use of first- or second-order derivatives), which will be of special interest for the cophasing of segmented mirrors in future giant-telescope projects. Finally, the useful practical domain of the method is defined, which seems to be better suited for periodic diagnostics of space- or ground-based telescopes or to real-time scientific observations in some specific cases (e.g., the central star in instruments that search for extrasolar planets).

  15. Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.; Warren, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor that uses binary optic lenslet arrays to directly measure the wavefront slope (phase gradient) and amplitude of the laser beam. This sensor uses an array of lenslets that dissects the beam into a number of samples. The focal spot location of each of these lenslets (measured by a CCD camera) is related to the incoming wavefront slope over the lenslet. By integrating these measurements over the laser aperture, the wavefront or phase distribution can be determined. Since the power focused by each lenslet is also easily determined, this allows a complete measurement of the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam. Furthermore, all the information is obtained in a single measurement. Knowing the complete scalar field of the beam allows the detailed prediction of the actual beam`s characteristics along its propagation path. In particular, the space- beamwidth product M{sup 2}, can be obtained in a single measurement. The intensity and phase information can be used in concert with information about other elements in the optical train to predict the beam size, shape, phase and other characteristics anywhere in the optical train. We present preliminary measurements of an Ar{sup +} laser beam and associated M{sup 2} calculations.

  16. The Black Fringe Wavefront Sensor: Real Time Adaptive Optics with Minimum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansey, R.; Chan, H.; Hokam, A.

    A new adaptive optics device called a black fringe wavefront sensor ( bfwfs) has been developed over the last year at Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center.1 Current white light interferometry techniques used for microscopy surface height scans, as used in Linnick and Mirau Interferometers, are combined with am demodulation algorithms from the rf communication industry to produce a wavefront sensor capable of real time adaptive optics correction using white light or broadband multiline incoherent lasers or LED's. In this presentation the bfwfs will be described, and results of recent tests using a 16 channel device will be discussed. In addition, a planned 64 ch version being fabricated for a deformable mirror and Mems application will be described. The 16 ch device is used to obtain measurements of open loop influence functions, poke tests, and closed loop Bode plots using a Mems mirror. The black fringe wavefront sensing device uses a fully parallel architecture and allows analog control of most wavefront correction devices used today including deformable mirrors, Mems, Liquid Crystal spatial light modulators, and Bimorphs. This control is obtained without the need for a complicated algorithm or computation, other then a minimum number of multiply and divide circuits as needed for peek seeking detection. The bfwfs device can be used for adaptive optics at long ranges, on weight or volume limited platforms, because it allows high power incoherent lasers, or other sources, to be combined with a massively parallel architecture and inherently analog design. Results are reported in which recently developed superluminescent laser diodes (SLD's) and high brightness white LED's are tested for use with the black fringe wavefront sensor for long range atmospheric correction. Finally, a potential application of the bfwfs is discussed in which the recently discovered phenomena of white light filaments generated in the atmosphere by a fsec laser is proposed for guide

  17. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  18. A phase-knife wave-front sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, A S; Larichev, A V

    2005-01-31

    The use of an optical system with a phase knife is proposed to record qualitatively the shape of the optical-radiation wave front. Theoretical and numerical studies of a sensor based on a phase knife are performed, the algorithms for reconstruction of the phase function and schemes for sensor realisation are developed, and the range in which the device can be used expediently is determined. The sensor component parameters required for its realisation are determined, and the sensor efficiency in various operational modes is tested experimentally. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Holographic wavefront sensor based on Karhunen-Loève decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzuola, Esdras; Zepp, Andreas; Gladysz, Szymon; Stein, Karin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce the use of Karhunen-Loève functions as a basis set to decompose atmospheric phase aberrations in a digital holographic wavefront sensor (HWS). We show that the intermodal crosstalk when using Karhunen-Loève functions is reduced in comparison to the Zernike decomposition. Additionally, the sensor's response showed an improved linearity and better robustness to scintillation. Intermodal crosstalk remains a significant problem for this sensor but operation of an adaptive optics system based on HWS is less challenging when using Karhunen-Loève functions instead of Zernike polynomials.

  20. Adaptive optics wavefront sensors based on photon-counting detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Brian F.; Schuette, Daniel R.; Reich, Robert K.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2010-07-01

    For adaptive optics systems, there is a growing demand for wavefront sensors that operate at higher frame rates and with more pixels while maintaining low readout noise. Lincoln Laboratory has been investigating Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays integrated with CMOS readout circuits as a potential solution. This type of sensor counts photons digitally within the pixel, enabling data to be read out at high rates without the penalty of readout noise. After a brief overview of adaptive optics sensor development at Lincoln Laboratory, we will present the status of silicon Geigermode- APD technology along with future plans to improve performance.

  1. Optical characterization of MEMS micro-mirror arrays using digital holographic Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor: a new technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Igor; Dooley, Sarah B.

    2011-05-01

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Micro-Mirror Arrays (MMAs) are widely used in advanced laser beam steering systems and as adaptive optical elements. The new generation of MEMS MMAs are fabricated by bulk micromachining of a single Silicon-On-Insulator wafer. Optical characterization of MEMS MMAs can be done by direct detection of the reflected beams or by using more advanced wavefront measuring techniques, such as a phase-shifting interferometer or Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. In the case of an interferometer, the geometry of the tested MMA can be calculated after performing the phase unwrapping procedure, which can be quite complex. In the latter case of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, careful selection of a highquality array of microlenses is required in order to match the capabilities of the wavefront sensor to the measured wavefront produced by the MMA. The presented digital Shack-Hartmann technique is a modified approach for wavefront characterization based on digital processing of the interferometer data. The optical wavefront from the tested MMA is mixed with the reference wavefront. Then the recorded interference intensity image is Fourier transformed producing digitally synthesized images of the optical beams in the far field. Therefore, the digital version of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor does not require the use of an array of microlenses and is primarily limited by the detector array geometry. One can digitally generate any configuration of subapertures corresponding to various geometries of microlenses. However, this new technique does require coherent optical mixing of the two wavefronts in order to produce the interference pattern.

  2. Sorting method to extend the dynamic range of the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junwon; Shack, Roland V.; Descour, Michael R

    2005-08-10

    We propose a simple and powerful algorithm to extend the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. In a conventional Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor the dynamic range is limited by the f-number of a lenslet, because the focal spot is required to remain in the area confined by the single lenslet. The sorting method proposed here eliminates such a limitation and extends the dynamic range by tagging each spot in a special sequence. Since the sorting method is a simple algorithm that does not change the measurement configuration, there is no requirement for extra hardware, multiple measurements, or complicated algorithms. We not only present the theory and a calculation example of the sorting method but also actually implement measurement of a highly aberrated wave front from nonrotational symmetric optics.

  3. Subaru Coronagraphic eXtreme Adaptive Optics: on-sky performance of the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument relies on a technique known as the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) to compensate for the non-common path error that affects the performance of high contrast imaging instruments. The APF-WFS is a powerful tool that senses the wavefront at the level of the science detector, and leads to unbiased wavefront estimates. This paper presents the latest status, linearity properties and reports on the on-sky performance of this sensor, as it is implemented on SCExAO, used to control low-order Zernike modes in a close-loop system.

  4. Phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Li, Xiaoyang; Yang, Xu

    2015-08-01

    The phase grating wavefront curvature sensor based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator is introduced. A close-loop phase retrieval method based on Eigen functions of Laplacian is proposed, and its accuracy and efficiency are analyzed through numerical experiments of atmospheric phase retrieval. The results show that the close-loop phase retrieval method has a high accuracy. Moreover, it is stable regardless of modal cross coupling.

  5. Evaluation of a Maximum A-Posteriori Slope Estimator for a Hartmann Wavefront Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    MAXIMUM A-POSTERIORI SLOPE ESTIMATOR FOR A HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSOR THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force...Institute of Technology Air University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering Troy B. Van...other post-processing techniques such as inverse filtering or blind deconvolution [1, 20]. Significant research has been done by the Air Force Maui

  6. Integration and bench testing for the GRAVITY Coudé IR adaptive optics (CIAO) wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, C.; Yang, P.; Huber, A.; Suarez-Valles, M.; Hippler, S.; Brandner, W.; Gendron, E.; Clénet, Y.; Kendrew, S.; Glauser, A.; Klein, R.; Laun, W.; Lenzen, R.; Neumann, U.; Panduro, J.; Ramos, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Salzinger, A.; Zimmerman, N.; Henning, T.; Perraut, K.; Perrin, G.; Straubmeier, C.; Amorim, A.; Eisenhauer, F.

    2014-08-01

    GRAVITY, a second generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), will provide an astrometric precision of order 10 micro-arcseconds, an imaging resolution of 4 milli-arcseconds, and low/medium resolution spectro-interferometry. These improvements to the VLTI represent a major upgrade to its current infrared interferometric capabilities, allowing detailed study of obscured environments (e.g. the Galactic Center, young dusty planet-forming disks, dense stellar cores, AGN, etc...). Crucial to the final performance of GRAVITY, the Coudé IR Adaptive Optics (CIAO) system will correct for the effects of the atmosphere at each of the VLT Unit Telescopes. CIAO consists of four new infrared Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFS) and associated real-time computers/software which will provide infrared wavefront sensing from 1.45-2.45 microns, allowing AO corrections even in regions where optically bright reference sources are scarce. We present here the latest progress on the GRAVITY wavefront sensors. We describe the adaptation and testing of a light-weight version of the ESO Standard Platform for Adaptive optics Real Time Applications (SPARTA-Light) software architecture to the needs of GRAVITY. We also describe the latest integration and test milestones for construction of the initial wave front sensor.

  7. Measurement of corneal topography through Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinsheng; Rao, Xuejun; Rao, Changhui

    2008-12-01

    A corneal topography based on Hartmann-Shack Sensor is presented in this paper. In the system, the focus of an objective lens is precisely positioned on cornea's curve center. Wave-front of the reflecting beam can be measured by the Hartmann-Shack sensor which is conjugate to the cornea plane. If the corneal surface is a perfect sphere, wave-front detected by the Hartmann-Shack sensor is a plane. As a result, data measured by Hartmann-Shacks sensor is the deviation between the sphere and the real cornea surface. This paper describes a methodology for designing instrument based on Hartmann-Shack sensor. Then, applying this method, an instrument is developed for accurate measurement of corneal topography. In addition, measuring principle of Hartmann-Shack sensor which determined system parameters is also introduced. Repeatability is demonstrated by a series of data. The instrument was able to accurately measure simulative cornea's reflective aberrations, from which corneal topography and corneal refractive aberrations were derived.

  8. First cophasing of a segmented mirror with a tunable filter and the pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Guerra, J. C.; Myers, R.; Dipper, N.

    2010-07-01

    Optical cophasing has a key role in ensuring that segmented mirror telescopes reach their best performance. To measure and correct segments misalignment it is necessary to have a wavefront sensor (WFS) in the telescope optical path. All the cophasing WFS suffer the phase ambiguity problem that limits the piston error measurements to a unit of wavelength. To overcome this problem we have developed a new cophasing technique based on the wavelength sweep. This paper will present the results of laboratory and on-sky tests of this technique, comparing them with the expected performance obtained in a previous work through numerical simulations. The laboratory test was carried out on the Active Phasing Experiment bench at ESO premises in Garching. We measured wavefront piston errors up to 15μm with an accuracy better than 0.25μm on a pupil conjugate segmented mirror using the Pyramid Phasing Sensor (PYPS) and a commercial tunable filter. We tested the possibility of propagating the differential piston measurements over the segmented mirror to cophase it, obtaining a residual surface error less than 0.2μm rms. The first on-sky test of the WST was carried out at William Hershel Telescope (WHT) using the NAOMI segmented mirror. We checked the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the measurements of large piston errors up to 15um wavefront and it was obtained an accuracy of 0.5μm, which is in agreement with simulation.

  9. Development of a hard x-ray wavefront sensor for the EuXFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Martin, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    We present developments on a hard X-ray wavefront sensing instrument for characterizing and monitoring the beam of the European X-ray Free Electron Lasers (EuXFEL). The pulsed nature of the intense X-ray beam delivered by this new class of facility gives rise to strong challenges for the optics and their diagnostic. In the frame of the EUCALL project Work Package 7, we are developing a sensor able to observe the beam in the X-ray energy range [8-40] keV without altering it. The sensor is based on the speckle tracking principle and employs two semi-transparent optics optimized such that their X-ray absorption is reduced. Furthermore, this instrument requires a scattering object with small random features placed in the beam and two cameras to record images of the beam at two different propagation distances. The analysis of the speckle pattern and its distortion from one image to the other allows absolute or differential wavefront recovery from pulse to pulse. Herein, we introduce the stakes and challenges of wavefront sensing at an XFEL source and explain the strategies adopted to fulfil the high requirements set by such a source.

  10. GMTIFS: deformable mirror environmental testing for the on-instrument wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, M.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Bloxham, G.; Boz, R.; Bundy, D.; Espeland, B.; Sharp, R.

    2016-07-01

    GMTIFS requires a deformable mirror (DM) as part of its on-instrument wavefront sensor (OIWFS). The DM facilitates wavefront correction for the off-axis natural guide star, with the objective being to maximize the energy in the diffraction core and improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the guide star position measurement. It is essential that the OIWFS be positionally stable with respect to the science field. The use of J-K to observe the guide star, and thus the need to limit thermal background, essentially requires the DM in the OIWFS to be operated at or below -40°C. This is below the standard operating temperature range of currently available DMs. In cooperation with the manufacturers we are testing the performance of three DMs at temperatures from ambient to -45°C, or cooler. In the context of the OIWFS adequate stroke, open-loop positioning stability, hysteresis, interactuator surface figure and dynamic response are key performance criteria. A test system based around high spatial sampling of the DM aperture with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been built. The opto-mechanical design permits a DM to be contained in a cryostat so that it may be cooled in isolation. We describe this test system and the test cases that are applied to the ALPAO DM-69, Boston MicroMachines 492DM and the IrisAO PTT111 deformable mirrors. Preliminary results at ambient temperatures are presented.

  11. Wavefront sensor based diagnostic of FERMI FEL photon beam (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondi, Lorenzo; Mahne, Nicola; Manfredda, Michele; Svetina, Cristian; Cocco, Daniele; Capotondi, Flavio; Pedersoli, Emanuele; Kiskinova, Maya; Zangrando, Marco

    2016-09-01

    FERMI is the first seeded EUV-SXR free electron laser (FEL) user facility, and it is operated at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. Two of the four already operating beamlines, namely LDM (Low Density Matter) and DiProI (Diffraction and Projection Imaging), use a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) active X-ray optics system for focusing the FEL pulses onto the target under investigation. A wafefront sensor is used as diagnostic for the characterization of the focused spot and for the optimization of the parameters of these active optical systems as well. The aim of this work is, first, to describe in detail the optimization procedure using the wavefront sensor through the minimization of the Zernike coefficients, and second, report on the final results obtained on the K-B optical system at the DiProI endstation. The wavefront sensor, mounted out of focus behind the DiProI chamber, allows to compute the intensity distribution of the FEL beam, typically a mix between several modes resulting in a "noisy hyper-Gaussian" intensity profile, and the wavefront residual from ideal propagation shape and after tilt correction. Combining these two measures we can obtain the electric field of the wave out of focus. Propagating back the electric field we reconstruct the focal spot in far field approximation. In this way the sensor works as a diagnostic reconstructing the focal spot. On the other hand, after modelling the electric field with a Zernike polynomial it is easy and fast to optimize the mirror bending and the optical system angles by minimizing the aberrations, quantified in terms of Zernike coefficients. Since each coefficient corresponds to a single parameter, they can be minimized one at the time. Online wavefront measurements have made possible the optimization of the bending acting on the mirror curvature, and of the (pitch and roll) angle positions of the K-B system. From the wavefront measurements we have inferred a focal spot for DiProI of 5.5 μm x 6.2 μm at 32 nm wavelength

  12. Sparse aperture differential piston measurements using the pyramid wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Chen, Xinyang; Yan, Zhaojun; Zheng, Lixin; Agapito, Guido; Wang, Chaoyan; Zhu, Nenghong; Zhu, Liyun; Cai, Jianqing; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we report on the laboratory experiment we settled in the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) to investigate the pyramid wave-front sensor (WFS) ability to measure the differential piston on a sparse aperture. The ultimate goal is to verify the ability of the pyramid WFS work in close loop to perform the phasing of the primary mirrors of a sparse Fizeau imaging telescope. In the experiment we installed on the optical bench we performed various test checking the ability to flat the wave-front using a deformable mirror and to measure the signal of the differential piston on a two pupils setup. These steps represent the background from which we start to perform full close loop operation on multiple apertures. These steps were also useful to characterize the achromatic double pyramids (double prisms) manufactured in the SHAO optical workshop.

  13. Performance simulation of the ERIS pyramid wavefront sensor module in the VLT adaptive optics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Agapito, Guido; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Le Louarn, Miska; Marchetti, Enrico

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis based on numerical simulations of the Pyramid Wavefront sensor Module (PWM) to be included in ERIS, the new Adaptive Optics (AO) instrument for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). We have analyzed the performance of the PWM working either in a low-order or in a high-order wavefront sensing mode of operation. We show that the PWM in the high-order sensing mode can provide SR > 90% in K band using bright guide stars under median seeing conditions (0.85 arcsec seeing and 15 m/s of wind speed). In the low-order sensing mode, the PWM can sense and correct Tip-Tilt (and if requested also Focus mode) with the precision required to assist the LGS observations to get an SR > 60% and > 20% in K band, using up to a ~16.5 and ~19.5 R-magnitude guide star, respectively.

  14. Nonlinear spline wavefront reconstruction through moment-based Shack-Hartmann sensor measurements.

    PubMed

    Viegers, M; Brunner, E; Soloviev, O; de Visser, C C; Verhaegen, M

    2017-05-15

    We propose a spline-based aberration reconstruction method through moment measurements (SABRE-M). The method uses first and second moment information from the focal spots of the SH sensor to reconstruct the wavefront with bivariate simplex B-spline basis functions. The proposed method, since it provides higher order local wavefront estimates with quadratic and cubic basis functions can provide the same accuracy for SH arrays with a reduced number of subapertures and, correspondingly, larger lenses which can be beneficial for application in low light conditions. In numerical experiments the performance of SABRE-M is compared to that of the first moment method SABRE for aberrations of different spatial orders and for different sizes of the SH array. The results show that SABRE-M is superior to SABRE, in particular for the higher order aberrations and that SABRE-M can give equal performance as SABRE on a SH grid of halved sampling.

  15. More Zernike modes' open-loop measurement in the sub-aperture of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Mu, Quanquan; Li, Dayu; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li

    2016-10-17

    The centroid-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) treats the sampled wavefronts in the sub-apertures as planes, and the slopes of the sub-wavefronts are used to reconstruct the whole pupil wavefront. The problem is that the centroid method may fail to sense the high-order modes for strong turbulences, decreasing the precision of the whole pupil wavefront reconstruction. To solve this problem, we propose a sub-wavefront estimation method for SHWFS based on the focal plane sensing technique, by which more Zernike modes than the two slopes can be sensed in each sub-aperture. In this paper, the effects on the sub-wavefront estimation method of the related parameters, such as the spot size, the phase offset with its set amplitude and the pixels number in each sub-aperture, are analyzed and these parameters are optimized to achieve high efficiency. After the optimization, open-loop measurement is realized. For the sub-wavefront sensing, we achieve a large linearity range of 3.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z2 and Z3, and 2.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z4 to Z6 when the pixel number does not exceed 8 × 8 in each sub-aperture. The whole pupil wavefront reconstruction with the modified SHWFS is realized to analyze the improvements brought by the optimized sub-wavefront estimation method. Sixty-five Zernike modes can be reconstructed with a modified SHWFS containing only 7 × 7 sub-apertures, which could reconstruct only 35 modes by the centroid method, and the mean RMS errors of the residual phases are less than 0.2 rad2, which is lower than the 0.35 rad2 by the centroid method.

  16. Pupil tracking with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arines, Justo; Prado, Paula; Bará, Salvador

    2010-05-01

    We present the theoretical background and experimental validation of a pupil tracking method based on measurement of the irradiance centroid of Hartmann-Shack aberrometric images. The experimental setup consists of a Hartmann-Shack (HS) sensor forming over the same camera the images of the eye's pupil and the aberrometric image. The calibration is made by comparing the controlled displacements induced to an artificial eye with the displacements estimated from the centroid of the pupil and of the HS focal plane. The pupil image is also used for validation of the method when operating with human eyes. The experimental results after calibration show a root mean square error of 10.45 μm for the artificial eye and 27, 10, and 6 μm rms for human eyes tested using Hartmann-Shack images, with signal-to-noise ratios of 6, 8, and 11, respectively. The performance of the method is similar to conventional commercial eye trackers. It avoids the need for using separate tracking devices and their associated synchronization problems. This technique can also be used to reprocess present and stored sets of Hartmann-Shack aberrometric images to estimate the ocular movements that occurred during the measurement runs, and, if convenient, to correct the measured aberrations from their influence.

  17. Pupil tracking with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Arines, Justo; Prado, Paula; Bará, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    We present the theoretical background and experimental validation of a pupil tracking method based on measurement of the irradiance centroid of Hartmann-Shack aberrometric images. The experimental setup consists of a Hartmann-Shack (HS) sensor forming over the same camera the images of the eye's pupil and the aberrometric image. The calibration is made by comparing the controlled displacements induced to an artificial eye with the displacements estimated from the centroid of the pupil and of the HS focal plane. The pupil image is also used for validation of the method when operating with human eyes. The experimental results after calibration show a root mean square error of 10.45 mum for the artificial eye and 27, 10, and 6 mum rms for human eyes tested using Hartmann-Shack images, with signal-to-noise ratios of 6, 8, and 11, respectively. The performance of the method is similar to conventional commercial eye trackers. It avoids the need for using separate tracking devices and their associated synchronization problems. This technique can also be used to reprocess present and stored sets of Hartmann-Shack aberrometric images to estimate the ocular movements that occurred during the measurement runs, and, if convenient, to correct the measured aberrations from their influence.

  18. Improved artificial bee colony algorithm for wavefront sensor-less system in free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.

  19. Development of a pyramidal wavefront sensor test-bench at INO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min; Gauvin, Jonny; Martin, Olivier; Savard, Maxime; Bourqui, Pascal; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Deschenes, William; Anctil, Genevieve; Chateauneuf, François

    2013-12-01

    The key technical element of the adaptive optics in astronomy is the wavefront sensing (WFS). One of the advantages of the pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) over the widely used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor seems to be the increased sensitivity in closed-loop applications. A high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range WFS, such as P-WFS technology, still needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes application. At INO, we have recently carried out the optical design, testing and performance evaluation of a P-WFS bench setup. The optical design of the bench setup mainly consists of the super-LED fiber source, source collimator, spatial light modulator (SLM), relay lenses, tip-tilt mirror, Fourier-transforming lens, and a four-faceted glass pyramid with a large vertex angle as well as pupil re-imaged optics. The phase-only SLM has been introduced in the bench setup to generate atmospheric turbulence with a maximum phase shift of more than 2π at each pixel (256 grey levels). Like a modified Foucault knife-edge test, the refractive pyramid element is used to produce four images of the entrance pupil on a CCD camera. The Fourier-transforming lens, which is used before the pyramid prism, is designed for telecentric output to allow dynamic modulation (rotation of the beam around the pyramid-prism center) from a tip-tilt mirror. Furthermore, a P-WFS diffraction-based model has been developed. This model includes most of the system limitations such as the SLM discrete voltage steps and the CCD pixel pitch. The pyramid effects (edges and tip) are considered as well. The modal wavefront reconstruction algorithm relies on the construction of an interaction matrix (one for each modulation's amplitude). Each column of the interaction matrix represents the combination of the four pupil images for a given wavefront aberration. The nice agreement between the data and the model suggest that the limitation of the system is not the P

  20. Characterization of synthetic reconstructors for the pyramid wavefront sensor unit of LBTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, V.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Codona, J.; Hinz, P.; Durney, O.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.

    2010-07-01

    We present progress and results for the pyramid wavefront sensor unit on the Large Binocular Telescope's Interferometer (LBTI). The system is a clone of the pyramid sensor unit developed at Arcetri Observatory for the LUCIFER instrument. We discuss the performance of simulated reconstructors during preliminary on-sky testing at the MMT. These reconstructors were generated with the code AOSim2, a customizable end-to-end simulator of a telescope and its AO system. We used the 3-5μm imager Clio to take fast exposures at 3.8μm, from which we calculated Strehl Ratios (SR) for each pyramid configuration and for the Shack-Hartmann (SH) system currently installed. We obtained instantaneous SR as high as 60% for the pyramid as compared to 65% mean for the SH.We identify improvements which will increase the SR in future implementations. These tests demonstrate the feasibility of commissioning a pyramid wavefront sensor on LBTI using a synthetic reconstructor.

  1. Calibration of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as an orthographic camera.

    PubMed

    Vargas, J; González-Fernandez, L; Quiroga, J Antonio; Belenguer, T

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a method to calibrate a Shack-Hartmann sensor as an orthographic camera. This calibration method permits us to obtain the distance, the rotation matrix between the microlens array and CCD imaging planes, and the projection matrix, which models the projection of the incoming rays to the CCD imaging plane. The proposed calibration method introduces a very compact matrix notation and allows wavefront reconstruction without an explicit centroid search between the reference and distorted spot diagrams. We show a set of simulations in code V that prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Very low noise Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics in the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousset, Silvère; Robert, Clélia; Fusco, Thierry; Michau, Vincent; Petit, Cyril; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Feautrier, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; de Borniol, Eric D.; Rothman, Johan; Coussement, Jérôme

    2014-07-01

    Near-Infrared wave front sensing allows to enhance sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising, but still present an unperfect cosmetic. After the fine characterization of such a HgCdTe array, we propose a statistical model of the pixel response. Assuming the cosmetic is partially corrected, we simulate the impact of the residual error on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurement. The study shows the operability of such a real time correction, and of the HgCdTe APD array characterized in this framework: the RAPID camera.

  3. Extended Scene SH Wavefront Sensor Algorithm: Minimization of Scene Content Dependent Shift Estimation Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive Periodic-Correlation (APC) algorithm was developed for use in extended-scene Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. It provides high-accuracy even when the sub-images in a frame captured by a Shack-Hartmann camera are not only shifted but also distorted relative to each other. Recently we found that the shift-estimate error of the APC algorithm has a component that depends on the content of extended-scene. In this paper we assess the amount of that error and propose a method to minimize it.

  4. Sensing more modes with fewer sub-apertures: the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Meimon, Serge; Fusco, Thierry; Michau, Vincent; Plantet, Cédric

    2014-05-15

    We propose here a novel way to analyze Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor images in order to retrieve more modes than the two centroid coordinates per sub-aperture. To do so, we use the linearized focal-plane technique (LIFT) phase retrieval method for each sub-aperture. We demonstrate that we can increase the number of modes sensed with the same computational burden per mode. For instance, we show the ability to control a 21×21 actuator deformable mirror using a 10×10 lenslet array.

  5. A Demonstration of a Versatile Low-order Wavefront Sensor Tested on Multiple Coronographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2017-09-01

    Detecting faint companions in close proximity to stars is one of the major goals of current/planned ground- and space-based high-contrast imaging instruments. High-performance coronagraphs can suppress the diffraction features and gain access to companions at small angular separation. However, the uncontrolled pointing errors degrade the coronagraphic performance by leaking starlight around the coronagraphic focal-plane mask, preventing the detection of companions at small separations. A Lyot-stop low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS) was therefore introduced to calibrate and measure these aberrations for focal-plane phase mask coronagraphs. This sensor quantifies the variations in wavefront error decomposed into a few Zernike modes by reimaging the diffracted starlight rejected by a reflective Lyot stop. The technique was tested with several coronagraphs on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope. The wavefront was decomposed into 15 and 35 Zernike modes with an occulting and focal-plane phase mask coronagraph, respectively, which were used to drive a closed-loop correction in the laboratory. Using a 2000-actuator deformable mirror, a closed-loop pointing stability between 10-3-10-4 λ/D was achieved in the laboratory in H-band, with sub nanometer residuals for the other Zernike modes (Noll index > 4). On-sky, the low-order control of 10+ Zernike modes for the phase-induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs was demonstrated, with a closed-loop pointing stability of {10}-4λ /D under good seeing and {10}-3λ /D under moderate seeing conditions readily achievable.

  6. Guaranteeing Failsafe Operation of Extended-Scene Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erikin

    2009-01-01

    A Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS) is an optical instrument consisting of a lenslet array and a camera. It is widely used for wavefront sensing in optical testing and astronomical adaptive optics. The camera is placed at the focal point of the lenslet array and points at a star or any other point source. The image captured is an array of spot images. When the wavefront error at the lenslet array changes, the position of each spot measurably shifts from its original position. Determining the shifts of the spot images from their reference points shows the extent of the wavefront error. An adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm has been developed to use scenes as well as point sources for wavefront error detection. Qualifying an extended scene image is often not an easy task due to changing conditions in scene content, illumination level, background, Poisson noise, read-out noise, dark current, sampling format, and field of view. The proposed new technique based on ACC algorithm analyzes the effects of these conditions on the performance of the ACC algorithm and determines the viability of an extended scene image. If it is viable, then it can be used for error correction; if it is not, the image fails and will not be further processed. By potentially testing for a wide variety of conditions, the algorithm s accuracy can be virtually guaranteed. In a typical application, the ACC algorithm finds image shifts of more than 500 Shack-Hartmann camera sub-images relative to a reference sub -image or cell when performing one wavefront sensing iteration. In the proposed new technique, a pair of test and reference cells is selected from the same frame, preferably from two well-separated locations. The test cell is shifted by an integer number of pixels, say, for example, from m= -5 to 5 along the x-direction by choosing a different area on the same sub-image, and the shifts are estimated using the ACC algorithm. The same is done in the y-direction. If the resulting shift

  7. Tests and evaluation of a variable focus liquid lens for curvature wavefront sensors in astronomy.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Cuevas, Salvador; Álvarez-Nuñez, Luis C; Watson, Alan

    2013-10-20

    Curvature wavefront sensors (WFSs), which obtain the wavefront aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane, have shown to be highly efficient for astronomical applications. We propose here an alternative defocusing mechanism for curvature sensors, based on an electrowetting-based variable focus liquid lens. Typically, the sampling rates of a WFS for active optics are of the order of 0.01 Hz, and the focus modulation can be done by simply moving the detector back and forth. On the other hand, adaptive optics may require speeds of up to several hundred hertz, and the modulation is then done by using a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We believe variable focus liquid lenses may be able to perform this focus modulation, reducing the overall size of the system and without the need of extra moving parts. We have done a full characterization of the Varioptic Arctic 416 liquid lens, and we have evaluated its potential performance in different curvature configurations.

  8. Accurate laser guide star wavefront sensor simulation for the E-ELT first light adaptive optics module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Mauro; Schreiber, Laura; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bregoli, Giovanni; Ciliegi, Paolo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Esposito, Simone; Feautrier, Philippe; Lombini, Matteo

    2016-07-01

    MAORY will be the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT first light. The baseline is to operate wavefront sensing using 6 Sodium Laser Guide Stars and 3 Natural Guide Stars to solve intrinsic limitations of artificial beacons and to mitigate the impact of the sodium layer structure and variability. In particular, some critical components of MAORY require to be designed and dimensioned in order to reduce the spurious effects arising from the Sodium Layer density distribution and variation. The MAORY end-to-end simulation code has been designed to accurately model the Laser Guide Star image in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor sub-apertures and to allow sodium profile temporal evolution. The fidelity with which the simulation code translates the sodium profiles in Laser Guide Star images at the wavefront sensor focal plane has been verified using a laboratory Prototype.

  9. Optical alignment procedure utilizing neural networks combined with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil, Fatime Zehra; Konukseven, Erhan İlhan; Balkan, Tuna; Adil, Ömer Faruk

    2017-05-01

    In the design of pilot helmets with night vision capability, to not limit or block the sight of the pilot, a transparent visor is used. The reflected image from the coated part of the visor must coincide with the physical human sight image seen through the nonreflecting regions of the visor. This makes the alignment of the visor halves critical. In essence, this is an alignment problem of two optical parts that are assembled together during the manufacturing process. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is commonly used for the determination of the misalignments through wavefront measurements, which are quantified in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Although the Zernike polynomials provide very useful feedback about the misalignments, the corrective actions are basically ad hoc. This stems from the fact that there exists no easy inverse relation between the misalignment measurements and the physical causes of the misalignments. This study aims to construct this inverse relation by making use of the expressive power of the neural networks in such complex relations. For this purpose, a neural network is designed and trained in MATLAB® regarding which types of misalignments result in which wavefront measurements, quantitatively given by Zernike polynomials. This way, manual and iterative alignment processes relying on trial and error will be replaced by the trained guesses of a neural network, so the alignment process is reduced to applying the counter actions based on the misalignment causes. Such a training requires data containing misalignment and measurement sets in fine detail, which is hard to obtain manually on a physical setup. For that reason, the optical setup is completely modeled in Zemax® software, and Zernike polynomials are generated for misalignments applied in small steps. The performance of the neural network is experimented and found promising in the actual physical setup.

  10. Activity Recognition Invariant to Sensor Orientation with Wearable Motion Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yurtman, Aras; Barshan, Billur

    2017-08-09

    Most activity recognition studies that employ wearable sensors assume that the sensors are attached at pre-determined positions and orientations that do not change over time. Since this is not the case in practice, it is of interest to develop wearable systems that operate invariantly to sensor position and orientation. We focus on invariance to sensor orientation and develop two alternative transformations to remove the effect of absolute sensor orientation from the raw sensor data. We test the proposed methodology in activity recognition with four state-of-the-art classifiers using five publicly available datasets containing various types of human activities acquired by different sensor configurations. While the ordinary activity recognition system cannot handle incorrectly oriented sensors, the proposed transformations allow the sensors to be worn at any orientation at a given position on the body, and achieve nearly the same activity recognition performance as the ordinary system for which the sensor units are not rotatable. The proposed techniques can be applied to existing wearable systems without much effort, by simply transforming the time-domain sensor data at the pre-processing stage.

  11. Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by a new coherence-gated wavefront sensor using a Linnik interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyu; Leger, Jean-Francois; Binding, Jonas; Boccara, Claude; Gigan, Sylvain; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    Wavefront distortions due to refractive index mismatch and tissue inhomogeneity may limit the resolution, contrast, signal strength and achievable imaging depth of microscope. Traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors can't be used in strongly scattering biological samples since there is no selection of the ballistic photons originating from the reference point in the sample amongst all the backscattered photons. In contrast, coherence-gated wavefront sensing (CGWS) allows the fast measurement of aberrations in scattering samples and therefore should permit adaptive corrections. We have implemented a new CGWS scheme based on a Linnik interferometer with Super Luminescent Emission Diode as low temporal coherence light source. Compared to the previously described CGWS system based on a femtosecond laser, its main advantages are the automatic compensation of dispersion between the two arms and its easy implementation on any microscope. The configuration of virtual Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for wavefront reconstruction was optimized, and the measurement precision was analyzed when multiple scattering was not negligible. In fresh rat brain slices, we successfully measured up to about 400 μm depth a known defocus aberration, obtained by axially displacing the coherence gate with respect to the actual focus in the sample.

  12. Iteratively Weighted Centroiding for Shack-Hartmann Wave-Front Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K L; Moallem, M M

    2007-02-28

    Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. In this article we introduce an iterative weighted technique which is specifically targeted for open-loop applications such as aberrometers and metrology. In this article the iterative centroiding technique is compared to existing techniques such as center-of-mass with thresholding, weighted center-of-gravity, matched filter and cross-correlation. Under conditions of low signal-to-noise ratio, the iterative weighted centroiding algorithm is demonstrated to produce a lower variance in the reconstructed phase than existing techniques. The iteratively weighted algorithm was also compared in closed-loop and demonstrated to have the lowest error variance along with the weighted center-of-gravity, however, the iteratively weighted algorithm removes the bulk of the aberration in roughly half the iterations than the weighted center-of-gravity algorithm. This iterative weighted algorithm is also well suited to applications such as guiding on telescopes.

  13. Auto gain control of EMCCD in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Mu, QuanQuan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Wang, Shaoxin; Xuan, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (S-H WFS) makes the wavefront sensing more efficient for adaptive optics (AO). However when the brightness of the observed target changes in large ranges in a few minutes, a fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain may not be optimum. Thus an auto-gain-control (AGC) method based on the spots image of the S-H WFS is proposed. The designed control value is the average value of the maximum signals of all the light spots in a frame. It has been demonstrated in the experiments that the control value is sensitive to the change of the target brightness, and is stable in the presence of detecting noises and turbulence influence. The goal value for control is predetermined based on the linear relation of the signal with the EM gain and the number of photons collected in sub-apertures. The conditions of the self-protection of the EMCCD are also considered for the goal value. Simulations and experiments indicate that the proposed control method is efficient, and keeps the sensing in a high SNR which reaches the upper SNR limit when sensing with EMCCD. The self-protection of the EMCCD is avoided during the whole sensing process.

  14. Focal plane wavefront sensor achromatization: The multireference self-coherent camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, J. R.; Galicher, R.; Baudoz, P.; Rousset, G.; Mazoyer, J.; Dupuis, O.

    2016-04-01

    Context. High contrast imaging and spectroscopy provide unique constraints for exoplanet formation models as well as for planetary atmosphere models. But this can be challenging because of the planet-to-star small angular separation (<1 arcsec) and high flux ratio (>105). Recently, optimized instruments like VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI were installed on 8m-class telescopes. These will probe young gazeous exoplanets at large separations (≳1 au) but, because of uncalibrated phase and amplitude aberrations that induce speckles in the coronagraphic images, they are not able to detect older and fainter planets. Aims: There are always aberrations that are slowly evolving in time. They create quasi-static speckles that cannot be calibrated a posteriori with sufficient accuracy. An active correction of these speckles is thus needed to reach very high contrast levels (>106-107). This requires a focal plane wavefront sensor. Our team proposed a self coherent camera, the performance of which was demonstrated in the laboratory. As for all focal plane wavefront sensors, these are sensitive to chromatism and we propose an upgrade that mitigates the chromatism effects. Methods: First, we recall the principle of the self-coherent camera and we explain its limitations in polychromatic light. Then, we present and numerically study two upgrades to mitigate chromatism effects: the optical path difference method and the multireference self-coherent camera. Finally, we present laboratory tests of the latter solution. Results: We demonstrate in the laboratory that the multireference self-coherent camera can be used as a focal plane wavefront sensor in polychromatic light using an 80 nm bandwidth at 640 nm (bandwidth of 12.5%). We reach a performance that is close to the chromatic limitations of our bench: 1σ contrast of 4.5 × 10-8 between 5 and 17 λ0/D. Conclusions: The performance of the MRSCC is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to actively minimize the

  15. Improving the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor with modal sensitivity compensation.

    PubMed

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Vérinaud, Christophe; Le Louarn, Miska

    2008-01-01

    We describe a solution to increase the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) under bad seeing conditions. We show that most of the issues involve a reduced sensitivity that depends on the magnitude of the high frequency atmospheric distortions. We demonstrate in end-to-end closed loop adaptive optics simulations that with a modal sensitivity compensation method a high-order system with a nonmodulated P-WFS is robust in conditions with the Fried parameter r 0 at 0.5 microm in the range of 0.05-0.10 m. We also show that the method makes it possible to use a modal predictive control system to reach a total performance improvement of 0.06-0.45 in Strehl ratio at 1.6 microm. Especially at r 0=0.05 m the gain is dramatic.

  16. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs

    2012-04-09

    A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].

  17. Adaptive optic vision correction system using the Z-View wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yueai; Warden, Laurence; Sandler, David; Dreher, Andreas

    2005-12-01

    High order aberrations in human eye can deteriorate visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Such aberrations can not be corrected with traditional low-order (defocus and astigmatism) spectacles or contact lenses. A state-of-the-art adaptive optics vision correction system was developed using Ophthonix's Z-View diffractive wavefront sensor and a commercial miniature deformable mirror. While being measured and corrected by this system, the patient can also view a Snellen chart or a Contrast Sensitivity chart through the system in order to experience the vision benefits both in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Preliminary study has shown the potential that this system could be used in a doctor's office to provide patients with a subjective feel of the objective high order prescription measured on Z-View.

  18. Calibration strategy of the pyramid wavefront sensor module of ERIS with the VLT deformable secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Pinna, E.; Agapito, G.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2012-07-01

    ERIS is a new Adaptive Optics Instrument for the Adaptive Optics Facility of the VLT that foresees, in its design phase, a Pyramid Wavefront Sensor Module (PWM) to be used with the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT-DSM) as corrector. As opposite to the concave secondary mirrors currently in use (e.g. at LBT), VLT-DSM is convex and calibration of the interaction matrix (IM) between the PWM and the DSM is not foreseen on-telescope during day-time. In this paper different options of calibration are evaluated and compared with particular attention on the synthetic evaluation and on-sky calibration of the IM. A trade-off of the calibration options, the optimization techniques and the related validation with numerical simulations are also provided.

  19. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  20. Status of an extreme adaptive optics testbench using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupias, M.; Langlois, M.; Thiébaut, E.; Tallon, M.; Leger, J.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme adaptive optics (XAO) systems have severe difficulties to meet the following high contrast requirements: high speed (>1kHz) and high accuracy ( 10 nm) at 5-10 cm spatial scale. An innovative high order adaptive optics system using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor has been proposed to counteract these limitations. This wavefront sensor estimates the phase by measuring directly intensity differences between two outputs, but has a limited dynamical range. In this paper, we report on our latest results with the XAO testbed in operation in our lab, and dedicated to high contrast imaging with 30m-class telescopes. A woofer-tweeter architecture is used in order to deliver the required high Strehl ratio (>95%). We present our latest laboratory results, including fine calibration and closed loop performance. This work is carried out in synergy with the validation of fast iterative wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and the optimal treatment of phase ambiguities in order to mitigate the dynamical range limitation of such a wavefront sensor.

  1. Using partial sensor information to orient parts

    SciTech Connect

    Akella, S.; Mason, M.T.

    1999-10-01

    Parts orienting, the process of bringing parts in initially unknown orientations to a goal orientation, is an important aspect of automated assembly. The most common industrial orienting systems are vibratory bowl feeders, which use the shape and mass properties of parts to orient them. Bowl feeders rely on a sequence of mechanical operations and typically do not use sensors. In this paper, the authors describe the use of partial information sensors along with a sequence of pushing operations to eliminate uncertainty in the orientation of parts. The authors characterize the shorter execution lengths of sensor-based plans and show that sensor-based plans are more powerful than sensorless plans in that they can bring a larger class of parts to distinct orientations. The authors characterize the relation among part shape, orientability; and recognizability to identify conditions under which a single plan can orient and recognize multiple part shapes. Although part shape determines the results of the actions and the sensed information, the authors establish that differences in part shape do not always lead to differences in part behavior. The authors show that for any convex polygon, there exists an infinite set of nonsimilar convex polygons that behave identically under linear normal pushes. Furthermore, there exists a infinite set of nonsimilar convex polygons whose behavior cannot be distinguished even with diameter sensing after each push. They authors have implemented several planners and demonstrated generated plans in experiments.

  2. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  3. PYRAMIR: first on-sky results from an infrared pyramid wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldt, M.; Peter, D.; Hippler, S.; Henning, Th.; Aceituno, J.; Goto, M.

    2006-06-01

    PYRAMIR is a pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) for the 97-actuator AO system installed on the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. With its linear pupil sampling of 18 pixels, its maximum loop frequency of 140 Hz, and its sensing wavelength range from 1.1 micron to 2.4 micron it should be able to deliver reasonably high Strehl ratios at the sensing wavelength. This feature is still unique in the world of pyramid sensors. The first on-sky test of the system was carried out in March 2006. In this paper we will present the first results of this test. Strehl measurements medium atmospheric conditions, using reference stars of m J=8mag and m J=4 mag and were performed during this first on-sky run. A detailed comparison to simulation results will also be presented in order to confirm whether the system works up to expectances. While this experiment has not yet the potential to show for the very first time the superiority of the pyramid principle over corresponding Hartmann-Shack systems in a real telescope environment, it was confirmed that PYRAMIR performs up to expectances and a detailed comparison to the Shack-Hartmann system can be carried out in the next run.

  4. Pre-shipment test of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Puglisi, Alfio; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of the laboratory characterization of the ARGOS LGS wavefront sensor (LGSW) and dichroic units. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) correction for LUCI, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph (MOS), using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The LGSW is a Shack-Hartman sensor having 15 × 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS pupils are stabilized to compensate mechanical flexure and are arranged on a single detector. Two units of LGSW have been produced and tested at Arcetri Observatory. We report on the results obtained in the pre-shipment laboratory test: internal active flexure compensation loop performance, optomechanical stability under different gravity conditions, thermal cycling, Pockels cells performance. We also update on the upcoming installation and commissioning campaign at LBT.

  5. Revisiting the comparison between the Shack-Hartmann and the pyramid wavefront sensors via the Fisher information matrix.

    PubMed

    Plantet, C; Meimon, S; Conan, J-M; Fusco, T

    2015-11-02

    Exoplanet direct imaging with large ground based telescopes requires eXtreme Adaptive Optics that couples high-order adaptive optics and coronagraphy. A key element of such systems is the high-order wavefront sensor. We study here several high-order wavefront sensing approaches, and more precisely compare their sensitivity to noise. Three techniques are considered: the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the recently proposed LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor. They are compared in a unified framework based on precise diffractive models and on the Fisher information matrix, which conveys the information present in the data whatever the estimation method. The diagonal elements of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, which we use as a figure of merit, are similar to noise propagation coefficients. With these diagonal elements, so called "Fisher coefficients", we show that the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors outperform the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. In photon noise regime, the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and modulated pyramid sensors obtain a similar overall noise propagation. The LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor however provides attractive noise properties on high orders.

  6. Numerical research of measurements of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor according to the parameters of its optical parts and the intensity of turbulent distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goleneva, N. V.; Lavrinov, V.; Lavrinova, L. N.

    2015-11-01

    The wavefront sensor of Hartmann type consists of two parts: the optical and algorithmic. The parameters of the optical part of the sensor may vary. Since the time of "frozen" turbulence due to the Fried's length and to the cross wind transport turbulent distortion speed, the measurement Shack-Hartmann sensor depend on the intensity of turbulent distortions. In this paper are presented the results of the analysis of the measurements of the sensor according to the size of lens array and to the intensity of turbulent distortions. The analysis is performed on basis of a numerical model of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and on Kolmogorov's turbulence model.

  7. Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

  8. Wavefront sensor for the Large Binocular Telescope laser guide star facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busoni, L.; Esposito, S.; Rabien, S.; Haug, M.; Ziegleder, J.; Hölzl, G.

    2008-07-01

    A laser guide star facility is currently being planned for the LBT. The first step of the program aims at the implementation of a ground layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system tailored on the wide-field imager / multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER having a 4x4' FoV. The current design is based on multiple Rayleigh guide stars arranged in a 2-5 arcmin angular radius constellation. A future update path toward small-field diffraction limited performances is foreseen using a hybrid system of sodium and Rayleigh beacons promising lower power requirements for the sodium laser. In this paper we present the estimated performances for both the GLAO and the hybrid implementations and we introduce the wavefront sensors opto-mechanical design . Simulations of the GLAO system show an expected gain in FWHM and encircled energy of 1.5-3 (depending on atmospheric turbulence profiles) with a FWHM variation over LUCIFER FoV below 10% and point out the role of such a GLAO system as PSF stabilizer both over the FoV and with respect to seeing temporal variations. Results of simulations for the hybrid configurations will be presented.

  9. The ARGOS wavefront sensor pnCCD camera for an ELT: characteristics, limitations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban de Xivry, G.; Ihle, S.; Ziegleder, J.; Barl, L.; Hartmann, R.; Rabien, S.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.

    2011-09-01

    From low-order to high-order AO, future wave front sensors on ELTs require large, fast, and low-noise detectors with high quantum efficiency and low dark current. While a detector for a high-order Shack-Hartmann WFS does not exist yet, the current CCD technology pushed to its limits already provides several solutions for the ELT AO detector requirements. One of these devices is the new WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS, the Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system (GLAO) for LUCIFER at LBT. Indeed, with its 264x264 pixels, 48 mu m pixel size and 1kHz frame rate, this camera provides a technological solution to different needs of the AO systems for ELTs, such as low-order but as well possibly higher order correction using pyramid wavefront sensing. In this contribution, we present the newly developped WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS and how it fulfills future detector needs of AO on ELTs.

  10. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor Mx2 and My2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of Mxα2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts. PMID:27916845

  11. Measurement of M²-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongzhao

    2016-11-29

    For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M²-curve is developed. The M²-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M²-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  12. Statistics of turbulence parameters at Maunakea using the multiple wavefront sensor data of RAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshito H.; Correia, Carlos M.; Andersen, Dave R.; Lardière, Olivier; Oya, Shin; Akiyama, Masayuki; Jackson, Kate; Bradley, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Prior statistical knowledge of atmospheric turbulence is essential for designing, optimizing and evaluating tomographic adaptive optics systems. We present the statistics of the vertical profiles of C_N^2 and the outer scale at Maunakea estimated using a SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) method from on-sky telemetry taken by a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) demonstrator, called RAVEN, on the Subaru telescope. In our SLODAR method, the profiles are estimated by fitting the theoretical autocorrelations and cross-correlations of measurements from multiple Shack-Haltmann wavefront sensors to the observed correlations via the non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA). The analytical derivatives of the spatial phase structure function with respect to its parameters for the LMA are also developed. From a total of 12 nights in the summer season, a large ground C_N^2 fraction of 54.3 per cent is found, with median estimated seeing of 0.460 arcsec. This median seeing value is below the results for Maunakea from the literature (0.6-0.7 arcsec). The average C_N^2 profile is in good agreement with results from the literature, except for the ground layer. The median value of the outer scale is 25.5 m and the outer scale is larger at higher altitudes; these trends of the outer scale are consistent with findings in the literature.

  13. CHOUGH: spatially filtered Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor for HOAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölck, Daniel; Bharmal, Nazim Ali; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    The CANARY-Hosted Upgrade for High-Order Adaptive Optics (CHOUGH), is a narrow-field of view High- Order Single Conjugate on-sky AO demonstrator to be placed on the 4.2m WHT telescope. It aims to produce a Strehl ratio greater than 0.5 in the visible region of the spectrum (> 640nm). A High-Order wave-front sensor (HOWFS) is a central piece of the experiment; it is a Shack-Hartmann with a sampling of 31x31 subapertures across the pupil. A variable aperture spatial filter designed to reduce aliasing for high-spatial frequencies, located at a focal plane preceding the lenslet array. The HOWFS has a quad-cell configuration on the detector with a one-pixel guard ring and 48μm subaperture. The detector is a NuVu EMCCD camera, 24μm pixel size, operating at >500Hz. The lenslet array, collimator and relay are commercial off-the-shelf. This was technically challenging due to the small size of the pupil, 2.3mm, and the small optics involved in the design.

  14. The ARGOS wavefront sensor pnCCD camera for an ELT: characteristics, limitations and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Xivry, G. Orban; Ihle, S.; Ziegleder, J.; Barl, L.; Hartmann, R.; Rabien, S.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.

    2011-09-01

    From low-order to high-order AO, future wave front sensors on ELTs require large, fast, and low-noise detectors with high quantum efficiency and low dark current. While a detector for a high-order Shack-Hartmann WFS does not exist yet, the current CCD technology pushed to its limits already provides several solutions for the ELT AO detector requirements. One of these devices is the new WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS, the Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system (GLAO) for LUCIFER at LBT. Indeed, with its 264x264 pixels, 48 mu m pixel size and 1kHz frame rate, this camera provides a technological solution to different needs of the AO systems for ELTs, such as low-order but as well possibly higher order correction using pyramid wavefront sensing. In this contribution, we present the newly developped WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS and how it fulfills future detector needs of AO on ELTs.

  15. Feeding the wavefront sensors of LINC-NIRVANA: the dedicated Patrol Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, Dario; D'Alessio, Francesco; Li Causi, Gianluca; Vitali, Fabrizio; Centrone, Mauro; Speziali, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; De Bonis, Fulvio; Gässler, Wolfgang; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer

    2010-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the IR Fizeau interferometric imager that will be installed within a couple of years on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Here we present a particular sub-system, the so-called Patrol Camera (PC), which has been now completed, along with the results of the laboratory tests. It images (in the range 600-900 nm) the same 2 arcmin FoV seen by the Medium-High Wavefront Sensor (MHWS), adequately sampled to provide the MHWS star enlargers with the positions of the FoV stars with an accuracy of 0.1 arcsec. To this aim a diffraction-limited performance is not required, while a distortion free focal plane is needed to provide a suitable astrometric output. Two identical systems have been realized, one for each single arm, which corresponds to each single telescope. We give here the details concerning the optical and mechanical layout, as well as the CCD and the control system. The interfaces (mainly software procedures) with LINC-NIRVANA (L-N) are also presented.

  16. Experimental study of a low-order wavefront sensor for high-contrast coronagraphic imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Belikov, R.; Schneider, G.; Guyon, O.; Thomas, S.; Pluzhnik, E.; EXCEDE Project Technology Development Team

    2014-01-01

    For the technology development of the mission EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer) - a 0.7 m telescope equipped with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAA-C) and a 2000-element MEMS deformable mirror, capable of raw contrasts of 1e-6 at 1.2 λ/D and 1e-7 above 2 λ/D - we developed a test bench simulating it’s key components. To achieve this level of contrast, one of the main goals is to remove low-order aberrations, using a Low-Order WaveFront Sensor (LOWFS). An experiment simulating the starlight suppression system is currently developed at NASA Ames Research Center, and includes a LOWFS controlling tip/tilt modes in real time at 1 kHz. The LOWFS allowed us to reduce the tip/tilt disturbances to 1e-3 λ/D rms, letting us achieve a contrast of 4e-7 between 1.2 and 2 λ/D. Also by studying accurately this system, and by comparing it to simulations, we are able to deduce its performances on different coronagraphs - different sizes of telescopes, inner working angles, contrasts, etc. - and therefore study its contribution beyond EXCEDE.

  17. Fine cophasing of segmented aperture telescopes with ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor in the diffraction-limited regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin-Potiron, P.; N'Diaye, M.; Martinez, P.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Carbillet, M.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Segmented aperture telescopes require an alignment procedure with successive steps from coarse alignment to monitoring process in order to provide very high optical quality images for stringent science operations such as exoplanet imaging. The final step, referred to as fine phasing, calls for a high sensitivity wavefront sensing and control system in a diffraction-limited regime to achieve segment alignment with nanometric accuracy. In this context, Zernike wavefront sensors represent promising options for such a calibration. A concept called the Zernike unit for segment phasing (ZEUS) was previously developed for ground-based applications to operate under seeing-limited images. Such a concept is, however, not suitable for fine cophasing with diffraction-limited images. Aims: We revisit ZELDA, a Zernike sensor that was developed for the measurement of residual aberrations in exoplanet direct imagers, to measure segment piston, tip, and tilt in the diffraction-limited regime. Methods: We introduce a novel analysis scheme of the sensor signal that relies on piston, tip, and tilt estimators for each segment, and provide probabilistic insights to predict the success of a closed-loop correction as a function of the initial wavefront error. Results: The sensor unambiguously and simultaneously retrieves segment piston and tip-tilt misalignment. Our scheme allows for correction of these errors in closed-loop operation down to nearly zero residuals in a few iterations. This sensor also shows low sensitivity to misalignment of its parts and high ability for operation with a relatively bright natural guide star. Conclusions: Our cophasing sensor relies on existing mask technologies that make the concept already available for segmented apertures in future space missions.

  18. PYRAMIR: Exploring the On-Sky Performance of the World’s First Near-Infrared Pyramid Wavefront Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D.; Feldt, M.; Henning, T.; Hippler, S.; Aceituno, J.; Montoya, L.; Costa, J.; Dorner, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the on-sky performance of the unmodulated infrared pyramid wavefront sensor PYRAMIR mounted on the ALFA adaptive optics system at the 3.5 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. The performance of the system is compared with the performance of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor of the ALFA system. We carried out a series of measurements to characterize the performance of PYRAMIR under open-loop tip-tilt compensation, and high-order closed-loop conditions, using stars of different magnitudes. We measured the tip-tilt jitter by following the centroid position of a stellar image on a fast series of frames. Additionally from the pyramid wavefront sensor data we could estimate the tip-tilt jitter in closed-loop. Under closed-loop conditions we also measured the long-exposure Strehl ratio. We compared the results of the wavefront sensor measurements with those of the Shack-Hartmann sensor on the same telescope, especially regarding the distribution of the error budged over the Karhunen-Loève modes, and the power spectral density. Our first finding is that we can indeed start up this nonmodulated pyramid system, even under bad seeing conditions. Under good conditions the Strehl ratio reaches ≥60% in K‧ band. We found that the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in each subaperture required to close the high-order loop is only 0.4. This is a surprisingly low number. To compare the performance to existing systems, we introduce the S/N per subaperture per loop cycle as a device-independent measure. Using this scheme, we find that the ratio between the low-order residuals and the high-order residuals in the case of PYRAMIR is lower than that of the Shack-Hartmann system, especially in the faint flux regime. This is an important finding because it means that the pyramid-based system removes the halo, i.e., light scattered by the atmosphere, around the target star better than a Shack-Hartmann sensor-based system. A comparison of the power spectral

  19. New algorithm for centroiding in elongated spots for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, A. T.; Kanaan, A.; Guzmán, D.

    2014-10-01

    To recover the resolution lost in a ground-based telescopes due to the atmospheric turbulence, it is necessary to use a technique known as Adaptive Optics (AO). The next generation of telescopes will have primary mirrors of more than 30 meter in diameter and will require AO systems from the ground up (Nelson et al. 2006). There are a number of challenges to implement an AO system at these scales. One of these challenges is the accurate measurement of the aberrated wavefronts using a laser guide star and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Due to the diameter of the telescope and the use of the sodium layer in the upper atmosphere as photon return for the laser guide stars, the image of the guide star will appear elongated in the wavefront sensor. Typical centroiding algorithms such as Center of Gravity do not perform well under these conditions (Thomas et al. 2008). We present a new technique based on artificial neural networks for measuring the spot position with better accuracy than existing methods. Simulation results confirms that the new algorithm incurs in smaller errors with respect to other centroiding techniques in use.

  20. Fiber coupling efficiency analysis of free space optical communication systems with holographic modal wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Shi, Wenxiao; Yao, Kainan; Cao, Jingtai; Wu, Pengxia; Chi, Xuefen

    2014-08-01

    Degradation of fiber coupling efficiency, caused by atmospheric turbulence, seriously hinders the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems. Holographic modal wave-front sensor (HMWFS), noted for its fast detecting rates and insensitivity to beam scintillation, is creatively applied to FSO communication systems in this paper. We analyze the principle of HMWFS and the relationship between fiber coupling efficiency and Strehl rate in theory, then simulate wave-front aberrations detection and correction in FSO communication systems. Additionally, the impact on fiber coupling efficiency of the FSO communication systems before and after aberrations correction based on HMWFS is fully discussed. The results show that HMWFS cater for weak atmospheric turbulence with the root-mean-square (RMS) value of residual aberrations less than 0.04λ and the peak-to-valley (PV) value less than 0.25λ, while the fiber coupling efficiency is increased from nearly 30% to more than 70%.

  1. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-06-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  2. Wavefront sensing in a partially illuminated, rotating pupil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Thomas; Kumar Radhakrishnan Santhakumari, Kalyan; Marafatto, Luca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Berwein, Jürgen; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Herbst, Thomas M.

    2014-08-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity, and field of view. Its pyramid-based layer-oriented MCAO systems are conjugated to the ground layer and to an additional layer in the upper atmosphere. The Groundlayer Wavefront Sensor optically coadds the light of up to 12 reference stars in the pupil, the Highlayer Wavefront Sensor optically combines the light of up to 8 reference stars in its metapupil. Each Wavefront Sensor has its own associated field derotator. It introduces a dependency of the sensor-actuator relation on the angle of the field derotator, which requires regular updates of the reconstructor in closed loop. In addition, the Highlayer Wavefront Sensor has to be able to reconstruct the incoming wavefronts by analyzing an only partially illuminated metapupil. The distribution of illuminated subapertures depends on the distribution of reference stars. For each pointing, a specific reconstruction matrix has to be generated, which only considers the illuminated subapertures. In this contribution we will present the concept of LINC-NIRVANA's wavefront reconstruction mechanism and report on laboratory and on-sky tests.

  3. Designing and testing the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor: a fast non-common path error sensor for high-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Haffert, S.; Korkiakoski, V.; Snik, F.; Pietrow, A. G. M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs) are the dominant factor limiting the performance of current astronomical high-contrast imaging instruments. If uncorrected, the resulting quasi-static speckle noise floor limits coronagraph performance to a raw contrast of typically 10-4, a value which does not improve with increasing integration time. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS) is a hybrid phase optic which uses holographic PSF copies to supply focal-plane wavefront sensing information directly from the science camera, whilst maintaining a bias-free coronagraphic PSF. This concept has already been successfully implemented on-sky at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), La Palma, demonstrating both real-time wavefront sensing capability and successful extraction of slowly varying wavefront errors under a dominant and rapidly changing atmospheric speckle foreground. In this work we present an overview of the development of the cMWS and recent first light results obtained using the Leiden EXoplanet Instrument (LEXI), a high-contrast imager and high-dispersion spectrograph pathfinder instrument for the WHT.

  4. Light Sensor System Measuring Declination and Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambo, Toyokazu; Miyamoto, Yuuji; Sakashita, Shuuhei; Shibata, Miki

    We have proposed and investigated the properties of five-photodiode light sensor (5PD light sensor) which is able to search and track the solar light in the sky. In the present paper, we have focused the estimation about the orientation and declination of the 5PD light sensor regarding the plane of the top photodiode. Those are defined by the rotation of the azimuth and the declination of the elevation at the rotated angle. The rotation and the declination are originated to compare the solar directions between the calculation of solar orbit and the measurement using tracking function of the 5PD light sensor. The derivation is shown, and the estimation is performed on a typical example.

  5. Sensor Localization from Distance and Orientation Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Porta, Josep M.; Rull, Aleix; Thomas, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The sensor localization problem can be formalized using distance and orientation constraints, typically in 3D. Local methods can be used to refine an initial location estimation, but in many cases such estimation is not available and a method able to determine all the feasible solutions from scratch is necessary. Unfortunately, existing methods able to find all the solutions in distance space can not take into account orientations, or they can only deal with one- or two-dimensional problems and their extension to 3D is troublesome. This paper presents a method that addresses these issues. The proposed approach iteratively projects the problem to decrease its dimension, then reduces the ranges of the variable distances, and back-projects the result to the original dimension, to obtain a tighter approximation of the feasible sensor locations. This paper extends previous works introducing accurate range reduction procedures which effectively integrate the orientation constraints. The mutual localization of a fleet of robots carrying sensors and the position analysis of a sensor moved by a parallel manipulator are used to validate the approach. PMID:27428977

  6. Comparative assessment of three algorithms to control a deformable mirror for an adaptive optics system with no wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri-Avanaki, M. R.; Sarmadi, H.; Meadway, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.

    2011-03-01

    The images obtained from confocal imaging systems present less resolution than the theoretical limit due to imperfection of the optical components and their arrangement. This imperfection deteriorates the wavefront and introduces aberrations to the optical system. Adaptive optics (AO) systems composed of a wavefront sensor (WFS) and a deformable mirror represent the most used solution to this problem. Such adaptive optics systems are expensive. In addition, in microscopy, WFSs cannot be used due to stray reflections in the system and high aberrations introduced by the specimen. For these reasons, sensor-less AO systems have been developed to control the deformable mirror (DM) using an optimization algorithm in an iterative manner. At each iteration, the algorithm produces a new set of voltage and sends it to the mirror so as to optimize its shape, in such a way, as to maximize the strength of the photodetector current in the imaging system. In this paper the results of the application of three optimization techniques in the sensor-less AO are compared. The three optimization techniques are simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). SA and GA have been previously implemented and PSO is explained in this paper.

  7. Modelization of a pyramid wavefront sensor for the E-ELT in the context of the COMPASS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, Alexis; Vérinaud, Christophe; Gratadour, Damien; Westphal, Mathieu; Beuzit, Jean-Luc

    2014-08-01

    The COMputing Platform for Adaptive optics SystemS (COMPASS) will be used to perform end-to-end simulations of the AO system of the E-ELT. COMPASS will perform massively parallel computations using GPUs as accelerators. The completed project will involve several different aspects. In this paper we present the modelization of a pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS). This sensor offers an increased sensitivity compared to the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and a time-varying phase modulation increases the dynamic range of the P-WFS. This makes it a particularly interesting choice for an extreme adaptive optics system, such as the one that will be used with the planetary camera and spectrograph (PCS) instrument dedicated to exoplanet characterization with the E-ELT. We review previous P-WFS models, and in addition to describing its current implementation in COMPASS, we give a first look at the P-WFS expected performance in the presence of realistic optical aberrations.

  8. Optimizing the sampling density of a wave-front sensor in adaptive optics systems: application to scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We present the optimization of an adaptive optics loop for retinal imaging. Generally, the wave-front is overdetermined compared to the number of corrector elements. The sampling of the sensor can be reduced while maintaining an efficient correction, leading to higher sensitivity, faster correction and larger dynamic range. An analytical model was developed to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of micro-lenses and correction performance. The optimized correction loop was introduced into a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. In vivo images of foveal photoreceptors were recorded and the obtained image quality is equivalent to the state of the art in retinal AO-imaging.

  9. Comparison of several stochastic parallel optimization algorithms for adaptive optics system without a wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huizhen; Li, Xinyang

    2011-04-01

    Optimizing the system performance metric directly is an important method for correcting wavefront aberrations in an adaptive optics (AO) system where wavefront sensing methods are unavailable or ineffective. An appropriate "Deformable Mirror" control algorithm is the key to successful wavefront correction. Based on several stochastic parallel optimization control algorithms, an adaptive optics system with a 61-element Deformable Mirror (DM) is simulated. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Algorithm Of Pattern Extraction (Alopex) are compared in convergence speed and correction capability. The results show that all these algorithms have the ability to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Compared with least squares fitting, they almost obtain the best correction achievable for the 61-element DM. SA is the fastest and GA is the slowest in these algorithms. The number of perturbation by GA is almost 20 times larger than that of SA, 15 times larger than SPGD and 9 times larger than Alopex.

  10. Development of an ELT XAO testbed using a Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor: calibration of the deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Christian; Langlois, Maud P.; Loupias, Magali; Thiébaut, Eric; Adjali, Louisa; Leger, Jonathan; Tallon, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Extreme adaptive optics (XAO) encounters severe difficulties to cope with the high speed (<1kHz), high accuracy and high order requirements for future extremely large telescopes. An innovative high order adaptive optics system using a self-referenced Mach-Zehnder wavefront sensor (MZWFS) allows counteracting these limitations. This sensor estimates very accurately the wavefront phase at small spatial scale by measuring intensity differences between two outputs, with a λ/4 path length difference between its two legs, but is limited in dynamic range due to phase ambiguity. During the past few years, such an XAO system has been studied by our team in the framework of 8-meter class telescopes. In this work, we report on our latest results with the XAO testbed recently installed in our lab, and dedicated to high contrast imaging with 30m-class telescopes (such as the E-ELT or the TMT). After reminding the principle of a MZWFS and describing the optical layout of our experiment, we will show the results of the assessment of the woofer-tweeter phase correctors, i.e., a Boston Micromachine continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) and a Boulder Nonlinear Systems liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). In particular, we will detail the calibration of the DM using Zygo interferometer metrology. Our method consists in the precise measurement of the membrane deformation while applying a constant deformation to 9 out of 140 actuators at the same time. By varying the poke voltage across the DM operating range, we propose a simple but efficient way of modeling the DM influence function using a Gaussian model. Finally, we show the DM flattening on the MZWFS allowing to compensate for low order aberrations. This work is carried out in synergy with the validation of fast iterative wavefront reconstruction algorithms, and the optimal treatment of phase ambiguities in order to mitigate the dynamical range limitation of such an MZWFS.

  11. Plasmonic nanorod absorbers as orientation sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Shun; Ha, Ji Won; Slaughter, Liane S.; Link, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are actively exploited as biological imaging probes. Of particular interest are gold nanoparticles because of their nonblinking and nonbleaching absorption and scattering properties that arise from the excitation of surface plasmons. Nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes furthermore provide information about the probe orientation and its environment. Here we show how the orientation of single gold nanorods (25 × 73 nm) can be determined from both the transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon resonance by using polarization-sensitive photothermal imaging. By measuring the orientation of the same nanorods separately using scanning electron microscopy, we verified the high accuracy of this plasmon-absorption-based technique. However, care had to be taken when exciting the transverse plasmon absorption using a large numerical aperture objective as out-of-plane plasmon oscillations were also excited then. For the size regime studied here, being able to establish the nanorod orientation from the transverse mode is unique to photothermal imaging and almost impossible with conventional dark-field scattering spectroscopy. This is important because the transverse surface plasmon resonance is mostly insensitive to the medium refractive index and nanorod aspect ratio allowing nanorods of any length to be used as orientation sensors without changing the laser frequency. PMID:20133646

  12. Approach for Improving the Integrated Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Ercolin Filho, L.; Graça, N.; Centeno, J.

    2016-06-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of aerial images via integration of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and GPS is often used in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. The accuracies of the EOP depend on the accurate parameters related to sensors mounting when the job is performed (offsets of the IMU relative to the projection centre and the angles of boresigth misalignment between the IMU and the photogrammetric coordinate system). In principle, when the EOP values do not achieve the required accuracies for the photogrammetric application, the approach, known as Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO), is used to refine the direct EOP. ISO approach requires accurate Interior Orientation Parameters (IOP) and standard deviation of the EOP under flight condition. This paper investigates the feasibility of use the in situ camera calibration to obtain these requirements. The camera calibration uses a small sub block of images, extracted from the entire block. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to APPLANIX POS AVTM system was used to get two small blocks of images that were use in this study. The blocks have different flight heights and opposite flight directions. The proposed methodology improved significantly the vertical and horizontal accuracies of the 3D point intersection. Using a minimum set of control points, the horizontal and vertical accuracies achieved nearly one image pixel of resolution on the ground (GSD). The experimental results are shown and discussed.

  13. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics versus sensor-based adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence retinal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhang, Pengfei; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is essential for achieving diffraction limited resolution in large numerical aperture (NA) in-vivo retinal imaging in small animals. Cellular-resolution in-vivo imaging of fluorescently labeled cells is highly desirable for studying pathophysiology in animal models of retina diseases in pre-clinical vision research. Currently, wavefront sensor-based (WFS-based) AO is widely used for retinal imaging and has demonstrated great success. However, the performance can be limited by several factors including common path errors, wavefront reconstruction errors and an ill-defined reference plane on the retina. Wavefront sensorless (WFS-less) AO has the advantage of avoiding these issues at the cost of algorithmic execution time. We have investigated WFS-less AO on a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fSLO) system that was originally designed for WFS-based AO. The WFS-based AO uses a Shack-Hartmann WFS and a continuous surface deformable mirror in a closed-loop control system to measure and correct for aberrations induced by the mouse eye. The WFS-less AO performs an open-loop modal optimization with an image quality metric. After WFS-less AO aberration correction, the WFS was used as a control of the closed-loop WFS-less AO operation. We can easily switch between WFS-based and WFS-less control of the deformable mirror multiple times within an imaging session for the same mouse. This allows for a direct comparison between these two types of AO correction for fSLO. Our results demonstrate volumetric AO-fSLO imaging of mouse retinal cells labeled with GFP. Most significantly, we have analyzed and compared the aberration correction results for WFS-based and WFS-less AO imaging.

  14. Correlation matching method for high-precision position detection of optical vortex using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Huang, Hongxin; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Liu, Huafeng

    2012-11-19

    We propose a new method for realizing high-spatial-resolution detection of singularity points in optical vortex beams. The method uses a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to record a Hartmanngram. A map of evaluation values related to phase slope is then calculated from the Hartmanngram. The position of an optical vortex is determined by comparing the map with reference maps that are calculated from numerically created spiral phases having various positions. Optical experiments were carried out to verify the method. We displayed various spiral phase distribution patterns on a phase-only spatial light modulator and measured the resulting singularity point using the proposed method. The results showed good linearity in detecting the position of singularity points. The RMS error of the measured position of the singularity point was approximately 0.056, in units normalized to the lens size of the lenslet array used in the SHWS.

  15. Measuring seeing with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor during an active-optics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yang, Dehua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2004-02-01

    We describe the measurement of atmospheric enclosure seeing along a 120-m light path by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H WFS) for the first time to our knowledge in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) outdoor active-optics experiment system, based on the differential image motion method and a S-H WFS. Seeing estimates that were gained with the S-H WFS were analyzed and found to be in close agreement with the actual seeing conditions, the estimates of refractive-index structure constant, and the thin-mirror active optics results, which usually include the shape sensing precision and the active correction precision of the experimental system. Finally, some countermeasures against poor seeing conditions were considered and adopted.

  16. Curvature-Based Wavefront Sensor for Use on Extended, Arbitrary, Low-Contract Scenes Final Technical Report August 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBonte, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    A small amount of work has been done on this project; the strategy to be adopted has been better defined, though no experimental work has been started. 1) Wavefront error signals: The best choice appears use a lenslet array at a pupil image to produce defocused image pairs for each subaperture. Then use the method proposed by Molodij et al. to produce subaperture curvature signals. Basically, this method samples a moderate number of locations in the image where the value of the image Laplacian is high, then taking the curvature signal from the difference of the Laplacians of the extrafocal images at those locations. The tip-tilt error is obtained from the temporal dependence of the first spatial derivatives of an in-focus image, at selected locations where these derivatives are significant. The wavefront tilt can be obtained from the full-aperture image. 2) Extrafocal image generation: The important aspect here is to generate symmetrically defocused images, with dynamically adjustable defocus. The adjustment is needed because larger defocus is required before the feedback loop is closed, and at times when the seeing is worse. It may be that the usual membrane mirror is the best choice, though other options should be explored. 3) Detector: Since the proposed sensor is to work on solar granulation, rather than a point source, an array detector for each subaperture is required. A fast CMOS camera such as that developed by the National Solar Observatory would be a satisfactory choice. 4) Processing: Processing requirements have not been defined in detail, though significantly fewer operations per cycle are required than for a correlation tracker.

  17. Lyot-based low order wavefront sensor: implementation on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics System and its laboratory performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Garima; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Jovanovich, Nemanja; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Serabyn, Eugene; Kuhn, Jonas G.

    2014-08-01

    High throughput, low inner working angle (IWA) phase masks coronagraphs are essential to directly image and characterize (via spectroscopy) earth-like planets. However, the performance of low-IWA coronagraphs is limited by residual pointing errors and other low-order modes. The extent to which wavefront aberrations upstream of the coronagraph are corrected and calibrated drives coronagraphic performance. Addressing this issue is essential for preventing coronagraphic leaks, thus we have developed a Lyot-based low order wave front sensor (LLOWFS) to control the wavefront aberrations in a coronagraph. The LLOWFS monitors the starlight rejected by the coronagraphic mask using a reflective Lyot stop in the downstream pupil plane. The early implementation of LLOWFS at LESIA, Observatoire de Paris demonstrated an open loop measurement accuracy of 0.01 λ/D for tip-tilt at 638 nm when used in conjunction with a four quadrant phase mask (FQPM) in the laboratory. To further demonstrate our concept, we have installed the reflective Lyot stops on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope and modified the system to support small IWA phase mask coronagraphs (< 1λ/D) on-sky such as FQPM, eight octant phase mask, vector vortex coronagraph and the phase induced amplitude apodization complex phase mask coronagraph with a goal of obtaining milli arc-second pointing accuracy. Laboratory results have shown the measurement of tip, tilt, focus, oblique and right astigmatism at 1.55 μm for the vector vortex coronagraph. Our initial on-sky result demonstrate the closed loop accuracy of < 7 x 10-3 λ/D at 1.6 μm for tip, tilt and focus aberrations with the vector vortex coronagraph.

  18. High speed and high precision pyramid wavefront sensor: In labs validation and preparation to on sky demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hadi, K.; Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Neichel, B.

    2014-07-01

    Since the introduction of the pyramid wavefront sensor [P-WFS] concept (Ragazzoni), numerous investigations have clearly shown its ability to achieve better performance (sensitivity, dynamic range) than the standard Shack-Hartman [SH-WFS]. It has recently been successfully implemented on LBT and has already been provided very interesting results (Esposito et al). Then, most of the future adaptive optics [AO] systems, mainly for ELT instrumentation, will probably integrate one or several pyramidal sensors. However, the pyramid behavior still needs to be extensively studied in order to ensure its optimization in real conditions of operation. So, the coupling in an AO loop and the control of this type of sensor is fundamental for an efficient implementation in the future AO systems. At LAM, we recently carried out in labs demonstration of an extremely performant pyramid sensor (up to 60x60), using particularly an OCAM2 detector (1.5 kHz, RON close to zero). Both modulated and fixed configurations are investigated and compared with numerical models. The P-WFS is being coupled with a dedicated RTC and a 12×12 DM to achieve a first AO closed loop operation. For modulation, a fine control is needed: a specific electronic module, interfaced with the RTC, is being developed to drive the TT mirror (OCAM2 triggering). Then, various TT mirrors are under test to determine a suitable one. After tests of the pyramid specificities (optimiziation, calibration and operation procedures), the P-WFS will be tested on-sky and compared with an already existing SH-WFS (using the same OCAM²) on the ONERA bench.

  19. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: motion planning with collision avoidance for the on-instrument wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Weiss, Jason; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Riddle, Reed L.; Sohn, Ji Man; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley

    2016-08-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be a first-light client instrument for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope. IRIS includes three configurable tip/tilt (TT) or tip/tilt/focus (TTF) On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). These sensors are positioned over natural guide star (NGS) asterisms using movable polar-coordinate pick-ofi arms (POA) that patrol an approximately 2-arcminute circular field-of-view (FOV). The POAs are capable of colliding with one another, so an algorithm for coordinated motion that avoids contact is required. We have adopted an approach in which arm motion is evaluated using the gradient descent of a scalar potential field that includes an attractive component towards the goal configuration (locations of target stars), and repulsive components to avoid obstacles (proximity to adjacent arms). The resulting vector field is further modified by adding a component transverse to the repulsive gradient to avoid problematic local minima in the potential. We present path planning simulations using this computationally inexpensive technique, which exhibit smooth and efficient trajectories.

  20. Effect of mobility devices on orientation sensors that contain magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Kendell, Cynthia; Lemaire, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Orientation sensors containing magnetometers use the earth's magnetic field as a reference. Ferromagnetic objects may distort this magnetic field, leading to inaccurate orientation output. We explored the viability of these orientation sensors for motion analysis in an assistive mobility device rehabilitative setting. We attached two MTx orientation sensors (XSens; Enschade, the Netherlands), connected to the XBus Master data collection unit (XSens), to a plastic frame such that the relative angle between sensors was constant. We then moved a series of mobility devices in proximity to the plastic frame: two knee-ankle-foot orthoses (aluminum, stainless steel), one ankle-foot orthosis, two transtibial prostheses (exoskeletal, endoskeletal), two walkers (standard, Challenger Low Wide [Evolution Technologies; Port Coquitlam, Canada]), and two wheelchairs (Tango [OrthoFab; Quebec City, Canada], GTi [Quickie; Phoenix, Arizona]). For each mobility device, we calculated the average difference in relative angle between the baseline and peak angles for each of five trials. Errors ranged from less than 0.10 to 35.29 degrees, depending on the mobility device and frame positioning near the device. This demonstrated the large errors that can occur when magnetometer-based orientation sensors with mobility devices are used. While strategic orientation sensor placement on some mobility devices can minimize these errors to an acceptable level, testing protocols should be implemented to verify orientation sensor accuracy for these applications.

  1. Experimental study of the low-order wavefront sensor for the high-contrast coronagraphic imager EXCEDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Martinache, Frantz

    2013-09-01

    The mission EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), selected by NASA for technology development, is designed to study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. It is composed of a 0.7 m telescope equipped with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAA-C) and a 2000-element MEMS deformable mirror, capable of raw contrasts of 10-6 at 1.2 λ/D and 10-7 above 2 λ/D. One of the key challenges to achieve those contrasts is to remove low-order aberrations, using a Low-Order WaveFront Sensor (LOWFS). An experiment simulating the starlight suppression system is currently developed at NASA Ames Research Center, and includes a LOWFS controlling tip/tilt modes in real time at 500 Hz. The LOWFS allowed us to reduce the tip/tilt disturbances to 10-3 λ/D rms, enhancing the previous contrast by a decade, to 8×10-7 between 1.2 and 2 λ/D. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is currently implemented to improve even more that result by reducing residual vibrations. This testbed shows that a good knowledge of the low-order disturbances is a key asset for high contrast imaging, whether for real-time control or for post processing.

  2. UTILIZATION OF THE WAVEFRONT SENSOR AND SHORT-EXPOSURE IMAGES FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF QUASI-STATIC ABERRATION AND EXOPLANET INTENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2013-04-10

    Heretofore, the literature on exoplanet detection with coronagraphic telescope systems has paid little attention to the information content of short exposures and methods of utilizing the measurements of adaptive optics wavefront sensors. This paper provides a framework for the incorporation of the wavefront sensor measurements in the context of observing modes in which the science camera takes millisecond exposures. In this formulation, the wavefront sensor measurements provide a means to jointly estimate the static speckle and the planetary signal. The ability to estimate planetary intensities in as little as a few seconds has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of exoplanet search surveys. For simplicity, the mathematical development assumes a simple optical system with an idealized Lyot coronagraph. Unlike currently used methods, in which increasing the observation time beyond a certain threshold is useless, this method produces estimates whose error covariances decrease more quickly than inversely proportional to the observation time. This is due to the fact that the estimates of the quasi-static aberrations are informed by a new random (but approximately known) wavefront every millisecond. The method can be extended to include angular (due to diurnal field rotation) and spectral diversity. Numerical experiments are performed with wavefront data from the AEOS Adaptive Optics System sensing at 850 nm. These experiments assume a science camera wavelength {lambda} of 1.1 {mu}, that the measured wavefronts are exact, and a Gaussian approximation of shot-noise. The effects of detector read-out noise and other issues are left to future investigations. A number of static aberrations are introduced, including one with a spatial frequency exactly corresponding the planet location, which was at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 3{lambda}/D from the star. Using only 4 s of simulated observation time, a planetary intensity, of Almost-Equal-To 1 photon ms{sup -1

  3. Flexible pulse-wave sensors from oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Tateyama, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Flexible pulse-wave sensors were fabricated from density-packed oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns prepared on aluminum foils. The nanocolumns were prepared by the rf magnetron sputtering method and were perpendicularly oriented to the aluminum foil surfaces. The sensor structure is laminated, and the structure contributes to avoiding unexpected leakage of an electric charge. The resulting sensor thickness is 50 μm. The sensor is flexible like aluminum foil and can respond to frequencies from 0.1 to over 100 Hz. The sensitivity of the sensor to pressure is proportional to the surface area. The sensor sensitively causes reversible charge signals that correlate with the pulse wave form, which contains significant information on arteriosclerosis and cardiopathy of a man sitting on it.

  4. A force vector and surface orientation sensor for intelligent grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcglasson, W. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Duffie, N. A.; Gale, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses a force vector and surface orientation sensor suitable for intelligent grasping. The use of a novel four degree-of-freedom force vector robotic fingertip sensor allows efficient, real time intelligent grasping operations. The basis of sensing for intelligent grasping operations is presented and experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and ease of implementation of this approach.

  5. Pyramid Wavefront Sensor at the William Herschel Telescope: Towards Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Tozzi, A.; Puglisi, A.; Stefanini, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Arcetri adaptive optics group showed in 2001, using numerical simulation, that the pyramid WFS is able to do phasing and alignment of the mirror segments at the same time. In the period 2000-2004 the adaptive optics group developed this concept, and have built a lab prototype of the pyramid co-phasing sensor. A unique opportunity to calibrate and test our prototype in the lab and on the sky has been provided by the William Herschel Telescope and its adaptive optics system NAOMI.

  6. Workflow-Oriented Cyberinfrastructure for Sensor Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R. W.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    Sensor streams comprise an increasingly large part of Earth Science data. Analytics based on sensor data require an easy way to perform operations such as acquisition, conversion to physical units, metadata linking, sensor fusion, analysis and visualization on distributed sensor streams. Furthermore, embedding real-time sensor data into scientific workflows is of growing interest. We have implemented a scalable networked architecture that can be used to dynamically access packets of data in a stream from multiple sensors, and perform synthesis and analysis across a distributed network. Our system is based on the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (irods.org), which accesses sensor data from the Antelope Real Time Data System (brtt.com), and provides virtualized access to collections of data streams. We integrate real-time data streaming from different sources, collected for different purposes, on different time and spatial scales, and sensed by different methods. iRODS, noted for its policy-oriented data management, brings to sensor processing features and facilities such as single sign-on, third party access control lists ( ACLs), location transparency, logical resource naming, and server-side modeling capabilities while reducing the burden on sensor network operators. Rich integrated metadata support also makes it straightforward to discover data streams of interest and maintain data provenance. The workflow support in iRODS readily integrates sensor processing into any analytical pipeline. The system is developed as part of the NSF-funded Datanet Federation Consortium (datafed.org). APIs for selecting, opening, reaping and closing sensor streams are provided, along with other helper functions to associate metadata and convert sensor packets into NetCDF and JSON formats. Near real-time sensor data including seismic sensors, environmental sensors, LIDAR and video streams are available through this interface. A system for archiving sensor data and metadata in Net

  7. Characterization of optical turbulence in a jet engine exhaust with Shack-Hartmenn wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deron, R.; Mendez, F.

    2008-10-01

    Airborne laser countermeasure applications (DIRCM) are hampered by the turbulence of jet engine exhaust. The effects of this source of perturbation on optical propagation have still to be documented and analyzed in order to get a better insight into the different mechanisms of the plume perturbations and also to validate CFD/LES codes. For that purpose, wave front sensing has been used as a non-intrusive optical technique to provide unsteady and turbulent optical measurements through a plume of a jet engine installed at a fixed point on the ground. The experiment has been implemented in October 2007 along with other optical measuring techniques at Volvo Aero Corporation (Trollhättan, Sweden). This study is part of a European research programme dealing with DIRCM issues. The Shack- Hartmann (SH) wave front sensing technique was employed. It consisted of 64 x 64 lenslets coupled to a 1024x1024 pixel Dalsa CCD sensor working at a sampling rate of 40 Hz. A 15 ns pulsed laser synchronized with the SH sensor enabled "freezing" turbulence in each SH image. The ability of the technique to substract a reference permitted a simple calibration procedure to ensure accurate and reliable measurements despite vibration environment. Instantaneous phases are reconstructed using Fourier techniques so as to obtain a better spatial resolution against turbulent effects. Under any given plume condition, overall tilt aberration prevails. Phase power spectra derived from phase statistics are drawn according to the plume main axis and to normal axis. They compare favorably well to the decaying Kolmogorov power law on a useful high spatial frequency range. Averaged phases are also decomposed into Zernike polynomials to analyze optical mode behavior according to engine status and to plume abscissa. With overall tilt removed, turbulent DSP's amplitude drops by a factor of 30 to 40 and mean aberrations by a factor of 10 from an abscissa 1 meter to another 3.5 meters away from the engine

  8. Seismic Sensor orientation by complex linear least squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Krieger, Lars; Olcay, Manuel; Tassara, Carlos; Sobiesiak, Monika; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    Poorly known orientation of the horizontal components of seismic sensors is a common problem that limits data analysis and interpretation for several acquisition setups, including linear arrays of geophones deployed in borehole installations, ocean bottom seismometers deployed at the sea-floor and surface seismic arrays. To solve this problem we propose an inversion method based on complex linear least squares method. Relative orientation angles, with respect to a reference sensor, are retrieved by minimizing the l2-norm between the complex traces (hodograms) of adjacent pairs of sensors in a least-squares sense. The absolute orientations are obtained in a second step by the polarization analysis of stacked seismograms of a seismic event with known location. This methodology can be applied without restrictions, if the plane wave approximation for wavefields recorded by each pair of sensors is valid. In most cases, it is possible to satisfy this condition by low-pass filtering the recorded waveform. The main advantage of our methodology is that, finding the estimation of the relative orientations of seismic sensors in complex domain is a linear inverse problem, which allows a direct solution corresponding to the global minimum of a misfit function. It is also possible to use simultaneously more than one independent dataset (e.g. using several seismic events simultaneously) to better constrain the solution of the inverse problem itself. Furthermore, by a computational point of view, our method results faster than the relative orientation methods based on waveform cross-correlation. Our methodology can be also applied for testing the correct orientation/alignment of multicomponent land stations in seismological arrays or temporary networks and for determining the absolute orientation of OBS stations and borehole arrays. We first apply our method to real data resembling two different acquisition setups: a borehole sensor array deployed in a gas field located in the

  9. Wavefront Compensation Segmented Mirror Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David C.; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andrew; Bradford, Charles M.; Woody, David; Padin, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The primary mirror of very large submillimeter-wave telescopes will necessarily be segmented into many separate mirror panels. These panels must be continuously co-phased to keep the telescope wavefront error less than a small fraction of a wavelength, to ten microns RMS (root mean square) or less. This performance must be maintained continuously across the full aperture of the telescope, in all pointing conditions, and in a variable thermal environment. A wavefront compensation segmented mirror sensing and control system, consisting of optical edge sensors, Wavefront Compensation Estimator/Controller Soft ware, and segment position actuators is proposed. Optical edge sensors are placed two per each segment-to-segment edge to continuously measure changes in segment state. Segment position actuators (three per segment) are used to move the panels. A computer control system uses the edge sensor measurements to estimate the state of all of the segments and to predict the wavefront error; segment actuator commands are computed that minimize the wavefront error. Translational or rotational motions of one segment relative to the other cause lateral displacement of the light beam, which is measured by the imaging sensor. For high accuracy, the collimator uses a shaped mask, such as one or more slits, so that the light beam forms a pattern on the sensor that permits sensing accuracy of better than 0.1 micron in two axes: in the z or local surface normal direction, and in the y direction parallel to the mirror surface and perpendicular to the beam direction. Using a co-aligned pair of sensors, with the location of the detector and collimated light source interchanged, four degrees of freedom can be sensed: transverse x and y displacements, as well as two bending angles (pitch and yaw). In this approach, each optical edge sensor head has a collimator and an imager, placing one sensor head on each side of a segment gap, with two parallel light beams crossing the gap. Two sets

  10. Breadboard Testing of a Phase Conjugate Engine with an Interferometric Wave-Front Sensor and a MEMS-Based Spatial Light Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J; Olsen, J; Minden, M L; Gavel, D; Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Wilks, S C; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S; Young, P E; Kartz, M W; Flath, L M; Azucena, O

    2003-12-08

    Laboratory breadboard results of a high-speed adaptive optics system are presented. The wave-front sensor for the adaptive optics system is based on a quadrature interferometer, which directly measures the turbulence induced phase aberrations. The laboratory experiments were conducted using Kolmogorov phase screens to simulate atmospheric phase distortions with the characterization of these plates presented below. The spatial light modulator used in the phase conjugate engine was a MEMS-based piston-only correction device with 1024 actuators. The overall system achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 hz and Strehl ratios greater than 0.5 with the Kolmogorov phase screens.

  11. Breadboard testing of a phase-conjugate engine with an interferometric wave-front sensor and a microelectromechanical systems-based spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kevin L; Stappaerts, Eddy A; Gavel, Don; Wilks, Scott C; Tucker, Jack; Silva, Dennis A; Olsen, Jeff; Olivier, Scot S; Young, Peter E; Kartz, Mike W; Flath, Laurence M; Krulevitch, Peter; Crawford, Jackie; Azucena, Oscar

    2004-10-20

    Laboratory breadboard results of a high-speed adaptive-optics system are presented. The wave-front sensor for the adaptive-optics system is based on a quadrature interferometer, which directly measures the turbulence-induced phase aberrations. The spatial light modulator used in the phase-conjugate engine was a microelectromechanical systems-based piston-only correction device with 1024 actuators. Laboratory experiments were conducted with this system utilizing Kolmogorov phase screens to simulate atmospheric phase distortions. The adaptive-optics system achieved correction speeds in excess of 800 Hz and Strehl ratios greater than 0.5 with the Kolmogorov phase screens.

  12. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G

    2001-02-21

    this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.

  13. Service Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks in Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, S. A.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.; Tripathy, A. K.; Sudharsan, D.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid advances in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for agricultural applications has provided a platform for better decision making for crop planning and management, particularly in precision agriculture aspects. Due to the ever-increasing spread of WSNs there is a need for standards, i.e. a set of specifications and encodings to bring multiple sensor networks on common platform. Distributed sensor systems when brought together can facilitate better decision making in agricultural domain. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) through Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) provides guidelines for semantic and syntactic standardization of sensor networks. In this work two distributed sensing systems (Agrisens and FieldServer) were selected to implement OGC SWE standards through a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. Online interoperable data processing was developed through SWE components such as Sensor Model Language (SensorML) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS). An integrated web client was developed to visualize the sensor observations and measurements that enables the retrieval of crop water resources availability and requirements in a systematic manner for both the sensing devices. Further, the client has also the ability to operate in an interoperable manner with any other OGC standardized WSN systems. The study of WSN systems has shown that there is need to augment the operations / processing capabilities of SOS in order to understand about collected sensor data and implement the modelling services. Also, the very low cost availability of WSN systems in future, it is possible to implement the OGC standardized SWE framework for agricultural applications with open source software tools.

  14. Defining ray sets for the analysis of lenslet-based optical systems including plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Lori

    Plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors are lenslet-based optical systems that do not form a conventional image. The addition of a lens array into these systems allows for the aberrations generated by the combination of the object and the optical components located prior to the lens array to be measured or corrected with post-processing. This dissertation provides a ray selection method to determine the rays that pass through each lenslet in a lenslet-based system. This first-order, ray trace method is developed for any lenslet-based system with a well-defined fore optic, where in this dissertation the fore optic is all of the optical components located prior to the lens array. For example, in a plenoptic camera the fore optic is a standard camera lens. Because a lens array at any location after the exit pupil of the fore optic is considered in this analysis, it is applicable to both plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Only a generic, unaberrated fore optic is considered, but this dissertation establishes a framework for considering the effect of an aberrated fore optic in lenslet-based systems. The rays from the fore optic that pass through a lenslet placed at any location after the fore optic are determined. This collection of rays is reduced to three rays that describe the entire lenslet ray set. The lenslet ray set is determined at the object, image, and pupil planes of the fore optic. The consideration of the apertures that define the lenslet ray set for an on-axis lenslet leads to three classes of lenslet-based systems. Vignetting of the lenslet rays is considered for off-axis lenslets. Finally, the lenslet ray set is normalized into terms similar to the field and aperture vector used to describe the aberrated wavefront of the fore optic. The analysis in this dissertation is complementary to other first-order models that have been developed for a specific plenoptic camera layout or Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor application

  15. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-07-05

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units-IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors' signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients' mobility.

  16. Hartmann wavefront measurements at FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, Barbara; Flöter, Bernhard; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Mann, Klaus; Mey, Tobias; Plönjes, Elke; Schäfer, Bernd; Tiedtke, Kai

    2013-05-01

    We report on online measurements of photon beam parameters during mirror alignment in the soft x-ray spectral region of FLASH, the free-electron laser in Hamburg. A compact Hartmann sensor operating in the wavelength range from 6 to 35nm was used to determine the wavefront quality of individual free-electron laser (FEL) pulses during the alignment procedure as well as aberrations. Beam characterization and alignment of beamline BL3 was performed with λ13.5??/ 116 accuracy for wavefront rms (W???). Second moment beam parameters are computed using a spherical reference wavefront generated by a 5μm pinhole. The Hartmann sensor was used for alignment of the ellipsoidal focusing mirror of beamline BL3, resulting in a reduction of (W???;) by 33%.

  17. ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor for the fine measurement of quasi-static aberrations in coronagraphic systems: concept studies and results with VLT/SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-07-01

    The high-contrast imaging instruments VLT/SPHERE and GPI have been routinely observing gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars since 2013-2014. In these facilities, low-wind effects or differential aberrations between the extreme Adaptive Optics sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the observation of exoplanets orbiting their host star with a contrast ratio larger than 106 at small separations. To circumvent this problem, we proposed ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor to measure these quasistatic aberrations at a nanometric level. A prototype was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its integration in Chile. We recently performed measurements on an internal source with ZELDA in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror of the instrument. In this communication, we present the results of our experiment and report on the contrast gain obtained with a first ZELDA-based wavefront correction. We finally discuss the suitability of such a solution for a possible upgrade of VLT/SPHERE and for its use with future E-ELT instruments or space missions with high-contrast capabilities (e.g. WFIRST-AFTA, HDST).

  18. Experimental study of a low-order wavefront sensor for high-contrast coronagraphic imagers: results in air and in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Bendek, Eduardo; Guyon, Olivier; Schneider, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    For the technology development of the mission EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer)—a 0.7 m telescope equipped with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAA- C) and a 2000-element MEMS deformable mirror, capable of raw contrasts of 10-6 at 1.2 λ/D and 10-7 above 2 λ /D — we developed two test benches simulating its key components, one in air, the other in vacuum. To achieve this level of contrast, one of the main goals is to remove low-order aberrations, using a Low-Order WaveFront Sensor (LOWFS). We tested this key component, together with the coronagraph and the wavefront control, in air at NASA Ames Research Center and in vacuum at Lockheed Martin. The LOWFS, controlling tip/tilt modes in real time at 1 kHz, allowed us to reduce the disturbances in air to 10-3 λ/D rms, letting us achieve a contrast of 2.8×10-7 between 1.2 and 2 λ/D. Tests are currently being performed to achieve the same or a better level of correction in vacuum. With those results, and by comparing them to simulations, we are able to deduce its performances on different coronagraphs— different sizes of telescopes, inner working angles, contrasts, etc. — and therefore study its contribution beyond EXCEDE.

  19. ARGOS wavefront sensing: from detection to correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J.; Busoni, L.; Connot, C.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Kulas, M.; Mazzoni, T.; Puglisi, A.; Rabien, S.; Storm, J.; Ziegleder, J.

    2014-08-01

    Argos is the ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. In order to perform its wide-field correction, Argos uses three laser guide stars which sample the atmospheric turbulence. To perform the correction, Argos has at disposal three different wavefront sensing measurements : its three laser guide stars, a NGS tip-tilt, and a third wavefront sensor. We present the wavefront sensing architecture and its individual components, in particular: the finalized Argos pnCCD camera detecting the 3 laser guide stars at 1kHz, high quantum efficiency and 4e- noise; the Argos tip-tilt sensor based on a quad-cell avalanche photo-diodes; and the Argos wavefront computer. Being in the middle of the commissioning, we present the first wavefront sensing configurations and operations performed at LBT, and discuss further improvements in the measurements of the 3 laser guide star slopes as detected by the pnCCD.

  20. Sensor Orientation Effects on UXO Geophysical Target Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    ACRONYMS AHRS Attitude-Heading Reference System BRAC Base Realignment and Closure DAS Data Acquisition System DGPS Differential Global Positioning...commercially available IMUs; this project utilized the Crossbow Solid State IMU known as an Attitude-Heading Reference System ( AHRS ). The AHRS uses...collection. As part of this project, the EM modeling process for sensor orientation information was developed that included full simulation of 3D

  1. Autonomous Quality Control of Joint Orientation Measured with Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Nguyen, Hung; Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Clinical mobility assessment is traditionally performed in laboratories using complex and expensive equipment. The low accessibility to such equipment, combined with the emerging trend to assess mobility in a free-living environment, creates a need for body-worn sensors (e.g., inertial measurement units—IMUs) that are capable of measuring the complexity in motor performance using meaningful measurements, such as joint orientation. However, accuracy of joint orientation estimates using IMUs may be affected by environment, the joint tracked, type of motion performed and velocity. This study investigates a quality control (QC) process to assess the quality of orientation data based on features extracted from the raw inertial sensors’ signals. Joint orientation (trunk, hip, knee, ankle) of twenty participants was acquired by an optical motion capture system and IMUs during a variety of tasks (sit, sit-to-stand transition, walking, turning) performed under varying conditions (speed, environment). An artificial neural network was used to classify good and bad sequences of joint orientation with a sensitivity and a specificity above 83%. This study confirms the possibility to perform QC on IMU joint orientation data based on raw signal features. This innovative QC approach may be of particular interest in a big data context, such as for remote-monitoring of patients’ mobility. PMID:27399701

  2. Validating Knowledge-Based Framework through Mission-Oriented Sensors Array and Smart Sensor Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Douglas; Pires, Rayner M.; Branco, Kalinka R. L. J. C.

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in critical embedded systems, mainly in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). We present the use of a SOA approach to provide the integration of the payload in the UAV. The integration is provided by a plug and play protocol named Smart Sensor Protocol (SSP) that validates the SOA approach.

  3. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  4. The MCAO systems within LINC-NIRVANA: control aspects beyond wavefront correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Arcidiacono, C.; Berwein, J.; Bizenberger, P.; Briegel, F.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.; Gässler, W.; Herbst, T. M.; Hofferbert, R.; Kittmann, F.; Kürster, M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Schreiber, L.; Trowitzsch, J.; Viotto, V.

    2010-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared homothetic imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. Its layer-oriented MCAO systems (one for each arm of the interferometer) are conjugated to the ground layer and an additional layer in the upper atmosphere. In this contribution MCAO wavefront control is discussed in the context of the overall control scheme for LINC-NIRVANA. Special attention is paid to a set of auxiliary control tasks which are mandatory for MCAO operation: The Fields of View of each wavefront sensor in the instrument have to be derotated independent from each other and independently from the science field. Any wavefront information obtained by the sensors has to be matched to the time invariant modes of the deformable mirrors in the system. The tip/tilt control scheme is outlined, in which atmospheric, but also instrumental tip/tilt corrections are sensed with the high layer wavefront sensor and corrected by the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. Slow image motion effects on the science detector have to be considered, which are caused by flexure in the non-common path between AO and the science camera, atmospheric differential refraction, and alignment tolerances of the derotators. Last but not least: The sensor optics (pyramids) have to be accurately positioned at the images of natural reference stars.

  5. Wave-front analysis using Fresnel lens arrays.

    PubMed

    Spektor, B; Shamir, J

    1995-07-01

    A compact wave-front sensor is implemented by an array of two-beam common path inversion interferometers. Each element of the array consists of two Fresnel lenses in a confocal configuration. The wave-front data can be extracted from a superposition of the zero-order undiffracted wave and the twice-diffracted first-order wave. The result is a high-sensitivity, compact, and stable interferometric wave-front sensor.

  6. Real-Time Wavefront Control for the PALM-3000 High Order Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Troy, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. The architecture enables full-matrix reconstruction of the wavefront at up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 us for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64 x 64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 241 active actuator tweeter DM. The architecture can easily scale up to support much larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.

  7. Real-Time Wavefront Control for the PALM-3000 High Order Adaptive Optics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Troy, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. The architecture enables full-matrix reconstruction of the wavefront at up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 us for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64 x 64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 241 active actuator tweeter DM. The architecture can easily scale up to support much larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.

  8. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  9. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  10. Image restoration using aberration taken by a Hartmann wavefront sensor on extended object, towards real-time deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darudi, Ahmad; Bakhshi, Hadi; Asgari, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of image restoration using the data taken by a Hartmann sensor. The aberration is measure by a Hartmann sensor in which the object itself is used as reference. Then the Point Spread Function (PSF) is simulated and used for image reconstruction using the Lucy-Richardson technique. A technique is presented for quantitative evaluation the Lucy-Richardson technique for deconvolution.

  11. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  12. Wavefront sensing using a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Valente, Denise; Rativa, Diego; Vohnsen, Brian

    2015-05-18

    A novel wavefront sensor based on a microstructural array of waveguides is proposed. The method is based on the sensitivity in light-coupling efficiency to the wavefront gradient present at the entrance aperture of each waveguide in an array, and hence the amount of incident light that couples is influenced by wavefront aberrations. The concept is illustrated with wavefront measurements that have been performed using a liquid-filled photonic crystal fiber (LF-PCF) working as a coherent fiber bundle. The pros and cons of the LF-PCF based sensor are discussed.

  13. Erratum: "Utilization of the Wavefront Sensor and Short-exposure Images for Simultaneous Estimation of Quasi-static Aberration and Exoplanet Intensity" (ApJ, 767, 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazin, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates analytically that, at millisecond timescales, the adaptive optics system in a ground-based telescope will maintain the faint planetary emission nearly constant in time, while the speckle intensity at the planet’s location will undergo wild fluctuations. Then, it presents a method for the simultaneous determination of the image of an exo-planetary system and pupil-plane aberrations that are not corrected by the adaptive optics system (so-called “non-common path aberrations”), which cause a confounding speckle background. The central idea of the method is to take simultaneous millisecond exposures in both the wavefront sensor and science camera, and then perform statistical inference procedures to determine both the aberrations and planetary image. The statistical inference is based on a Taylor expansion of an exponential containing the aberration function. While the first order terms given in the paper are correct, it is missing some second-order terms, which are important when the aberrations are large enough so that a first order expansion is not adequate. Since the numerical experiments used small aberrations, this correction has little effect on the results.

  14. High signal-to-noise ratio sensing with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on auto gain control of electron multiplying CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao-Yi; Li, Da-Yu; Hu, Li-Fa; Mu, Quan-Quan; Yang, Cheng-Liang; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Xuan, Li

    2016-09-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (S-H WFS) in adaptive optics (AO). However, when the brightness of the target changes in a large scale, the fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain will not be suited to the sensing limitation. Therefore an auto-gain-control method based on the brightness of light-spots array in S-H WFS is proposed in this paper. The control value is the average of the maximum signals of every light spot in an array, which has been demonstrated to be kept stable even under the influence of some noise and turbulence, and sensitive enough to the change of target brightness. A goal value is needed in the control process and it is predetermined based on the characters of EMCCD. Simulations and experiments have demonstrated that this auto-gain-control method is valid and robust, the sensing SNR reaches the maximum for the corresponding signal level, and especially is greatly improved for those dim targets from 6 to 4 magnitude in the visual band. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174274, 61205021, and 61405194) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. A First Order Wavefront Estimation Algorithm for P1640 Calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhaia, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

  16. A First Order Wavefront Estimation Algorithm for P1640 Calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhaia, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hinkley, S.; Hillenbrand, L.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

    2012-01-01

    P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.

  17. Data Strategies to Support Automated Multi-Sensor Data Fusion in a Service Oriented Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    is unlimited DATA STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT AUTOMATED MULTI- SENSOR DATA FUSION IN A SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE by Kurt J. Rothenhaus...SUBTITLE: Data Strategies to Support Automated Multi- Sensor Data Fusion in a Service Oriented Architecture 6. AUTHOR: CDR Kurt Rothenhaus 5...end-to-end solutions promised by SOA technologies. Software architectural patterns in conjunction with broad data strategies are required to harness

  18. Adaptive optics wide-field microscopy using direct wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Kotadia, Shaila; Sullivan, William; Tao, Xiaodong; Reinig, Marc; Gavel, Donald; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2011-03-15

    We report a technique for measuring and correcting the wavefront aberrations introduced by a biological sample using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a fluorescent reference source, and a deformable mirror. The reference source and sample fluorescence are at different wavelengths to separate wavefront measurement and sample imaging. The measurement and correction at one wavelength improves the resolving power at a different wavelength, enabling the structure of the sample to be resolved.

  19. Real-time turbulence profiling with a pair of laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for wide-field adaptive optics systems on large to extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Gilles, L; Ellerbroek, B L

    2010-11-01

    Real-time turbulence profiling is necessary to tune tomographic wavefront reconstruction algorithms for wide-field adaptive optics (AO) systems on large to extremely large telescopes, and to perform a variety of image post-processing tasks involving point-spread function reconstruction. This paper describes a computationally efficient and accurate numerical technique inspired by the slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) method to perform this task in real time from properly selected Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements accumulated over a few hundred frames from a pair of laser guide stars, thus eliminating the need for an additional instrument. The algorithm is introduced, followed by a theoretical influence function analysis illustrating its impulse response to high-resolution turbulence profiles. Finally, its performance is assessed in the context of the Thirty Meter Telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics system via end-to-end wave optics Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Model-Based Wavefront Control for CCAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andy; Bradford, Matt; Padin, Steve; Woody, David

    2011-01-01

    The 25-m aperture CCAT submillimeter-wave telescope will have a primary mirror that is divided into 162 individual segments, each of which is provided with 3 positioning actuators. CCAT will be equipped with innovative Imaging Displacement Sensors (IDS) inexpensive optical edge sensors capable of accurately measuring all segment relative motions. These measurements are used in a Kalman-filter-based Optical State Estimator to estimate wavefront errors, permitting use of a minimum-wavefront controller without direct wavefront measurement. This controller corrects the optical impact of errors in 6 degrees of freedom per segment, including lateral translations of the segments, using only the 3 actuated degrees of freedom per segment. The global motions of the Primary and Secondary Mirrors are not measured by the edge sensors. These are controlled using a gravity-sag look-up table. Predicted performance is illustrated by simulated response to errors such as gravity sag.

  1. Development of the obstacle detection system combining orientation sensor of smartphone and distance sensor.

    PubMed

    Tange, Yutaka; Takeno, Shunsuke; Hori, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    In the existing walking support system, the range of detection is limited, and it is very difficult to detect obstacles such as a step or a hollow. Therefore, we aim at the development of a new walking support system for a visually-impaired person detecting neighboring obstacles by making use of a smartphone which is a high-performance portable information terminal. In this study, we have developed a walking support system combining the orientation sensor of the smartphone and a small distance sensor at the first stage. When we investigated its precision in detecting an obstacle, it was found that the system could detect obstacles which disturbed the walking of a visually-impaired person such as a step and a wall. We will find an appropriate key to detection to improve the detection precision of the system and make further improvements in the system by trial experiments in the future.

  2. Orienting Ocean Bottom Seismic Sensors from Ship Noise Polarization Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Dreo, Richard; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Scholz, John R.; Sigloch, Karin; Geay, Bruno; Bouillon, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    For the RHUM-RUM project (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel, www.rhum-rum.net), a network of 57 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was installed on the ocean floor around La Réunion Island in the SW Indian Ocean. Part of the network happened to be located beneath a route of heavy ship traffic connecting SE-Asia and the South-Atlantic region. We analysed the ship noise recorded on the OBS and show that it can be used for determining the horizontal orientations of the seismic instruments as they were recording on the ocean floor. The OBS, provided by the German DEPAS and the French INSU OBS national pools, were equipped with wide-band or broad-band three-components seismic and hydro-acoustic sensors. They were deployed in Nov. 2012 by R/V Marion Dufresne and recovered by R/V Meteor one year later. Depending on the configuration, the OBS recorded for 8 to 13 months. By combining the trajectories of passing ships - provided by AIS (Automatic Identification system) GPS data - with our geophysical data recorded on the ocean floor, we show that both hydro-acoustic and seismic spectral analyses exhibit clear signals associated with vessels between 1 and 50 Hz, in the high-frequency range of our instruments. Large cargo vessels are detected several hours before and after their closest point of approach (CPA) and show clear Doppler effects which put quantitative constraints on their distances and speeds. By analysing the continuous noise polarization on the three seismic components, we show that the polarization of the noise emitted by ships passing in the neighbourhood of an ocean-bottom seismometer can be used for retrieving the orientation of the OBS horizontal components on the ocean floor with respect to the geographic reference frame. We find good agreement between OBS orientations thus calculated from ship noise and the OBS orientations determined independently from teleseismic body and surface wave polarization methods (Scholz et al., GJI

  3. Wavefront Control for Extreme Adaptive Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2003-07-16

    Current plans for Extreme Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, provided specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.

  4. Wavefront control for extreme adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

    2003-12-01

    Current plans for Extreme Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, provided specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.

  5. Experimental study of a low-order wavefront sensor for a high-contrast coronagraphic imager at 1.2 lambda/D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Belikov, Ruslan; Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Thomas, Sandrine; Martinache, Frantz

    2013-12-01

    High-contrast imaging will be a challenge for future ELTs, because their vibrations create low-order aberrations - mostly tip/tilt - that reduce coronagraphic performances at 1.2 lambda/D and above. A Low-Order WaveFront Sensor (LOWFS) is essential to measure and control those aberrations. An experiment simulating a starlight suppression system is currently developed at NASA Ames Research Center, and includes a LOWFS controlling tip/tilt modes in real time at 500 Hz. The LOWFS allowed us to reduce the tip/tilt disturbances to 1e-3 lambda/D rms, enhancing the previous contrast by a decade, to 8e-7 between 1.2 and 2 lambda/D. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is currently implemented to improve even more that result by reducing residual vibrations. This testbed is developed for the mission EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), selected by NASA for technology development, and designed to study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. It is composed of a 0.7 m telescope equipped with a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization Coronagraph (PIAA-C) and a 2000-element MEMS deformable mirror, capable of raw contrasts of 1e-6 at 1.2 lambda/D and 1e-7 above 2 lambda/D. Although the testbed simulates space conditions, its LOWFS has the same design than on the SCExAO instrument at Subaru telescope, with whom it shares the same kind of problematic. Experimental results show that a good knowledge of the low-order disturbances is a key asset for high contrast imaging, whether for real-time control or for post processing, both in space and on ground telescopes.

  6. Relaying an optical wavefront

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Vawter, G. Allen

    2007-03-06

    A wavefront rely devices samples an incoming optical wavefront at different locations, optically relays the samples while maintaining the relative position of the samples and the relative phase between the samples. The wavefront is reconstructed due to interference of the samples. Devices can be designed for many different wavelengths, including for example the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and even longer wavelengths such as millimeter waves. In one application, the device function as a telescope but with negligible length.

  7. Static optical designs for Wavefront Curvature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharmal, Nazim A.

    2006-06-01

    A bulk optic is presented, the Parallel Output Beamsplitter, which allows simultaneous imaging of two planes either side of the focus using static imaging optics. The POB is used to create novel optical configurations for Wavefront Curvature Sensing and two designs are presented. The first is suited to small-amplitude aberration measurements in situations where compactness, a large field of view, and high optical throughput are desirable. A laboratory experiment using a POB to make such a wavefront sensor was undertaken, and results are presented. The second design is a conceptual idea which offers image-scale invariant imaging of two planes whose conjugation satisfies the requirements of a conventional Wavefront Curvature Sensor concept.

  8. Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Focal plane sensors for determining the error in a telescope wavefront were investigated. The construction of three candidate test instruments and their evaluation in terms of small wavefront error aberration measurements are described. A laboratory wavefront simulator was designed and fabricated to evaluate the test instruments. The laboratory wavefront error simulator was used to evaluate three tests; a Hartmann test, a polarization shearing interferometer test, and an interferometric Zernike test.

  9. Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    Partial results are presented of theoretical and experimental investigations of different focal plane sensor configurations for determining the error in a telescope wavefront. The coarse range sensor and fine range sensors are used in the experimentation. The design of a wavefront error simulator is presented along with the Hartmann test, the shearing polarization interferometer, the Zernike test, and the Zernike polarization test.

  10. Phase discrepancy induced from least squares wavefront reconstruction of wrapped phase measurements with high noise or large localized wavefront gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbock, Michael J.; Hyde, Milo W.

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive optics is used in applications such as laser communication, remote sensing, and laser weapon systems to estimate and correct for atmospheric distortions of propagated light in real-time. Within an adaptive optics system, a reconstruction process interprets the raw wavefront sensor measurements and calculates an estimate for the unwrapped phase function to be sent through a control law and applied to a wavefront correction device. This research is focused on adaptive optics using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor, which directly measures the wrapped wavefront phase. Therefore, its measurements must be reconstructed for use on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. In testing and evaluating a novel class of branch-point- tolerant wavefront reconstructors based on the post-processing congruence operation technique, an increase in Strehl ratio compared to a traditional least squares reconstructor was noted even in non-scintillated fields. To investigate this further, this paper uses wave-optics simulations to eliminate many of the variables from a hardware adaptive optics system, so as to focus on the reconstruction techniques alone. The simulation results along with a discussion of the physical reasoning for this phenomenon are provided. For any applications using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor with low signal levels or high localized wavefront gradients, understanding this phenomena is critical when applying a traditional least squares wavefront reconstructor.

  11. Phase Contrast Wavefront Sensing for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.; Bloemhof, E. E.

    2004-01-01

    Most ground-based adaptive optics systems use one of a small number of wavefront sensor technologies, notably (for relatively high-order systems) the Shack-Hartmann sensor, which provides local measurements of the phase slope (first-derivative) at a number of regularly-spaced points across the telescope pupil. The curvature sensor, with response proportional to the second derivative of the phase, is also sometimes used, but has undesirable noise propagation properties during wavefront reconstruction as the number of actuators becomes large. It is interesting to consider the use for astronomical adaptive optics of the "phase contrast" technique, originally developed for microscopy by Zemike to allow convenient viewing of phase objects. In this technique, the wavefront sensor provides a direct measurement of the local value of phase in each sub-aperture of the pupil. This approach has some obvious disadvantages compared to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, but has some less obvious but substantial advantages as well. Here we evaluate the relative merits in a practical ground-based adaptive optics system.

  12. Spirally oriented Au microelectrode array sensor for detection of Hg (II).

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Ngoc; Hung, Le Quoc; Ha, Vu Thi Thu; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Van Khai, Tran; Shim, Kwang Bo; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-05-30

    A simple and reproducible carbon microelectrode array (CMA), designed to eliminate diffusive interference among the microelectrodes, has been fabricated and used as a frame to build a gold (Au) microelectrode array (GMA) sensor. To prepare the CMA initially, rather than use an uncontrollable large number of carbon fibers, only 60 carbon fibers of regular size were used to ensure manageable and reproducible arrangement for array construction. In addition, for efficient spatial arrangement of the microelectrode and easy sensor preparation, carbon fibers were oriented in a spiral fashion by rolling around a Cu wire. The distance between carbon fibers was carefully determined to avoid overlap among individual diffusion layers, one of the important factors governing steady-state current response and sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. After the preparation of a spirally arranged CMA, Au was electrochemically deposited on the surface of individual carbon electrodes to build a final GMA sensor. Then, the GMA sensor was used to measure Hg(2+) in a low concentration range. Simultaneously, multiple GMA sensors were independently prepared to examine reproducibility in sensor fabrication as well as electrochemical measurement (sensor-to-sensor reproducibility). Overall, highly sensitive detection of Hg(2+) was possible using the proposed GMA sensor due to efficient arrangement of microelectrodes and the sensor-to-sensor reproducibility was superior owing to simplicity in sensor fabrication.

  13. [From scattering to wavefront. Healing optics].

    PubMed

    Semchishen, V; Mrokhen, M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report, made within research in progress, was to discuss the optical effect of irregular surface structures that might be associated with complicated refractive procedures related with the retinal image quality. We concentrated our discussion on the range of surface structures between the known scattering effects and wavefront aberrations of higher orders. The case study demonstrates that the surface irregularities of the cornea might induce, after refractive laser surgery, significant optical aberrations that are much too different from the classical wavevront or scattering errors. Such optical errors, however, cannot be correctly measured by current commercial wavefront sensors. Finally, the influence of the healing process on Strehl ratio is under discussion.

  14. Non-GPS full position and angular orientation onboard sensors for moving and stationary platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip; Pereira, Carlos M.

    2016-05-01

    Angular orientation of both mobile and stationary objects continues to be an ongoing topic of interest for guidance and control as well as for non-GPS based solutions for geolocations of assets in any environment. Currently available sensors, which include inertia devices such as accelerometers and gyros; magnetometers; surface mounted antennas; radars; GPS; and optical line of sight devices, do not provide an acceptable solution for many applications, particularly for gun-fired munitions and for all-weather and all environment scenarios. A robust onboard full angular orientation sensor solution, based on a scanning polarized reference source and a polarized geometrical cavity orientation sensor, is presented. The full position of the object, in the reference source coordinate system, is determined by combining range data obtained using established time-of-flight techniques, with the angular orientation information.

  15. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  16. Prototype pipeline for LSST wavefront sensing and reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claver, Charles F.; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Liang, Ming; Xin, Bo; Alagoz, Enver; Arndt, Kirk; Shipsey, Ian P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses an Active Optics System (AOS) to maintain system alignment and surface figure on its three large mirrors. Corrective actions fed to the LSST AOS are determined from 4 curvature based wavefront sensors located on the corners of the inscribed square within the 3.5 degree field of view. Each wavefront sensor is a split detector such that the halves are 1mm on either side of focus. In this paper we describe the development of the Active Optics Pipeline prototype that simulates processing the raw image data from the wavefront sensors through to wavefront estimation on to the active optics corrective actions. We also describe various wavefront estimation algorithms under development for the LSST active optics system. The algorithms proposed are comprised of the Zernike compensation routine which improve the accuracy of the wavefront estimate. Algorithm development has been aided by a bench top optical simulator which we also describe. The current software prototype combines MATLAB modules for image processing, tomographic reconstruction, atmospheric turbulence and Zemax for optical ray-tracing to simulate the closed loop behavior of the LSST AOS. We describe the overall simulation model and results for image processing using simulated images and initial results of the wavefront estimation algorithms.

  17. A novel method for assessing the 3-D orientation accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Rizun, Peter; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-10-18

    A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error), while remaining insensitive to singularity problems when the second Euler rotation is close to ±90°. As a demonstration, the accuracy of an inertial/magnetic sensor mounted to a participant's forearm was evaluated during a reaching task in a laboratory. Sensor orientation was measured internally (by the inertial/magnetic sensor) and externally using an optoelectronic measurement system with a marker cluster rigidly attached to the sensor's enclosure. Roll, pitch and heading residuals were calculated using the proposed novel method, as well as using a common orientation assessment method where the residuals are defined as the difference between the Euler angles measured by the inertial sensor and those measured by the optoelectronic system. Using the proposed residual matrix method, the roll and pitch residuals remained less than 1° and, as expected, no statistically significant difference between these two measures of attitude accuracy was found; the heading residuals were significantly larger than the attitude residuals but remained below 2°. Using the direct Euler angle comparison method, the residuals were in general larger due to singularity issues, and the expected significant difference between inertial/magnetic sensor attitude and heading accuracy was not present.

  18. Tomographic wavefront correction for the LSST

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D W; Olivier, S S; Baker, K; Seppala, L; Hvisc, S

    2006-05-03

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a three mirror modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary followed by a 3-element refractive corrector producing a 3.5 degree field of view. This design produces image diameters of <0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled energy over its full field of view. The image quality of this design is sufficient to ensure that the final images produced by the telescope will be limited by the atmospheric seeing at an excellent astronomical site. In order to maintain this image quality, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations. By measuring the optical wavefront produced by the telescope at multiple points in the field, mirror deformations and rigid body motions that produce a good optical wavefront across the entire field may be determined. We will describe the details of the techniques for obtaining these solutions. We will show that, for the expected mirror deformations and rigid body misalignments, the solutions that are found using these techniques produce an image quality over the field that is close to optimal. We will discuss how many wavefront sensors are needed and the tradeoffs between the number of wavefront sensors, their layout and noise sensitivity.

  19. High order dark wavefront sensing simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzoni, Roberto; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Dima, Marco; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Greggio, Davide; Carolo, Elena; Vassallo, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Dark wavefront sensing takes shape following quantum mechanics concepts in which one is able to "see" an object in one path of a two-arm interferometer using an as low as desired amount of light actually "hitting" the occulting object. A theoretical way to achieve such a goal, but in the realm of wavefront sensing, is represented by a combination of two unequal beams interferometer sharing the same incoming light, and whose difference in path length is continuously adjusted in order to show different signals for different signs of the incoming perturbation. Furthermore, in order to obtain this in white light, the path difference should be properly adjusted vs the wavelength used. While we incidentally describe how this could be achieved in a true optomechanical setup, we focus our attention to the simulation of a hypothetical "perfect" dark wavefront sensor of this kind in which white light compensation is accomplished in a perfect manner and the gain is selectable in a numerical fashion. Although this would represent a sort of idealized dark wavefront sensor that would probably be hard to match in the real glass and metal, it would also give a firm indication of the maximum achievable gain or, in other words, of the prize for achieving such device. Details of how the simulation code works and first numerical results are outlined along with the perspective for an in-depth analysis of the performances and its extension to more realistic situations, including various sources of additional noise.

  20. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) wavefront control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Atta, L; Bliss, E; Bruns, D; Feldman, M; Grey, A; Henesian, M; J; Koch, J; LaFiandra, C; Lawson; Sacks, R; Salmon, T; Toeppen, J; Winters, S; Woods, B; Zacharias, R

    1998-08-17

    A wavefront control system will be employed on NIF to correct beam aberrations that otherwise would limit the minimum target focal spot size. For most applications, NIF requires a focal spot that is a few times the diffraction limit. Sources of aberrations that must be corrected include prompt pump-induced distortions in the laser slabs, thermal distortions in the laser slabs from previous shots, manufacturing figure errors in the optics, beam off-axis effects, gas density variations, and gravity, mounting, and coating- induced optic distortions. The NIF Wavefront Control System consists of five subsystems: 1) a deformable mirror, 2) a wavefront sensor, 3) a computer controller, 4) a wavefront reference system, and 5) a system of fast actuators to allow the wavefront control system to operate to within one second of the laser shot. The system includes the capability for in situ calibrations and operates in closed loop prior to the shot. Shot wavefront data is recorded. This paper describes the function, realization, and performance of each wavefront control subsystem. Subsystem performance will be characterized by computer models and by test results. The focal spot improvement in the NIF laser system effected by the wavefront control system will be characterized through computer models.

  1. Determining the wedge angle and optical homogeneity of a glass plate by statistically analyzing the deformation in the wavefront surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2017-08-01

    By using a light-emitting diode as the probing light source and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as the recorder for the wavefront surface to execute a relative measurement, we present a useful method for determining the small wedge angle and optical homogeneity of a nominally planar glass plate from the wavefront measurements. The measured wavefront surface from the light source was first calibrated to be a horizontal plane before the plate under test was inserted. The wedge angle of the plate can be determined from the inclining angle of the regression plane of the measured wavefront surface after the plate was inserted between the light source and the wavefront sensor. Despite the annoying time-dependent altitude fluctuation in measured wavefront topography, the optical homogeneity of the plate can be estimated from the increment on the average variance of the wavefront surface to its regression plane after the light passes through it by using the Bienaymé formula.

  2. Determining the wedge angle and optical homogeneity of a glass plate by statistically analyzing the deformation in the wavefront surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pao-Keng

    2017-08-01

    By using a light-emitting diode as the probing light source and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as the recorder for the wavefront surface to execute a relative measurement, we present a useful method for determining the small wedge angle and optical homogeneity of a nominally planar glass plate from the wavefront measurements. The measured wavefront surface from the light source was first calibrated to be a horizontal plane before the plate under test was inserted. The wedge angle of the plate can be determined from the inclining angle of the regression plane of the measured wavefront surface after the plate was inserted between the light source and the wavefront sensor. Despite the annoying time-dependent altitude fluctuation in measured wavefront topography, the optical homogeneity of the plate can be estimated from the increment on the average variance of the wavefront surface to its regression plane after the light passes through it by using the Bienaymé formula.

  3. Application of L3 technology to wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, Simon M.

    2004-10-01

    The new L3 Technology CCDs from E2V combine sub-electron read noise with high pixel rates. This makes them ideal candidates for wavefront sensing. ING's NAOMI adaptive optics instrument is currently limited by the readout noise of its wavefront sensor CCDs. Upgrading to L3 detectors has the potential to give a large increase in performance; simulations suggest a 2 magnitude improvement to the guide star limit. At ING we have explored the behaviour of various L3 devices in applications ranging from fast photometry, fast spectroscopy through to wavefront sensing. The investigations have been done using our own cryogenic cameras containing L3 devices coupled to an SDSU controller. An integral Peltier packaged CCD60 has also been purchased specifically for the WFS upgrade. This paper describes the progress we have made to date on the L3 wavefront sensor upgrade and our future plans for its use with a Rayleigh laser beacon.

  4. Comparison of LSST and DECam wavefront recovery algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Bo; Roodman, Aaron; Angeli, George; Claver, Chuck; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-07-01

    We make a detailed quantitative comparison of the wavefront recovery algorithms between those developed for Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Samples used in this study include images of out of focus stars collected by the DECam at the Blanco 4-meter telescope and artificial simulated donut images. The data from DECam include wavefront images collected by the wavefront sensors and out-of-focus images where the entire DECam sensor array is used. For simulated images, we have used both the forward Fraunhofer diffraction and a LSST-like ZEMAX optical model where the images are convolved with Kolmogorov atmosphere. All samples are analyzed with the forward wavefront retrieval algorithm developed for DECam and the transport of intensity algorithm for LSST. Good quantitative agreement between results by the two implemented algorithms is observed.

  5. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22315541

  6. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  7. Oil exploration oriented multi-sensor image fusion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaobing, Zhang; Wei, Zhou; Mengfei, Song

    2017-04-01

    In order to accurately forecast the fracture and fracture dominance direction in oil exploration, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-sensor image fusion algorithm. The main innovations of this paper lie in that we introduce Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) in data fusion and divide an image to several regions before image fusion. DTCWT refers to a new type of wavelet transform, and it is designed to solve the problem of signal decomposition and reconstruction based on two parallel transforms of real wavelet. We utilize DTCWT to segment the features of the input images and generate a region map, and then exploit normalized Shannon entropy of a region to design the priority function. To test the effectiveness of our proposed multi-sensor image fusion algorithm, four standard pairs of images are used to construct the dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy in multi-sensor image fusion, especially for images of oil exploration.

  8. Wavefront sensing, control, and pointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Thomas; Sevaston, George; Agronin, Michael; Bely, Pierre; Colavita, Mark; Clampin, Mark; Harvey, James; Idell, Paul; Sandler, Dave; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-08-01

    A majority of future NASA astrophysics missions from orbiting interferometers to 16-m telescopes on the Moon have, as a common requirement, the need to bring light from a large entrance aperture to the focal plane in a way that preserves the spatial coherence properties of the starlight. Only by preserving the phase of the incoming wavefront, can many scientific observations be made, observations that range from measuring the red shift of quasi-stellar objects (QSO's) to detecting the IR emission of a planet in orbit around another star. New technologies for wavefront sensing, control, and pointing hold the key to advancing our observatories of the future from those already launched or currently under development. As the size of the optical system increases, either to increase the sensitivity or angular resolution of the instrument, traditional technologies for maintaining optical wavefront accuracy become prohibitively expensive or completely impractical. For space-based instruments, the low mass requirement and the large temperature excursions further challenge existing technologies. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is probably the last large space telescope to rely on passive means to keep its primary optics stable and the optical system aligned. One needs only look to the significant developments in wavefront sensing, control, and pointing that have occurred over the past several years to appreciate the potential of this technology for transforming the capability of future space observatories. Future developments in space-borne telescopes will be based in part on developments in ground-based systems. Telescopes with rigid primary mirrors much larger than 5 m in diameter are impractical because of gravity loading. New technologies are now being introduced, such as active optics, that address the scale problem and that allow very large telescopes to be built. One approach is a segmented design such as that being pioneered by the W.M. Keck telescope now under

  9. Wavefront sensing, control, and pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Thomas; Sevaston, George; Agronin, Michael; Bely, Pierre; Colavita, Mark; Clampin, Mark; Harvey, James; Idell, Paul; Sandler, Dave; Ulmer, Melville

    1992-01-01

    A majority of future NASA astrophysics missions from orbiting interferometers to 16-m telescopes on the Moon have, as a common requirement, the need to bring light from a large entrance aperture to the focal plane in a way that preserves the spatial coherence properties of the starlight. Only by preserving the phase of the incoming wavefront, can many scientific observations be made, observations that range from measuring the red shift of quasi-stellar objects (QSO's) to detecting the IR emission of a planet in orbit around another star. New technologies for wavefront sensing, control, and pointing hold the key to advancing our observatories of the future from those already launched or currently under development. As the size of the optical system increases, either to increase the sensitivity or angular resolution of the instrument, traditional technologies for maintaining optical wavefront accuracy become prohibitively expensive or completely impractical. For space-based instruments, the low mass requirement and the large temperature excursions further challenge existing technologies. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is probably the last large space telescope to rely on passive means to keep its primary optics stable and the optical system aligned. One needs only look to the significant developments in wavefront sensing, control, and pointing that have occurred over the past several years to appreciate the potential of this technology for transforming the capability of future space observatories. Future developments in space-borne telescopes will be based in part on developments in ground-based systems. Telescopes with rigid primary mirrors much larger than 5 m in diameter are impractical because of gravity loading. New technologies are now being introduced, such as active optics, that address the scale problem and that allow very large telescopes to be built. One approach is a segmented design such as that being pioneered by the W.M. Keck telescope now under

  10. Cumulative Reconstructor: fast wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Extremely Large Telescopes.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor (CuRe) is a new direct reconstructor for an optical wavefront from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements. In this paper, the algorithm is adapted to realistic telescope geometries and the transition from modified Hudgin to Fried geometry is discussed. After a discussion of the noise propagation, we analyze the complexity of the algorithm. Our numerical tests confirm that the algorithm is very fast and accurate and can therefore be used for adaptive optics systems of Extremely Large Telescopes.

  11. Wavefront sensing based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Qi, Bian; Chenlu, Zhou; Tenghao, Li; Mali, Gong

    2016-07-01

    A novel wavefront sensing method based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing is proposed. The wavefront gradient field in the object plane is modulated into intensity distribution in a gang of patterns, making high-density detection available. By applying the method, we have also designed a wavefront sensor. It consists of a classical coherent optical processing system, a CCD detector array, two pieces of orthogonal composite sinusoidal gratings, and a mechanical structure that can perform real-time linear positioning. The simulation results prove and demonstrate the validity of the method and the sensor in high-precision measurement of the wavefront gradient field.

  12. MOSAIC: a new wavefront metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-02-02

    MOSAIC is a new wavefront metrology that enables complete wavefront characterization from print or aerial image based measurements. Here we describe MOSAIC and verify its utility with a model-based proof of principle.

  13. Wavefront error sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, Eldred F.

    1986-01-01

    A two-step approach to wavefront sensing for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) was examined as part of an effort to define wavefront-sensing requirements and to determine particular areas for more detailed study. A Hartmann test for coarse alignment, particularly segment tilt, seems feasible if LDR can operate at 5 microns or less. The direct measurement of the point spread function in the diffraction limited region may be a way to determine piston error, but this can only be answered by a detailed software model of the optical system. The question of suitable astronomical sources for either test must also be addressed.

  14. Earth laser beacon sensor for earth-oriented geosynchronous satellites.

    PubMed

    Sepp, G

    1975-07-01

    Geosynchronous satellites are often required to maintain accurately their orientation with respect to a selected point at the earth surface. Precise attitude determination of these satellites may be achieved using a laser beacon from ground to the satellite as a directional reference. Four simple implementations of this principle are analyzed, and the influence of the cloudy atmosphere on the laser beacon and, therefore, on the accuracy of the method is discussed. All-weather operation is not possible; for normal cloudiness conditions, however, two analyzed systems (pulsed Nd:YAG laser with photomultiplier and CO(2) laser with cryogenic detector) appear to be feasible.

  15. Estimating Orientation Using Magnetic and Inertial Sensors and Different Sensor Fusion Approaches: Accuracy Assessment in Manual and Locomotion Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Bergamini, Elena; Ligorio, Gabriele; Summa, Aurora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units are an emerging technology to obtain 3D orientation of body segments in human movement analysis. In this respect, sensor fusion is used to limit the drift errors resulting from the gyroscope data integration by exploiting accelerometer and magnetic aiding sensors. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of sensor fusion methods under different experimental conditions. Manual and locomotion tasks, differing in time duration, measurement volume, presence/absence of static phases, and out-of-plane movements, were performed by six subjects, and recorded by one unit located on the forearm or the lower trunk, respectively. Two sensor fusion methods, representative of the stochastic (Extended Kalman Filter) and complementary (Non-linear observer) filtering, were selected, and their accuracy was assessed in terms of attitude (pitch and roll angles) and heading (yaw angle) errors using stereophotogrammetric data as a reference. The sensor fusion approaches provided significantly more accurate results than gyroscope data integration. Accuracy improved mostly for heading and when the movement exhibited stationary phases, evenly distributed 3D rotations, it occurred in a small volume, and its duration was greater than approximately 20 s. These results were independent from the specific sensor fusion method used. Practice guidelines for improving the outcome accuracy are provided. PMID:25302810

  16. Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Jiann-Yeou; Habib, Ayman F.; Kersting, Ana P.; Chiang, Kai-Wei; Bang, Ki-In; Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Li, Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS) is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS). The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters). In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy. PMID:22164015

  17. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Program for the Acoustic Sensor Operations Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    U'Ren, Paula Kabance; Baker, Meryl S.

    An effort was undertaken to develop a job-oriented basic skills curriculum appropriate for the acoustic sensor operations area, which includes members of four ratings: ocean systems technician, aviation antisubmarine warfare operator, sonar technician (surface), and sonar technician (submarine). Analysis of the job duties of the four ratings…

  18. Job-Oriented Basic Skills (JOBS) Program for the Acoustic Sensor Operations Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    U'Ren, Paula Kabance; Baker, Meryl S.

    An effort was undertaken to develop a job-oriented basic skills curriculum appropriate for the acoustic sensor operations area, which includes members of four ratings: ocean systems technician, aviation antisubmarine warfare operator, sonar technician (surface), and sonar technician (submarine). Analysis of the job duties of the four ratings…

  19. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  20. WISDOM: wheelchair inertial sensors for displacement and orientation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansiot, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lo, B.; Yang, G. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Improved wheelchair design in recent years has significantly increased the mobility of people with disabilities, which has also enhanced the competitive advantage of wheelchair sports. For the latter, detailed assessment of biomechanical factors influencing individual performance and team tactics requires real-time wireless sensing and data modelling. In this paper, we propose the use of a miniaturized wireless wheel-mounted inertial sensor for wheelchair motion monitoring and tracking in an indoor sport environment. Based on a combined use of 3D microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes and 2D MEMS accelerometers, the proposed system provides real-time velocity, heading, ground distance covered and motion trajectory of the wheelchair across the sports court. The proposed system offers a number of advantages compared to existing platforms in terms of size, weight and ease of installation. Beyond sport applications, it also has important applications for training and rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

  1. Novel approach to ambulatory assessment of human segmental orientation on a wearable sensor system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Tao; Shibata, Kyoko; Inoue, Yoshio; Zheng, Rencheng

    2009-12-11

    A new method using a double-sensor difference based algorithm for analyzing human segment rotational angles in two directions for segmental orientation analysis in the three-dimensional (3D) space was presented. A wearable sensor system based only on triaxial accelerometers was developed to obtain the pitch and yaw angles of thigh segment with an accelerometer approximating translational acceleration of the hip joint and two accelerometers measuring the actual accelerations on the thigh. To evaluate the method, the system was first tested on a 2 degrees of freedom mechanical arm assembled out of rigid segments and encoders. Then, to estimate the human segmental orientation, the wearable sensor system was tested on the thighs of eight volunteer subjects, who walked in a straight forward line in the work space of an optical motion analysis system at three self-selected speeds: slow, normal and fast. In the experiment, the subject was assumed to walk in a straight forward way with very little trunk sway, skin artifacts and no significant internal/external rotation of the leg. The root mean square (RMS) errors of the thigh segment orientation measurement were between 2.4 degrees and 4.9 degrees during normal gait that had a 45 degrees flexion/extension range of motion. Measurement error was observed to increase with increasing walking speed probably because of the result of increased trunk sway, axial rotation and skin artifacts. The results show that, without integration and switching between different sensors, using only one kind of sensor, the wearable sensor system is suitable for ambulatory analysis of normal gait orientation of thigh and shank in two directions of the segment-fixed local coordinate system in 3D space. It can then be applied to assess spatio-temporal gait parameters and monitoring the gait function of patients in clinical settings.

  2. Intelligent Sensor Positioning and Orientation Through Constructive Neural Network-Embedded INS/GPS Integration Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Mobile mapping systems have been widely applied for acquiring spatial information in applications such as spatial information systems and 3D city models. Nowadays the most common technologies used for positioning and orientation of a mobile mapping system include a Global Positioning System (GPS) as the major positioning sensor and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) as the major orientation sensor. In the classical approach, the limitations of the Kalman Filter (KF) method and the overall price of multi-sensor systems have limited the popularization of most land-based mobile mapping applications. Although intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes consisting of Multi-layer Feed-forward Neural Networks (MFNNs), one of the most famous Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and KF/smoothers, have been proposed in order to enhance the performance of low cost Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated systems, the automation of the MFNN applied has not proven as easy as initially expected. Therefore, this study not only addresses the problems of insufficient automation in the conventional methodology that has been applied in MFNN-KF/smoother algorithms for INS/GPS integrated systems proposed in previous studies, but also exploits and analyzes the idea of developing alternative intelligent sensor positioning and orientation schemes that integrate various sensors in more automatic ways. The proposed schemes are implemented using one of the most famous constructive neural networks—the Cascade Correlation Neural Network (CCNNs)—to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques based on KF/smoother algorithms as well as previously developed MFNN-smoother schemes. The CCNNs applied also have the advantage of a more flexible topology compared to MFNNs. Based on the experimental data utilized the preliminary results presented in this article illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes compared to smoother algorithms as well as the MFNN

  3. Bottom-up estimation of joint moments during manual lifting using orientation sensors instead of position sensors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2010-05-07

    L5/S1, hip and knee moments during manual lifting tasks are, in a laboratory environment, frequently established by bottom-up inverse dynamics, using force plates to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) and an optoelectronic system to measure segment positions and orientations. For field measurements, alternative measurement systems are being developed. One alternative is the use of small body-mounted inertial/magnetic sensors (IMSs) and instrumented force shoes to measure segment orientation and GRFs, respectively. However, because IMSs measure segment orientations only, the positions of segments relative to each other and relative to the GRFs have to be determined by linking them, assuming fixed segment lengths and zero joint translation. This will affect the estimated joint positions and joint moments. This study investigated the effect of using segment orientations only (orientation-based method) instead of using orientations and positions (reference method) on three-dimensional joint moments. To compare analysis methods (and not measurement methods), GRFs were measured with a force plate and segment positions and/or orientations were measured using optoelectronic marker clusters for both analysis methods. Eleven male subjects lifted a box from floor level using three lifting techniques: a stoop, a semi-squat and a squat technique. The difference between the two analysis methods remained small for the knee moments: <4%. For the hip and L5/S1 moments, the differences were more substantial: up to 8% for the stoop and semi-squat techniques and up to 14% for the squat technique. In conclusion, joint moments during lifting can be estimated with good accuracy at the knee joint and with reasonable accuracy at the hip and L5/S1 joints using segment orientation and GRF data only. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensor Webs with a Service-Oriented Architecture for On-demand Science Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Ungar, Stephen; Ames, Troy; Justice, Chris; Frye, Stuart; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cappelaere, Patrice; Derezinsfi, Linda; Paules, Granville; hide

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the work being managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Information System Division (ISD) under a NASA Earth Science Technology Ofice (ESTO) Advanced Information System Technology (AIST) grant to develop a modular sensor web architecture which enables discovery of sensors and workflows that can create customized science via a high-level service-oriented architecture based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) web service standards. These capabilities serve as a prototype to a user-centric architecture for Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This work builds and extends previous sensor web efforts conducted at NASA/GSFC using the Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite and other low-earth orbiting satellites.

  5. Comparative study of infrared wavefront sensing solutions for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plantet, C.; Fusco, T.; Guerineau, N.; Derelle, S.; Robert, C.

    2016-07-01

    The development of new low-noise infrared detectors, such as RAPID (CEA LETI/Sofradir) or SAPHIRA (Selex), has given the possibility to consider infrared wavefront sensing at low ux. We propose here a comparative study of near infrared (J and H bands) wavefront sensing concepts for mid and high orders estimation on a 8m- class telescope, relying on three existing wavefront sensors: the Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer. We consider several conceptual designs using the RAPID camera, making a trade-off between background flux, optical thickness and compatibility with a compact cryostat integration. We then study their sensitivity to noise in order to compare them in different practical scenarios. The pyramid provides the best performance, with a gain up to 0.5 magnitude, and has an advantageous setup.

  6. Modeling on Bessel beam guide star beacon for wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan; Luo, Ruiyao; Yang, Yi; Wu, Wuming; Du, Shaojun; Ning, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Bessel beam has the advantages of reducing scattering artefacts and increasing the quality of the image and penetration. This paper proposed to generate a guide star by Bessel beam with vortex phase, and to use the beacon with special spot structure to measure the atmosphere turbulence aberrations. With the matching algorithm of measured characteristic spot in each subaperture, the detection accuracy of Hartmann wavefront sensor can be improved. Based on wave optics theory, the modeling of Bessel beam guide star and wavefront sensing system was built. The laser guide star beacon generated by Bessel beam with vortex phase and beacon echo wave measured by Hartmann sensor were both simulated. Compared with the results measured by echo wave from Gauss beam generated guide star beacon, this novel method can reduce the error of wavefront detection and increase the detection accuracy of Hartmann sensor.

  7. Advanced Techniques for Fourier Transform Wavefront Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2002-08-05

    The performance of Fourier transform (FT) reconstructors in large adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann sensors and a deformable mirror is analyzed. FT methods, which are derived for point-based geometries, are adapted for use on the continuous systems. Analysis and simulation show how to compensate for effects such as misalignment of the deformable mirror and wavefront sensor gain. Further filtering methods to reduce noise and improve performance are presented. All these modifications can be implemented at the filtering stage, preserving the speed of FT reconstruction. Simulation of a large system shows how compensated FT methods can have equivalent or better performance to slower vector-matrix-multiply reconstructions.

  8. The Wavefront Control System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Van Atta, L; Perez, M; Zacharias, R; Rivera, W

    2001-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires that pulses from each of the 192 laser beams be positioned on target with an accuracy of 50 {micro}m rms. Beam quality must be sufficient to focus a total of 1.8 MJ of 0.351-{micro}m light into a 600-{micro}m-diameter volume. An optimally flat beam wavefront can achieve this pointing and focusing accuracy. The control system corrects wavefront aberrations by performing closed-loop compensation during laser alignment to correct for gas density variations. Static compensation of flashlamp-induced thermal distortion is established just prior to the laser shot. The control system compensates each laser beam at 10 Hz by measuring the wavefront with a 77-lenslet Hartmann sensor and applying corrections with a 39-actuator deformable mirror. The distributed architecture utilizes SPARC AXi computers running Solaris to perform real-time image processing of sensor data and PowerPC-based computers running VxWorks to compute mirror commands. A single pair of SPARC and PowerPC processors accomplishes wavefront control for a group of eight beams. The software design uses proven adaptive optic control algorithms that are implemented in a multi-tasking environment to economically control the beam wavefronts in parallel. Prototype tests have achieved a closed-loop residual error of 0.03 waves rms. aberrations, the spot size requirement and goal could not be met without a wavefront control system.

  9. Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Boruah, Bosanta R. E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in

    2014-10-15

    Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.

  10. Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2014-10-01

    Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.

  11. Highly sensitive integrated pressure sensor with horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Haniff, Muhammad Aniq Shazni; Lee, Hing Wah; Bien, Daniel Chia Sheng; Teh, Aun Shih; Azid, Ishak Abdul

    2014-01-28

    This paper presents a functionalized, horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network as a sensing element to enhance the sensitivity of a pressure sensor. The synthesis of horizontally oriented nanotubes from the AuFe catalyst and their deposition onto a mechanically flexible substrate via transfer printing are studied. Nanotube formation on thermally oxidized Si (100) substrates via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition controls the nanotube coverage and orientation on the flexible substrate. These nanotubes can be simply transferred to the flexible substrate without changing their physical structure. When tested under a pressure range of 0 to 50 kPa, the performance of the fabricated pressure sensor reaches as high as approximately 1.68%/kPa, which indicates high sensitivity to a small change of pressure. Such sensitivity may be induced by the slight contact in isolated nanotubes. This nanotube formation, in turn, enhances the modification of the contact and tunneling distance of the nanotubes upon the deformation of the network. Therefore, the horizontally oriented carbon nanotube network has great potential as a sensing element for future transparent sensors.

  12. Orientation and depth estimation for femoral components using image sensor, magnetometer and inertial sensors in THR surgeries.

    PubMed

    Jiyang Gao; Shaojie Su; Hong Chen; Zhihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Malposition of the acetabular and femoral component has long been recognized as an important cause of dislocation after total hip replacement (THR) surgeries. In order to help surgeons improve the positioning accuracy of the components, a visual-aided system for THR surgeries that could estimate orientation and depth of femoral component is proposed. The sensors are fixed inside the femoral prosthesis trial and checkerboard patterns are printed on the internal surface of the acetabular prosthesis trial. An extended Kalman filter is designed to fuse the data from inertial sensors and the magnetometer orientation estimation. A novel image processing algorithm for depth estimation is developed. The algorithms have been evaluated under the simulation with rotation quaternion and translation vector and the experimental results shows that the root mean square error (RMSE) of the orientation estimation is less then 0.05 degree and the RMSE for depth estimation is 1mm. Finally, the femoral head is displayed in 3D graphics in real time to help surgeons with the component positioning.

  13. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-08-21

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation.

  14. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  15. Application-oriented programming model for sensor networks embedded in the human body.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Talles M G de A; Sene, Iwens G; da Rocha, Adson F; Nascimento, Fransisco A de O; Carvalho, Hervaldo S; Camapum, Juliana F

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a new programming model for sensor networks embedded in the human body which is based on the concept of multi-programming application-oriented software. This model was conceived with a top-down approach of four layers and its main goal is to allow the healthcare professionals to program and to reconfigure the network locally or by the Internet. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, a benchmarking was executed in order to allow the assessment of the mean time spent in the programming of a multi-functional sensor node used for the measurement and transmission of the electrocardiogram.

  16. Binary hologram based high speed zonal wavefront sensing with reduced estimation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    Reduced wavefront estimation time in a Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensor plays an important role in any high speed application of the sensor. Exploiting computer generated holography technique, one can generate an array of binary diffraction grating pattern to produce an array of focal spots, similar to that in a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS). The transmittance functions of each of such a grating pattern can be configured to produce a one dimensional (1D) array of focal spots of a desired order. In this paper, we show that the formation of 1D array, further facilitates in the process of single indexed wavefront estimation in its true sense that considerably reduces the wavefront estimation time.

  17. SAPHIRA detector for infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Alvarez, Domingo; Ives, Derek; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Jörg; Weller, Harald J.

    2014-08-01

    The only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier of near infrared sensors used for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. In 2007 ESO started a program at Selex to develop near infrared electron avalanche photodiode arrays (eAPD) for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking. In a first step the cutoff wavelength was reduced from 4.5 micron to 2.5 micron in order to verify that the dark current scales with the bandgap and can be reduced to less than one electron/ms, the value required for wavefront sensing. The growth technology was liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) with annular diodes based on the loophole interconnect technology. The arrays required deep cooling to 40K to achieve acceptable cosmetic performance at high APD gain. The second step was to develop a multiplexer tailored to the specific application of the GRAVITY instrument wavefront sensors and the fringe tracker. The pixel format is 320x256 pixels. The array has 32 parallel video outputs which are arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is available also for small subwindows. Nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling are possible. This reduces the readout noise at high APD gain well below the subelectron level at frame rates of 1 KHz. The third step was the change of the growth technology from liquid phase epitaxy to metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). This growth technology allows the band structure and doping to be controlled on a 0.1μm scale and provides more flexibility for the design of diode structures. The bandgap can be varied for different layers of Hg(1-x)CdxTe. It is possible to make heterojunctions and apply solid state engineering techniques. The change to MOVPE resulted in a dramatic improvement in the cosmetic quality with 99.97 % operable pixels at an operating temperature of 85K. Currently this sensor is deployed in the 4 wavefront sensors and in the

  18. Orientation-Dependent Displacement Sensor Using an Inner Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia

    2016-09-11

    An orientation-dependent displacement sensor based on grating inscription over a fiber core and inner cladding has been demonstrated. The device comprises a short piece of multi-cladding fiber sandwiched between two standard single-mode fibers (SMFs). The grating structure is fabricated by a femtosecond laser side-illumination technique. Two well-defined resonances are achieved by the downstream both core and cladding fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The cladding resonance presents fiber bending dependence, together with a strong orientation dependence because of asymmetrical distribution of the "cladding" FBG along the fiber cross-section.

  19. Orientation-Dependent Displacement Sensor Using an Inner Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    An orientation-dependent displacement sensor based on grating inscription over a fiber core and inner cladding has been demonstrated. The device comprises a short piece of multi-cladding fiber sandwiched between two standard single-mode fibers (SMFs). The grating structure is fabricated by a femtosecond laser side-illumination technique. Two well-defined resonances are achieved by the downstream both core and cladding fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The cladding resonance presents fiber bending dependence, together with a strong orientation dependence because of asymmetrical distribution of the “cladding” FBG along the fiber cross-section. PMID:27626427

  20. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  1. Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.

  2. inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation using an at rest sensor for tracking parts of a human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive sate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  3. The optics of wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Thibos, Larry N

    2004-06-01

    This article reviews the fundamental principles by which wavefront aberrometers measure ocular aberrations. Three different ways of interpreting aberration measurements are described in terms of wavefront phase, slope, and curvature. Although curvature is the more familiar concept from geometrical optics, the wave optics concept of wavefront phase is more useful for understanding the nature of aberrated retinal images and for prescribing treatments to correct high-order aberrations.

  4. Framework to trade optimality for local processing in large-scale wavefront reconstruction problems.

    PubMed

    Haber, Aleksandar; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-11-15

    We show that the minimum variance wavefront estimation problems permit localized approximate solutions, in the sense that the wavefront value at a point (excluding unobservable modes, such as the piston mode) can be approximated by a linear combination of the wavefront slope measurements in the point's neighborhood. This enables us to efficiently compute a wavefront estimate by performing a single sparse matrix-vector multiplication. Moreover, our results open the possibility for the development of wavefront estimators that can be easily implemented in a decentralized/distributed manner, and in which the estimate optimality can be easily traded for computational efficiency. We numerically validate our approach on Hudgin wavefront sensor geometries, and the results can be easily generalized to Fried geometries.

  5. Radius and Orientation Measurement for Cylindrical Objects by a Light Section Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youdong; Liu, Chongxu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient method based on a light section sensor is presented for measuring cylindrical objects’ radii and orientations in a robotic application. By this method, the cylindrical objects can be measured under some special conditions, such as when the cylindrical objects are welded with others, or in the presence of interferences. Firstly, the measurement data are roughly identified and accurately screened to effectively recognize ellipses. Secondly, the data are smoothed and homogenized to eliminate the effect of laser line loss or jump and reduce the influence of the inhomogeneity of measurement data on the ellipse fitting to a minimum. Finally, the ellipse fitting is carried out to obtain the radii and orientations of the cylindrical objects. Measuring experiments and results demonstrate the effective of the proposed radius and orientation measurement method for cylindrical object. PMID:27886090

  6. Frequency analysis of wavefront curvature sensing: optimum propagation distance and multi-z wavefront curvature sensing.

    PubMed

    Fengjie, Xi; Zongfu, Jiang; Xiaojun, Xu; Jing, Hou; Zejin, Liu

    2009-03-02

    In this paper we determine the optimum propagation distance between measurement planes and the plane of the lens in a wavefront curvature sensor with the diffraction optics approach. From the diffraction viewpoint, the measured wavefront aberration can be decomposed into Fourier harmonics at various frequencies. The curvature signal produced by a single harmonic is analyzed with the wave propagation transfer function approach, which is the frequency analysis of wavefront curvature sensing. The intensity of the curvature signal is a sine function of the product of the propagation distance and the squared frequency. To maximize the curvature signal, the optimum propagation distance is proposed as one quarter of the Talbot length at the critical frequency (average power point at which the power spectrum density is the average power spectrum density). Following the determination of the propagation distance, the intensity of the curvature signal varies sinusoidally with the squared frequencies, vanishing at some higher frequency bands just like a comb filter. To cover these insensitive bands, wavefront curvature sensing with dual propagation distances or with multi-propagation distances is proposed.

  7. A test bench for ARGOS: integration of sub-systems and validation of the wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    ARGOS, the wide eld Laser Guide Stars adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope, is now entering its installation phase. In the meanwhile, we have started a test bench in order to integrate various Argos sub-systems and demonstrate its wavefront measurements. To this objective, we rst validate three key components of the Argos wavefront sensor which we then integrate together. The test bench therefore comprises the Argos wavefront camera system - including a large frame, fast framerate, high quantum eciency and low readout noise pnCCD -, the slope computer, and a optical gating unit. While we present here the demonstration of those three key components, it is also a step to their system level integration that enables us to validate the wavefront measurements in term of noises, timing and computation. In the near future, those system will be integrated to the wavefront sensor system of ARGOS.

  8. Accurate estimation of human body orientation from RGB-D sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Zhang, Yongdong; Tang, Sheng; Tang, Jinhui; Hong, Richang; Li, Jintao

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of human body orientation can significantly enhance the analysis of human behavior, which is a fundamental task in the field of computer vision. However, existing orientation estimation methods cannot handle the various body poses and appearances. In this paper, we propose an innovative RGB-D-based orientation estimation method to address these challenges. By utilizing the RGB-D information, which can be real time acquired by RGB-D sensors, our method is robust to cluttered environment, illumination change and partial occlusions. Specifically, efficient static and motion cue extraction methods are proposed based on the RGB-D superpixels to reduce the noise of depth data. Since it is hard to discriminate all the 360 (°) orientation using static cues or motion cues independently, we propose to utilize a dynamic Bayesian network system (DBNS) to effectively employ the complementary nature of both static and motion cues. In order to verify our proposed method, we build a RGB-D-based human body orientation dataset that covers a wide diversity of poses and appearances. Our intensive experimental evaluations on this dataset demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Direct-Solve Image-Based Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    A method of wavefront sensing (more precisely characterized as a method of determining the deviation of a wavefront from a nominal figure) has been invented as an improved means of assessing the performance of an optical system as affected by such imperfections as misalignments, design errors, and fabrication errors. The method is implemented by software running on a single-processor computer that is connected, via a suitable interface, to the image sensor (typically, a charge-coupled device) in the system under test. The software collects a digitized single image from the image sensor. The image is displayed on a computer monitor. The software directly solves for the wavefront in a time interval of a fraction of a second. A picture of the wavefront is displayed. The solution process involves, among other things, fast Fourier transforms. It has been reported to the effect that some measure of the wavefront is decomposed into modes of the optical system under test, but it has not been reported whether this decomposition is postprocessing of the solution or part of the solution process.

  10. Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Dainty, Christopher; Lara, David

    2008-01-01

    Maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation in wavefront sensing requires careful attention to all noise sources and all factors that influence the sensor data. We present detailed probability density functions for the output of the image detector in a wavefront sensor, conditional not only on wavefront parameters but also on various nuisance parameters. Practical ways of dealing with nuisance parameters are described, and final expressions for likelihoods and Fisher information matrices are derived. The theory is illustrated by discussing Shack–Hartmann sensors, and computational requirements are discussed. Simulation results show that ML estimation can significantly increase the dynamic range of a Shack–Hartmann sensor with four detectors and that it can reduce the residual wavefront error when compared with traditional methods. PMID:17206255

  11. Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Dainty, Christopher; Lara, David

    2007-02-01

    Maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation in wavefront sensing requires careful attention to all noise sources and all factors that influence the sensor data. We present detailed probability density functions for the output of the image detector in a wavefront sensor, conditional not only on wavefront parameters but also on various nuisance parameters. Practical ways of dealing with nuisance parameters are described, and final expressions for likelihoods and Fisher information matrices are derived. The theory is illustrated by discussing Shack-Hartmann sensors, and computational requirements are discussed. Simulation results show that ML estimation can significantly increase the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann sensor with four detectors and that it can reduce the residual wavefront error when compared with traditional methods.

  12. Wavefront Curvature Sensing from Image Projections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    the correlation yields: E n F̂(K1)F̂ (K2) o = E 8 >><>>: Z P̂(R1) exp fjK1R1g dR1 Z P̂(R2) exp fjK2R2g dR2 9>>=>>; : (7.3) 7-2 Applying R...7-10 7.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12 8 . Simulating the Z24 Wavefront Sensor... 8 -1 8.1 Constructing the Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 -1 Source and Atmospheric Propagation

  13. Wavefront error simulator for evaluating optical testing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A wavefront error simulator has been designed and fabricated to evaluate experimentally test instrumentation for the Large Space Telescope (LST) program. The principal operating part of the simulator is an aberration generator that introduces low-order aberrations of several waves magnitude with an incremented adjustment capability of lambda/100. Each aberration type can be introduced independently with any desired spatial orientation.

  14. Wavefront phase retrieval with multi-aperture Zernike filter for atmospheric sensing and adaptive optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordbar, Behzad; Farwell, Nathan H.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2016-09-01

    A novel scintillation resistant wavefront sensor based on a densely packed array of classical Zernike filters, referred to as the multi-aperture Zernike wavefront sensor (MAZ-WFS), is introduced and analyzed through numerical simulations. Wavefront phase reconstruction in the MAZ-WFS is performed using iterative algorithms that are optimized for phase aberration sensing in severe atmospheric turbulence conditions. The results demonstrate the potential of the MAZ-WFS for high-resolution retrieval of turbulence-induced phase aberrations in strong scintillation conditions for atmospheric sensing and adaptive optics applications.

  15. Wavefront sensing for deformable space-based optics exploiting natural and synthetic guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, Brian K.; Friedman, Edward J.

    2002-08-01

    Natural and synthetic guide stars can serve as beacons for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors in space-based applications. In this paper, the authors determine the key equations that govern the optimization of the wavefront sensor employed on a space- based imaging system. There are two major products of this analysis. First, the number of subapertures can be optimized. Second, the number of modes used in the wavefront recovery can be optimized. Finally, the process for optimizing these values is explained. For the examples shown, the optimal number of retrieved modes and the optimal number of subapertures are determined.

  16. Layer-oriented simulation tool.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Tordi, Massimiliano; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Vernet, Elise; Marchetti, Enrico

    2004-08-01

    The Layer-Oriented Simulation Tool (LOST) is a numerical simulation code developed for analysis of the performance of multiconjugate adaptive optics modules following a layer-oriented approach. The LOST code computes the atmospheric layers in terms of phase screens and then propagates the phase delays introduced in the natural guide stars' wave fronts by using geometrical optics approximations. These wave fronts are combined in an optical or numerical way, including the effects of wave-front sensors on measurements in terms of phase noise. The LOST code is described, and two applications to layer-oriented modules are briefly presented. We have focus on the Multiconjugate adaptive optics demonstrator to be mounted upon the Very Large Telescope and on the Near-IR-Visible Adaptive Interferometer for Astronomy (NIRVANA) interferometric system to be installed on the combined focus of the Large Binocular Telescope.

  17. Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, James Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.

  18. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guomei; Sun, Hao

    2016-12-16

    We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor's reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured.

  19. Adaptive optics confocal microscopy using direct wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiaodong; Fernandez, Bautista; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Garcia, Denise; Zuo, Yi; Chen, Diana C; Kubby, Joel

    2011-04-01

    Optical aberrations due to the inhomogeneous refractive index of tissue degrade the resolution and brightness of images in deep-tissue imaging. We introduce a confocal fluorescence microscope with adaptive optics, which can correct aberrations based on direct wavefront measurements using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a fluorescent bead used as a point source reference beacon. The results show a 4.3× improvement in the Strehl ratio and a 240% improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of up to 100 μm.

  20. Correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wei, Yin; Chen, Xinhua; Tang, Minxue

    2014-11-01

    Membrane mirror with flexible polymer film substrate is a new-concept ultra lightweight mirror for space applications. Compared with traditional mirrors, membrane mirror has the advantages of lightweight, folding and deployable, low cost and etc. Due to the surface shape of flexible membrane mirror is easy to deviate from the design surface shape, it will bring wavefront aberration to the optical system. In order to solve this problem, a method of membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) will be studied in this paper. The wavefront aberration correction principle of LCSLM is described and the phase modulation property of a LCSLM is measured and analyzed firstly. Then the membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction system is designed and established according to the optical properties of a membrane mirror. The LCSLM and a Hartmann-Shack sensor are used as a wavefront corrector and a wavefront detector, respectively. The detected wavefront aberration is calculated and converted into voltage value on LCSLM for the mirror wavefront aberration correction by programming in Matlab. When in experiment, the wavefront aberration of a glass plane mirror with a diameter of 70 mm is measured and corrected for verifying the feasibility of the experiment system and the correctness of the program. The PV value and RMS value of distorted wavefront are reduced and near diffraction limited optical performance is achieved. On this basis, the wavefront aberration of the aperture center Φ25 mm in a membrane mirror with a diameter of 200 mm is corrected and the errors are analyzed. It provides a means of correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror.

  1. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Goy, M.; Beckert, E.; Tünnermann, A.

    2014-03-01

    The speed of real-time adaptive optical systems is primarily restricted by the data processing hardware and computational aspects. Furthermore, the application of mirror layouts with increasing numbers of actuators reduces the bandwidth (speed) of the system and, thus, the number of applicable control algorithms. This burden turns out a key-impediment for deformable mirrors with continuous mirror surface and highly coupled actuator influence functions. In this regard, specialized hardware is necessary for high performance real-time control applications. Our approach to overcome this challenge is an adaptive optics system based on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) with a CameraLink interface. The data processing is based on a high performance Intel Core i7 Quadcore hard real-time Linux system. Employing a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA, an own developed PCie card is outlined in order to accelerate the analysis of a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor. A recently developed real-time capable spot detection algorithm evaluates the wavefront. The main features of the presented system are the reduction of latency and the acceleration of computation For example, matrix multiplications which in general are of complexity O(n3 are accelerated by using the DSP48 slices of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as well as a novel hardware implementation of the SHWFS algorithm. Further benefits are the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) which intensively use the parallelization capability of the processor for further reducing the latency and increasing the bandwidth of the closed-loop. Due to this approach, up to 64 actuators of a deformable mirror can be handled and controlled without noticeable restriction from computational burdens.

  2. JWST Wavefront Control Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Shahram Ron; Aronstein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    A Matlab-based toolbox has been developed for the wavefront control and optimization of segmented optical surfaces to correct for possible misalignments of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) using influence functions. The toolbox employs both iterative and non-iterative methods to converge to an optimal solution by minimizing the cost function. The toolbox could be used in either of constrained and unconstrained optimizations. The control process involves 1 to 7 degrees-of-freedom perturbations per segment of primary mirror in addition to the 5 degrees of freedom of secondary mirror. The toolbox consists of a series of Matlab/Simulink functions and modules, developed based on a "wrapper" approach, that handles the interface and data flow between existing commercial optical modeling software packages such as Zemax and Code V. The limitations of the algorithm are dictated by the constraints of the moving parts in the mirrors.

  3. Fast minimum variance wavefront reconstruction for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, Eric; Tallon, Michel

    2010-05-01

    We present what we believe to be a new algorithm, FRactal Iterative Method (FRiM), aiming at the reconstruction of the optical wavefront from measurements provided by a wavefront sensor. As our application is adaptive optics on extremely large telescopes, our algorithm was designed with speed and best quality in mind. The latter is achieved thanks to a regularization that enforces prior statistics. To solve the regularized problem, we use the conjugate gradient method, which takes advantage of the sparsity of the wavefront sensor model matrix and avoids the storage and inversion of a huge matrix. The prior covariance matrix is, however, non-sparse, and we derive a fractal approximation to the Karhunen-Loève basis thanks to which the regularization by Kolmogorov statistics can be computed in O(N) operations, with N being the number of phase samples to estimate. Finally, we propose an effective preconditioning that also scales as O(N) and yields the solution in five to ten conjugate gradient iterations for any N. The resulting algorithm is therefore O(N). As an example, for a 128 x 128 Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the FRiM appears to be more than 100 times faster than the classical vector-matrix multiplication method.

  4. Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, Emilio J.; Bueno, Juan M.; Artal, Pablo

    2010-03-01

    A multiphoton microscope incorporating a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor to control the ultrafast laser beam's wavefront aberrations has been developed. This instrument allowed us to investigate the impact of the laser beam aberrations on two-photon autofluorescence imaging of human retinal tissues. We demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy images are improved when laser beam aberrations are minimized by realigning the laser system cavity while wavefront controlling. Nonlinear signals from several human retinal anatomical features have been detected for the first time, without the need of fixation or staining procedures. Beyond the improved image quality, this approach reduces the required excitation power levels, minimizing the side effects of phototoxicity within the imaged sample. In particular, this may be important to study the physiology and function of the healthy and diseased retina.

  5. Active Control of Laser Wavefronts in Atom Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimeche, A.; Langlois, M.; Merlet, S.; Pereira Dos Santos, F.

    2017-03-01

    Wavefront aberrations are identified as a major limitation in quantum sensors. They are today the main contribution in the uncertainty budget of the best cold-atom interferometers based on two-photon laser beam splitters and constitute an important limit for their long-term stability, impeding these instruments from reaching their full potential. Moreover, they will also remain a major obstacle in future experiments based on large-momentum beam splitters. In this article, we tackle this issue by using a deformable mirror to control actively the laser wavefronts in atom interferometry. In particular, we demonstrate in an experimental proof of principle the efficient correction of wavefront aberrations in an atomic gravimeter.

  6. Performance and Challenges of Service-Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alshinina, Remah; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-03-08

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become essential components for a variety of environmental, surveillance, military, traffic control, and healthcare applications. These applications face critical challenges such as communication, security, power consumption, data aggregation, heterogeneities of sensor hardware, and Quality of Service (QoS) issues. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a software architecture that can be integrated with WSN applications to address those challenges. The SOA middleware bridges the gap between the high-level requirements of different applications and the hardware constraints of WSNs. This survey explores state-of-the-art approaches based on SOA and Service-Oriented Middleware (SOM) architecture that provide solutions for WSN challenges. The categories of this paper are based on approaches of SOA with and without middleware for WSNs. Additionally, features of SOA and middleware architectures for WSNs are compared to achieve more robust and efficient network performance. Design issues of SOA middleware for WSNs and its characteristics are also highlighted. The paper concludes with future research directions in SOM architecture to meet all requirements of emerging application of WSNs.

  7. Service-Oriented Node Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Markov Random Field Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongju; Su, Zhihuang; Lloret, Jaime; Chen, Guolong

    2014-01-01

    Future wireless sensor networks are expected to provide various sensing services and energy efficiency is one of the most important criterions. The node scheduling strategy aims to increase network lifetime by selecting a set of sensor nodes to provide the required sensing services in a periodic manner. In this paper, we are concerned with the service-oriented node scheduling problem to provide multiple sensing services while maximizing the network lifetime. We firstly introduce how to model the data correlation for different services by using Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Secondly, we formulate the service-oriented node scheduling issue into three different problems, namely, the multi-service data denoising problem which aims at minimizing the noise level of sensed data, the representative node selection problem concerning with selecting a number of active nodes while determining the services they provide, and the multi-service node scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the network lifetime. Thirdly, we propose a Multi-service Data Denoising (MDD) algorithm, a novel multi-service Representative node Selection and service Determination (RSD) algorithm, and a novel MRF-based Multi-service Node Scheduling (MMNS) scheme to solve the above three problems respectively. Finally, extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme efficiently extends the network lifetime. PMID:25384005

  8. Structure and Orientation of a Voltage-Sensor Toxin in Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ho; Jung, Hoi Jong; Milescu, Mirela; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Seungkyu; Lee, Ju Yeon; Eu, Young-Jae; Kim, Ha Hyung; Swartz, Kenton J.; Kim, Jae Il

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Amphipathic protein toxins from tarantula venom inhibit voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels by binding to a critical helix-turn-helix motif termed the voltage sensor paddle. Although these toxins partition into membranes to bind the paddle motif, their structure and orientation within the membrane are unknown. We investigated the interaction of a tarantula toxin named SGTx with membranes using both fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Depth-dependent fluorescence-quenching experiments with brominated lipids suggest that Trp30 in SGTx is positioned ∼9 Å from the center of the bilayer. NMR spectra reveal that the inhibitor cystine knot structure of the toxin does not radically change upon membrane partitioning. Transferred cross-saturation NMR experiments indicate that the toxin's hydrophobic protrusion contacts the hydrophobic core of the membrane, whereas most surrounding polar residues remain at interfacial regions of the bilayer. The inferred orientation of the toxin reveals a twofold symmetry in the arrangement of basic and hydrophobic residues, a feature that is conserved among tarantula toxins. These results have important implications for regions of the toxin involved in recognizing membranes and voltage-sensor paddles, and for the mechanisms by which tarantula toxins alter the activity of different types of ion channels. PMID:20643084

  9. Spatial asymmetry in tactile sensor skin deformation aids perception of edge orientation during haptic exploration.

    PubMed

    Ponce Wong, Ruben D; Hellman, Randall B; Santos, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb amputees rely primarily on visual feedback when using their prostheses to interact with others or objects in their environment. A constant reliance upon visual feedback can be mentally exhausting and does not suffice for many activities when line-of-sight is unavailable. Upper-limb amputees could greatly benefit from the ability to perceive edges, one of the most salient features of 3D shape, through touch alone. We present an approach for estimating edge orientation with respect to an artificial fingertip through haptic exploration using a multimodal tactile sensor on a robot hand. Key parameters from the tactile signals for each of four exploratory procedures were used as inputs to a support vector regression model. Edge orientation angles ranging from -90 to 90 degrees were estimated with an 85-input model having an R (2) of 0.99 and RMS error of 5.08 degrees. Electrode impedance signals provided the most useful inputs by encoding spatially asymmetric skin deformation across the entire fingertip. Interestingly, sensor regions that were not in direct contact with the stimulus provided particularly useful information. Methods described here could pave the way for semi-autonomous capabilities in prosthetic or robotic hands during haptic exploration, especially when visual feedback is unavailable.

  10. Performance and Challenges of Service-Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Alshinina, Remah; Elleithy, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become essential components for a variety of environmental, surveillance, military, traffic control, and healthcare applications. These applications face critical challenges such as communication, security, power consumption, data aggregation, heterogeneities of sensor hardware, and Quality of Service (QoS) issues. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a software architecture that can be integrated with WSN applications to address those challenges. The SOA middleware bridges the gap between the high-level requirements of different applications and the hardware constraints of WSNs. This survey explores state-of-the-art approaches based on SOA and Service-Oriented Middleware (SOM) architecture that provide solutions for WSN challenges. The categories of this paper are based on approaches of SOA with and without middleware for WSNs. Additionally, features of SOA and middleware architectures for WSNs are compared to achieve more robust and efficient network performance. Design issues of SOA middleware for WSNs and its characteristics are also highlighted. The paper concludes with future research directions in SOM architecture to meet all requirements of emerging application of WSNs. PMID:28282896

  11. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN’s orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  12. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.65[PbTiO3]0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  13. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-28

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.65}[PbTiO{sub 3}]{sub 0.35} (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  14. Wavefront measurement of plastic lenses for mobile-phone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Chung-Yen; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2016-08-01

    In camera lenses for mobile-phone applications, all lens elements have been designed with aspheric surfaces because of the requirements in minimal total track length of the lenses. Due to the diffraction-limited optics design with precision assembly procedures, element inspection and lens performance measurement have become cumbersome in the production of mobile-phone cameras. Recently, wavefront measurements based on Shack-Hartmann sensors have been successfully implemented on injection-molded plastic lens with aspheric surfaces. However, the applications of wavefront measurement on small-sized plastic lenses have yet to be studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, both an in-house-built and a commercial wavefront measurement system configured on two optics structures have been investigated with measurement of wavefront aberrations on two lens elements from a mobile-phone camera. First, the wet-cell method has been employed for verifications of aberrations due to residual birefringence in an injection-molded lens. Then, two lens elements of a mobile-phone camera with large positive and negative power have been measured with aberrations expressed in Zernike polynomial to illustrate the effectiveness in wavefront measurement for troubleshooting defects in optical performance.

  15. Wavefront reconstruction with pupil fragmentation: study of a simple case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefond, Sylvain; Tallon, Michel; Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2016-07-01

    The use of smaller subapertures on some recent adaptive optics (AO) systems seems to yield difficulties in wavefront reconstruction, known as spider effect or pupil fragmentation: the size of the subapertures is small enough so that some of them are masked by the telescope spider, dividing the pupil into disconnected domains. In particular, this problem will arise on the E-ELT.We have studied pure wavefront reconstruction on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, for a simplified AO system similar to VLT/SPHERE in size, with and without pupil fragmentation, and compared the performance of various wavefront reconstructors for different signal-to-noise ratios, using priors (minimum variance) or not (least-squares), and with different assumptions for the damaged wavefront measurements. The missing measurements have been either discarded (corresponding subapertures are not active), replaced by zeros, or interpolated by preserving the loop continuity property of the gradients (curl operator). Priors have been introduced using the FrIM (Fractal Iterative Method) algorithm. In our perfect conditions, we show that no method allows the full recovery from the pupil fragmentation, that minimum variance always gives the best performance, especially the one without any interpolation. On the opposite, the performance with least-squares somewhat improves when correcting for the missing measurements. In this latter case, preserving the curl property of the gradient is preferable only for very low measurement noise.

  16. Wavefront control in space with MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri L.; Marinan, Anne D.; Novak, Benjamin; Kerr, Caitlin; Webber, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1 × 10-10 to image an Earth-like planet around a Sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are a key element of a wavefront control system, as they correct for imperfections, thermal distortions, and diffraction that would otherwise corrupt the wavefront and ruin the contrast. The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror technology demonstration mission is to test the ability of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) deformable mirror to perform wavefront control on-orbit on a nanosatellite platform. In this paper, we consider two approaches for a MEMS deformable mirror technology demonstration payload that will fit within the mass, power, and volume constraints of a CubeSat: 1) a Michelson interferometer and 2) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We clarify the constraints on the payload based on the resources required for supporting CubeSat subsystems drawn from subsystems that we have developed for a different CubeSat flight project. We discuss results from payload lab prototypes and their utility in defining mission requirements.

  17. Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guomei; Sun, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor’s reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured. PMID:27999282

  18. Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons.

    PubMed

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2010-08-02

    We present a new method to directly measure and correct the aberrations introduced when imaging through thick biological tissue. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to directly measure the wavefront error induced by a Drosophila embryo. The wavefront measurements are taken by seeding the embryo with fluorescent microspheres used as "artificial guide-stars." The wavefront error is corrected in ten millisecond steps by applying the inverse to the wavefront error on a micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirror in the image path of the microscope. The results show that this new approach is capable of improving the Strehl ratio by 2 times on average and as high as 10 times when imaging through 100 microm of tissue. The results also show that the isoplanatic half-width is approximately 19 microm resulting in a corrected field of view 38 microm in diameter around the guide-star.

  19. Modal wavefront reconstruction over general shaped aperture by numerical orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingfei; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qun

    2015-03-01

    In practical optical measurements, the wavefront data are recorded by pixelated imaging sensors. The closed-form analytical base polynomial will lose its orthogonality in the discrete wavefront database. For a wavefront with an irregularly shaped aperture, the corresponding analytical base polynomials are laboriously derived. The use of numerical orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront with a general shaped aperture over the discrete data points is presented. Numerical polynomials are orthogonal over the discrete data points regardless of the boundary shape of the aperture. The performance of numerical orthogonal polynomials is confirmed by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results demonstrate the adaptability, validity, and accuracy of numerical orthogonal polynomials for estimating the wavefront over a general shaped aperture from regular boundary to an irregular boundary.

  20. Influence of wave-front sampling in adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Pircher, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of sampling densities of the wave-front has been used in retinal adaptive optics (AO) instruments, compared to the number of corrector elements. We developed a model in order to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of wave-front sampling points and AO correction performance. Based on available data from aberration measurements in the human eye, 1000 wave-fronts were generated for the simulations. The AO correction performance in the presence of these representative aberrations was simulated for different deformable mirror and Shack Hartmann wave-front sensor combinations. Predictions of the model were experimentally tested through in vivo measurements in 10 eyes including retinal imaging with an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope. According to our study, a ratio between wavefront sampling points and actuator elements of 2 is sufficient to achieve high resolution in vivo images of photoreceptors.

  1. Influence of wave-front sampling in adaptive optics retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of sampling densities of the wave-front has been used in retinal adaptive optics (AO) instruments, compared to the number of corrector elements. We developed a model in order to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of wave-front sampling points and AO correction performance. Based on available data from aberration measurements in the human eye, 1000 wave-fronts were generated for the simulations. The AO correction performance in the presence of these representative aberrations was simulated for different deformable mirror and Shack Hartmann wave-front sensor combinations. Predictions of the model were experimentally tested through in vivo measurements in 10 eyes including retinal imaging with an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope. According to our study, a ratio between wavefront sampling points and actuator elements of 2 is sufficient to achieve high resolution in vivo images of photoreceptors. PMID:28271004

  2. Wavefront aberration measurements and corrections through thick tissue using fluorescent microsphere reference beacons

    PubMed Central

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to directly measure and correct the aberrations introduced when imaging through thick biological tissue. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to directly measure the wavefront error induced by a Drosophila embryo. The wavefront measurements are taken by seeding the embryo with fluorescent microspheres used as “artificial guide-stars.” The wavefront error is corrected in ten millisecond steps by applying the inverse to the wavefront error on a micro-electro-mechanical deformable mirror in the image path of the microscope. The results show that this new approach is capable of improving the Strehl ratio by 2 times on average and as high as 10 times when imaging through 100 μm of tissue. The results also show that the isoplanatic half-width is approximately 19 μm resulting in a corrected field of view 38 μm in diameter around the guide-star. PMID:20721137

  3. Initial Demonstration of Mercury Wavefront Correction System

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Z M

    2006-02-01

    High average power operation of the Mercury Laser induces dynamic aberrations to the laser beam wavefront. Analysis of recent data indicates that up to 4 waves of low order aberration (mainly focus error or power, with spatial resolution < 0.5 cm{sup -1}) could be expected at each pass. Because of the magnitude of the wavefront error, the logical position is to place a deformable mirror (DM) at the M11 position, where the DM will correct the beam between passes 1 & 2 and 3 & 4. Currently, there are only two established commercial vendors offering complete adaptive optic (AO) systems that can accommodate the Mercury beam size (45 x 75 mm) which are compatible with high damage threshold coatings. Xinetics (MA, USA) offers a complete AO system along with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The Xinetics DM is based on lead magnesium niobate (PMN) technology. A number of US aerospace firms as well as NIF use Xinetics PMN technology for their DMs. Phasics (Paris, France) offers a complete AO solution with its proprietary SID-4, a four-way shearing interferometric wavefront sensor capable of high resolution (over 100 x 100 sampling points). The Phasics system includes a bimorph deformable mirror from Night-n-Opt (Moscow, Russia) that uses lead zirconate titanate (PZT) technology. Various high power laser laboratories around the world such as LULI (France), HELEN (UK), and GEKKO (Japan) are using the PZT-based bimorph DM in their system. While both DM technologies are equivalent and have been deployed in high-energy laser systems, the PZT based bimorph DM offers two distinct features that makes it more attractive for high average power laser systems. The bimorph DM uses two layers of PZT actuators with the outer layer acting as power correctors, capable of correcting up to 20 waves of power. The Xinetics DM offers a maximum stroke of 4 waves. In addition, Night-N-Opt has also designed a water-cooled DM with a silicon based substrate (as opposed to a glass substrate

  4. Retrieval of Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated MEMS gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, A.; D'Anna, G.

    2014-12-01

    The absolute orientation of the horizontal components of ocean bottom or downhole seismic sensors are generally unknown. Almost all the methods proposed to overcome this issue are based on the post-processing of the acquired signals and so the results are strongly dependent on the nature, quantity and quality of the acquired data. We have carried out several test to evaluate the ability of retrieve sensor orientation using integrated low cost MEMS gyroscope. Our tests have shown that the tested MEMS gyroscope (the model 1044_0-3/3/3 Phidget Spatial Precision High Resolution) can be used to measure angular displacement and therefore to retrieve the absolute orientation of the horizontal components of a sensor that has been subjected to rotation in the horizontal plane. A correct processing of the acquired signals permit to retrieve, for rotation at angular rate between 0 and 180° s-1, angular displacement with error less 2°.

  5. Refractive microlens array for wave-front analysis in the medium to hard x-ray range.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Sexton, Brett

    2004-04-15

    We report an alternative approach to x-ray wave-front analysis that uses a refractive microlens array as a Shack-Hartmann sensor. The sensor was manufactured by self-assembly and electroplating techniques and is suitable for high-resolution wave-front analysis of medium to hard x rays. We demonstrate its effectiveness at an x-ray energy of 3 keV for analysis of x-ray wave-front perturbations caused by microscopic objects. The sensor has potential advantages over other methods for x-ray phase imaging and will also be useful for the characterization of x-ray beams and optics.

  6. Study of the Integration of LIDAR and Photogrammetric Datasets by in Situ Camera Calibration and Integrated Sensor Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Costa, F.; Martins, M.

    2017-05-01

    Photogrammetric and Lidar datasets should be in the same mapping or geodetic frame to be used simultaneously in an engineering project. Nowadays direct sensor orientation is a common procedure used in simultaneous photogrammetric and Lidar surveys. Although the direct sensor orientation technologies provide a high degree of automation process due to the GNSS/INS technologies, the accuracies of the results obtained from the photogrammetric and Lidar surveys are dependent on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the user conditions of the system at the moment the job is performed. This paper shows the study that was performed to verify the importance of the in situ camera calibration and Integrated Sensor Orientation without control points to increase the accuracies of the photogrammetric and LIDAR datasets integration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies of photogrammetric and Lidar datasets integration by photogrammetric procedure improved significantly when the Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) approach was performed using Interior Orientation Parameter (IOP) values estimated from the in situ camera calibration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies, estimated by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the 3D discrepancies from the Lidar check points, increased around of 37% and 198% respectively.

  7. Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain.

    PubMed

    Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

    2017-05-15

    The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.

  8. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  9. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  10. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  11. Kalman-filter-based orientation determination using inertial/magnetic sensors: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical.

  12. Real-time physiological monitoring with distributed networks of sensors and object-oriented programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, William P.; Pranger, L. Alex; Bogucki, Mary S.

    1998-05-01

    Remote monitoring of physiologic data from individual high- risk workers distributed over time and space is a considerable challenge. This is often due to an inadequate capability to accurately integrate large amounts of data into usable information in real time. In this report, we have used the vertical and horizontal organization of the 'fireground' as a framework to design a distributed network of sensors. In this system, sensor output is linked through a hierarchical object oriented programing process to accurately interpret physiological data, incorporate these data into a synchronous model and relay processed data, trends and predictions to members of the fire incident command structure. There are several unique aspects to this approach. The first includes a process to account for variability in vital parameter values for each individual's normal physiologic response by including an adaptive network in each data process. This information is used by the model in an iterative process to baseline a 'normal' physiologic response to a given stress for each individual and to detect deviations that indicate dysfunction or a significant insult. The second unique capability of the system orders the information for each user including the subject, local company officers, medical personnel and the incident commanders. Information can be retrieved and used for training exercises and after action analysis. Finally this system can easily be adapted to existing communication and processing links along with incorporating the best parts of current models through the use of object oriented programming techniques. These modern software techniques are well suited to handling multiple data processes independently over time in a distributed network.

  13. The construction of individual eye model based on eye's wavefront aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Qi; Guo, Huan-Qing

    2005-08-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There were four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software -ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  14. Hybrid Architecture Active Wavefront Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for performing relatively high-speed wavefront sensing and control to overcome thermal instabilities in a segmented primary mirror telescope [e.g., James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at L2], by using the onboard fine guidance sensor (FGS) to minimize expense and complexity. This FGS performs centroiding on a bright star to feed the information to the pointing and control system. The proposed concept is to beam split the image of the guide star (or use a single defocused guide star image) to perform wavefront sensing using phase retrieval techniques. Using the fine guidance sensor star image for guiding and fine phasing eliminates the need for other, more complex ways of achieving very accurate sensing and control that is needed for UV-optical applications. The phase retrieval occurs nearly constantly, so passive thermal stability over fourteen days is not required. Using the FGS as the sensor, one can feed segment update information to actuators on the primary mirror that can update the primary mirror segment fine phasing with this frequency. Because the thermal time constants of the primary mirror are very slow compared to this duration, the mirror will appear extremely stable during observations (to the level of accuracy of the sensing and control). The sensing can use the same phase retrieval techniques as the JWST by employing an additional beam splitter, and having each channel go through a weak lens (one positive and one negative). The channels can use common or separate detectors. Phase retrieval can be performed onboard. The actuation scheme would include a coarse stage able to achieve initial alignment of several millimeters of range (similar to JWST and can use a JWST heritage sensing approach in the science camera) and a fine stage capable of continual updates.

  15. Curvature wavefront sensing for the large synoptic survey telescope.

    PubMed

    Xin, Bo; Claver, Chuck; Liang, Ming; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Angeli, George; Shipsey, Ian

    2015-10-20

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will use an active optics system (AOS) to maintain alignment and surface figure on its three large mirrors. Corrective actions fed to the LSST AOS are determined from information derived from four curvature wavefront sensors located at the corners of the focal plane. Each wavefront sensor is a split detector such that the halves are 1 mm on either side of focus. In this paper, we describe the extensions to published curvature wavefront sensing algorithms needed to address challenges presented by the LSST, namely the large central obscuration, the fast f/1.23 beam, off-axis pupil distortions, and vignetting at the sensor locations. We also describe corrections needed for the split sensors and the effects from the angular separation of different stars providing the intrafocal and extrafocal images. Lastly, we present simulations that demonstrate convergence, linearity, and negligible noise when compared to atmospheric effects when the algorithm extensions are applied to the LSST optical system. The algorithm extensions reported here are generic and can easily be adapted to other wide-field optical systems including similar telescopes with large central obscuration and off-axis curvature sensing.

  16. Wavefront correction by target-phase-locking technology in a 500 TW laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. E.; Dai, W. J.; Zhou, K. N.; Su, J. Q.; Xue, Q.; Yuan, Q.; Zhang, X.; Deng, X. W.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. C.; Xie, N.; Sun, L.; Hu, D. X.; Zhu, Q. H.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach termed target-phase-locking that could improve the entire beam wavefront quality of a 500 TW Nd3+:phosphate glass laser facility. The thermal and static wavefront from front-end to target is corrected by using one deformable mirror that receives feedback from both the focal-spot sensor and wavefront sensor, and only the main laser of the laser system is employed in the correction process, with auxiliary calibration light no longer necessary. As a result, a static focal spot with full width at half maximum of 8.87  ×  5.74 µm is achieved, the thermal wavefront induced by flash-lamp-pumped Nd3+:phosphate glass is compensated with PV from 3.54-0.43 µm, and a dynamic focal spot with intensity exceeding 1020 W cm-2 is precisely predicted at the target with such an approach.

  17. SOMM: A new service oriented middleware for generic wireless multimedia sensor networks based on code mobility.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Mohammad Mehdi; Moghaddam, Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Although much research in the area of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has been done in recent years, the programming of sensor nodes is still time-consuming and tedious. It requires expertise in low-level programming, mainly because of the use of resource constrained hardware and also the low level API provided by current operating systems. The code of the resulting systems has typically no clear separation between application and system logic. This minimizes the possibility of reusing code and often leads to the necessity of major changes when the underlying platform is changed. In this paper, we present a service oriented middleware named SOMM to support application development for WMSNs. The main goal of SOMM is to enable the development of modifiable and scalable WMSN applications. A network which uses the SOMM is capable of providing multiple services to multiple clients at the same time with the specified Quality of Service (QoS). SOMM uses a virtual machine with the ability to support mobile agents. Services in SOMM are provided by mobile agents and SOMM also provides a t space on each node which agents can use to communicate with each other.

  18. Mission-Oriented Sensor Arrays and UAVs - a Case Study on Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, N. M.; Freire, I. L.; Trindade, O.; Simões, E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new concept of UAV mission design in geomatics, applied to the generation of thematic maps for a multitude of civilian and military applications. We discuss the architecture of Mission-Oriented Sensors Arrays (MOSA), proposed in Figueira et Al. (2013), aimed at splitting and decoupling the mission-oriented part of the system (non safety-critical hardware and software) from the aircraft control systems (safety-critical). As a case study, we present an environmental monitoring application for the automatic generation of thematic maps to track gunshot activity in conservation areas. The MOSA modeled for this application integrates information from a thermal camera and an on-the-ground microphone array. The use of microphone arrays technology is of particular interest in this paper. These arrays allow estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the incoming sound waves. Information about events of interest is obtained by the fusion of the data provided by the microphone array, captured by the UAV, fused with information from the termal image processing. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the on-the-ground sound processing array and the simulation of the main processing module, to be embedded into an UAV in a future work. The main contributions of this paper are the proposed MOSA system, including concepts, models and architecture.

  19. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination. PMID:26907294

  20. A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Yuan, Xuebing; Liu, Sheng

    2016-02-20

    To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination.

  1. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-11-04

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

  2. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  3. [Wavefront analysis and adaptive optics].

    PubMed

    Stevens, J D; Sekundo, W

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we attempt to provide an overview of the principles of wavefront measurement. We also discuss the operational principles of different systems currently present on the market including their advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, we speculate on current and possible future implications of this new technology in the laser refractive surgery. Adaptive optics are explained in the context of "customized ablation" and preoperative verification of the desired results. Finally, the first international clinical results of wavefront guided excimer laser surgery are reviewed and critically commented.

  4. Estimate Low and High Order Wavefront Using P1640 Calibrator Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; Crepp, J.; Dekany, R.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hinkley, S.; Parry, I.; Pueyo, L.; Rice, E.; Roberts, L. C. Jr.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Tang, H.; Vescelus, F.; Wallace, K.; Zimmerman, N.

    2013-01-01

    P1640 high contrast imaging system on the Palomar 200 inch Telescope consists of an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, the PALM-3000 adaptive optics (P3K-AO), and P1640 Calibrator (CAL). Science images are recorded by an integral field spectrograph covering J-H bands for detecting and characterizing stellar companions. With aberrations from atmosphere corrected by the P3K-AO, instrument performance is limited mainly by the quasi-static speckles due to noncommon path wavefront aberrations for the light to propagate to the P3K-AO wavefront sensor and to the coronagraph mask. The non-common path wavefront aberrations are sensed by CAL, which measures the post-coronagraph E-field using interferometry, and can be effectively corrected by offsetting the P3K-AO deformable mirror target position accordingly. Previously, we have demonstrated using CAL measurements to correct high order wavefront aberrations, which is directly connected to the static speckles in the image plane. Low order wavefront, on the other hand, usually of larger amplitudes, causes light to leak through the coronagraph making the whole image plane brighter. Knowledge error in low order wavefront aberrations can also affect the estimation of the high order wavefront. Even though, CAL is designed to sense efficiently high order wavefront aberrations, the low order wavefront front can be inferred with less sensitivity. Here, we describe our method for estimating both low and high order wavefront aberrations using CAL measurements by propagating the post-coronagraph E-field to a pupil before the coronagraph. We present the results from applying this method to both simulated and experiment data.

  5. Estimate Low and High Order Wavefront Using P1640 Calibrator Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    P1640 high contrast imaging system on the Palomar 200 inch Telescope consists of an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, the PALM-3000 adaptive optics (P3K-AO), and P1640 Calibrator (CAL). Science images are recorded by an integral field spectrograph covering J-H bands for detecting and characterizing stellar companions. With aberrations from atmosphere corrected by the P3K-AO, instrument performance is limited mainly by the quasi-static speckles due to noncommon path wavefront aberrations for the light to propagate to the P3K-AO wavefront sensor and to the coronagraph mask. The non-common path wavefront aberrations are sensed by CAL, which measures the post-coronagraph E-field using interferometry, and can be effectively corrected by offsetting the P3K-AO deformable mirror target position accordingly. Previously, we have demonstrated using CAL measurements to correct high order wavefront aberrations, which is directly connected to the static speckles in the image plane. Low order wavefront, on the other hand, usually of larger amplitudes, causes light to leak through the coronagraph making the whole image plane brighter. Knowledge error in low order wavefront aberrations can also affect the estimation of the high order wavefront. Even though, CAL is designed to sense efficiently high order wavefront aberrations, the low order wavefront front can be inferred with less sensitivity. Here, we describe our method for estimating both low and high order wavefront aberrations using CAL measurements by propagating the post-coronagraph E-field to a pupil before the coronagraph. We present the results from applying this method to both simulated and experiment data.

  6. Performance of Laser Beam Wavefront Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    13 IV. EXPERIENTAL REUT..... ................ 17 OtCEDflO PAE BLANK-NOT FILMD 3 1* Schematic of the Phase ................... .... 10 2...laser communications , lidar, and electro-optice; communication sciences, applied electronics, semiconductor crystal and device physics, radiometric

  7. Retrieve Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated low cost gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    To reduce the background noise level, seismic sensors are often installed in downhole. During the installation, it is not possible to determine exactly what the sensors has rotated in the horizontal plane before reaching the bottom. To monitoring the seismic activity occurred in offshore areas, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are often deployed in the area to be studied. During the OBS descent phase along the seawater column the sensor can undergo to significant rotations in the horizontal plane. Therefore, both for seismic sensors installed in downhole or on ocean bottom, the absolute orientation of the horizontal components are unknown. Clearly, this serious problem can be limits data analysis and interpretation. The absolute orientation of horizontal components are critical for many modern seismic analysis techniques such as receiver functions, body- and surface-wave polarization analysis, studies of anisotropy, and surface wave dispersion curves estimations. The techniques proposed to retrieve the correct sensor horizontal components orientations use different approaches (polarization analysis, cross-correlation measurements, synthetic seismograms fitting), different data set (shots, earthquakes, seismic noise) and different portion of the seismic wave-field (P or S wave arrival times, Rayleigh waves, full waveforms), but are all based on the post-processing of the acquired data. All these methods are not error-free and not always applicable. Method based on active source are not applicable in passive OBS monitoring campaigns. The method based on synthetic waveforms are strong dependent on accuracy of the source parameters estimation and are generally computationally intensive. The method based on polarization analysis are clearly strong dependent on the quality of the data in term of number of seismic events recorded, azimuthal coverage and signal to noise ratio. The methods base on events or noise cross-correlation can be applicable only if an array of sensor

  8. Statistical generation of normal and post-refractive surgery wavefronts.

    PubMed

    Schwiegerling, Jim

    2009-05-01

    Wavefront sensors provide detailed information regarding the aberration structure of large populations of patients. Knowledge of the statistical distribution of the aberrations has several applications, including the development of ophthalmic devices. The statistical distribution aids in defining the required performance range of the device. Another application would be customised schematic eye models that incorporate likely patterns of aberrations found in a given subject population. These models can then be used to find the statistical distribution of image quality metrics based on metrics such as MTF and retinal spot size. Myopic and post-refractive surgical patient populations were analysed to determine the statistical properties of their ocular aberrations. A matrix method is developed that can be used to generate aberration coefficients that are consistent with each population. Generated wavefronts have statistical properties similar to the respective populations and incorporate the correlations between aberration coefficients. The matrix techniques illustrated here can be used to generate wavefronts that are consistent with various populations of interest to the ophthalmic community. Generation of wavefronts enables techniques such as Monte Carlo simulations to be performed that aid in the development of ophthalmic instrumentation and visual performance metrics.

  9. Parallel Implementation of a Frozen Flow Based Wavefront Reconstructor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, J.; Kelly, K.

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining high resolution images of space objects from ground based telescopes is challenging, often requiring the use of a multi-frame blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithm to remove blur caused by atmospheric turbulence. In order for an MFBD algorithm to be effective, it is necessary to obtain a good initial estimate of the wavefront phase. Although wavefront sensors work well in low turbulence situations, they are less effective in high turbulence, such as when imaging in daylight, or when imaging objects that are close to the Earth's horizon. One promising approach, which has been shown to work very well in high turbulence settings, uses a frozen flow assumption on the atmosphere to capture the inherent temporal correlations present in consecutive frames of wavefront data. Exploiting these correlations can lead to more accurate estimation of the wavefront phase, and the associated PSF, which leads to more effective MFBD algorithms. However, with the current serial implementation, the approach can be prohibitively expensive in situations when it is necessary to use a large number of frames. In this poster we describe a parallel implementation that overcomes this constraint. The parallel implementation exploits sparse matrix computations, and uses the Trilinos package developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Trilinos provides a variety of core mathematical software for parallel architectures that have been designed using high quality software engineering practices, The package is open source, and portable to a variety of high-performance computing architectures.

  10. Human Arm Motion Tracking by Orientation-Based Fusion of Inertial Sensors and Kinect Using Unscented Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Atrsaei, Arash; Salarieh, Hassan; Alasty, Aria

    2016-09-01

    Due to various applications of human motion capture techniques, developing low-cost methods that would be applicable in nonlaboratory environments is under consideration. MEMS inertial sensors and Kinect are two low-cost devices that can be utilized in home-based motion capture systems, e.g., home-based rehabilitation. In this work, an unscented Kalman filter approach was developed based on the complementary properties of Kinect and the inertial sensors to fuse the orientation data of these two devices for human arm motion tracking during both stationary shoulder joint position and human body movement. A new measurement model of the fusion algorithm was obtained that can compensate for the inertial sensors drift problem in high dynamic motions and also joints occlusion in Kinect. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was evaluated by an optical motion tracker system. The errors were reduced by almost 50% compared to cases when either inertial sensor or Kinect measurements were utilized.

  11. Analysis of field-oriented controlled induction motor drives under sensor faults and an overview of sensorless schemes.

    PubMed

    Arun Dominic, D; Chelliah, Thanga Raj

    2014-09-01

    To obtain high dynamic performance on induction motor drives (IMD), variable voltage and variable frequency operation has to be performed by measuring speed of rotation and stator currents through sensors and fed back them to the controllers. When the sensors are undergone a fault, the stability of control system, may be designed for an industrial process, is disturbed. This paper studies the negative effects on a 12.5 hp induction motor drives when the field oriented control system is subjected to sensor faults. To illustrate the importance of this study mine hoist load diagram is considered as shaft load of the tested machine. The methods to recover the system from sensor faults are discussed. In addition, the various speed sensorless schemes are reviewed comprehensively. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The simulation of turbulence effect based on the technology of optical wavefront control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongming; Fei, Jindong; Du, Huijie; Yu, Hong; Du, Jian; Hu, Xinqi; Dong, Bing

    2013-09-01

    In the process of high-resolution astronomical observation and space optical mapping, the wavefront aberrations caused by atmosphere turbulence effect lead to reduced resolution of optical imaging sensor. Firstly, on the base of influence of atmosphere turbulence effect for the optical observation system, this paper investigates and analyses the development and technical characteristics of deformable mirror, which is the key device of optical wavefront control technology. In this part, the paper describes the basic principles of wavefront control and measurement using the current production line of deformable mirror, including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror which is one of the most promising technology for wavefront modulation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Secondly, a new method based on the technology of optical wavefront control and the data of optical path difference (OPD) for simulating the effect of optical transmission induced by turbulence is presented in this paper. The modeling and characteristics of atmosphere turbulence effect applied for optical imagery detector of astronomical observation and space optical mapping has been obtained. Finally, based on the theory model of atmosphere turbulence effects and digital simulation results, a preliminary experiment was done and the results verify the feasibility of the new method. The OPD data corresponding to optical propagation effect through turbulent atmosphere can be achieved by the calculation based on the method of ray-tracing and principle of physical optics. It is a common practice to decompose aberrated wavefronts in series over the Zernike polynomials. These data will be applied to the drive and control of the deformable mirror. This kind of simulation method can be applied to simulate the optical distortions effect, such as the dithering and excursion of light spot, in the space based earth observation with the influence of turbulent atmosphere. With the help of the

  13. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  14. Wavefront Sensing via High Speed DSP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Future light-weighted and segmented primary mirror systems require active optical control to maintain mirror positioning and figure to within nanometer tolerances. Current image-based wavefront sensing approaches rely on post-processing techniques to return an estimate of the aberrated optical wavefront with accuracies to the nanometer level. But the lag times between wavefront sensing, and then control, contributes to a significant latency in the wavefront sensing implementation. In this analysis we demonstrate accelerated image-based wavefront sensing performance using multiple digital signal processors (DSP's). The computational architecture is discussed as well as the heritage leading to the approach.

  15. A reagentless DNA-based electrochemical silver(I) sensor for real time detection of Ag(I) - the effect of probe sequence and orientation on sensor response.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2016-06-01

    Ag(I) is known to interact with cytosine (C) via the formation C-Ag(I)-C complexes. The authors have utilized this concept to design six electrochemical Ag(I) sensors using C-rich DNA probes. Alternating current voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry were used to analyze the sensors. The results show that the dual-probe sensors that require the use of both 5'- and 3'-thiolated DNA probes are not suitable for this application, the differences in probe orientation impedes formation of C-Ag(I)-C complexes. Sensors fabricated with DNA probes containing both thymine (T) and C, independent of the location of the alkanethiol linker, do not response to Ag(I) either; T-T mismatches destabilize the duplex even in the presence of Ag(I). However, sensors fabricated with DNA probes containing both adenine (A) and C are ideal for this application, owing to the formation of C-Ag(I)-C complexes, as well as other lesser known interactions between A and Ag(I). Both sensors are sensitive, specific and selective enough to be used in 50% human saliva. They can also be used to detect silver sulfadiazine, a commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug. With further optimization, this sensing strategy may offer a promising approach for detection of Ag(I) in environmental and clinical samples.

  16. Fast iterative optimal estimation of turbulence wavefronts with recursive block Toeplitz covariance matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Rodolphe

    2014-07-01

    The estimation of a corrugated wavefront after propagation through the atmosphere is usually solved optimally with a Minimum-Mean-Square-Error algorithm. The derivation of the optimal wavefront can be a very computing intensive task especially for large Adaptive Optics (AO) systems that operates in real-time. For the largest AO systems, efficient optimal wavefront reconstructor have been proposed either using sparse matrix techniques or relying on the fractal properties of the atmospheric wavefront. We propose a new method that exploits the Toeplitz structure in the covariance matrix of the wavefront gradient. The algorithm is particularly well-suited to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based AO systems. Thanks to the Toeplitz structure of the covariance, the matrices are compressed up to a thousand-fold and the matrix-to-vector product is reduced to a simple one-dimension convolution product. The optimal wavefront is estimated iteratively with the MINRES algorithm which exhibits better convergence properties for ill-conditioned matrices than the commonly used Conjugate Gradient algorithm. The paper describes, in a first part, the Toeplitz structure of the covariance matrices and shows how to compute the matrix-to-vector product using only the compressed version of the matrices. In a second part, we introduced the MINRES iterative solver and shows how it performs compared to the Conjugate Gradient algorithm for different AO systems.

  17. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  18. Kalman-Filter-Based Orientation Determination Using Inertial/Magnetic Sensors: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a quaternion-based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body. The EKF exploits the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that is integrated with a tri-axial magnetic sensor. Magnetic disturbances and gyro bias errors are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. We employ the observability rank criterion based on Lie derivatives to verify the conditions under which the nonlinear system that describes the process of motion tracking by the IMU is observable, namely it may provide sufficient information for performing the estimation task with bounded estimation errors. The observability conditions are that the magnetic field, perturbed by first-order Gauss-Markov magnetic variations, and the gravity vector are not collinear and that the IMU is subject to some angular motions. Computer simulations and experimental testing are presented to evaluate the algorithm performance, including when the observability conditions are critical. PMID:22163689

  19. Performance Assessment of Integrated Sensor Orientation with a Low-Cost Gnss Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2017-08-01

    Mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs whose weight does not exceed 5 kg) is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections, or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forest or agricultural fields. In these challenging scenarios, integrated sensor orientation (ISO) improves effectiveness and accuracy. Furthermore, in block geometry configurations, this mode of operation allows mapping without ground control points (GCPs). Accurate camera positions are traditionally determined by carrier-phase GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning. However, such mode of positioning has strong requirements on receiver's and antenna's performance. In this article, we present a mapping project in which we employ a single-frequency, low-cost (< 100) GNSS receiver on a MAV. The performance of the low-cost receiver is assessed by comparing its trajectory with a reference trajectory obtained by a survey-grade, multi-frequency GNSS receiver. In addition, the camera positions derived from these two trajectories are used as observations in bundle adjustment (BA) projects and mapping accuracy is evaluated at check points (ChP). Several BA scenarios are considered with absolute and relative aerial position control. Additionally, the presented experiments show the possibility of BA to determine a camera-antenna spatial offset, so-called lever-arm.

  20. Investigation of the relative orientation of the system of optical sensors to monitor the technosphere objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrochenko, Andrey; Konyakhin, Igor

    2017-06-01

    In connection with the development of robotics have become increasingly popular variety of three-dimensional reconstruction of the system mapping and image-set received from the optical sensors. The main objective of technical and robot vision is the detection, tracking and classification of objects of the space in which these systems and robots operate [15,16,18]. Two-dimensional images sometimes don't contain sufficient information to address those or other problems: the construction of the map of the surrounding area for a route; object identification, tracking their relative position and movement; selection of objects and their attributes to complement the knowledge base. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the surrounding space allows you to obtain information on the relative positions of objects, their shape, surface texture. Systems, providing training on the basis of three-dimensional reconstruction of the results of the comparison can produce two-dimensional images of three-dimensional model that allows for the recognition of volume objects on flat images. The problem of the relative orientation of industrial robots with the ability to build threedimensional scenes of controlled surfaces is becoming actual nowadays.

  1. Variable-State-Dimension Kalman-Based Filter for Orientation Determination Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a quaternion-based Variable-State-Dimension Extended Kalman Filter (VSD-EKF) is developed for estimating the three-dimensional orientation of a rigid body using the measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated with a triaxial magnetic sensor. Gyro bias and magnetic disturbances are modeled and compensated by including them in the filter state vector. The VSD-EKF switches between a quiescent EKF, where the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a first-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-1), and a higher-order EKF where extra state components are introduced to model the time-rate of change of the magnetic field as a GM-1 stochastic process, namely the magnetic disturbance is modeled as a second-order Gauss-Markov stochastic process (GM-2). Experimental validation tests show the effectiveness of the VSD-EKF, as compared to either the quiescent EKF or the higher-order EKF when they run separately. PMID:23012502

  2. Low order wavefront sensing and control for WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Bartos, Randall; Hein, Randall; Kern, Brian; Krist, John; Lam, Raymond; Moore, Douglas; Moore, James; Patterson, Keith; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Shields, Joel; Sidick, Erkin; Tang, Hong; Truong, Tuan; Wallace, Kent; Wang, Xu; Wilson, Dan

    2015-09-01

    To maintain the required WFIRST Coronagraph starlight suppression performance in a realistic space environment, a low order wavefront sensing and control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C uses the rejected stellar light from coronagraph to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as the low order wavefront errors due to changes in thermal loading on the telescope and the rest of the observatory. In this paper we will present an overview of the low order wavefront sensing and control subsystem for the WFIRST Coronagraph. We will describe LOWFS/C's Zernike wavefront sensor concept and control design, and present an overview of sensing performance analysis and modeling, predicted line-of-sight jitter suppression loop performance, as well as the low order wavefront error correction with the coronagraph's deformable mirror. We will also report the LOWFS/C testbed design and the preliminary in-air test results, which show promising performance of the Zernike wavefront sensor and FSM feedback loop.

  3. Wavefront Imaging in Fractured Transversely-Isotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Fractures in the Earth's crust are a source of stress-dependent mechanical anisotropy that affect seismic wave attenuation and velocity. While many theoretical and experimental studies have investigated seismic wave propagation in single or multi- fractured isotropic rocks, few studies have examined the seismic response of a fractured anisotropic medium. Fractures and layering each contribute to the mechanical anisotropy of the crust. The coexistence of these two sources of anisotropy complicates the interpretation of the seismic properties of crustal rock. In this study, laboratory wavefront imaging was performed to capture the seismic response of layered media containing multiple parallel fractures. We determined that whether the observed anisotropy is dominated by the matrix anisotropy or by the fracture orientation depends on the applied stress and that late-arriving guided-modes provide information on the orientation of the fractures. Four cubic garolite samples (~102 mm on edge) each containing 5 parallel fractures were used in this study. The fractures were oriented normal, parallel or at acute angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees) to the layering. The fracture and layer spacing were approximately 10mm and 0.5mm, respectively. An intact sample containing no fractures was used as a standard orthorhombic medium for reference. Stress was applied to the samples with a servo-controlled loading machine. Two spherically-focused water-coupled transducers (central frequency 1MHz) were used; one as a fixed-source and the other as a translating receiver. Each sample was scanned over a 60mm×60mm region in 1 mm increments to map out the arriving wavefront (i.e. 3600 signals were recorded) as a function of time. The measured wavefront in the intact reference sample (which contained no fractures) was elliptical with the major axis parallel to the layers as expected and was stress-independent. When the fracture samples were subjected to low stress (<4 MPa), the observed seismic

  4. Single-Grating Talbot Imaging for Wavefront Sensing and X-Ray Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Grizolli, Walan; Shi, Xianbo; Kolodziej, Tomasz; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-01-01

    Single-grating Talbot imaging relies on high-spatial-resolution detectors to perform accurate measurements of X-ray beam wavefronts. The wavefront can be retrieved with a single image, and a typical measurement and data analysis can be performed in few seconds. These qualities make it an ideal tool for synchrotron beamline diagnostics and in-situ metrology. The wavefront measurement can be used both to obtain a phase contrast image of an object and to characterize an X-ray beam. In this work, we explore the concept in two cases: at-wavelength metrology of 2D parabolic beryllium lenses and a wavefront sensor using a diamond crystal beam splitter.

  5. Wavefront sensing based on a spatial light modulator and incremental binary random sampling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ben-Yi; Han, Lu; Yang, Yang; Yue, Qing-Yang; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2017-02-01

    A wavefront sensing method based on a spatial light modulator (SLM) and an incremental binary random sampling (IBRS) algorithm is proposed. In this method, the recording setup is built just by a transmittance SLM and an image sensor. The tested wavefront incident to the SLM plane can be quantitatively retrieved from the diffraction intensities of the wavefront passed through the SLM displaying a IBRS pattern. Because only two modulation states (opaque and transparent) of the SLM are used, the method does not need to know the concrete modulation function of the SLM in advance. In addition by introducing the concept of the incremental random sampling into wavefront sensing, the adaptability of phase retrieving based on the diffraction intensities is significantly improved. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has used this concept for the same purpose. Some experimental results are given for demonstrating the feasibility of our method.

  6. Describing ocular aberrations with wavefront vergence maps.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jayoung; Thibos, Larry N; Iskander, D Robert

    2009-05-01

    A common optometric problem is to specify the eye's ocular aberrations in terms of Zernike coefficients and to reduce that specification to a prescription for the optimum sphero-cylindrical correcting lens. The typical approach is first to reconstruct wavefront phase errors from measurements of wavefront slopes obtained by a wavefront aberrometer. This paper applies a new method to this clinical problem that does not require wavefront reconstruction. Instead, we base our analysis of axial wavefront vergence as inferred directly from wavefront slopes. The result is a wavefront vergence map that is similar to the axial power maps in corneal topography and hence has a potential to be favoured by clinicians. We use our new set of orthogonal Zernike slope polynomials to systematically analyse details of the vergence map analogous to Zernike analysis of wavefront maps. The result is a vector of slope coefficients that describe fundamental aberration components. Three different methods for reducing slope coefficients to a spherocylindrical prescription in power vector forms are compared and contrasted. When the original wavefront contains only second order aberrations, the vergence map is a function of meridian only and the power vectors from all three methods are identical. The differences in the methods begin to appear as we include higher order aberrations, in which case the wavefront vergence map is more complicated. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of vergence map representation of ocular aberrations.

  7. Revisiting static modulation in pyramid wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Vassallo, D.; Bergomi, M.; Biondi, F.; Farinato, J.; Greggio, D.; Magrin, D.; Viotto, V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pyramid Sensor (PS) is based on the Focault knife-edge test, yielding then, in geometrical approximation, only the sign of the wavefront slope. To provide linear measurements of the wavefront slopes the PS relies on a technique known as modulation, which also plays a central role to improve the linear range of the pyramid WFS, very small in the nonmodulated case. In the main PS using modulation so far, this task is achieved by moving optical components in the WFS, increasing the complexity of the system. An attractive idea to simplify the optical and mechanical design of a pyramid WFS is to work without any dynamic modulation. This concept was only merely described and functionally tested in the framework of MAD, and subsequently, with a holographic diffuser. The latter produce a sort of random distribution of the light coming out from the pupil plane, leading to sort of inefficient modulation, as most of the rays are focused in the central region of the light diffused by such device. The bi-dimensional original grating is, in contrast, producing a well defined deterministic distribution of the light onto a specifically shaped pattern. A crude option has been already discussed as a possibility, and it is here generalized to holographic plates leading to various distribution of lights, including a circle whose diameter would match the required modulation pattern, or more cost effective approaches like the one of a square pattern. These holographic diffusers would exhibit also zero-th and high order patterns and the actual size of the equivalent modulation would be linearly wavelength dependent, leading to colour effects that requires a careful handling in order to properly choose the right amount of equivalent modulation.

  8. Hartmann wavefront sensing with an artificial neural network processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atad-Ettedgui, Eli I.; Catalan, G.; Harris, John W.; Humphries, Colin M.; Smillie, A. M.; Armitage, Alistair E.; Hanspal, G. S.; McKeating, R. J.

    1994-05-01

    An artificial neural network has been developed for wavefront reconstruction by processing the centroid displacements of the subaperture images of a 4 X 4 Hartmann sensor. Training was accomplished by computing the first differentials of random but known mixes of aberration polynomials, presenting these at the network input and adjusting the interconnection weights to minimize the Zernike coefficient output errors. After training, the residual rms wavefront errors for noise-free systems were typically within 2%. Similar results were obtained with a 5 X 5 system. As simulated noise was added, the errors increased slowly but were similar in magnitude to those obtained analytically provided that the network had sufficient complexity. At very low SNR values the neural network outperformed the analytic method provided that it had been trained for the same noise level.

  9. Improving wavefront sensing with a Shack-Hartmann device.

    PubMed

    Rais, Martin; Morel, Jean-Michel; Thiebaut, Carole; Delvit, Jean-Marc; Facciolo, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    To achieve higher resolutions, current earth observation satellites use larger, lightweight primary mirrors that can deform over time, affecting the image quality. To overcome this problem, we evaluated the possibility of combining a deformable mirror with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor (SHWFS) directly in the satellite. The SHWFS's performance depends entirely on the accuracy of the shift estimation algorithm employed, which should be computationally cheap to execute onboard. We analyzed the problem of fast, accurate shift estimation in this context and have proposed a new algorithm, based on a global optical flow method that estimates the shifts in linear time. Based on our experiments, we believe our method has proven to be more accurate and stable, as well as less sensitive to noise, than all current state-of-the-art methods, permitting a more precise onboard wavefront estimation.

  10. Atmospheric turbulence temperature on the laser wavefront properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras López, J. C.; Ballesteros Díaz, A.; Tíjaro Rojas, O. J.; Torres Moreno, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Temperature is a physical magnitude that if is higher, the refractive index presents more important random fluctuations, which produce a greater distortion in the wavefront and thus a displacement in its centroid. To observe the effect produced by the turbulent medium strongly influenced by temperature on propagation laser beam, we experimented with two variable and controllable temperature systems designed as optical turbulence generators (OTG): a Turbulator and a Parallelepiped glass container. The experimental setup use three CMOS cameras and four temperature sensors spatially distributed to acquire synchronously information of the laser beam wavefront and turbulence temperature, respectively. The acquired information was analyzed with MATLAB® software tool, that it allows to compute the position, in terms of the evolution time, of the laser beam center of mass and their deviations produced by different turbulent conditions generated inside the two manufactured systems. The results were reflected in the statistical analysis of the centroid shifting.

  11. Using horizontal and vertical building structure to constrain indirect sensor orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Markus

    This paper presents a method to integrate linear horizontal, vertical and right-angled scene structures into the bundle adjustment of image sequences. An increasing number of airborne image acquisition systems is available and equipped with non-metric small- or medium-frame cameras and no or insufficiently accurate INS devices. In cases where the data is to be used for the production of geo-spatial data, where a certain accuracy and precision is required, an indirect sensor orientation, possibly including self-calibration, needs to be performed. The idea which led to the presented approach is to reduce the number of GCPs necessary for this task by applying the mentioned scene structures. The method directly uses the linear structures, visible at man-made objects as fictive observations within the adjustment, while self-calibration of intrinsic camera parameters and lens distortion is included as well. Experiments with two datasets demonstrate that, through this method, only limited GCP information is required to obtain satisfactory results. In fact, in one experiment using oblique images, several scene constraints were provided and only the datum was defined by ground control. The residuals at check points from this setup were similar to the traditional case where several well-distributed GCPs were available in the scene. In the second experiment the ability of this approach to support the bundle adjustment was shown for a UAV dataset. Although no GCP and camera calibration information was available, the visual inspection of adjusted object points and the residuals at horizontal structures confirmed the ability of the method to align an image block with the structure, as embodied in the defined scene constraints. Despite the convincing outcome of the experiments, it needs to be mentioned that some manual work is still involved in defining the constraints. In future work the issue of automation will be addressed.

  12. An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors for permanent magnet spherical actuators with 3D magnet array.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-10-24

    An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.

  13. Novel technology for reducing wavefront image processing latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, David; Schwartz, Noah; Vick, Andy; Coughlan, John; Halsall, Rob; Basden, Alastair; Dipper, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Adaptive optics is essential for the successful operation of the future Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). At the heart of these AO system lies the real-time control which has become computationally challenging. A majority of the previous efforts has been aimed at reducing the wavefront reconstruction latency by using many-core hardware accelerators such as Xeon Phis and GPUs. These modern hardware solutions offer a large numbers of cores combined with high memory bandwidths but have restrictive input/output (I/O). The lack of efficient I/O capability makes the data handling very inefficient and adds both to the overall latency and jitter. For example a single wavefront sensor for an ELT scale adaptive optics system can produce hundreds of millions of pixels per second that need to be processed. Passing all this data through a CPU and into GPUs or Xeon Phis, even by reducing memory copies by using systems such as GPUDirect, is highly inefficient. The Mellanox TILE series is a novel technology offering a high number of cores and multiple 10 Gbps Ethernet ports. We present results of the TILE-Gx36 as a front-end wavefront sensor processing unit. In doing so we are able to greatly reduce the amount of data needed to be transferred to the wavefront reconstruction hardware. We show that the performance of the Mellanox TILE-GX36 is in-line with typical requirements, in terms of mean calculation time and acceptable jitter, for E-ELT first-light instruments and that the Mellanox TILE series is a serious contender for all E-ELT instruments.

  14. Analysis of design for Hartmann-Shack measurements under usage of Fourier-iteration and Zernike approximation wavefront reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabardiadi, Alexander; Greiner, Andreas; Assmann, Heiko; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of a wavefront is a powerful tool for characterizing optical systems. The most commonly used wavefront measurement technique is the method of local-light aberrometry. The conventional version of this kind of measurement principle is the Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. This method returns the result of the matrix of spatially-resolved gradients of the wavefront. However, the last and crucial step of the wavefront analysis is the reconstruction of the wavefront from the measured data packets. The issues of the measurement preparation and design are interesting in the same volume. The work presented here describes the comparison between a Fourier-Iteration algorithm and the Zernike approximation method for the wavefront reconstruction in relation to the measurement design. In the context of this work, the term "design of the measurement" refers to the issue of the number and relative positions of the measurement points. In this work, the behavior of the wavefront reconstruction method using Monte-Carlo simulations was analyzed. The optimum point distribution was found and a validation parameter to describe the impact of measurement errors on the analysis results was determined. Based on this parameter, a Monte-Carlo based simulation to make the design of the experiment with the highest accuracy was realized. The technique of white noise injection was implemented in the reconstruction routine and the propagation of errors was analyzed. The presented comparison technique was applied to determine the optimum measurement positions over the beam's surface.

  15. A harsh environment-oriented wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-03-03

    To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated.

  16. GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

    2010-05-01

    The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be

  17. The Wave-Front Correction System for the Sunrise Balloon-Borne Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Soltau, D.; Bell, A.; Doerr, H. P.; Feger, B.; Friedlein, R.; Gerber, K.; Heidecke, F.; Kentischer, T.; v. D. Lühe, O.; Sigwarth, M.; Wälde, E.; Barthol, P.; Deutsch, W.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Grauf, B.; Meller, R.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.; Knölker, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S. K.; Title, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the wave-front correction system developed for the Sunrise balloon telescope, and it provides information about its in-flight performance. For the correction of low-order aberrations, a Correlating Wave-Front Sensor (CWS) was used. It consisted of a six-element Shack - Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS), a fast tip-tilt mirror for the compensation of image motion, and an active telescope secondary mirror for focus correction. The CWS delivered a stabilized image with a precision of 0.04 arcsec (rms), whenever the coarse pointing was better than ± 45 arcsec peak-to-peak. The automatic focus adjustment maintained a focus stability of 0.01 waves in the focal plane of the CWS. During the 5.5 day flight, good image quality and stability were achieved during 33 hours, containing 45 sequences, which lasted between 10 and 45 min.

  18. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can’t be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated. PMID:22574034

  19. Wave-front sensing from subdivision of the focal plane with a lenslet array.

    PubMed

    Clare, Richard M; Lane, Richard G

    2005-01-01

    A wave-front sensing scheme based on placing a lenslet array at the focal plane of the telescope with each lenslet reimaging the aperture is analyzed. This wave-front sensing arrangement is the dual of the Shack-Hartmann sensor, with the wave front partitioned in the focal plane rather than in the aperture plane. This arrangement can be viewed as the generalization of the pyramid sensor and allows direct comparisons of this sensor with the Shack-Hartmann sensor. We show that, as with the Shack-Hartmann sensor, when subdividing in the focal plane, the quality of the wave-front estimate is a trade-off between the quality of the slope measurements over each region in the aperture and the resolution to which the slope measurements are obtained. Open-loop simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the lenslet array at the focal plane is equivalent to that of the Shack-Hartmann sensor when no modulation is applied to the lenslet array. However, when the array is modulated in a manner akin to that of the pyramid sensor, subdivision at the focal plane provides advantages when compared with the Shack-Hartmann sensor.

  20. High Resolution Imaging Testbed Utilizing Sodium Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics: The Real Time Wavefront Reconstructor Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-31

    measurements of a 64 × 64 wavefront sensor and reconstruct the wavefront at 3368 locations across the Hale Telescope pupil, at up to 2 kHz frame rate...3368 locations across the Hale Telescope pupil, at up to 2 kHz frame rate. A cluster of 10 desktop personal computers house the graphics processors...5.1 meter Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory, currently under development at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the Jet

  1. Adaptive optics wide-field microscopy using direct wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azucena, Oscar A.

    I present a new technique for measuring and correcting the wavefront aberrations introduced when imaging through thick biological samples. The aberrations are due to the inhomogeneous nature of the biological samples and immersion media. In particular are the small changes in the index of refraction from point to point as the light travels through the thick tissue. The technique uses existing Adaptive Optics (AO) technology and incorporates it into a wide-field microscope. The apparatus consists of a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (SHWS) to measure wavefronts emitted by a fluorescent light source within the biological tissue. A Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) is used to correct the aberrations via a feedback control system. The advantage of this method is that the reference source can be the object that is being imaged or a spectrally separate object in the sample, the only requirements being that the reference source is sufficiently bright and has a small spatial extension when imaged by the SHWS. I will describe in detail the developments of the Adaptive Optics Wide-field Microscope (AOWFM) and its performance.

  2. FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES

    SciTech Connect

    Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew

    2013-04-20

    Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

  3. Common-Path Wavefront Sensing for Advanced Coronagraphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of faint companions around nearby stars is not limited by either intrinsic resolution of a coronagraph/telescope system, nor is it strictly photon limited. Typically, it is both the magnitude and temporal variation of small phase and amplitude errors imparted to the electric field by elements in the optical system which will limit ultimate performance. Adaptive optics systems, particularly those with multiple deformable mirrors, can remove these errors, but they need to be sensed in the final image plane. If the sensing system is before the final image plane, which is typical for most systems, then the non-common path optics between the wavefront sensor and science image plane will lead to un-sensed errors. However, a new generation of high-performance coronagraphs naturally lend themselves to wavefront sensing in the final image plane. These coronagraphs and the wavefront sensing will be discussed, as well as plans for demonstrating this with a high-contrast system on the ground. Such a system will be a key system-level proof for a future space-based coronagraph mission, which will also be discussed.

  4. A chipless sensor tag-based RFID technology for cyber-oriented environmental sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sudhir; Agarwal, Mangilal; Phoha, Vir V.; Varahramyan, Kody

    2009-05-01

    A chipless sensor tag-based radio frequency identification (RFID) technology that allows wireless collection of information from the environment, and the monitoring and accessing of the given information through cyberspace is presented. The developed system consists of a cyber enabled RFID reader and passive chipless RFID sensor tags. The reader is comprised of an analog part that wirelessly communicates with the sensor tags, and a single board computer (SBC) part. Each passive chipless sensor tag consists of a microstrip antenna and a sensor. The sensor information is amplitude modulated in the backscattered signal of the tag. The analog reader part receives the backscattered signal and feeds it to the SBC, which computes the sensor information into a 96 bit serialized global trade item number (SGTIN-96) electronic product code (EPC). Moreover, the SBC makes the information available on a cyberspace-accessible secure user interface. The reported system has been applied for temperature sensing, where the change in temperature at the tag ranging from 27°C to 140°C resulted in a 28% amplitude change at the analog part of the reader. The temperature at the tag has been monitored by accessing the reader through cyberspace using a web-based user interfaces developed for the SBC.

  5. Probing molecular pathways for DNA orientational trapping, unzipping and translocation in nanopores by using a tunable overhang sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Tian, Kai; Hunter, Lehr L.; Ritzo, Brandon; Gu, Li-Qun

    2014-09-01

    Nanopores provide a unique single-molecule platform for genetic and epigenetic detection. The target nucleic acids can be accurately analyzed by characterizing their specific electric fingerprints or signatures in the nanopore. Here we report a series of novel nanopore signatures generated by target nucleic acids that are hybridized with a probe. A length-tunable overhang appended to the probe functions as a sensor to specifically modulate the nanopore current profile. The resulting signatures can reveal multiple mechanisms for the orientational trapping, unzipping, escaping and translocation of nucleic acids in the nanopore. This universal approach can be used to program various molecular movement pathways, elucidate their kinetics, and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the nanopore sensor for nucleic acid detection.Nanopores provide a unique single-molecule platform for genetic and epigenetic detection. The target nucleic acids can be accurately analyzed by characterizing their specific electric fingerprints or signatures in the nanopore. Here we report a series of novel nanopore signatures generated by target nucleic acids that are hybridized with a probe. A length-tunable overhang appended to the probe functions as a sensor to specifically modulate the nanopore current profile. The resulting signatures can reveal multiple mechanisms for the orientational trapping, unzipping, escaping and translocation of nucleic acids in the nanopore. This universal approach can be used to program various molecular movement pathways, elucidate their kinetics, and enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the nanopore sensor for nucleic acid detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03195d

  6. Sensing wavefronts on resolved sources with pyramids on ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldt, Markus; Hippler, Stefan; Obereder, Andreas; Stuik, Remko; Bertram, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Pyramid wavefront sensors (PWFS) have been agreed to provide a superior faint-end performance with respect to Shack-Hartmann systems (SHS) quite some time ago. However, much of the advantage relies on the fact that PWFSs exploit the full resolution limit of the telescope. ELTs will thus confront PWFSs with an unprecedented number of resolved targets. To analyze the behavior of PWFS on extended targets in detail observationally is difficult. We will present the result of simulations representing the Single-Conjugated Adaptive Optics (SCAO) system of METIS on the European ELT (E-ELT).

  7. Huygens-Fresnel wavefront tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, F. A.; Létourneau, P.-D.; Zhao, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present initial results from a novel numerical method describing wave propagation in slowly non-uniform media. Following Huygens-Fresnel's principle, we model the wavefront as an array of point sources that emit wavelets, which interfere. We then identify a set of new points where the electric field has equal phase. In fact, without losing generality, we find zeros of the electric field, by means of the bisection method. This obviously corresponds to a specific phase-advance, but is easily generalized, e.g. by phase-shifting all sources. The points found form the new wavefront, then the process is reiterated. One of the advantages of the method is that it includes diffraction. Two examples provided are diffraction around an obstacle and the finite waist of a focused Gaussian beam. Refraction is also successfully modeled, both in slowly-varying media as well as in the presence of discontinuities. The calculations were performed in two dimensions, but can be easily extended to three dimensions. We also discuss the extension to anisotropic, birefringent, absorbing media.

  8. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark; Mockler, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

  9. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  10. Layer-oriented adaptive optics for solar telescopes.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2012-08-10

    First multiconjugate adaptive-optical (MCAO) systems are currently being installed on solar telescopes. The aim of these systems is to increase the corrected field of view with respect to conventional adaptive optics. However, this first generation is based on a star-oriented approach, and it is then difficult to increase the size of the field of view beyond 60-80 arc sec in diameter. We propose to implement the layer-oriented approach in solar MCAO systems by use of wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors conjugated to the strongest turbulent layers. The wavefront distortions are averaged over a wide field: the signal from distant turbulence is attenuated and the tomographic reconstruction is thus done optically. The system consists of independent correction loops, which only need to account for local turbulence: the subapertures can be enlarged and the correction frequency reduced. Most importantly, a star-oriented MCAO system becomes more complex with increasing field size, while the layer-oriented approach benefits from larger fields and will therefore be an attractive solution for the future generation of solar MCAO systems.

  11. Wavefront Analysis of Nonlinear Self-Amplified Spontaneous-Emission Free-Electron Laser Harmonics in the Single-Shot Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Bachelard, R.; Chubar, O.; Mercere, P.; Idir, M.; Couprie, M.E.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Nagasono, M.; Hara, T. and Ishikawa, T.

    2011-06-08

    The single-shot spatial characteristics of the vacuum ultraviolet self-amplified spontaneous emission of a free electron laser (FEL) is measured at different stages of amplification up to saturation with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fundamental radiation at 61.5 nm tends towards a single-mode behavior as getting closer to saturation. The measurements are found in good agreement with simulations and theory. A near diffraction limited wavefront was measured. The analysis of Fresnel diffraction through the Hartmann wavefront sensor hole array also provides some further insight for the evaluation of the FEL transverse coherence, of high importance for various applications.

  12. Adaptive optics confocal fluorescence microscopy with direct wavefront sensing for brain tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Fernandez, Bautista; Chen, Diana C.; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Zuo, Yi; Kubby, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in deep tissue imaging for the study of neurons. Unfortunately, because of the inhomogeneous refractive index of the tissue, the aberrations degrade the resolution and brightness of the final image. In this paper, we describe an adaptive optics confocal fluorescence microscope (AOCFM) which can correct aberrations based on direct wavefront measurements using a point source reference beacon and a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (SHWS). Mouse brain tissues with different thicknesses are tested. After correction, both the signal intensity and contrast of the image are improved.

  13. Multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for large-scale wave-front reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Luc; Vogel, Curtis R; Ellerbroek, Brent L

    2002-09-01

    We introduce a multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient (MGCG) iterative scheme for computing open-loop wave-front reconstructors for extreme adaptive optics systems. We present numerical simulations for a 17-m class telescope with n = 48756 sensor measurement grid points within the aperture, which indicate that our MGCG method has a rapid convergence rate for a wide range of subaperture average slope measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The total computational cost is of order n log n. Hence our scheme provides for fast wave-front simulation and control in large-scale adaptive optics systems.

  14. Combining physiological, environmental and locational sensors for citizen-oriented health applications.

    PubMed

    Huck, J J; Whyatt, J D; Coulton, P; Davison, B; Gradinar, A

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of combining the outputs of multiple low-cost sensor technologies for the direct measurement of spatio-temporal variations in phenomena that exist at the interface between our bodies and the environment. The example used herein is the measurement of personal exposure to traffic pollution, which may be considered as a function of the concentration of pollutants in the air and the frequency and volume of that air which enters our lungs. The sensor-based approach described in this paper removes the 'traditional' requirements either to model or interpolate pollution levels or to make assumptions about the physiology of an individual. Rather, a wholly empirical analysis into pollution exposure is possible, based upon high-resolution spatio-temporal data drawn from sensors for NO2, nasal airflow and location (GPS). Data are collected via a custom smartphone application and mapped to give an unprecedented insight into exposure to traffic pollution at the individual level. Whilst the quality of data from low-cost miniaturised sensors is not suitable for all applications, there certainly are many applications for which these data would be well suited, particularly those in the field of citizen science. This paper demonstrates both the potential and limitations of sensor-based approaches and discusses the wider relevance of these technologies for the advancement of citizen science.

  15. PASSATA: object oriented numerical simulation software for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, G.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the last version of the PyrAmid Simulator Software for Adaptive opTics Arcetri (PASSATA), an IDL and CUDA based object oriented software developed in the Adaptive Optics group of the Arcetri observatory for Monte-Carlo end-to-end adaptive optics simulations. The original aim of this software was to evaluate the performance of a single conjugate adaptive optics system for ground based telescope with a pyramid wavefront sensor. After some years of development, the current version of PASSATA is able to simulate several adaptive optics systems: single conjugate, multi conjugate and ground layer, with Shack Hartmann and Pyramid wavefront sensors. It can simulate from 8m to 40m class telescopes, with diffraction limited and resolved sources at finite or infinite distance from the pupil. The main advantages of this software are the versatility given by the object oriented approach and the speed given by the CUDA implementation of the most computational demanding routines. We describe the software with its last developments and present some examples of application.

  16. Digital holography wavefront sensing in the pupil-plane recording geometry for distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banet, Matthias T.; Spencer, Mark F.; Raynor, Robert A.; Marker, Dan K.

    2016-09-01

    Digital holography in the pupil-plane recording geometry shows promise as a wavefront sensor for use in adaptive-optics systems. Because current wavefront sensors suffer from decreased performance in the presence of turbulence and thermal blooming, there is a need for a more robust wavefront sensor in such distributed-volume atmospheric conditions. Digital holography fulfills this roll by accurately estimating the wrapped phase of the complex optical field after propagation through the atmosphere to the pupil plane of an optical system. This paper examines wave-optics simulations of spherical-wave propagation through both turbulence and thermal blooming; it also quantifies the performance of digital holography as a wavefront sensor by generating field-estimated Strehl ratios as a function of the number of pixels in the detector array, the Rytov number, and the Fried coherence diameter. Altogether the results indicate that digital holography wavefront sensing in the pupil-plane recording geometry is a valid and accurate method for estimating the wrapped phase of the complex optical field in the presence of distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations.

  17. Static wavefront correction by Linnik interferometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artzner, G.

    1989-04-01

    The author considers optical systems with residual peak to valley wavefront errors below 150 nm. The interference figure for λ = 633 nm may then be adjusted and photographed as to hold out at every point of the image of the pupil a one to one relationship between the optical density of the interferogram and the magnitude of the wavefront error. An enduring interference figure is secured by means of a tiny reflecting aluminized spot on a bare substrate located on the image of a distant point source. The author investigates how subsequent photoreproduction of an interferogram upon a photoresist coating may act as a transmitting or reflecting wavefront corrector.

  18. Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rueckel, Markus; Mack-Bucher, Julia A.; Denk, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The image quality of a two-photon microscope is often degraded by wavefront aberrations induced by the specimen. We demonstrate here that resolution and signal size in two-photon microcopy can be substantially improved, even in living biological specimens, by adaptive wavefront correction based on sensing the wavefront of coherence-gated backscattered light (coherence-gated wavefront sensing, CGWS) and wavefront control by a deformable mirror. A nearly diffraction-limited focus can be restored even for strong aberrations. CGWS-based wavefront correction should be applicable to samples with a wide range of scattering properties and it should be possible to perform real-time pixel-by-pixel correction even at fast scan speeds. PMID:17088565

  19. Single-Shot Wavefront Measurement of an Injection-seeded Plasma-based Soft X-Ray Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Li, L.; Wang, Y.; Oliva, E.; Yin, L.; Luther, B.; Maynard, G.; Ros, D.; Rocca, J. J.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    The wavefront of a λ = 18.9 nm soft x-ray beam from an injection-seeded plasma amplifier created by irradiation of a solid target was measured using a Hartmann wavefront sensor with an accuracy of λ/32 in a single shot. A significant improvement in wavefront aberrations from 0.51 +/- 0.06 λ rms of high harmonic seed to 0.23 +/- 0.01 λ rms for the amplified seeded beam was observed. The variation of wavefront characteristic as a function of time delay between the injection of the seed and peak of soft x-ray amplifier pump was studied. The wavefront sensor allows for the independent measurement of the different aberrations. The strongest improvement of the wavefront as it exits the amplifier is observed for coma, with values improve by more than a factor of 2, from 0.4l λ to 0.18 λ rms. The measurements were used to reconstruct the soft x-ray source and confirm its high peak brightness of about 1 ×1026 photons/(s.mm2.mrad2. 0.01 % bandwidth). Work supported by AMOS program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US DoE, and the NSF ERC Program with equipment developed under NSF Award MRI-ARRA 09-561, and by LASERLAB3-INREX European project and SHYLAX plus CIBORG RTRA `Triangle de la Physique.'

  20. Wavefront sensing and adaptive control in phased array of fiber collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    2011-03-01

    A new wavefront control approach for mitigation of atmospheric turbulence-induced wavefront phase aberrations in coherent fiber-array-based laser beam projection systems is introduced and analyzed. This approach is based on integration of wavefront sensing capabilities directly into the fiber-array transmitter aperture. In the coherent fiber array considered, we assume that each fiber collimator (subaperture) of the array is capable of precompensation of local (onsubaperture) wavefront phase tip and tilt aberrations using controllable rapid displacement of the tip of the delivery fiber at the collimating lens focal plane. In the technique proposed, this tip and tilt phase aberration control is based on maximization of the optical power received through the same fiber collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) technique. The coordinates of the fiber tip after the local tip and tilt aberrations are mitigated correspond to the coordinates of the focal-spot centroid of the optical wave backscattered off the target. Similar to a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, phase function over the entire fiber-array aperture can then be retrieved using the coordinates obtained. The piston phases that are required for coherent combining (phase locking) of the outgoing beams at the target plane can be further calculated from the reconstructed wavefront phase. Results of analysis and numerical simulations are presented. Performance of adaptive precompensation of phase aberrations in this laser beam projection system type is compared for various system configurations characterized by the number of fiber collimators and atmospheric turbulence conditions. The wavefront control concept presented can be effectively applied for long-range laser beam projection scenarios for which the time delay related with the double-pass laser beam propagation to the target and back is compared or even exceeds the characteristic time of the atmospheric turbulence change

  1. Image system analysis of human eye wave-front aberration on the basis of HSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ancheng

    2017-07-01

    Hartmann-Shack sensor (HSS) has been used in objective measurement of human eye wave-front aberration, but the research on the effects of sampling point size on the accuracy of the result has not been reported. In this paper, point spread function (PSF) of the whole system mathematical model was obtained via measuring the optical imaging system structure of human eye wave-front aberration measurement. The impact of Airy spot size on the accuracy of system was analyzed. Statistics study show that the geometry of Airy spot size of the ideal light source sent from eye retina formed on the surface of HSS is far smaller than the size of the HSS sample point image used in the experiment. Therefore, the effect of Airy spot on the precision of the system can be ignored. This study theoretically and experimentally justifies the reliability and accuracy of human eye wave-front aberration measurement based on HSS.

  2. Modeling of high-precision wavefront sensing with new generation of CMT avalanche photodiode infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays.

  3. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  4. Wavefront improvement in an injection-seeded soft x-ray laser based on a solid-target plasma amplifier.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Oliva, Eduardo; Yin, Liang; Le, T T Thuy; Daboussi, Sameh; Ros, David; Maynard, Gilles; Sebban, Stephane; Hu, Bitao; Rocca, Jorge J; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2013-10-15

    The wavefront of an injection-seeded soft x-ray laser beam generated by amplification of high-harmonic pulses in a λ=18.9 nm molybdenum plasma amplifier was measured by a Hartmann wavefront sensor with an accuracy of λ/32 root mean square (rms). A significant improvement in wavefront aberrations of 0.51±0.03λ rms to 0.23±0.01λ rms was observed as a function of plasma column length. The variation of wavefront characteristic as a function time delay between the injection of the seed and peak of soft x-ray amplifier pump was studied. The measurements were used to reconstruct the soft x-ray source and confirm its high peak brightness.

  5. Photo-thermal measurement of absorptance losses, temperature induced wavefront deformation and compaction in DUV-optics.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Bernd; Gloger, Jonas; Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus

    2009-12-07

    A measurement system for quantitative registration of transient and irreversible lens effects in DUV optics induced by absorbed UV laser radiation was developed. It is based upon a strongly improved Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor with an extreme sensitivity of approximately lambda/10000 rms @ 193nm, accomplishing precise on-line monitoring of wavefront deformations of a collimated test laser beam transmitted through the laser-irradiated site of a sample. Caused by the temperature dependence of the refractive index as well as thermal expansion, the initially plane wavefront of the test laser is distorted into a convex or concave lens, depending on sign and magnitude of index change and expansion. This transient wavefront distortion yields a quantitative measure of the absorption losses in the sample. In the case of fused silica, an additional permanent change indicates irreversible material compaction. Results for both fused silica and CaF(2) are presented and compared.

  6. Lateral shearing interferometry with a deformable mirror for wavefront analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoi, F.; Apostol, D.; Schiopu, P.

    2010-11-01

    A self-referencing inteferometric method of wavefront sensing based on lateral shearing interferometry, able to measure the local slope of a wavefront is described. For this, a deformable mirror is used to manipulate the testing wavefront and a Murty plane-parallel plate interferometer to analyze this wavefront. We demonstrate the interferometer by measuring a series of different wavefront shapes using coherent light. The principle of operation is presented together with practical implementation and experimental results.

  7. Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the state of the art wavefront sensor detectors developments held in Europe for the last decade. The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend on the ability of Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to provide excellent image quality and stability. This will be achieved by increasing the sampling, wavelength range and correction quality of the wave front error in both spatial and time domains. The modern generation of AO wavefront sensor detectors development started in the late nineties with the CCD50 detector fabricated by e2v technologies under ESO contract for the ESO NACO AO system. With a 128x128 pixels format, this 8 outputs CCD offered a 500 Hz frame rate with a readout noise of 7e-. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the recent development by e2v technologies of the CCD220. This 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication) has been jointly funded by ESO and Europe under the FP6 programme. The CCD220 and the OCAM2 camera that operates the detector are now the most sensitive system in the world for advanced adaptive optics systems, offering less than 0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. Extremely easy to operate, OCAM2 only needs a 24 V power supply and a modest water cooling circuit. This system, commercialized by First Light Imaging, is extensively described in this paper. An upgrade of OCAM2 is foreseen to boost its frame rate to 2 kHz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT using 4 synchronized cameras and pyramid wavefront sensing. Since this major success, new developments started in Europe. One is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with ESO involvement. The spot elongation from a LGS Shack Hartman wavefront sensor necessitates an increase of the pixel format. Two detectors are currently developed by e2v. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS

  8. Estimating the point spread function of an imaging system using wavefront measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hongjun; Liang, Yonghui; Huang, Zongfu; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Pengzhi

    2016-10-01

    An imaging system is constructed by atmosphere turbulence and ground-based telescope when the latter is used to observe a space object. The wavefront measurement produced by adaptive optics system can be used to estimate the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system since it contains the wavefront aberration information of the light from the object. But the detector noise of the wavefront sensor (WFS) will inevitably bring estimation error. Based on the statistical theory, a method is presented to improve the PSF estimation accuracy by eliminating the noise error from the wavefront measurement. The numerical simulation shows that the estimation error of this method could be lower than 10%. It also indicates that the higher the signal-noise ratio (SNR) of the WFS is, the more frames of the wavefront measurements are used, and the bigger the Fried constant is, the more accurate the estimation will be. The work in this paper can be applied to performance evaluation of imaging system, deconvolution of AO images, as well as photometric analysis of space object.

  9. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  10. Generation of acoustic helical wavefronts using metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that acoustic waves with helical wavefronts can carry angular momentum, which can be transmitted towards a propagating medium. Such a wave field can be achieved by using a planar array of electroacoustic transducers, forming a given spatial distribution of phased sound sources which produce the desired helical wavefronts. Here, we introduce a technique to generate acoustic vortices, based on the passive acoustic metasurface concept. The proposed metasurface is composed of space-coiled cylindrical unit cells transmitting sound pressure with a controllable phase shift, which are arranged in a discretized circular configuration, and thus passively transforming an incident plane wavefront into the desired helical wavefront. This method presents the advantage of overcoming the restrictions on using many acoustic sources, and it is implemented with a transmitting metasurface which can be easily three-dimensionally printed. The proposed straightforward design principle can be adopted for easy production of acoustic angular momentum with minimum complexity and using a single source.

  11. Fast patterning of oriented organic microstripes for field-effect ammonia gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binghao; Ding, Jinqiang; Zhu, Tao; Huang, Wei; Cui, Zequn; Chen, Jianmei; Huang, Lizhen; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-02-21

    A series of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with patterned ultra-thin films for NH3 detection are achieved via fast dip-coating. The morphology and packing structure of the ultra-thin films are greatly dependent on the surface energy of the substrates, geometry features of the patterned electrodes and evaporation atmosphere during the dip-coating process, which in turn results in a significant difference in the NH3 sensing properties. Based on the newly proposed mechanism, low-trap dielectric-semiconductor interfaces, a stripe-like morphology and an ultrathin film (as low as 2 nm) enable the OFET-based sensors to exhibit unprecedented sensitivity (∼160) with a short response/recovery time. The efficient (2 mm s(-1)), reliable, and scalable patterning strategy opens a new route for solution-processed OFET-based gas sensors.

  12. X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal; Berujon, Sébastien; Ziegler, Eric; Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian

    2011-08-15

    A fast and accurate method to characterize the X-ray wavefront by rotating one of the two gratings of an X-ray shearing interferometer is described and investigated step by step. Such a shearing interferometer consists of a phase grating mounted on a rotation stage, and an absorption grating used as a transmission mask. The mathematical relations for X-ray Moiré fringe analysis when using this device are derived and discussed in the context of the previous literature assumptions. X-ray beam wavefronts without and after X-ray reflective optical elements have been characterized at beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source (DLS) using the presented X-ray rotating shearing interferometer (RSI) technique. It has been demonstrated that this improved method allows accurate calculation of the wavefront radius of curvature and the wavefront distortion, even when one has no previous information on the grating projection pattern period, magnification ratio and the initial grating orientation. As the RSI technique does not require any a priori knowledge of the beam features, it is suitable for routine characterization of wavefronts of a wide range of radii of curvature.

  13. X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal; Berujon, Sébastien; Ziegler, Eric; Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian

    2011-08-01

    A fast and accurate method to characterize the X-ray wavefront by rotating one of the two gratings of an X-ray shearing interferometer is described and investigated step by step. Such a shearing interferometer consists of a phase grating mounted on a rotation stage, and an absorption grating used as a transmission mask. The mathematical relations for X-ray Moiré fringe analysis when using this device are derived and discussed in the context of the previous literature assumptions. X-ray beam wavefronts without and after X-ray reflective optical elements have been characterized at beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source (DLS) using the presented X-ray rotating shearing interferometer (RSI) technique. It has been demonstrated that this improved method allows accurate calculation of the wavefront radius of curvature and the wavefront distortion, even when one has no previous information on the grating projection pattern period, magnification ratio and the initial grating orientation. As the RSI technique does not require any a priori knowledge of the beam features, it is suitable for routine characterization of wavefronts of a wide range of radii of curvature.

  14. Wavefront control system for the Keck telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J. M., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The laser guide star adaptive optics system currently being developed for the Keck 2 telescope consists of several major subsystems: the optical bench, wavefront control, user interface and supervisory control, and the laser system. The paper describes the design and implementation of the wavefront control subsystem that controls a 349 actuator deformable mirror for high order correction and tip-tilt mirrors for stabilizing the image and laser positions.

  15. The design of wavefront coded imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shun; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2016-10-01

    Wavefront Coding is a new method to extend the depth of field, which combines optical design and signal processing together. By using optical design software ZEMAX ,we designed a practical wavefront coded imaging system based on a conventional Cooke triplet system .Unlike conventional optical system, the wavefront of this new system is modulated by a specially designed phase mask, which makes the point spread function (PSF)of optical system not sensitive to defocus. Therefore, a series of same blurred images obtained at the image plane. In addition, the optical transfer function (OTF) of the wavefront coded imaging system is independent of focus, which is nearly constant with misfocus and has no regions of zeros. All object information can be completely recovered through digital filtering at different defocus positions. The focus invariance of MTF is selected as merit function in this design. And the coefficients of phase mask are set as optimization goals. Compared to conventional optical system, wavefront coded imaging system obtains better quality images under different object distances. Some deficiencies appear in the restored images due to the influence of digital filtering algorithm, which are also analyzed in this paper. The depth of field of the designed wavefront coded imaging system is about 28 times larger than initial optical system, while keeping higher optical power and resolution at the image plane.

  16. Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bosveld, Floris; Markova, Olga; Guirao, Boris; Martin, Charlotte; Wang, Zhimin; Pierre, Anaëlle; Balakireva, Maria; Gaugue, Isabelle; Ainslie, Anna; Christophorou, Nicolas; Lubensky, David K.; Minc, Nicolas; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2017-01-01

    The orientation of cell division along the interphase cell long-axis, the century old Hertwig’s rule, has profound roles in tissue proliferation, morphogenesis, architecture and mechanics1,2. In epithelial tissues, the shape of the interphase cell is influenced by cell adhesion, mechanical stress, neighbour topology, and planar polarity pathways3–12. At mitosis, epithelial cells usually round up to ensure faithful chromosome segregation and to promote morphogenesis1. The mechanisms underlying interphase cell shape sensing in tissues are therefore unknown. We found that in Drosophila epithelia, tricellular junctions (TCJ) localize microtubule force generators, orienting cell division via the Dynein associated protein Mud independently of the classical Pins/Gαi pathway. Moreover, as cells round up during mitosis, TCJs serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape anisotropy to orient division in the rounded mitotic cell. Finally, experimental and simulation data show that shape and mechanical strain sensing by the TCJ emerge from a general geometric property of TCJ distributions in epithelial tissues. Thus, in addition to their function as epithelial barrier structures, TCJs serve as polarity cues promoting geometry and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues. PMID:26886796

  17. Epithelial tricellular junctions act as interphase cell shape sensors to orient mitosis.

    PubMed

    Bosveld, Floris; Markova, Olga; Guirao, Boris; Martin, Charlotte; Wang, Zhimin; Pierre, Anaëlle; Balakireva, Maria; Gaugue, Isabelle; Ainslie, Anna; Christophorou, Nicolas; Lubensky, David K; Minc, Nicolas; Bellaïche, Yohanns

    2016-02-25

    The orientation of cell division along the long axis of the interphase cell--the century-old Hertwig's rule--has profound roles in tissue proliferation, morphogenesis, architecture and mechanics. In epithelial tissues, the shape of the interphase cell is influenced by cell adhesion, mechanical stress, neighbour topology, and planar polarity pathways. At mitosis, epithelial cells usually adopt a rounded shape to ensure faithful chromosome segregation and to promote morphogenesis. The mechanisms underlying interphase cell shape sensing in tissues are therefore unknown. Here we show that in Drosophila epithelia, tricellular junctions (TCJs) localize force generators, pulling on astral microtubules and orienting cell division via the Dynein-associated protein Mud independently of the classical Pins/Gαi pathway. Moreover, as cells round up during mitosis, TCJs serve as spatial landmarks, encoding information about interphase cell shape anisotropy to orient division in the rounded mitotic cell. Finally, experimental and simulation data show that shape and mechanical strain sensing by the TCJs emerge from a general geometric property of TCJ distributions in epithelial tissues. Thus, in addition to their function as epithelial barrier structures, TCJs serve as polarity cues promoting geometry and mechanical sensing in epithelial tissues.

  18. Sensored Field Oriented Control of a Robust Induction Motor Drive Using a Novel Boundary Layer Fuzzy Controller

    PubMed Central

    Saghafinia, Ali; Ping, Hew Wooi; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Physical sensors have a key role in implementation of real-time vector control for an induction motor (IM) drive. This paper presents a novel boundary layer fuzzy controller (NBLFC) based on the boundary layer approach for speed control of an indirect field-oriented control (IFOC) of an induction motor (IM) drive using physical sensors. The boundary layer approach leads to a trade-off between control performances and chattering elimination. For the NBLFC, a fuzzy system is used to adjust the boundary layer thickness to improve the tracking performance and eliminate the chattering problem under small uncertainties. Also, to eliminate the chattering under the possibility of large uncertainties, the integral filter is proposed inside the variable boundary layer. In addition, the stability of the system is analyzed through the Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed NBLFC based IM drive is implemented in real-time using digital signal processor (DSP) board TI TMS320F28335. The experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed NBLFC based IM drive at different operating conditions.

  19. Experimental Verification of Sparse Aperture Mask for Low Order Wavefront Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    To directly image exoplanets, future space-based missions are equipped with coronagraphs which manipulate the diffraction of starlight and create regions of high contrast called dark holes. Theoretically, coronagraphs can be designed to achieve the high level of contrast required to image exoplanets, which are billions of times dimmer than their host stars, however the aberrations caused by optical imperfections and thermal fluctuations cause the degradation of contrast in the dark holes. Focal plane wavefront control (FPWC) algorithms using deformable mirrors (DMs) are used to mitigate the quasi-static aberrations caused by optical imperfections. Although the FPWC methods correct the quasi-static aberrations, they are blind to dynamic errors caused by telescope jitter and thermal fluctuations. At Princeton's High Contrast Imaging Lab we have developed a new technique that integrates a sparse aperture mask with the coronagraph to estimate these low-order dynamic wavefront errors. This poster shows the effectiveness of a SAM Low-Order Wavefront Sensor in estimating and correcting these errors via simulation and experiment and compares the results to other methods, such as the Zernike Wavefront Sensor planned for WFIRST.

  20. Agile wavefront splitting interferometry and imaging using a digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    Since 1997, we have proposed and demonstrated the use of the Texas Instrument (TI) Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) for various non-display applications including optical switching and imaging. In 2009, we proposed the use of the DMD to realize wavefront splitting interferometers as well as a variety of imagers. Specifically, proposed were agile electronically programmable wavefront splitting interferometer designs using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) such as (a) a transmissive SLM, (b) a DMD SLM and (c) a Beamsplitter with a DMD SLM. The SLMs operates with on/off or digital state pixels, much like a black and white state optical window to control passage/reflection of incident light. SLM pixel locations can be spatially and temporally modulated to create custom wavefronts for near-common path optical interference at the optical detectors such as a CCD/CMOS sensor, a Focal Plane Array (FPA) sensor or a point-photodetector. This paper describes the proposed DMD-based wavefront splitting interferometer and imager designs and their relevant experimental results.

  1. Experimental results of ground-layer and tomographic wavefront reconstruction from multiple laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Hart, Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Milton, N Mark; Snyder, Miguel; Stalcup, Thomas; Angel, J Roger P

    2006-08-21

    We describe results from the first multi-laser wavefront sensing system designed to support tomographic modes of adaptive optics (AO). The system, now operating at the 6.5 m MMT telescope in Arizona, creates five beacons by Rayleigh scattering of laser beams at 532 nm integrated over a range from 20 to 29 km by dynamic refocus of the telescope optics. The return light is analyzed by a Shack-Hartmann sensor that places all five beacons on a single detector, with electronic shuttering to implement the beacon range gate. A separate high-order Shack-Hartmann sensor records simultaneous measurements of wavefronts from a natural star. From open-loop measurements, we find the average beacon wavefront gives a good estimate of ground layer aberration. We present results of full tomographic wavefront analysis, enabled by supplementing the laser data with simultaneous fast image motion measurements from three stars in the field. We describe plans for an early demonstration at the MMT of closed-loop ground layer AO, and later tomographic AO.

  2. An optimized Kalman filter for the estimate of trunk orientation from inertial sensors data during treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Mazzà, Claudia; Donati, Marco; McCamley, John; Picerno, Pietro; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the fine tuning of a Kalman filter with the intent to provide optimal estimates of lower trunk orientation in the frontal and sagittal planes during treadmill walking at different speeds using measured linear acceleration and angular velocity components represented in a local system of reference. Data were simultaneously collected using both an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a stereophotogrammetric system from three healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at natural, slow and fast speeds. These data were used to estimate the parameters of the Kalman filter that minimized the difference between the trunk orientations provided by the filter and those obtained through stereophotogrammetry. The optimized parameters were then used to process the data collected from a further 15 healthy subjects of both genders and different anthropometry performing the same walking tasks with the aim of determining the robustness of the filter set up. The filter proved to be very robust. The root mean square values of the differences between the angles estimated through the IMU and through stereophotogrammetry were lower than 1.0° and the correlation coefficients between the corresponding curves were greater than 0.91. The proposed filter design can be used to reliably estimate trunk lateral and frontal bending during walking from inertial sensor data. Further studies are needed to determine the filter parameters that are most suitable for other motor tasks.

  3. FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, S.; Barth, A.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Beckert, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present progressive work that is based on our recently developed rapid control prototyping system (RCP), designed for the implementation of high-performance adaptive optical control algorithms using a continuous de-formable mirror (DM). The RCP system, presented in 2014, is resorting to a Xilinx Kintex-7 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), placed on a self-developed PCIe card, and installed on a high-performance computer that runs a hard real-time Linux operating system. For this purpose, algorithms for the efficient evaluation of data from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) on an FPGA have been developed. The corresponding analog input and output cards are designed for exploiting the maximum possible performance while not being constrained to a specific DM and control algorithm due to the RCP approach. In this second part of our contribution, we focus on recent results that we achieved with this novel experimental setup. By presenting results which are far superior to the former ones, we further justify the deployment of the RCP system and its required time and resources. We conducted various experiments for revealing the effective performance, i.e. the maximum manageable complexity in the controller design that may be achieved in real-time without performance losses. A detailed analysis of the hidden latencies is carried out, showing that these latencies have been drastically reduced. In addition, a series of concepts relating the evaluation of the wavefront as well as designing and synthesizing a wavefront are thoroughly investigated with the goal to overcome some of the prevalent limitations. Furthermore, principal results regarding the closed-loop performance of the low-speed dynamics of the integrated heater in a DM concept are illustrated in detail; to be combined with the piezo-electric high-speed actuators in the next step

  4. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  5. Surface-Parallel Sensor Orientation for Assessing Energy Balance Components on Mountain Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Olmo, F. J.; Metzger, S.; Pérez-Priego, O.; Carrara, A.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Kowalski, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    The consistency of eddy-covariance measurements is often evaluated in terms of the degree of energy balance closure. Even over sloping terrain, instrumentation for measuring energy balance components is commonly installed horizontally, i.e. perpendicular to the geo-potential gradient. Subsequently, turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat are rotated perpendicular to the mean streamlines using tilt-correction algorithms. However, net radiation (Rn) and soil heat fluxes ( G) are treated differently, and typically only Rn is corrected to account for slope. With an applied case study, we show and argue several advantages of installing sensors surface-parallel to measure surface-normal Rn and G. For a 17 % south-west-facing slope, our results show that horizontal installation results in hysteresis in the energy balance closure and errors of up to 25 %. Finally, we propose an approximation to estimate the surface-normal Rn, when only vertical Rn measurements are available.

  6. A Method for Automatic and Objective Scoring of Bradykinesia Using Orientation Sensors and Classification Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Manzanera, O; Roosma, E; Beudel, M; Borgemeester, R W K; van Laar, T; Maurits, N M

    2016-05-01

    Correct assessment of bradykinesia is a key element in the diagnosis and monitoring of Parkinson's disease. Its evaluation is based on a careful assessment of symptoms and it is quantified using rating scales, where the Movement Disorders Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) is the gold standard. Regardless of their importance, the bradykinesia-related items show low agreement between different evaluators. In this study, we design an applicable tool that provides an objective quantification of bradykinesia and that evaluates all characteristics described in the MDS-UPDRS. Twenty-five patients with Parkinson's disease performed three of the five bradykinesia-related items of the MDS-UPDRS. Their movements were assessed by four evaluators and were recorded with a nine degrees-of-freedom sensor. Sensor fusion was employed to obtain a 3-D representation of movements. Based on the resulting signals, a set of features related to the characteristics described in the MDS-UPDRS was defined. Feature selection methods were employed to determine the most important features to quantify bradykinesia. The features selected were used to train support vector machine classifiers to obtain an automatic score of the movements of each patient. The best results were obtained when seven features were included in the classifiers. The classification errors for finger tapping, diadochokinesis and toe tapping were 15-16.5%, 9.3-9.8%, and 18.2-20.2% smaller than the average interrater scoring error, respectively. The introduction of objective scoring in the assessment of bradykinesia might eliminate inconsistencies within evaluators and interrater assessment disagreements and might improve the monitoring of movement disorders.

  7. Developmental Cryogenic Active Telescope Testbed, a Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Claudia M.; Davila, Pamela S.; Redding, David C.; Morell, Armando; Lowman, Andrew E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Young, Eric W.; Pacini, Linda K.; Coulter, Dan R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the technology validation strategy of the next generation space telescope (NGST), a system testbed is being developed at GSFC, in partnership with JPL and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which will include all of the component functions envisioned in an NGST active optical system. The system will include an actively controlled, segmented primary mirror, actively controlled secondary, deformable, and fast steering mirrors, wavefront sensing optics, wavefront control algorithms, a telescope simulator module, and an interferometric wavefront sensor for use in comparing final obtained wavefronts from different tests. The developmental. cryogenic active telescope testbed (DCATT) will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on operating the testbed at ambient temperature. During Phase 2, a cryocapable segmented telescope will be developed and cooled to cryogenic temperature to investigate the impact on the ability to correct the wavefront and stabilize the image. In Phase 3, it is planned to incorporate industry developed flight-like components, such as figure controlled mirror segments, cryogenic, low hold power actuators, or different wavefront sensing and control hardware or software. A very important element of the program is the development and subsequent validation of the integrated multidisciplinary models. The Phase 1 testbed objectives, plans, configuration, and design will be discussed.

  8. Wavefront autocorrelation of femtosecond laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Ruediger; Neumann, Uwe J.; Griebner, Uwe; Reimann, Klaus; Steinmeyer, Guenter; Kebbel, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Spatially resolved wavefront sensing and time-resolved autocorrelation measurement of ultrashort pulses are usually separated procedures. For few-cycle pulses with significant spatial inhomogeneities and poor beam quality, a fully spatio-temporal beam characterization is necessary. Here we report on a new concept for a joint two-dimensional mapping of local temporal coherence and local wavefront tilt based on the combination of collinear autocorrelation and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. Essentially for this "wavefront autocorrelation" is a splitting of the beam into a matrix of Bessel-like sub-beams by an array of thin-film microaxicons. The sub-beams are further processed by a two-dimensional collinear autocorrelation setup. The second harmonic distribution of sub-beams at a defined distance is imaged onto a CCD camera. The nondiffractive sub-beams ensure an extended depth of focus and a low sensitivity towards angular misalignment or axial displacement. With low-dispersion small-angle refractive-reflective shapers, wavefront-sensing of Ti:sapphire laser wavepackets was demonstrated experimentally for the first time.

  9. A Fairness Oriented Neighbor-Channel-Aware MAC Protocol for Airborne Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolin; Yan, Jian; Lu, Jianhua

    2017-05-16

    In airborne sensor networks (ASNs), the media access control (MAC) protocol faces a serious unfairness problem due to the traditional protection mechanism of air-to-air communications among aircraft. Actually, by using the binary exponential back-off algorithm at high traffic loads to minimize collisions among users, the latest successful node can always benefit from this kind of MAC to obtain channel resources. Moreover, when taking the existence of the hidden nodes in ASNs into account, the inaccurate traffic load information will further aggravate the system's unfairness. In this paper, a neighbor-channel-aware (NCA) protocol is proposed to improve the fairness of MAC protocol in ASNs. In the proposal, the NCA frame is firstly added and exchanged between neighbor nodes periodically, which helps to resolve the inaccurate traffic load information, so as to avoid reducing the probability of successful message transmission. Then a traffic-loading based back-off algorithm is involved to make the neighbor nodes cooperatively adjust the inter-frame space (IFS) interval to further reduce the unfairness. The simulation results show that, the proposed MAC protocol can guarantee the satisfied fairness, simultaneously avoiding heavy network overloads to protect key messages' successful transmissions in ASNs.

  10. A Fairness Oriented Neighbor-Channel-Aware MAC Protocol for Airborne Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaolin; Yan, Jian; Lu, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    In airborne sensor networks (ASNs), the media access control (MAC) protocol faces a serious unfairness problem due to the traditional protection mechanism of air-to-air communications among aircraft. Actually, by using the binary exponential back-off algorithm at high traffic loads to minimize collisions among users, the latest successful node can always benefit from this kind of MAC to obtain channel resources. Moreover, when taking the existence of the hidden nodes in ASNs into account, the inaccurate traffic load information will further aggravate the system’s unfairness. In this paper, a neighbor-channel-aware (NCA) protocol is proposed to improve the fairness of MAC protocol in ASNs. In the proposal, the NCA frame is firstly added and exchanged between neighbor nodes periodically, which helps to resolve the inaccurate traffic load information, so as to avoid reducing the probability of successful message transmission. Then a traffic-loading based back-off algorithm is involved to make the neighbor nodes cooperatively adjust the inter-frame space (IFS) interval to further reduce the unfairness. The simulation results show that, the proposed MAC protocol can guarantee the satisfied fairness, simultaneously avoiding heavy network overloads to protect key messages’ successful transmissions in ASNs. PMID:28509863

  11. Calibrating a point diffraction interferometer using aspherical wavefront reference.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castán-Ricaño, D.; Granados-Agustín, Fermín S.; Percino-Zacarías, E.; Tecuatl-Tecuatl, P.; Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a method to calibrate the reference wavefront generated by an IDP. This wavefront is considered for quantitative evaluation of a plano-convex aspheric surface. Preliminary experimental results are presented.

  12. Spatial filters for complex wavefront modulation.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Kettinger, Ádám; Koppa, Pál

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we propose a method to generate independent and simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation by a phase-only spatial light modulator and Fourier filtering. The incident light is modulated by a suitable phase pattern containing high spatial frequencies. The modulated light is transmitted through a 4f optical system having an appropriate spatial filter in the Fourier plane in order to synthesize the expected complex modulated wavefront on the output of the system. We propose a simple method to generate spatial filters applicable for the phase-only to complex modulated wavefront conversion. We analyze the quality of the output image related to the ideal wavefront using the proposed filters. We show that more efficient complex modulation can be realized by the proposed method than by the earlier solutions.

  13. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  14. Feedback controlled optics with wavefront compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, William G. (Inventor); Redding, David C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The sensitivity model of a complex optical system obtained by linear ray tracing is used to compute a control gain matrix by imposing the mathematical condition for minimizing the total wavefront error at the optical system's exit pupil. The most recent deformations or error states of the controlled segments or optical surfaces of the system are then assembled as an error vector, and the error vector is transformed by the control gain matrix to produce the exact control variables which will minimize the total wavefront error at the exit pupil of the optical system. These exact control variables are then applied to the actuators controlling the various optical surfaces in the system causing the immediate reduction in total wavefront error observed at the exit pupil of the optical system.

  15. Recent developments of interferometric wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Chen, Xiaoyu; Ling, Tong; Zhang, Lei; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2015-08-01

    Recent trends of interferometric wavefront sensing tend to focus on high precision, anti-vibration, compact, along with much more involved of electric and computer technology. And the optical principles employed not only limit to interference but also include diffraction, scattering, polarization, etc. In this paper, some selected examples basing on the research works in our group will be given to illustrate the trends mentioned above. To achieve extra high accuracy, phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS-PDI) is believed to be a good candidate as it employs a nearly perfect point diffraction spherical wavefront as the reference and also takes advantage of the high precision of phase-shifting algorithms. Cyclic radial shearing interferometry (C-RSI) successively demonstrate the anti-vibration characteristic and can diagnose transient wavefront with only one single shot by employing a three-mirror common-path configuration and a synchronizing system. In contrast sharply with those early interferometers, interferometers with very compact configuration are more suitable to develop portable wavefront sensing instruments. Cross-grating lateral shearing interferometer (CG-LSI) is a very compact interferometer that adopts a cross-grating of millimeters to produce lateral shearing of the diffraction wave of the test wavefront. Be aware that, computer technique has been used a lot in all of the above interferometers but the non-null annual sub-aperture stitching interferometer (NASSI) for general aspheric surface testing mostly relies on the computer model of the physical interferometer setup and iterative ray-tracing optimization. The principles of the above mentioned interferometric wavefront sensing methods would be given in detail.

  16. Wavefront sensing using a photonic lantern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Mark; Harris, Robert J.; Thomson, Robert R.; MacLachlan, David G.; Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Myers, Richard; Morris, Tim

    2016-07-01

    The need for high speed wavefront sensing within astronomical adaptive optics is growing, especially when scaling existing systems to ELTs. A photonic lantern (PL) could be advantageous with such systems because the output can be formatted onto a fast 1D CCD array separated from the telescope focal plane. We investigate the coupling of light from the focal plane into a simple four mode PL via simulations within RSoft. The output intensity distribution of the single mode cores when the input wavefront is affected by tip or tilt is analysed and compared with a quad cell of detector pixels typically used for a Shack-Hartmann.

  17. QUEN - The APL wavefront array processor

    SciTech Connect

    Dolecek, Q.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Developments in computer networks are making parallel processing machines accessible to an increasing number of scientists and engineers. Several vector and array processors are already commercially available, as are costly systolic, wavefront, and massive parallel processors. This article discusses the Applied Physics Laboratory's entry: a low-cost, memory-linked wavefront array processor that can be used as a peripheral on existing computers. Available today as the family of QUEN processors, it is the first commercial parallel processor to bring Cray 1 computation speeds into the minicomputer price range. 5 refs.

  18. Wave-front correctors by diamond turning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Stacy, J. E.; Saito, T. T.; Patterson, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The production of wave-front correctors by single-point diamond turning is reported. Interferograms are shown which demonstrate excellent agreement between the diamond-turned surface and the desired surface. It is concluded from this experiment that it is now feasible by means of single-point diamond turning to make generalized wave-front control surfaces or to produce any unusual surface desired by the optical designer. The maximum departure from the nearest regular surface is set by the dynamic range and maximum diamond point acceleration permitted by the machine.

  19. Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) Experiment Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Laura A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Campion, Scott D.; Faust, Jessica A.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Hayden, William L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Petrone, Peter P., III

    2004-01-01

    The Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) was created to develop and test wavefront sensing and control algorithms and software for the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Last year, we changed the system configuration from three sparse aperture segments to a filled aperture with three pie shaped segments. With this upgrade we have performed experiments on fine phasing with line-of-sight and segment-to-segment jitter, dispersed fringe visibility and grism angle;. high dynamic range tilt sensing; coarse phasing with large aberrations, and sampled sub-aperture testing. This paper reviews the results of these experiments.

  20. Wavefront sets and polarizations on supermanifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Gimperlein, Heiko; Murro, Simone; Schenkel, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop the foundation for microlocal analysis on supermanifolds. Making use of pseudodifferential operators on supermanifolds as introduced by Rempel and Schmitt, we define a suitable notion of super-wavefront set for superdistributions which generalizes Dencker's polarization sets for vector-valued distributions to supergeometry. In particular, our super-wavefront sets detect polarization information of the singularities of superdistributions. We prove a refined pullback theorem for superdistributions along supermanifold morphisms, which as a special case establishes criteria when two superdistributions may be multiplied. As an application of our framework, we study the singularities of distributional solutions of a supersymmetric field theory.

  1. Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Bahk, Seung-Whan

    2016-08-23

    A method of measuring characteristics of a wavefront of an incident beam includes obtaining an interferogram associated with the incident beam passing through a transmission mask and Fourier transforming the interferogram to provide a frequency domain interferogram. The method also includes selecting a subset of harmonics from the frequency domain interferogram, individually inverse Fourier transforming each of the subset of harmonics to provide a set of spatial domain harmonics, and extracting a phase profile from each of the set of spatial domain harmonics. The method further includes removing phase discontinuities in the phase profile, rotating the phase profile, and reconstructing a phase front of the wavefront of the incident beam.

  2. Clinical Applications of Wavefront Refraction

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Adrian S.; Catania, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine normative reference ranges for higher-order wavefront error (HO-WFE), compare these values with those in common ocular pathologies, and evaluate treatments. Methods A review of 17 major studies on HO-WFE was made, involving data for a total of 31,605 subjects. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for HO-WFE was calculated from the most comprehensive of these studies using normal healthy patients aged 20 to 80 years. There were no studies identified using the natural pupil size for subjects, and for this reason, the HO-WFE was tabulated for pupil diameters of 3 to 7 mm. Effects of keratoconus, pterygium, cataract, and dry eye on HO-WFE were reviewed and treatment efficacy was considered. Results The calculated upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE in a healthy normal 35-year-old patient with a mesopic pupil diameter of 6 mm would be 0.471 μm (471 nm) root-mean-square or less. Although the normal HO-WFE increases with age for a given pupil size, it is not yet completely clear how the concurrent influence of age-related pupillary miosis affects these findings. Abnormal ocular conditions such as keratoconus can induce a large HO-WFE, often in excess of 3.0 μm, particularly attributed to coma. For pterygium or cortical cataract, a combination of coma and trefoil was more commonly induced. Nuclear cataract can induce a negative spherical HO-WFE, usually in excess of 1.0 μm. Conclusions The upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE root-mean-square is about 0.5 μm with normal physiological pupil sizes. With ocular pathologies, HO-WFE can be in excess of 1.0 μm, although many devices and therapeutic and surgical treatments are reported to be highly effective at minimizing HO-WFE. More accurate normative reference ranges for HO-WFE will require future studies using the subjects’ natural pupil size. PMID:25216319

  3. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  4. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  5. Piston and tilt interferometry for segmented wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Deprez, M; Bellanger, C; Lombard, L; Wattellier, B; Primot, J

    2016-03-15

    We present a novel interferometric technique dedicated to the measurement of relative phase differences (pistons) and tilts of a periodically segmented wavefront. Potential applications include co-phasing of segmented mirrors of Keck-like telescopes as well as coherent laser beam combining. The setup only requires a holes mask selecting the center part of each element, a diffracting component, and a camera. Recorded interferogram is made of many subareas with sinusoidal fringe pattern. From each pattern, piston is extracted from fringe shift and tilts from fringe frequency and orientation. The pattern analysis is simple enough to enable kilohertz rate operation. The λ ambiguities are solved by a two-wavelength measurement. This technique is compatible with a very high number of elements and can be operated in the presence of atmospheric turbulence.

  6. Image amplification based super-resolution reconstruction procedure designed for wavefront-coded imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zong, Caihui; Wei, Jingxuan; Xie, Xiaopeng

    2016-10-01

    Wave-front coding, proposed by Dowski and Cathey in 1995, is widely known to be capable of extending the depth of focus (DOF) of incoherent imaging systems. However, benefiting from its very large point spread function (PSF) generated by a suitably designed phase mask that is added to the aperture plane, wave-front coding could also be used to achieve super-resolution without replacing the current sensor with one of smaller pitch size. An image amplification based super-resolution reconstruction procedure has been specifically designed for wave-front coded imaging systems and its effectiveness has been tested by experiment. For instance, for a focal length of 50 mm and f-number 4.5, objects within the range [5 m, ∞] are clearly imaged with the help of wave-front coding, which indicates a DOF extension ratio of approximately 20. The proposed super-resolution reconstruction procedure produces at least 3× resolution improvement, with the quality of the reconstructed super-resolution image approaching the diffraction limit.

  7. Wavefront sensing and control performance modeling of the Thirty Meter telescope for systematic trade analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissly, Carl; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell; Chanan, Gary; Roberts, Scott; Rogers, John

    2014-08-01

    We have developed an integrated optical model of the semi-static performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope. The model includes surface and rigid body errors of all telescope optics as well as a model of the Alignment and Phasing System Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors and control algorithms. This integrated model allows for simulation of the correction of the telescope wavefront, including optical errors on the secondary and tertiary mirrors, using the primary mirror segment active degrees of freedom. This model provides the estimate of the predicted telescope performance for system engineering and error budget development. In this paper we present updated performance values for the TMT static optical errors in terms of Normalized Point Source Sensitivity and RMS wavefront error after Adaptive Optics correction. As an example of a system level trade, we present the results from an analysis optimizing the number of Shack-Hartmann lenslets per segment. We trade the number of lenslet rings over each primary mirror segment against the telescope performance metrics of PSSN and RMS wavefront error.

  8. Implementation of adaptive optics in fluorescent microscopy using wavefront sensing and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Cao, Jian; Sullivan, William; Kner, Peter; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel

    2010-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) improves the quality of astronomical imaging systems by using real time measurement of the turbulent medium in the optical path using a guide star (natural or artificial) as a point source reference beacon [1]. AO has also been applied to vision science to improve the view of the human eye. This paper will address our current research focused on the improvement of fluorescent microscopy for biological imaging utilizing current AO technology. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) is used to measure the aberration introduced by a Drosophila Melanogaster embryo with an implanted 1 micron fluorescent bead that serves as a point source reference beacon. Previous measurements of the wavefront aberrations have found an average peak-to-valley and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error of 0.77 micrometers and 0.15 micrometers, respectively. Measurements of the Zernike coefficients indicated that the correction of the first 14 Zernike coefficients is sufficient to correct the aberrations we measured. Here we show that a MEMS deformable mirror with 3.5 microns of stroke and 140 actuators is sufficient to correct these aberrations. The design, assembly and initial results for the use of a MEMS deformable mirror, SHWS and implanted fluorescent reference beacon for wavefront correction are discussed.

  9. An experimental study on reflector wave-front error correction using PZT actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Lan; Jiang, Shuidong; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Houfei; Wu, Zhigang; Du, Jianming

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive control system for correcting wave-front error of a CFRC reflector has been studied. Errors investigated in this paper were mainly introduced by fabrication and gravity. 72 Piezoelectric Ceramic Transducer (PZT) actuators were integrated to the CFRC reflector to conduct wave-front error control. The adaptive CFRC reflector was fixed on an optical platform without any external loads. The temperature and humidity were well controlled during the experimental study. The wave-front error correction algorithm is based on influence matrix approach coupled with least squares optimization method. The linear relationship between the PZT actuator's input voltage and the output displacement of the adaptive CFRC reflector surface is validated. A laser displacement sensor was used for measuring the displacements. The influence matrix was obtained experimentally by measuring the displacements of the associated points while each actuator was activated separately. The wave-front error and influence matrix were measured using a V-Stars photogrammetry system. Experimental investigation validated that this adaptive control system is capable to significantly reduce the reflector surface geometry error. Experimental results are correlated very well with simulation results which were obtained by using a multidisciplinary analytical approach. Conclusions of this study suggest that the adaptive CFRC reflector technology can provide a low cost method to significantly increase the precision of a CFRC reflector.

  10. Exact wavefront surface refracted by a smooth arbitrary surface considering a plane wavefront incident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino M.

    2015-08-01

    We study the formation of wavefronts produced by smooth arbitrary surfaces with symmetry of revolution considering a plane wavefront propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on the refracting surface. The wavefronts are obtained by using the Malus-Dupin theorem and they represent the monochromatic aberrations which can be called image errors, furthermore their shapes could be modified by changing the parameters of the lens in such a way that if a caustic surface is vanished the optical system produces a perfect image, on the other hand for a caustic possessing a large area it could be applied to design non-imaging optical systems. The shape of the wavefront depends only on the indices of refraction and geometrical properties of the refracting surface such as the first derivative and their parameters associated. This analytic formula has potential applications in the microscopy field, illumination or corrector plates.

  11. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1995-04-25

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.

  12. Wavefront shaping for single fiber fluorescence endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca-Aguirre, Antonio M.; Piestun, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in wavefront control, spatial light modulators, and computational power enable the use of a single multimode fiber as a fluorescence scanning microscope. We explore multimode fibers with different characteristics (diameter, index profile, etc.) and compare their performance regarding robustness against external perturbations and quality of the scanning focus.

  13. Wavefront Correction for Large, Flexible Antenna Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, William A.; Jammejad, Vahraz; Rajagopalan, Harish; Xu, Shenheng

    2010-01-01

    A wavefront-correction system has been proposed as part of an outer-space radio communication system that would include a large, somewhat flexible main reflector antenna, a smaller subreflector antenna, and a small array feed at the focal plane of these two reflector antennas. Part of the wavefront-correction system would reside in the subreflector, which would be a planar patch-element reflectarray antenna in which the phase shifts of the patch antenna elements would be controlled via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio -frequency (RF) switches. The system would include the following sensing-and-computing subsystems: a) An optical photogrammetric subsystem built around two cameras would estimate geometric distortions of the main reflector; b) A second subsystem would estimate wavefront distortions from amplitudes and phases of signals received by the array feed elements; and c) A third subsystem, built around small probes on the subreflector plane, would estimate wavefront distortions from differences among phases of signals received by the probes. The distortion estimates from the three subsystems would be processed to generate control signals to be fed to the MEMS RF switches to correct for the distortions, thereby enabling collimation and aiming of the received or transmitted radio beam to the required precision.

  14. Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1995-01-01

    A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.

  15. Improved wavefront reconstruction algorithm from slope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Phan Huy; Manh, Nguyen The; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Ghim, Young-Sik; Yang, Ho-Soon; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a wavefront reconstruction algorithm from slope measurements based on a zonal method. In this algorithm, the slope measurement sampling geometry used is the Southwell geometry, in which the phase values and the slope data are measured at the same nodes. The proposed algorithm estimates the phase value at a node point using the slope measurements of eight points around the node, as doing so is believed to result in better accuracy with regard to the wavefront. For optimization of the processing time, a successive over-relaxation method is applied to iteration loops. We use a trial-and-error method to determine the best relaxation factor for each type of wavefront in order to optimize the iteration time and, thus, the processing time of the algorithm. Specifically, for a circularly symmetric wavefront, the convergence rate of the algorithm can be improved by using the result of a Fourier Transform as an initial value for the iteration. Various simulations are presented to demonstrate the improvements realized when using the proposed algorithm. Several experimental measurements of deflectometry are also processed by using the proposed algorithm.

  16. Inverse pupil wavefront optimization for immersion lithography.

    PubMed

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Xu; Guo, Xuejia

    2014-10-10

    As the critical dimension of integrated circuits is continuously shrunk, thick mask induced aberration (TMIA) cannot be ignored in the lithography image process. Recently, a set of pupil wavefront optimization (PWO) approaches has been proposed to compensate for TMIA, based on a wavefront manipulator in modern scanners. However, these prior PWO methods have two intrinsic drawbacks. First, the traditional methods fell short in building up the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function, and used time-consuming algorithms to solve for the PWO problem. Second, in traditional methods, only the spherical aberrations were optimized to compensate for the focus exposure matrix tilt and best focus shift induced by TMIA. Thus, the degrees of freedom were limited during the optimization procedure. To overcome these restrictions, we build the analytical relationship between the pupil wavefront and the cost function based on Abbe vector imaging theory. With this analytical model and the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate-gradient algorithm, an inverse PWO method is innovated to balance the TMIA including 37 Zernike terms. Simulation results illustrate that our approach significantly improves image fidelity within a larger process window. This demonstrates that TMIA is effectively compensated by our inverse PWO approach.

  17. Versatile approach for frequency resolved wavefront characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumker, Eugene; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Villeneuve, David M.; Corkum, Paul B.

    2011-03-01

    Spatial characterization of high harmonics (HH) and XUV coherent radiation is of paramount importance, along with its temporal characterization. For many applications it will be necessary to accurately measure the beam properties, just as it is important to know the beam characteristics for many laser experiments. For example, high harmonics and attosecond pulses are being proposed as a front-end for the next generation X-ray free electron lasers. This oscillator-amplifier-like arrangement will require well characterized high harmonic sources. On the other hand, the electromagnetic radiation carries the combined signature of underlying quantum physical processes at the molecular level and of the cooperative phase matching. For example, accurate reconstruction of the high harmonic spatial wavefront, along with its temporal profile, gives us a complete range of tools to apply to the fundamental quantum properties and dynamics associated with high harmonic generation. We present a new concept of frequency resolved wavefront characterization that is particularly suitable for characterizing XUV radiation. In keeping with tradition in the area we give it an acronym - SWORD (Spectral Wavefront Optical Reconstruction by Diffraction). Our approach is based on an analysis of the diffraction pattern of a slit situated in front of a flat-field spectrometer. As the slit is scanned, the spectrally resolved diffraction pattern is recorded. Analyzing the measured diffractogram, we can reconstruct the wavefront. The technique can be easily extended beyond the XUV spectral region. When combined with temporal characterization techniques all information about the beam can be measured.

  18. Implementation of a Wavefront-Sensing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce; Aronstein, David

    2013-01-01

    A computer program has been written as a unique implementation of an image-based wavefront-sensing algorithm reported in "Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity" (GSC-14879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 4 (April 2007), page 32. This software was originally intended for application to the James Webb Space Telescope, but is also applicable to other segmented-mirror telescopes. The software is capable of determining optical-wavefront information using, as input, a variable number of irradiance measurements collected in defocus planes about the best focal position. The software also uses input of the geometrical definition of the telescope exit pupil (otherwise denoted the pupil mask) to identify the locations of the segments of the primary telescope mirror. From the irradiance data and mask information, the software calculates an estimate of the optical wavefront (a measure of performance) of the telescope generally and across each primary mirror segment specifically. The software is capable of generating irradiance data, wavefront estimates, and basis functions for the full telescope and for each primary-mirror segment. Optionally, each of these pieces of information can be measured or computed outside of the software and incorporated during execution of the software.

  19. Smoldering wave-front velocity in fiberboard

    Treesearch

    John J. Brenden; Erwin L. Schaffer

    1980-01-01

    In fiberboard, the phenomena of smoldering can be visualized as decomposition resulting from the motion of a thermal wave-front through the material. The tendency to smolder is then directly proportional to the velocity of the front. Velocity measurements were made on four fiberboards and were compared to values given in the literature for several substances....

  20. An object-oriented modeling and simulation framework for bearings-only multi-target tracking using an unattended acoustic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Murat Šamil

    2013-10-01

    Tracking ground targets using low cost ground-based sensors is a challenging field because of the limited capabilities of such sensors. Among the several candidates, including seismic and magnetic sensors, the acoustic sensors based on microphone arrays have a potential of being useful: They can provide a direction to the sound source, they can have a relatively better range, and the sound characteristics can provide a basis for target classification. However, there are still many problems. One of them is the difficulty to resolve multiple sound sources, another is that they do not provide distance, a third is the presence of background noise from wind, sea, rain, distant air and land traffic, people, etc., and a fourth is that the same target can sound very differently depending on factors like terrain type, topography, speed, gear, distance, etc. Use of sophisticated signal processing and data fusion algorithms is the key for compensating (to an extend) the limited capabilities and mentioned problems of these sensors. It is hard, if not impossible, to evaluate the performance of such complex algorithms analytically. For an effective evaluation, before performing expensive field trials, well-designed laboratory experiments and computer simulations are necessary. Along this line, in this paper, we present an object-oriented modeling and simulation framework which can be used to generate simulated data for the data fusion algorithms for tracking multiple on-road targets in an unattended acoustic sensor network. Each sensor node in the network is a circular microphone array which produces the direction of arrival (DOA) (or bearing) measurements of the targets and sends this information to a fusion center. We present the models for road networks, targets (motion and acoustic power) and acoustic sensors in an object-oriented fashion where different and possibly time-varying sampling periods for each sensor node is possible. Moreover, the sensor's signal processing and

  1. Quality of Vision After Wavefront-Guided or Wavefront-Optimized LASIK: A Prospective Randomized Contralateral Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kung, Jennifer S; Manche, Edward E

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effect of wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized LASIK using different laser platforms on subjective quality of vision. The dominant eyes of 55 participants with myopia were randomized to receive either wavefront-guided LASIK treatment by the VISX Star S4 IR Custom-Vue excimer laser system (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Clara, CA) or wavefront-optimized treatment by the WaveLight Allegretto Wave Eye-Q 400-Hz excimer laser system (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX), whereas the fellow eye had the alternate laser treatment. Patients completed a questionnaire assessing quality of vision and visual symptoms (daytime and nighttime glare, daytime and nighttime clarity, halos, haze, fluctuating vision, and double vision) preoperatively and at postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12. At 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, there was no significant difference in any individual symptom between the wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized groups, although at 12 months wavefront-guided eyes trended toward having more excellent vision (wavefront-guided vs wavefront-optimized; 2.26 vs 2.43; P = .039). In the subgroup of patients with preoperative root mean square (RMS) higher order aberrations (HOAs) less than 0.3 µm in both eyes, the wavefront-optimized group demonstrated a trend toward worsened nighttime clarity (P = .009), daytime clarity (P = .015), and fluctuating vision (P = .046), and less excellent vision (P = .009) at 12 months. Twelve months after surgery, most patients' self-reported visual symptoms were similar in eyes receiving wavefront-guided or wavefront-optimized LASIK. In general, 36% of patients preferred wavefront-guided LASIK, 19% preferred wavefront-optimized LASIK, and 45% had no preference at 12 months. The wavefront-guided preference was more pronounced in patients with lower baseline HOAs (RMS < 0.3 µm). Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Object-oriented Matlab adaptive optics toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, R.; Correia, C.

    2014-08-01

    Object-Oriented Matlab Adaptive Optics (OOMAO) is a Matlab toolbox dedicated to Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. OOMAO is based on a small set of classes representing the source, atmosphere, telescope, wavefront sensor, Deformable Mirror (DM) and an imager of an AO system. This simple set of classes allows simulating Natural Guide Star (NGS) and Laser Guide Star (LGS) Single Conjugate AO (SCAO) and tomography AO systems on telescopes up to the size of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). The discrete phase screens that make the atmosphere model can be of infinite size, useful for modeling system performance on large time scales. OOMAO comes with its own parametric influence function model to emulate different types of DMs. The cone effect, altitude thickness and intensity profile of LGSs are also reproduced. Both modal and zonal modeling approach are implemented. OOMAO has also an extensive library of theoretical expressions to evaluate the statistical properties of turbulence wavefronts. The main design characteristics of the OOMAO toolbox are object-oriented modularity, vectorized code and transparent parallel computing. OOMAO has been used to simulate and to design the Multi-Object AO prototype Raven at the Subaru telescope and the Laser Tomography AO system of the Giant Magellan Telescope. In this paper, a Laser Tomography AO system on an ELT is simulated with OOMAO. In the first part, we set-up the class parameters and we link the instantiated objects to create the source optical path. Then we build the tomographic reconstructor and write the script for the pseudo-open-loop controller.

  3. Mechanical scanner-less multi-beam confocal microscope with wavefront modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Yu; Seo, Min-Woong; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Kawahito, Shoji; Terakawa, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel full-electronically controlled laser confocal microscope in which a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator and a custom CMOS imaging sensor are synchronized for performing multi-beam confocal imaging. Adaptive wavefront modulation for functional multi-beam excitation can be achieved by displaying appropriate computer generated holograms on the spatial light modulator, in consideration of the numerical aperture of the focusing objective. We also adopted a custom CMOS imaging sensor to realize multi-beam confocal microscopy without any physical pinhole. The confocality of this microscope was verified by improvements in transverse and axial resolutions of fluorescent micro-beads.

  4. Testbed Demonstration of Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for WFIRST Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, K.; Cady, E.; Kern, B.; Lam, R.; Mandic, M.; Patterson, K.; Poberezhskiy, I.; Shields, J.; Seo, J.; Tang, H.; Truong, T.; Wilson, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph will be capable of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter, and possibly even super-Earths, around nearby stars. To maintain the required coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C will use the rejected stellar light to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront errors due to the changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike phase contrast wavefront sensor with the phase shifting disk combined with the stellar light rejecting occulting mask, a key concept to minimize the non-common path error. Developed as a part of the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed (DHCIT), the LOWFS/C subsystem also consists of an Optical Telescope Assembly Simulator (OTA-S) to generate the realistic line-of-sight (LoS) drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront error from WFIRST-AFTA telescope’s vibration and thermal drift. The entire LOWFS/C subsystem have been integrated, calibrated, and tested in the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed. In this presentation we will show the results of LOWFS/C performance during the dynamic coronagraph tests in which we have demonstrated that LOWFS/C is able to maintain the coronagraph contrast with the presence of WFIRST like line-of-sight drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront drifts.

  5. Design and implementation of a Cooke triplet based wave-front coded super-resolution imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Jingxuan

    2015-09-01

    Wave-front coding is a powerful technique that could be used to extend the DOF (depth of focus) of incoherent imaging system. It is the suitably designed phase mask that makes the system defocus invariant and it is the de-convolution algorithm that generates the clear image with large DOF. Compared with the traditional imaging system, the point spread function (PSF) in wave-front coded imaging system has quite a large support size and this characteristic makes wave-front coding be capable of realizing super-resolution imaging without replacing the current sensor with one of smaller pitch size. An amplification based single image super-resolution reconstruction procedure has been specifically designed for wave-front coded imaging system and its effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally. A Cooke Triplet based wave-front coded imaging system is established. For a focal length of 50 mm and f-number 4.5, objects within the range [5 m, ∞] could be clearly imaged, which indicates a DOF extension ratio of approximately 20. At the same time, the proposed processing procedure could produce at least 3× resolution improvement, with the quality of the reconstructed super-resolution image approaching the diffraction limit.

  6. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-08-24

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images.

  7. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  8. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  9. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kevin S. K.; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation. PMID:25780747

  10. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  11. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  12. Low-order wavefront sensing and control for WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Hein, Randall; Lam, Raymond; Moore, Douglas; Moore, James; Patterson, Keith; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Shields, Joel; Sidick, Erkin; Tang, Hong; Truong, Tuan; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Xu; Wilson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To maintain the required Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a low-order wavefront sensing and control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C uses the rejected stellar light from the coronagraph to sense and suppress the telescope pointing errors as well as low-order wavefront errors (WFEs) due to changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. We will present a conceptual design of a LOWFS/C subsystem for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph. This LOWFS/C uses a Zernike phase contrast wavefront sensor (ZWFS) with a phase shifting disk combined with the stellar light rejecting occulting masks, a key concept to minimize the noncommon path error. We will present our analysis of the sensor performance and evaluate the performance of the line-of-sight jitter suppression loop, as well as the low-order WFE correction loop with a deformable mirror on the coronagraph. We will also report the LOWFS/C testbed design and the preliminary in-air test results, which show a very promising performance of the ZWFS.

  13. Data-based online nonlinear extremum-seeker for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yifan; Verstraete, Hans R. G. W.; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel J.; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive optics has been successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retina. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a novel technique that facilitates high resolution ophthalmic imaging; it replaces the Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor with an image-driven optimization algorithm and mitigates some the challenges encountered with sensor-based designs. However, WSAO generally requires longer time to perform aberrations correction than the conventional closed-loop adaptive optics. When used for in vivo retinal imaging applications, motion artifacts during the WSAO optimization process will affect the quality of the aberration correction. A faster converging optimization scheme needs to be developed to account for rapid temporal variation of the wavefront and continuously apply corrections. In this project, we investigate the Databased Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE), a novel non-linear multivariate optimization algorithm in combination with in vivo human WSAO OCT imaging. We also report both hardware and software updates of our compact lens based WSAO 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system, including real time retinal layer segmentation and tracking (ILM and RPE), hysteresis correction for the multi-actuator adaptive lens, precise synchronization control for the 200kHz laser source, and a zoom lens unit for rapid switching of the field of view. Cross sectional images of the retinal layers and en face images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic acquired in vivo from research volunteers before and after WSAO optimization are presented.

  14. Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Homoelle, D C; Henesian, M A; Bliss, E S; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-01-21

    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50% (4.0 kJ) of their total energy (7.96 kJ) within a 40 {micro}m diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and rms tip/tilt errors of approximately one {micro}rad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  15. Fast wavefront optimization for focusing through biological tissue (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blochet, Baptiste; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    The propagation of light in biological tissues is rapidly dominated by multiple scattering: ballistic light is exponentially attenuated, which limits the penetration depth of conventional microscopy techniques. For coherent light, the recombination of the different scattered paths creates a complex interference: speckle. Recently, different wavefront shaping techniques have been developed to coherently manipulate the speckle. It opens the possibility to focus light through complex media and ultimately to image in them, provided however that the medium can be considered as stationary. We have studied the possibility to focus in and through time-varying biological tissues. Their intrinsic temporal dynamics creates a fast decorrelation of the speckle pattern. Therefore, focusing through biological tissues requires fast wavefront shaping devices, sensors and algorithms. We have investigated the use of a MEMS-based spatial light modulator (SLM) and a fast photodetector, combined with FPGA electronics to implement a closed-loop optimization. Our optimization process is just limited by the temporal dynamics of the SLM (200µs) and the computation time (45µs), thus corresponding to a rate of 4 kHz. To our knowledge, it's the fastest closed loop optimization using phase modulators. We have studied the focusing through colloidal solutions of TiO2 particles in glycerol, allowing tunable temporal stability, and scattering properties similar to biological tissues. We have shown that our set-up fulfills the required characteristics (speed, enhancement) to focus through biological tissues. We are currently investigating the focusing through acute rat brain slices and the memory effect in dynamic scattering media.

  16. Curvature wavefront sensing performance simulations for active correction of the Javalambre wide-field telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cenarro, Andrés. Javier; Varela, Jesús; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Gruel, Nicolás.; Moles, Mariano; Yanes, Axel; Rueda, Fernando; Rueda, Sergio; Luis-Simoes, Roberto; Hernández-Fuertes, Javier; López-Sainz, Angel; Maícas-Sacristán, Natalio; Lamadrid, José Luis; Díaz-Martín, Miguel Chioare; Taylor, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain image quality during Javalambre wide field telescope operations, deformations and rigid body motions must be actively controlled to minimize optical disturbances. For JST/T250 the aberrations of the telescope will be measured with four curvature sensors at the focal plane. To correct the measured distortions, the secondary mirror position (with a hexapod support) and the camera position can be modified in a control closed loop. Multiple software tools have been developed to accomplish this goal, constituting the "Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre" (OAJ) Active Optics Pipeline. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wave-front sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, pupil registration, wavefront estimators and the iteration matrix evaluation techniques. Some preliminary simulations have been made using a telescope model with a Optical Ray Tracing Software.

  17. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Daniel J; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2016-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina.

  18. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular-resolution in vivo fluorescence imaging is a valuable tool for longitudinal studies of retinal function in vision research. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a developing technology that enables high-resolution imaging of the mouse retina. In place of the conventional method of using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure the aberrations directly, WSAO uses an image quality metric and a search algorithm to drive the shape of the adaptive element (i.e. deformable mirror). WSAO is a robust approach to AO and it is compatible with a compact, low-cost lens-based system. In this report, we demonstrated a hill-climbing algorithm for WSAO with a variable focus lens and deformable mirror for non-invasive in vivo imaging of EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) labelled ganglion cells and microglia cells in the mouse retina. PMID:26819812

  19. Propofol effects on atrial fibrillation wavefront delays.

    PubMed

    Cervigón, Raquel; Moreno, Javier; Millet, José; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Castells, Francisco

    2010-08-01

    Since the cardiac activity during atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by autonomic modulations, in this study, a novel method to quantify the effects of the most common anesthetic agent (propofol) in AF ablation procedures is introduced. This study has two main objectives: first, to assess whether the sedation earlier to radio frequency ablation affects the arrhythmia itself, and second, to provide new information that contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the autonomic nervous system on AF. The methodology presented is based on the measurement of synchronization and delay indexes between two atrial activations at adjacent intracavitary electrodes. These parameters aim to estimate whether two activations at different sites may be caused by the same propagating wavefront, or otherwise, are the consequence of independent wavefronts. The results showed that the mentioned indexes have a different behavior at both atria: the right atrium becomes more synchronized with propofol administration, whereas the synchronization index decreases at the left atrium.

  20. Adaptable Diffraction Gratings With Wavefront Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength. Traditional diffraction gratings have static planar, concave, or convex surfaces. However, if they could be made so that they can change the surface curvature at will, then they would be able to focus on particular segments, self-calibrate, or perform fine adjustments. This innovation creates a diffraction grating on a deformable surface. This surface could be bent at will, resulting in a dynamic wavefront transformation. This allows for self-calibration, compensation for aberrations, enhancing image resolution in a particular area, or performing multiple scans using different wavelengths. A dynamic grating gives scientists a new ability to explore wavefronts from a variety of viewpoints.