Science.gov

Sample records for ornl face experiment

  1. Aggregate formation and soil carbon sequestration by earthworms at the ORNL FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-de Leon, Y.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Lugo-Perez, J.; Wise, D. H.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Earthworms have an important role in soil carbon sequestration, but their contribution to carbon sequestration in soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been largely overlooked. Previous studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Free Air CO2 Experiment (ORNL FACE) site showed that the formation of soil aggregates is a key mechanism for soil carbon sequestration. We did a microcosm experiment to quantify earthworm-mediated aggregate formation and compare between two earthworm species with different feeding habits (endogeic vs. epi-edogeic). In addition, we wanted to identify the carbon source (soil, leaf litter or root litter) within aggregates formed by earthworms. We used 13C-depleted soil and 15N-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaf and root litter collected from the ORNL FACE site to assess soil aggregate formation of the native, endogeic earthworm Diplocardia sp. and European, epi-endogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Both earthworm species are present at the ORNL FACE site. We crushed, sieved (< 250 μm) soil and prepared four treatments: (I) soil only; (II) soil and plant material; (III) soil, plant material and Diplocardia sp.; (IV) soil, plant material and L. rubellus. All treatments were at 30% water content and temperature was maintained at 20°C. The incubation period lasted 26 days. We measured aggregate size distribution, total aggregate carbon content and 13C and 15N to elucidate aggregate carbon source. Newly formed soil macroaggregates (> 250 μm) were higher in treatments with earthworms (III and IV) than in treatments without earthworms (I and II) (p = 0.02). Within macroaggregates, most of the carbon was soil-derived. Leaf and root-derived carbon was found in treatment IV only. Our results suggest that earthworms at the ORNL FACE site directly contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, thus contributing to soil carbon sequestration. Carbon source within macroaggregates correspond with earthworm feeding

  2. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; ...

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in theirmore » EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.« less

  3. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in their EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.

  4. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-11-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER).

  5. Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: Implications for carbon storage at ORNL FACE

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    N availability may constrain long-term increases in forest productivity and subsequent increases in C storage in response to CO2-fertilization. Fumigation with elevated [CO2] resulted in increased fine-root production in the sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Free-Air CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Fine roots turn over quickly at ORNL FACE and C storage in sweetgum biomass was limited. To examine the premise that increased root production at ORNL FACE was a physiological response to N-limitation, we fertilized a sweetgum plantation adjacent to ORNL FACE on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP). Annual additions of 200 kg ha-1 of N as urea in 2004 and 2005 increased inorganic soil N availability, which in turn increased stand net primary production (NPP) by approximately 25%. Fertilization increased leaf N concentration and canopy leaf area production, which facilitated a greater than 30% increase in stem production and shifted C partitioning aboveground. We conclude that sweetgum production on the Oak Ridge NERP is limited by soil N availability, and we suggest that N-limitation may have caused increased belowground partitioning in ORNL FACE. Current soil nutrient status and changes in soil N availability mediated by changes in forest C partitioning will shape future forest responses to elevated [CO2].

  6. Videos of Experiments from ORNL Gas Hydrate Research

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gas hydrate research performed by the Environmental Sciences Division utilizes the ORNL Seafloor Process Simulator, the Parr Vessel, the Sapphire Cell, a fiber optic distributed sensing system, and Raman spectroscopy. The group studies carbon sequestration in the ocean, desalination, gas hydrates in the solar system, and nucleation and dissociation kinetics. The videos available at the gas hydrates website are very short clips from experiments.

  7. Accelerated Application Development: The ORNL Titan Experience

    DOE PAGES

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Richard K.; Berrill, Mark A.; ...

    2015-05-09

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this papermore » we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.« less

  8. Accelerated Application Development: The ORNL Titan Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Archibald, Richard K.; Berrill, Mark A.; Brown, W. Michael; Eisenbach, Markus; Grout, Ray; Larkin, Jeff; Levesque, John; Messer, Bronson; Norman, Matthew R.; Philip, Bobby; Sankaran, Ramanan; Tharrington, Arnold N.; Turner, John A.

    2015-05-09

    The use of computational accelerators such as NVIDIA GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi processors is now widespread in the high performance computing community, with many applications delivering impressive performance gains. However, programming these systems for high performance, performance portability and software maintainability has been a challenge. In this paper we discuss experiences porting applications to the Titan system. Titan, which began planning in 2009 and was deployed for general use in 2013, was the first multi-petaflop system based on accelerator hardware. To ready applications for accelerated computing, a preparedness effort was undertaken prior to delivery of Titan. In this paper we report experiences and lessons learned from this process and describe how users are currently making use of computational accelerators on Titan.

  9. Recent high-speed ballistics experiments at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing pellet injectors for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic confinement devices for almost 20 years. With these devices, pellets (1 to 8 mm in diameter) composed of hydrogen isotopes are formed (at temperatures <20 K) and typically accelerated to speeds of {approximately} 1.0 to 2.0 km/s for injection into plasmas of experimental fusion devices. A variety of pellet injector designs have been developed at ORNL, including repeating pneumatic injectors (single- and multiple-barrel light gas guns) that can inject up to hundreds of pellets for long-pulse plasma operation. The repeating pneumatic injectors are of particular importance because long-pulse fueling is required for present large experimental fusion devices, with steady-state operation the objective for future fusion reactors. In this paper, recent advancements in the development of repeating pneumatic injectors are described, including (1) a small-bore (1.8-mm), high-firing-rate (10-Hz) version of a single-stage light gas gun; (2) a repeating single-stage light gas gun for 8-mm-diam tritium pellets; (3) a repeating two-stage light gas gun for operation at higher pellet velocities; and (4) a steady-state hydrogen extruder feed system.

  10. Analysis of the ORNL radiation-streaming integral experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.; Tang, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of radiation streaming through the various penetrations that will be present in the blanket and shield of a D-T burning fusion reactor is one of the more complicated problems facing nuclear design engineer. Penetrations of varying size and shape will be required for neutral particle injection, rf heating, vacuum pumping, and plasma diagnostics. The radiation streaming through these openings will degrade the reactor performance by the adverse effects of nuclear heating, induced activation, and radiation damage in vital components. The effects of radiation streaming must be estimated during the design of the reactor. Measurements have been made to determine the streaming of approx. 14-MeV neutrons through a simple iron duct imbedded in a concrete shield.

  11. Design, Implementation, and Experiences of Third-Party Software Administration at the ORNL NCCS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Nicholas A; Fahey, Mark R

    2008-01-01

    At the ORNL NCCS, the structure and policy surrounding how we install third-party applications. This change is most notable for its effect on our quad-core Cray XT4 (Jaguar) computer. Of particular interest is the addition of many scripts to automate installing and testing system software, as well as the addition of automated reporting mechanisms. We will present an overview of the design and implementation, and also present our experiences to date

  12. Review of ORNL-TSF shielding experiments for the gas-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, L.S.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Muckenthaler, F.J.; Slater, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    During the period between 1975 and 1980 a series of experiments was performed at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility in support of the shield design for a 300-MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Demonstration Plant. This report reviews the experiments and calculations, which included studies of: (1) neutron streaming in the helium coolant passageways in the GCFR core; (2) the effectiveness of the shield designed to protect the reactor grid plate from radiation damage; (3) the adequacy of the radial shield in protecting the PCRV (prestressed concrete reactor vessel) from radiation damage; (4) neutron streaming between abutting sections of the radial shield; and (5) the effectiveness of the exit shield in reducing the neutron fluxes in the upper plenum region of the reactor.

  13. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  14. ORNL `90

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.; Barnes, D.; Jefferson, J.

    1990-12-31

    This overview of research conducted at ORNL in 1991 presents information on the subjects of biology, physics, and the environment. Specific topics include gene mutations in kidney disease, technology assessments in thermonuclear fusion, submarine hunting technology, ozone-safe refrigerants, optical data storage via surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and waste mitigating microbes. (GHH)

  15. ORNL '90

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.; Barnes, D.; Jefferson, J.

    1990-01-01

    This overview of research conducted at ORNL in 1991 presents information on the subjects of biology, physics, and the environment. Specific topics include gene mutations in kidney disease, technology assessments in thermonuclear fusion, submarine hunting technology, ozone-safe refrigerants, optical data storage via surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and waste mitigating microbes. (GHH)

  16. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  17. Accelerating the connection between experiments and models: The FACE-MDS experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Medlyn, B. E.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Zaehle, S.; Walker, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    The mandate is clear for improving communication between models and experiments to better evaluate terrestrial responses to atmospheric and climatic change. Unfortunately, progress in linking experimental and modeling approaches has been slow and sometimes frustrating. Recent successes in linking results from the Duke and Oak Ridge free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments with ecosystem and land surface models - the FACE Model-Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project - came only after a period of slow progress, but the experience points the way to future model-experiment interactions. As the FACE experiments were approaching their termination, the FACE research community made an explicit attempt to work together with the modeling community to synthesize and deliver experimental data to benchmark models and to use models to supply appropriate context for the experimental results. Initial problems that impeded progress were: measurement protocols were not consistent across different experiments; data were not well organized for model input; and parameterizing and spinning up models that were not designed for simulating a specific site was difficult. Once these problems were worked out, the FACE-MDS project has been very successful in using data from the Duke and ORNL FACE experiment to test critical assumptions in the models. The project showed, for example, that the stomatal conductance model most widely used in models was supported by experimental data, but models did not capture important responses such as increased leaf mass per unit area in elevated CO2, and did not appropriately represent foliar nitrogen allocation. We now have an opportunity to learn from this experience. New FACE experiments that have recently been initiated, or are about to be initiated, include a eucalyptus forest in Australia; the AmazonFACE experiment in a primary, tropical forest in Brazil; and a mature oak woodland in England. Cross-site science questions are being developed that will have a

  18. Free Air C02 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Oak Ridge FACE Site and Experiment on CO2 Enrichment of Sweetgum

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The goal of the Oak Ridge FACE Experiment on C02 Enrichment of Sweetgum is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest will be affected by C02 enrichment of the atmosphere, and what are the feedbacks from the forest to the atmosphere. This goal is being approached by measuring the integrated response of an intact forest ecosystem, with a focus on stand-level mechanisms. The facility, comprising five 25-m plots was constructed in a deciduous forest on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. The study site is a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) monoculture planted in 1988. This closed-canopy, 18-m tall stand offers the opportunity for rigorous tests of hypotheses that address the essential features of a forest stand and how they could influence the responses to CO2. The facility was established with support from the ORNL Director's R&D Fund and the Biological and Environmental Research program of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Additional support was provided by the Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO) program through the National Science Foundation. This project was part of the CO2 research network fostered by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

  19. Iter and Ornl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uckan, N. A.; Milora, S. L.

    2004-11-01

    ITER (means ``the way''), a tokamak burning plasma experiment, is the next step device toward making fusion energy a reality. The programmatic objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes. ITER began in 1985 as collaboration between the Russian Federation (former Soviet Union), the USA, European Union, and Japan. ITER conceptual and engineering design activities led to a detailed design in 2001. The USA opted out of the project between 1999-2003, but rejoined in 2004 for site selection and construction negotiations. China and Korea joined the project in 2003. Negotiations are continuing and a decision on the site for ITER construction [France versus Japan] is pending. The ITER international undertaking is an unprecedented scale and the six ITER parties represent 40% of the world population. By 2018, ITER will produce a fusion power of 500 million Watts for time periods up to an hour with one-tenth of the power needed to sustain it. Steady state operation is also possible at lower power levels with higher fraction of circulated power. The ITER parties invested about $1 billion into the research and development (R) and related fusion experiments to establish the ITER's feasibility. ORNL has been a key player in the ITER project and contributed to its physics and engineering design and related R since its inception. Recently, the U.S. DOE selected the PPPL/ORNL partnership to lead the U.S. project office for ITER.

  20. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  1. ORNL calibrations facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Gupton, E.D.; Lane, B.H.; Miller, J.H.; Nichols, S.W.

    1982-08-01

    The ORNL Calibrations Facility is operated by the Instrumentation Group of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. Its primary purpose is to maintain radiation calibration standards for calibration of ORNL health physics instruments and personnel dosimeters. This report includes a discussion of the radioactive sources and ancillary equipment in use and a step-by-step procedure for calibration of those survey instruments and personnel dosimeters in routine use at ORNL.

  2. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  3. A Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Functional Measurement Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Frederik; Theuns, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information Integration Theory (IIT) is concerned with how people combine information into an overall judgment. A method is hereby presented to perform Functional Measurement (FM) experiments, the methodological counterpart of IIT, on the Web. In a comparison of Web-based FM experiments, face-to-face experiments, and computer-based experiments in…

  4. ORNL irradiation creep facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

  5. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards.

  6. ORNL SunTracker

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, Robert Wesley

    2005-09-14

    The ORNL Sun Tracker software is the user interface that operates on a Personal Computer and serially communicates with the controller board. This software allows the user to manually operate the Hybrid Solar Lighting (HSL) unit. It displays the current location of the HSL unit, its parameters and it provides real-time monitoring. The ORNL Sun Tracker software is also the main component used in setting up and calibrating the tracker. It contains a setup screen that requires latitude, longitude, and a few other key values to accurately locate the sun's position. The software also will provide the user access to calibrate the tracking location in relation to the sun's actual position.

  7. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture.

  8. Fusion research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  9. Electric Fuel Rod Simulator Fabrication at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    Commercial vendors could not supply the high-quality, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators (FRS) required for large thermal-hydraulic safety-oriented experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1970s and early 1980s. Staff at ORNL designed, developed, and manufactured the simulators utilized in these safety experiments. Important FRS design requirements include (1) materials of construction, (2) test power requirements and availability, (3) experimental test objectives, (4) supporting thermal analyses, and (5) extensive quality control throughout all phases of FRS fabrication. This paper will present an overview of these requirements (design, analytics, and quality control) as practiced at ORNL to produce a durable high-quality FRS.

  10. Are portrait artists superior face recognizers? Limited impact of adult experience on face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy J; Horry, Ruth; Riley, Howard; Wilmer, Jeremy B

    2017-04-01

    Across 2 studies, the authors asked whether extensive experience in portrait art is associated with face recognition ability. In Study 1, 64 students completed a standardized face recognition test before and after completing a year-long art course that included substantial portraiture training. They found no evidence of an improvement in face recognition after training over and above what would be expected by practice alone. In Study 2, the authors investigated the possibility that more extensive experience might be needed for such advantages to emerge, by testing a cohort of expert portrait artists (N = 28), all of whom had many years of experience. In addition to memory for faces, they also explored memory for abstract art and for words in a paired-associate recognition test. The expert portrait artists performed similarly to a large, normative comparison sample on memory for faces and words but showed a small advantage for abstract art. Taken together, the results converge with existing literature to suggest that there is relatively little plasticity in face recognition in adulthood, at which point our substantial everyday experience with faces may have pushed us to the limits of our capabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Measurement of the axial distribution of radioactivity in the auxiliary charcoal bed of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.F.; Buckner, M.; Buchanan, M.

    1999-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory commenced operation in 1964 and was shut down in 1969. It was fueled with {sup 233}UF{sub 4} in a carrier salt of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}, and it operated at 1,200 F. After it was shut down, the fuel was heated annually to 200 C to recombine fluorine (with the fuel) released due to radiation-induced reactions in the fuel salt. However, a competing reaction oxidized uranium to UF{sub 6}, which was released (along with F{sub 2}) from the fuel and trapped in one of four charcoal filters in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). One of the tasks for decommissioning of the MSRE requires that at least 90% of the estimated 3 kg of {sup 233}U, and radioactive decay products, in this filter be removed, and one of the proposed methods is to vacuum the charcoal above a specified axial position in the filter. This requires that the axial distribution of activity in the filter be measured in a 60 rad/h radiation field to determine where this penetration can be made. To accomplish this, the shielded detector with a pinhole collimator, and with a laser positioning capability, was remotely translated to various axial positions to accomplish these measurements. Activities in the steel screen, and various regions of the charcoal bed, are estimated, and uncertainties in these estimates are generally {lt}1%. Results from this analysis are used for continued operational decisions for decommissioning of the MSRE.

  12. a High-Power Microwave Transmission and Launching System for Plasma Heating on the Ornl ATF Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy Stuart

    1990-01-01

    A high power microwave transmission and launching system has been developed for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) fusion confinement experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Microwave power is generated by two 53 GHz, 200 KW cw gyrotron tubes. A waveguide transmission and launching system for each tube has been designed and built with the goal of depositing the maximum amount of power at the center of the plasma. Centralized deposition of the microwave power is possible at high frequencies by use of a launcher with a narrow radiated beamwidth and carefully controlled polarization to couple to electrons at the cyclotron resonant surface. In order for the transmission systems to operate at this high frequency and power level, highly over-moded waveguides have been used to reduce losses and arcing. To produce a narrow, polarized beam, the waveguide system was designed for minimum parasitic mode conversion so that the launcher can operate with nearly a single input mode. Several waveguide components were developed for the waveguide system including: a waveguide mode analyzing directional coupler, a rippled-wall mode converter, improved miter bends, and vacuum pumpout sections. To determine the mode purity of these components and efficiency of the system, laboratory measurement techniques for over-moded waveguide component evaluation were developed. A polarization controlled beam launcher was developed which launches a ~ 12 cm (-20 dB) beamwidth linearly polarized beam. The plane of polarization can be rotated to allow optimum coupling to either extra-ordinary or ordinary plasma waves. The transmission and launching system performed reliably. Modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in the ATF plasma and measurement of beam absorption and plasma parameters were performed to determine the overall effectiveness of the ECH system. A coupled-mode wave propagation code was written to investigate the effect of magnetic

  13. Lessons from forest FACE experiments provide guidance for Amazon-FACE science plan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.; Lapola, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and they provide a strong foundation for next-generation experiments in unexplored biomes. Specific lessons from FACE experiments include: (1) Carbon cycle responses are time-dependent because component processes have different rate constants: for example, net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO2, but the response may diminish with time as N cycling feedbacks become important. (2) Carbon partitioning patterns determine the fate of the extra C taken up by CO2-enriched plants, but partitioning responses remain an important challenge for ecosystem models. (3) The influence of N cycling on plant and ecosystem C cycling continues to be a critical uncertainty, and new experiments, especially in the tropics, must also consider P cycling. (4) Plant community structure can influence the ecosystem response to elevated CO2, but dynamic vegetation effects have not been adequately addressed. These experiences from FACE experiments in temperate forests are now guiding the development of a science plan for a FACE experiment in Amazonia. Models and small-scale experimental results agree that elevated CO2 will affect the metabolism of tropical ecosystems, but the qualitative and quantitative expression of the effects are largely unknown, representing a major source of uncertainty that limits our capacity to assess the vulnerability of the Amazon forest to climate change. Recognizing the high importance of the forests of the Amazon basin on global carbon, water, and energy cycles, biodiversity conservation, and the provision of essential services in Latin America, a consortium of Brazilian researchers and international collaborators have developed a science plan for Amazon-FACE. While the challenges presented both by infrastructure needs (roads, electricity, and provision of CO2) and biology (the

  14. The Challenges of Blending a Face-to-Face Laboratory Experience with a Televised Distance Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeDrew, June; Cummings-Vickaryous, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the practical challenges faced by instructors who must blend a face-to-face laboratory experience into a distance education course. This issue is discussed in the context of an ongoing kinesiology and health course that includes a mandatory physical activity laboratory experience. The challenges that have arisen around this…

  15. ORNL RAIL BARGE DB

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P. )

    1991-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  16. Attitudes toward Face-to-Face and Online Counseling: Roles of Self-Concealment, Openness to Experience, Loss of Face, Stigma, and Disclosure Expectations among Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathje, Geoff J.; Kim, Eunha; Rau, Ellen; Bassiouny, Muhammad Adam; Kim, Taehoon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined attitudes toward face-to-face (f2f) and online counseling among 228 Korean college students. In addition, it tested a hypothesized model proposing that general propensities (i.e., self-concealment, openness to experience, and loss of face) would influence counseling-specific expectations (i.e., self-stigma and disclosure…

  17. Science Opportunities at ORNL Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ian

    2010-02-03

    The Neutron Sciences Directorate at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates two of the most advanced neutron scattering research facilities in the world: the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Our vision is to provide unprecedented capabilities for understanding structure and properties across the spectrum of biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering, and to stay at the leading edge of neutron science by developing new instruments, tools, and services. This talk will provide an update on the operations of the two research facilities and highlight the significant research that is emerging. For example, scientists from ORNL are at the forefront of research on a new class of iron-based superconductors based on experiments performed at the Triple-Axis Spectrometer at HFIR and ARCS at SNS. The complementary nature of neutron and x-ray techniques will be discussed to spark discussion among attendees.

  18. The ORNL-SNAP shielding program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mynatt, F. R.; Clifford, C. E.; Muckenthaler, F. J.; Gritzner, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The effort in the ORNL-SNAP shielding program is directed toward the development and verification of computer codes using numerical solutions to the transport equation for the design of optimized radiation shields for SNAP power systems. A brief discussion is given for the major areas of the SNAP shielding program, which are cross-section development, transport code development, and integral experiments. Detailed results are presented for the integral experiments utilizing the TSF-SNAP reactor. Calculated results are compared with experiments for neutron and gamma-ray spectra from the bare reactor and as transmitted through slab shields.

  19. Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  20. Facing the experience of pain: a neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  1. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  2. Experiment on wear behavior of high pressure gas seal faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Peng, Xudong; Bai, Shaoxian; Meng, Xiangkai; Li, Jiyun

    2014-11-01

    Current researches show that mechanical deformation of seal ring face makes fluid film clearance decrease at high pressure side, thus a divergent clearance is formed and face wear occurs more seriously at the high pressure side than that on the low pressure side. However, there is still lack of published experimental works enough to prove the theoretical results. In this paper, a spiral groove dry gas seal at high pressures is experimentally investigated so as to prove the face wear happened at the high pressure side of seal faces due to the face mechanical deformation, and the wear behavior affected by seal ring structure is also studied. The experimental results show that face wear would occur at the high pressure side of seal faces due to the deformation, thus the leakage and face temperature increase, which all satisfies the theoretical predictions. When sealed pressure is not less than 5 MPa, the pressure can provide enough opening force to separate the seal faces. The seal ring sizes have obvious influence on face wear. Face wear, leakage and face temperature of a dry gas seal with the smaller cross sectional area of seal ring are less than that of a dry gas seal with bigger one, and the difference of leakage rate between these two sizes of seal face width is in the range of 24%-25%. Compared with the effect of seal ring sizes, the effect of secondary O-ring seal position on face deformation and face wear is less. The differences between these two types of dry gas seals with different secondary O-ring seal positions are less than 5.9% when the rotational speed varies from 0 to 600 r/min. By linking face wear and sealing performance changes to the shift in mechanical deformation of seal ring, this research presents an important experimental method to study face deformation of a dry gas seal at high pressures.

  3. An Experiment Comparing HBSE Graduate Social Work Classes: Face-to-Face and at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehle, Ralph; Quinn, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental comparison of two master's level social work classes delivering content on human behavior in the social environment. One class, delivered face-to-face, was largely synchronous. The other class, delivered using distance technologies, was more asynchronous than the first. The authors hypothesized that…

  4. The evolution of teleoperated manipulators at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.; Herndon, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    ORNL has made significant contributions to teleoperator and telerobotics technology for two decades and continues with an aggressive program today. Examples of past projects are: (1) the M2 servomanipulator, which was the first digitally controlled teleoperator; (2) the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), which was the first remotely maintainable teleoperator; (3) the CESARm/Kraft dissimilar teleoperated system; and (4) the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM), a 7-Degree-of-Freedom (7-DOF) telerobot built as a prototype for work in space. More recently, ORNL has become heavily involved with Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) robotics programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The ERWM program requires high payloads and high dexterity. As a result, a hydraulically actuated, dual-arm system comprised of two 6-DOF arms mounted on a 5-DOF base has been constructed and is being used today for various research tasks and for decontamination and dismantlement activities. All of these teleoperated manipulator systems build upon the experiences gained throughout the almost two decades of development. Each system incorporates not only the latest technology in computers, sensors, and electronics, but each new . system also adds at least one new feature to the technologies already developed and demonstrated in the previous system(s). As a result of this process, a serious study of these manipulator systems is a study in the evolution of teleoperated manipulator the systems in general. This provides insight not only into the research and development paths chosen in the past, but also into the appropriate directions for future teleoperator and telerobotics research. This paper examines each of the teleoperated/telerobotic systems developed at ORNL, summarizes their features and capabilities, examines the state of the most current telerobotic system (the Dual Arm Work Module), PM provides direction for a Next Generation Telerobotic Manipulator system.

  5. ORNL actinide materials and a new detection system for superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Roberto, James B.; Brewer, Nathan T.; Utyonkov, Vladimir K.

    2016-12-01

    The actinide resources and production capabilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are reviewed, including potential electromagnetic separation of rare radioactive materials. The first experiments at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) with a new digital detection system developed at ORNL and University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK) are presented. These studies used 240Pu material provided by ORNL and mixed-Cf targets made at ORNL. The proposal to use an enriched 251Cf target and a large dose of 58Fe beam to reach the N = 184 shell closure and to observe new elements with Z = 124, 122 and 120 is discussed.

  6. Treatment of ORNL process waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Fowler, V.L.; Robinson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the shutdown of the hydrofracture process at ORNL, intensive efforts were made to reduce contaminated liquid waste generation rates. Treatment of slightly radioactive process waste has been dramatically improved. The volume of secondary, radioactively contaminated waste streams and the concentration of pollutants discharged to the environment have been reduced. Further improvements, based on results of research and development, are planned. The future value of alternative flowsheets will be compared with process flexibility to determine the optimal upgrade to the treatment plant. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Development of category formation for faces differing by age in 9- to 12-month-olds: An effect of experience with infant faces.

    PubMed

    Damon, Fabrice; Quinn, Paul C; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    We examined category formation for faces differing in age in 9- and 12-month-olds, and the influence of exposure to infant faces on such ability. Infants were familiarized with adult or infant faces, and then tested with a novel exemplar from the familiarized category paired with a novel exemplar from a novel category (Experiment 1). Both age groups formed discrete categories of adult and infant faces, but exposure to infant faces in everyday life did not modulate performance. The same task was conducted with child versus infant faces (Experiment 2). Whereas 9-month-olds preferred infant faces after familiarization with child faces, but not child faces after familiarization with infant faces, 12-month-olds formed discrete categories of child and infant faces. Moreover, more exposure to infant faces correlated with higher novel category preference scores when infants were familiarized with infant faces in 12-month-olds, but not 9-month-olds. The 9-month-old asymmetry did not reflect spontaneous preference for infant over child faces (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that 9- and 12-month-olds can form age-based categories of faces. The ability of 12-month-olds to form separate child and infant categories suggests that they have a more exclusive representation of face age, one that may be influenced by prior experience with infant faces.

  8. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  9. Asymmetries in Infants’ Attention Toward and Categorization of Male Faces: The Potential Role of Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Kayl, Andrea J.; Langlois, Judith H.; Davis, Rachel E.; Orlewicz, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Infants typically have a preponderance of experience with females, resulting in visual preferences for female faces, particularly high attractive females, and in better categorization of female relative to male faces. We examined whether these abilities generalized to infants’ visual preferences for and categorization of perceptually similar male faces (i.e., low masculine males). Twelve-month-olds visually preferred high attractive relative to low attractive male faces within low masculine pairs only (Exp. 1), but did not visually prefer low masculine relative to high masculine male faces (Exp. 2). Lack of visual preferences was not due to infants’ inability to discriminate between the male faces (Exps. 3 & 4). Twelve-month-olds categorized low masculine, but not high masculine, male faces (Exp. 5). Infants could individuate male faces within each of the categories (Exp. 6). Twelve-month-olds’ attention toward and categorization of male faces may reflect a generalization of their female facial expertise. PMID:26547249

  10. Comparisons of Internet-Based and Face-to-Face Learning Systems Based on "Equivalency of Experiences" According to Students' Academic Achievements and Satisfactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…

  11. Real-life experience with personally familiar faces enhances discrimination based on global information

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Goedele

    2016-01-01

    Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience. PMID:26855852

  12. Evolutionary relevance and experience contribute to face discrimination in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2015-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types—typically own-age and own-species faces—are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias, but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual attunement, which predicts advantages in discrimination for the most-experienced face types; additionally or alternatively, there may be an experience-independent bias for infants to discriminate own-species faces, an adaptation for evolutionarily relevant faces. These possibilities have not been disentangled in studies thus far, which did not control infants’ early experiences with faces. In the present study, we tested these predictions in infant macaques (Macaca mulatta) reared under controlled environments, not exposed to adult conspecifics. We measured newborns’ (15–25 days; n = 27) and 6- to 7-month-olds’ (n = 35) discrimination of human and macaque faces of three ages—young infants, old infants, and adults—in a visual paired comparison task. We found that 6- to 7-month-olds were the best at discriminating adult macaque faces; however, in the first few seconds of looking, additionally discriminated familiar face types—same-aged peer and adult human faces—highlighting the importance of experience with certain face categories. The present data suggest that macaque infants possess both experience-independent and experientially tuned face biases. In human infants, early face skills may likewise be driven by both experience and evolutionary relevance; future studies should consider both of these factors. PMID:27212893

  13. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience.

  14. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E.

    2014-01-01

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. PMID:24993021

  15. The Embedded Librarian Online or Face-to-Face: American University's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Michael A.; Matsuoka-Motley, Nobue; Mayer, William

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role online communication and tools play in embedded librarianship at American University. Two embedded models of user engagement, traditional and hybrid, are discussed. The librarians operating in each mode share their experiences providing tailored support to the departments of music/performing arts and business. The…

  16. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  17. Issues and Concerns Faced by Undergraduate Language Student Teachers during Teaching Practicum Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Mohd Sofi; Othman, Abdul Jalil; Karim, Abdul Faruk Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study examined specific issues and concerns faced by Bachelor of Education student teachers majoring in Language and Literature during their 12-week teaching practicum experience. Specifically, three main areas of concerns were examined. They were: (1) specific issues and concerns related to the implementation of teaching practicum faced by…

  18. Why Are Faces Denser in the Visual Experiences of Younger than Older Infants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaraman, Swapnaa; Fausey, Caitlin M.; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence from studies using head cameras suggests that the frequency of faces directly in front of infants "declines" over the first year and a half of life, a result that has implications for the development of and evolutionary constraints on face processing. Two experiments tested 2 opposing hypotheses about this observed…

  19. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  20. Facing Women's Fear of Failure: An AWEsome Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal Vera, Anne

    Drawing from research on fear of failure and anecdotes from personal experience with the first women's expedition to ski to the South Pole, this discussion centers on how fear of failure affects women. Fear of failure leads to procrastination and performance well below one's ability. Women generally express more fear of failure than do men, partly…

  1. Facing up to Complexity: Implications for Our Social Experiments.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    Biological systems are highly complex, and for this reason there is a considerable degree of uncertainty as to the consequences of making significant interventions into their workings. Since a number of new technologies are already impinging on living systems, including our bodies, many of us have become participants in large-scale "social experiments". I will discuss biological complexity and its relevance to the technologies that brought us BSE/vCJD and the controversy over GM foods. Then I will consider some of the complexities of our social dynamics, and argue for making a shift from using the precautionary principle to employing the approach of evaluating the introduction of new technologies by conceiving of them as social experiments.

  2. [About animal experiments for a face without wrinkles].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum toxin, a nervous poison produced by bacteria, is increasingly being used - besides its medical application - as a beauty product for smoothing facial wrinkles. It is unknown in public that each batch of the toxin has to undergo a quality control before marketing. The test used is a LD50 test using mice that is very animal consuming and causes extreme suffering. Although several alternative methods exist, none of these are have yet been adopted by the European pharmacopoeia. Consumers in the EU do not accept animal experiments for cosmetic purposes. However, Botulinum toxin does not fall under the definition of a "cosmetic product" and therefore the bans on animal experiments laid down in the EU Cosmetic Directive do not apply. Therefore on a short term scale, only the voluntarily renouncement of the use of this toxin as an anti-wrinkling agent can prevent the suffering and death of animals for a beauty product.

  3. Changing the Face of Astronomy Through Authentic Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, K. A.; Bell, K'Maja; Jafri, J.; Lyon, G.; Hammergren, M.

    2012-05-01

    Project Exploration is a Chicago-based science outreach organization that works to ensure communities traditionally overlooked by science, particularly minority youth and girls, have access to personalized experiences with science and scientists. 85% of students participating in Project Exploration come from low-income families, primarily African-American and Latino, and 74% are girls. We particularly target students who may not be academically successful. The results of a recent 10-year retrospective study demonstrate that Project Exploration students are significantly more likely than their peers to graduate from high school (95%), go to college (50%), and major in science (60%); and they attribute their persistence in science and education to their Project Exploration experience. Furthermore, Project Exploration works with the scientists involved (including graduate students and post-docs) to help them understand what it means to do effective educational outreach and how to put the interests of the youth at the center of outreach work. In this poster, we describe the details of the Project Exploration model, as well as several projects in astronomy that our students and scientists have carried out. KB and KC are supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNX1OAC89G. KC is also supported by the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  4. The ORNL beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habenschuss, Anton; Ice, Gene E.; Sparks, Cullier J.; Neiser, Richard A.

    1988-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) incorporates several novel features, including X-ray optics based on sagittal focusing with crystals and a cantilevered mirror whose center becomes the pivot for all downstream optical elements. Crystal focusing accepts a much larger horizontal divergence of radiation than a mirror while maintaining excellent momentum transfer and energy resolution [C.J. Sparks, G.E. Ice, J. Wong and B.W. Batterman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 194 (1982) 73]. This sagitally bent crystal serves as the second element of a two-crystal, nondispersive monochromator. The cantilevered mirror provides a simple design for vertical focusing of the radiation. The beamline is suitable for both X-ray scattering and spectroscopy experiments requiring good energy resolution and high intensity in the energy range from 2.5 to 40 keV. This paper describes the optics of the ORNL beamline and reports its performance to date.

  5. A critical review of the development of face recognition: experience is less important than previously believed.

    PubMed

    McKone, Elinor; Crookes, Kate; Jeffery, Linda; Dilks, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Historically, it has been argued that face individuation develops very slowly, not reaching adult levels until adolescence, with experience being the driving force behind this protracted improvement. Here, we challenge this view based on extensive review of behavioural and neural findings. Results demonstrate qualitative presence of all key phenomena related to face individuation (encoding of novel faces, holistic processing effects, face-space effects, face-selective responses in neuroimaging) at the earliest ages tested, typically 3-5 years of age and in many cases even infancy. Results further argue for quantitative maturity by early childhood, based on an increasing number of behavioural studies that have avoided the common methodological problem of restriction of range, as well as event-related potential (ERP), but not functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We raise a new possibility that could account for the discrepant fMRI findings-namely, the use of adult-sized head coils on child-sized heads. We review genetic and innate contributions to face individuation (twin studies, neonates, visually deprived monkeys, critical periods, perceptual narrowing). We conclude that the role of experience in the development of the mechanisms of face identification has been overestimated. The emerging picture is that the mechanisms supporting face individuation are mature early, consistent with the social needs of children for reliable person identification in everyday life, and are also driven to an important extent by our evolutionary history.

  6. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  7. Fraudulent ID using face morphs: Experiments on human and automatic recognition

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, David J.; Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult, and this can give an opportunity to those engaged in identity fraud. Here we examine a relatively new form of fraud, the use of photo-ID containing a graphical morph between two faces. Such a document may look sufficiently like two people to serve as ID for both. We present two experiments with human viewers, and a third with a smartphone face recognition system. In Experiment 1, viewers were asked to match pairs of faces, without being warned that one of the pair could be a morph. They very commonly accepted a morphed face as a match. However, in Experiment 2, following very short training on morph detection, their acceptance rate fell considerably. Nevertheless, there remained large individual differences in people’s ability to detect a morph. In Experiment 3 we show that a smartphone makes errors at a similar rate to ‘trained’ human viewers—i.e. accepting a small number of morphs as genuine ID. We discuss these results in reference to the use of face photos for security. PMID:28328928

  8. Fraudulent ID using face morphs: Experiments on human and automatic recognition.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David J; Kramer, Robin S S; Burton, A Mike

    2017-01-01

    Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be difficult, and this can give an opportunity to those engaged in identity fraud. Here we examine a relatively new form of fraud, the use of photo-ID containing a graphical morph between two faces. Such a document may look sufficiently like two people to serve as ID for both. We present two experiments with human viewers, and a third with a smartphone face recognition system. In Experiment 1, viewers were asked to match pairs of faces, without being warned that one of the pair could be a morph. They very commonly accepted a morphed face as a match. However, in Experiment 2, following very short training on morph detection, their acceptance rate fell considerably. Nevertheless, there remained large individual differences in people's ability to detect a morph. In Experiment 3 we show that a smartphone makes errors at a similar rate to 'trained' human viewers-i.e. accepting a small number of morphs as genuine ID. We discuss these results in reference to the use of face photos for security.

  9. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  10. Review of ORNL`s MSR technology and status

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Gat, U.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Williams, D.F.

    1996-08-01

    The current status of molten salt reactor development is discussed with reference to the experience from the Oak Ridge Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Assessment of the future for this reactor system is reviewed with consideration of both advantages and disadvantages. Application of this concept to ADTT (accelerator driven transmutation technology) needs appears to be feasible by drawing on the MSRE experience. Key chemical considerations remain as: solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity and their importance to ADTT planning is briefly explained. Priorities in the future development of molten salts for these applications are listed, with the foremost being the acceptance of the 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} solvent system. 8 refs, 2 figs.

  11. "Teaching Online Made Me a Better Teacher": Studying the Impact of Virtual Course Experiences on Teachers' Face-to-Face Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roblyer, M. D.; Porter, Marclyn; Bielefeldt, Talbot; Donaldson, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts from teachers have long suggested the possibility that virtual teaching experiences have a positive impact on face-to-face teaching practices, a so-called "reverse impact" phenomenon. Survey and focus group data collected as part of a statewide evaluation of a virtual school offered an opportunity to explore this impact.…

  12. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Smith, Cyrus M; DeNap, Frank A; White, James D; Gross, Ian G; Gorman, Bryan L; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  13. ORNL engineering design and construction reengineering report

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    A team composed of individuals representing research and development (R and D) divisions, infrastructure support organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE)-Oak Ridge Operations was chartered to reengineer the engineering, design, and construction (ED and C) process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The team recognized that ED and C needs of both R and D customers and the ORNL infrastructure program have to be met to maintain a viable and competitive national laboratory. Their goal was to identify and recommend implementable best-in-class ED and C processes that will efficiently and cost-effectively support the ORNL R and D staff by being responsive to their programmatic and infrastructure needs. The team conducted process mapping of current and potential ED and C approaches, developed idealized versions of ED and C processes, and identified potential barriers to an efficient ED and C process. Eight subteams were assigned to gather information and to evaluate the significance of potential barriers through benchmarking, surveys, interviews, and reviews of key topical areas in order to determine whether the perceived barriers were real and important and whether they resulted from laws or regulations over which ORNL has no control.

  14. ORNL trends and balances, 1987-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is given that covers the roles, organization, R and D sponsors, and recent achievements of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Current R and D programs are described in the areas of nuclear and engineering technologies, advanced energy systems, biomedical and environmental sciences, and basic physical sciences. ORNL's future activities are discussed. (LEW)

  15. Apparitional experiences of new faces and dissociation of self-identity during mirror gazing.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2010-06-01

    Apparitional experiences during mirror gazing were studied. Under low levels of illumination, individuals gazed at their own reflected faces in a mirror for a duration of 10 min. Face illumination was relatively uniform, via a nonvisible light source. After about a minute of mirror gazing, individuals reported perceiving strange faces--archetypical and often unknown, human or animal, living or departed parents with traits changed, and fantastical monstrous beings--instead of their own faces in the mirror. During these apparitions, the observers reported feeling that a strange person was watching them from within or beyond the mirror, while the observer maintained consciousness of himself looking at the strange "other." Three psychophysical experiments were conducted on 42 naive normal individuals. At an illumination of the face around 0.8 lux, the mean frequency of apparitions was 1.8 min x (-1) and mean duration was 7 sec. per apparition. At higher illumination, the frequency of apparitional experiences decreased while the duration of mirror gazing needed for the phenomenon to occur increased. This effect may be termed "conscious dissociation of self-identity" to distinguish it from pathological unconscious dissociative identity disorder.

  16. Guiding the Next Generation of Forest FACE Experiments with Lessons from the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments that were initiated in forest ecosystems 20 years ago represented a large commitment of time and energy of many students, early career, and senior scientists, and they were a substantial investment of funding from government science agencies. The experiments produced hundreds of primary research papers and dozens of synthesis and review papers, so it is highly appropriate to ask: What did we learn from this enterprise about how trees and forests will respond to an ever increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere? The diversity of sites and species preclude any single, simple answer. Nevertheless, the FACE experiments were successful in building upon earlier, smaller scale elevated CO2 experiments to provide the data needed to evaluate hypotheses derived from past results, and they provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Important lessons include: (1) Net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO2, but the response can diminish over time. (2) Carbon accumulation is driven by the distribution of carbon among plant and soil components with differing turnover rates and by interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. (3) Plant community structure may change, but elevated CO2 has only minor effects on microbial community structure. However, despite these insights, the size and longevity of forests preclude experimental evaluation, even in decade-long experiments, of the critical global-scale issues associated with forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and the feedbacks provided to the climate system. Instead, we must rely on models that simulate the exchange of carbon, water, and energy in the terrestrial biosphere. An important objective of FACE experiments has always been to provide data and evaluation tools for ecosystem models and thereby contribute to our ability to project how ecosystems will

  17. HappyFace as a generic monitoring tool for HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Gen; Magradze, Erekle; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Quadt, Arnulf; Rzehorz, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The importance of monitoring on HEP grid computing systems is growing due to a significant increase in their complexity. Computer scientists and administrators have been studying and building effective ways to gather information on and clarify a status of each local grid infrastructure. The HappyFace project aims at making the above-mentioned workflow possible. It aggregates, processes and stores the information and the status of different HEP monitoring resources into the common database of HappyFace. The system displays the information and the status through a single interface. However, this model of HappyFace relied on the monitoring resources which are always under development in the HEP experiments. Consequently, HappyFace needed to have direct access methods to the grid application and grid service layers in the different HEP grid systems. To cope with this issue, we use a reliable HEP software repository, the CernVM File System. We propose a new implementation and an architecture of HappyFace, the so-called grid-enabled HappyFace. It allows its basic framework to connect directly to the grid user applications and the grid collective services, without involving the monitoring resources in the HEP grid systems. This approach gives HappyFace several advantages: Portability, to provide an independent and generic monitoring system among the HEP grid systems. Eunctionality, to allow users to perform various diagnostic tools in the individual HEP grid systems and grid sites. Elexibility, to make HappyFace beneficial and open for the various distributed grid computing environments. Different grid-enabled modules, to connect to the Ganga job monitoring system and to check the performance of grid transfers among the grid sites, have been implemented. The new HappyFace system has been successfully integrated and now it displays the information and the status of both the monitoring resources and the direct access to the grid user applications and the grid collective

  18. The experiences of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in facing and learning about their clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Haruo; Iwata, Yuko; Saito, Toshio; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Imura, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Patients experience extreme difficulty when facing an intractable genetic disease. Herein, we examine the experiences of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in facing and learning about their disease. A total of seven patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range: 20–48) participated. We conducted in-depth interviews with them about how they learned of their disease and how their feelings regarding the disease changed over time. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis. The following themes emerged from this analysis: “experiences before receiving the diagnosis,” “experiences when they learned of their condition and progression of the disease,” “supports,” and “desired explanations.” Anxiety and worry were most pronounced when they had to transition to using wheelchairs or respirators due to disease progression; indeed, such transitions affect the patients psychological adjustment. In such times, support from significant others in their lives helped patients adjust. PMID:27712620

  19. Depression Experience Journal: A Computer-Based Intervention For Families Facing Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaso, David Ray; Marcus, Nicole Eldridge; Kinnamon, Carolyn; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the feasibility and safety of a computer-based application for families facing childhood depression. The Depression Experience Journal (EJ) is a psychoeducational intervention based on a narrative model involving the sharing of personal stories about childhood depression. Method: Semistructured interviews assessed…

  20. Introducing Teaching Cases with Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Discussion: Two Multi-Classroom Quasi-Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Siwatu, Kamau O.; Liu, Xiongyi; PytlikZillig, Lisa M.; Horn, Christy; Sic, Stephanie; Carlson, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in multisection introductory child and adolescent development classes to determine effects of introducing abbreviated teaching case studies that were then discussed either in face-to-face or online formats. Students receiving teaching case studies in either format in both classes showed improved ability to critically…

  1. Final CRADA Report ORNL-00-0609, Real-Time Control of Diesel Combustion Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Robert M

    2010-07-01

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques developed from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical techniques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion instabilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation of this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of advanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion systems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experimental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL. The objectives are to: (1) Explore and establish boundaries of high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes on a DDC heavy-duty diesel engine; (2) Improve fundamental understanding of combustion instabilities for use in the development of predictive controls and diagnostics; and (3) Develop

  2. Big data for ecologists: Highlighting the ORNL DAAC

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Alison G; Cook, Robert B; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Eby, Pete I; Thornton, Michele M; Thornton, Peter E; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Virdi, Makhan L; Wei, Yaxing

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly confronted by questions that can be addressed only by integrating data from numerous sources, often across large geographic areas and broad time periods. The supply of ecological big data is increasing at a rapid pace as researchers are publishing their data sets and large, public science and data infrastructures (such as NEON, DataONE, LTER, & NCEAS) are producing and curating extensive volumes of complex data and metadata. While supply of, and demand for, ecological data is on the rise, many ecologists now face a new challenge in locating and synthesizing the data relevant for their particular question. Here we highlight selected popular big data products applicable to ecological research available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  3. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  4. Importance of music for facing the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-09-01

    Attempts to cope with the experience of pain have been numerous and have had a long history. Among others, mindfulness meditation is one of the oldest of them. It first emerged in ancient India and since then has been practiced up to the present, possibly as one of the most prevalent methods. There is a general consensus that the practice of such meditation can lead to a reduction of perceived pain most effectively, as argued by Fabbro and Crescentini [1]. As a first step of the attempt to practice such meditation, one is required not to defend oneself when faced with a painful experience, or to avoid or withdraw from the experience. However, this is not an easy task for anyone because humans, as Homo loquense[3], are born with an almost predispositional tendency to discard or to devalue conflicting knowledge because simultaneously holding conflicting cognitions makes them feel discomfort. Ancient Greeks already knew that, and in Aesop's fable, when a fox sees high-hanging grapes, his desire to eat grapes and inability to reach them are in conflict. The fox then overcomes this conflict by deciding that the grapes are sour and not worth eating. This conflict is the phenomenon referred to as cognitive dissonance in the field of psychology, and is closely connected to the entirety of human evolution. That is, the emergence of language must have led to the proliferation of cognitive dissonances, and if they had not been overcome, language and knowledge would have been discarded and further human evolution would have been stopped in its tracks. Thus, difficulty of facing pain is a "burden" imposed upon humans, who acquired language as a way to construct divergent and highly sophisticated cultures for their living.

  5. How experience shapes memory for faces: an event-related potential study on the own-age bias.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger; Wolff, Nicole; Steffens, Melanie C; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-10-01

    Young adults more accurately remember own-age than older faces. We tested whether this own-age bias (OAB) is reduced by increased experience. Young experts (geriatric nurses) and controls performed a recognition experiment with young and old faces. Critically, while control participants demonstrated better memory for young faces, no OAB was observed in the experts. Event-related potentials revealed larger N170 and P2 amplitudes for young than old faces in both groups, suggesting no group differences during early perceptual processing. At test, N250 repetition effects were more anteriorily distributed for own- than other-age faces in control participants, whereas experts showed no corresponding effects. A larger late positive component (LPC) for old than young faces was observed in controls, but not in experts. Larger LPCs may reflect prolonged stimulus processing compromising memory retrieval. In sum, experience with other-age faces does not affect early perceptual processing, but modulates later stages related to memory retrieval.

  6. DPF Durability ORNL-04-0692

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Thomas R.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Stafford, Randall

    2016-11-01

    A substantial amount of testing and analysis was performed over the 13-year-duration of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Cummins Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL's work focused on developing fundamental understanding of the mechanical and physical properties and their relationship to the microstructure of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) materials (i.e., cordierite, aluminum titanate, Si-SiC). These materials exhibit significant strain tolerance owing to their highly porous and mircocracked microstructures. That is, while very weak, the porous and compliant microstructure could withstand large strains without failing catastrophically. Substantial knowledge was also gained with respect to preparation of test specimens for evaluation of mechanical properties and the care required. Once the role of the microstructure of the wall material on its mechanical response was understood, the DPF honeycombs themselves were re-examined, and the influence of the honeycomb structure was considered. Cummins s work focused mainly on the apparent strength of the DPF honeycomb structure and using the material properties generated at ORNL for input to their regeneration and performance-predictive models.

  7. Does the use of telemental health alter the treatment experience? Inmates' perceptions of telemental health versus face-to-face treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert D; Patrick, Amber R; Magaletta, Philip R

    2008-02-01

    In corrections, where staffing limitations tax an overburdened mental health system, telemental health is an increasingly common mode of mental health service delivery. Although telemental health presents an efficient treatment modality for a spectrum of mental health services, it is imperative to study how this modality influences key elements of the treatment experience. In this study, the authors compared inmates' perceptions of the working alliance, postsession mood, and satisfaction with psychiatric and psychological mental health services delivered through 2 different modalities: telemental health and face-to-face. Participants consisted of 186 inmates who received mental health services (36 via telepsychology, 50 via face-to-face psychology, 50 via telepsychiatry, and 50 via face-to-face psychiatry). Results indicate no significant differences in inmates' perceptions of the work alliance with the mental health professional, postsession mood, or overall satisfaction with services when telemental health and face-to-face modalities were compared within each type of mental health service. Implications of these findings are presented.

  8. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; Griffard, Cory

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasma facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.

  9. Experiment attributes to establish tube with twisted tape insert performance cooling plasma facing components

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Emily; Ramirez, Emilio; Ruggles, Art E.; ...

    2015-08-18

    The modeling capability for tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with reference to the application of cooling plasma facing components in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The history of experiments examining the cooling performance of tubes with twisted tape inserts is reviewed with emphasis on the manner of heating, flow stability limits and the details of the test section and fluid delivery system. Models for heat transfer, burnout, and onset of net vapor generation in straight tube flows and tube with twisted tape are compared. As a result, the gaps in knowledge required to establish performance limits of the plasmamore » facing components are identified and attributes of an experiment to close those gaps are presented.« less

  10. Ecological Lessons from Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Zak, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experiments have provided novel insights into the ecological mechanisms controlling the cycling and storage of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to our ability to project how ecosystems respond to increasing CO{sub 2} in the Earth's atmosphere. Important lessons emerge by evaluating a set of hypotheses that initially guided the design and longevity of forested FACE experiments. Net primary productivity is increased by elevated CO{sub 2}, but the response can diminish over time. Carbon accumulation is driven by the distribution of carbon among plant and soil components with differing turnover rates and by interactions between the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Plant community structure may change, but elevated CO{sub 2} has only minor effects on microbial community structure. FACE results provide a strong foundation for next-generation experiments in unexplored ecosystems and inform coupled climate-biogeochemical models of the ecological mechanisms controlling ecosystem response to the rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration.

  11. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  12. Experiment on parallel correlated recognition of 2030 human faces based on speckle modulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi; Guo, Yunbo; Cao, Liangcai; Ma, Xiaosu; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2004-08-23

    In this paper, the experiment on parallel correlated recognition of 2030 human faces in Fe:LiNbO(3) crystal is detailedly presented, a very clear correlation spots array was achieved and the recognition accuracy is better than 95%. According to the experiment, it is proved that speckle modulation on the object beam of volume holographic correlators can well suppress the crosstalk, so that the multiplexing spacing is markedly reduced and the channel density is increased 10 times compared with the traditional holographic correlators without speckle modulation.

  13. Semi-automated Data Set Submission Work Flow for Archival with the ORNL DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Eby, P.; Heinz, S. L.; Hook, L. A.; McMurry, B. F.; Shanafield, H. A.; Sill, D.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes, free of charge, data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The ORNL DAAC primarily archives data produced by NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program; however, any data that are pertinent to the biogeochemical and ecological community are of interest. The data set submission process to the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated and semi-automated to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. If the ORNL DAAC is the appropriate archive for a data set, the data provider will be sent an email with several URL links to guide them through the submission process. The data provider will be asked to fill out a short online form to help the ORNL DAAC staff better understand the data set. These questions cover information about the data set, a description of the data set, temporal and spatial characteristics of the data set, and how the data were prepared and delivered. The questionnaire is generic and has been designed to gather input on the various diverse data sets the ORNL DAAC archives. A data upload module and metadata editor further guide the data provider through the submission process. For submission purposes, a complete data set includes data files, document(s) describing data, supplemental files, metadata record(s), and an online form. There are five major functions the ORNL DAAC performs during the process of archiving data: 1) Ingestion is the ORNL DAAC side of submission; data are checked, metadata records are compiled, and files are converted to archival formats. 2) Metadata records and data set documentation made searchable and the data set is given a permanent URL. 3) The data set is published, assigned a DOI, and advertised. 4) The data set is provided long-term post-project support. 5) Stewardship

  14. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Data from the Duke Forest FACE Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOEÆs Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The Duke University FACE website actually presents information on several FACE experiments. The Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) facility is located in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest. It consists of four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) plots that provide elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and four plots that provide ambient CO2 control. The system has been in operation since June, 1994 in the prototype plot, and since August, 1996 in the three additional plots. The prototype plot and its reference were halved with a barrier inserted in the soil in 1998 to conduct, together with five additional plot pairs, CO2 X soil nutrient enrichment experiments. The rest of the plots were partitioned in early 2005 and incorporated into the CO2 X nutrient experiment. To increase statistical power, four additional ambient plots were established in January, 2005, halved, and one half of each fertilized. [copied from http://face.env.duke.edu/description.cfm] The Duke FACE home page makes information available from both completed and ongoing projects, provides a searchable database of publications and presentations, and data, images, and links to related websites.

  15. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  16. 2010 Neutron Review: ORNL Neutron Sciences Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Counce, Deborah M; Ekkebus, Allen E; Horak, Charlie M; Nagler, Stephen E; Kszos, Lynn A

    2011-06-01

    During 2010, the Neutron Sciences Directorate focused on producing world-class science, while supporting the needs of the scientific community. As the instrument, sample environment, and data analysis tools at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR ) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have grown over the last year, so has promising neutron scattering research. This was an exciting year in science, technology, and operations. Some topics discussed are: (1) HFIR and SNS Experiments Take Gordon Battelle Awards for Scientific Discovery - Battelle Memorial Institute presented the inaugural Gordon Battelle Prizes for scientific discovery and technology impact in 2010. Battelle awards the prizes to recognize the most significant advancements at national laboratories that it manages or co-manages. (2) Discovery of Element 117 - As part of an international team of scientists from Russia and the United States, HFIR staff played a pivotal role in the discovery by generating the berkelium used to produce the new element. A total of six atoms of ''ununseptium'' were detected in a two-year campaign employing HFIR and the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the heavy-ion accelerator capabilities at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. The discovery of the new element expands the understanding of the properties of nuclei at extreme numbers of protons and neutrons. The production of a new element and observation of 11 new heaviest isotopes demonstrate the increased stability of super-heavy elements with increasing neutron numbers and provide the strongest evidence to date for the existence of an island of enhanced stability for super-heavy elements. (3) Studies of Iron-Based High-Temperature Superconductors - ORNL applied its distinctive capabilities in neutron scattering, chemistry, physics, and computation to detailed studies of the magnetic excitations of iron-based superconductors (iron pnictides and

  17. Evaluation of Delayed Critical ORNL Unreflected HEU Metal Sphere (ORSphere)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. A.; Bess, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    In 1971 and 1972 experimenters at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiment Facility performed critical experiments using an unreflected metal sphere of highly enriched uranium (HEU). The sphere used for the criticality experiments, originally used for neutron leakage spectrum measurements by General Atomic Company, consisted of three main parts and were assembled with a vertical assembly machine. Two configurations were tested. The first was nearly spherical with a nominal radius of 3.467 inches and had a reactivity of 68.1 ± 2.0 cents. The sphere parts were then re-machined as a sphere with a nominal radius of 3.4425 inches. This assembly had a reactivity of -23 cents. The method, dimensions, and uncertainty of the critical experiment were extensively recorded and documented. The original purpose of the experiments was for comparison to GODIVA I experiments. The ORNL unreflected HEU Metal Spheres have been evaluated for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (scheduled for inclusion in the September 2013 edition).

  18. GLIDES – Efficient Energy Storage from ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Momen, Ayyoub M.; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Odukomaiya, Wale; Akinina, Alla

    2016-03-01

    The research shown in this video features the GLIDES (Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage) project, which has been under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2013. GLIDES can store energy via combined inputs of electricity and heat, and deliver dispatchable electricity. Supported by ORNL’s Laboratory Director’s Research and Development (LDRD) fund, this energy storage system is low-cost, and hybridizes compressed air and pumped-hydro approaches to allow for storage of intermittent renewable energy at high efficiency. A U.S. patent application for this novel energy storage concept has been submitted, and research findings suggest it has the potential to be a flexible, low-cost, scalable, high-efficiency option for energy storage, especially useful in residential and commercial buildings.

  19. Recent plutonium science and technology at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium research and development (R and D) at ORNL has generally followed development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic plutonium chemistry studies have diminished since the mid-1970s; however, significant efforts have been made recently to determine fundamental characteristics of the aqueous plutonium polymer and to develop thermodynamic representations of plutonium oxides. Some studies have also been made on plutonium phosphates related to waste isolation and on definition of the oxidation states of environmental plutonium. The remaining work has been supported by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) and includes: (1) establishment of boundary limits for polymer formation in Purex systems; (2) preparation of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide microspheres by internal gelation sol-gel techniques; (3) direct thermal denitration of aqueous systems; and (4) plutonium/uranium extraction from spent fast reactor fuels.

  20. Evolutionary Relevance and Experience Contribute to Face Discrimination in Infant Macaques ("Macaca mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Paukner, Annika

    2016-01-01

    In human children and adults, familiar face types--typically own-age and own-species faces--are discriminated better than other face types; however, human infants do not appear to exhibit an own-age bias but instead better discriminate adult faces, which they see more often. There are two possible explanations for this pattern: Perceptual…

  1. CRYSTAL-FACE: A Field Experiment and Modeling Program Focused on Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical Cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of 'he Earth's climate. The deployment phase will occur in July, 2002 in southern Florida, USA. Several aircraft will be used, including the ER-2 and Proteus for cloud remote sensing, the WB-57 and Citation for in situ cloud measurements, the P-3 with a Doppler radar for characterization of convective systems, and the Twin otter for sampling of inflow airmasses. In addition, numerous ground-based and satellite remote sensing measurements will be contributing. A central focus of the mission is improvement of our ability to model cirrus clouds with numerical models. Several research groups with a variety of model types (cloud-resolving models, mesoscale models, weather-prediction models, and general circulation models) will be participating. Our hope is to fully characterize several mulonimbus/cirrus anvil systems that can be used as case studies for testing and improvement of the models. The models will be used for investigating cirrus generation and dissipation processes and the sensitivity of tropical cirrus to convective intensity and aerosol properties. Ultimately, we expect this effort to improve our ability to represent tropical cirrus in GCMs. A general description of the CRYSTAL-FACE program will be presented, with an emphasis on the cloud modeling approach.

  2. Experiments on High-Speed Liquid Films Over Downward-Facing Wetting and Nonwetting Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.K.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Sadowski, D.L.

    2003-07-15

    The fusion event in inertial fusion energy reactors can damage the chamber first walls. The Prometheus design study used a high-speed tangentially injected thin film of molten lead to protect the upper endcap of the reactor chamber. To assure full chamber coverage, the film must remain attached. Film detachment due to gravitational effects is most likely to occur on downward-facing surfaces.Experiments were therefore conducted on turbulent water films with initial thicknessess and speeds up to 2 mm and 11 m/s, respectively, onto the downward-facing surface of a flat plate 0-45 deg. below the horizontal. Average film detachment and lateral extent along the plate were measured. Detachment length appears to be a linear function of Froude number. Results for film flows over wetting and nonwetting surfaces show that surface wettability has a major impact. The data are used to establish conservative 'design windows' for film detachment. Film flow around cylindrical obstacles, modeling protective dams around chamber penetrations, was also studied. The results suggest that cylindrical dams cannot be used to protect penetrations, and that new chamber penetration geometries that avoid flow separation are a major design issue for this type of thin liquid protection.

  3. Agile based "Semi-"Automated Data ingest process : ORNL DAAC example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Hook, L.; Wei, Y.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. The ORNL DAAC ingest team curates diverse data sets from multiple data providers simultaneously. To streamline the ingest process, the data set submission process at the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated to use an agile process and a semi-automated workflow system has been developed to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The goals of semi-automated agile ingest process are to: 1.Provide the ability to track a data set from acceptance to publication 2. Automate steps that can be automated to improve efficiencies and reduce redundancy 3.Update legacy ingest infrastructure 4.Provide a centralized system to manage the various aspects of ingest. This talk will cover the agile methodology, workflow, and tools developed through this system.

  4. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments.

    PubMed

    Norby, Richard J; De Kauwe, Martin G; Domingues, Tomas F; Duursma, Remko A; Ellsworth, David S; Goll, Daniel S; Lapola, David M; Luus, Kristina A; MacKenzie, A Rob; Medlyn, Belinda E; Pavlick, Ryan; Rammig, Anja; Smith, Benjamin; Thomas, Rick; Thonicke, Kirsten; Walker, Anthony P; Yang, Xiaojuan; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model-data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity.

  5. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Norby, Richard J.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Domingues, Tomas F.; ...

    2015-08-06

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate spacemore » and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model–data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity.« less

  6. ORNL RAIL & BARGE DB. Network Database

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1991-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  7. ORNL RAIL & BARGE DB. Network Database

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.

    1992-03-16

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database. The database consists of 96 subnetworks. Each of the subnetworks represent an individual railroad, a waterway system, or a composite group of small railroads. Two subnetworks represent waterways; one being barge/intercoastal, and the other coastal merchant marine with access through the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, the Panama Canal, and Pacific Coast. Two other subnetworks represent small shortline railroads and terminal railroad operations. One subnetwork is maintained for the representation of Amtrak operations. The remaining 91 subnetworks represent individual or corporate groups of railroads. Coordinate locations are included as part of the database. The rail portion of the database is similar to the original FRA rail network. The waterway coordinates are greatly enhanced in the current release. Inland waterway representation was extracted from the 1:2,000,000 United States Geological Survey data. An important aspect of the database is the transfer file. This file identifies where two railroads interline traffic between their systems. Also included are locations where rail/waterway intermodal transfers could occur. Other files in the database include a translation table between Association of American Railroad (AAR) codes to the 96 subnetworks in the database, a list of names of the 96 subnetworks, and a file of names for a large proportion of the nodes in the network.

  8. Development of a Digital Holography Diagnostic for Surface Characterization at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Thomas, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems Division (FMNSD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with Third Dimension Technologies (TDT), proposes to develop a digital holography (DH) surface erosion/deposition diagnostic for imaging 3D plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces in real time. Digital holography is a technique that utilizes IR lasers reflected from a material surface to form a holographic interferogram, which carries information about the topology of the surface when reconstructed. The interrogated surface (at a distance of 3 m) is a region of 2.3 cm x 2.3 cm, and the surface feature resolution is 10 micron or better in depth, around 1 mm transverse to the beam. This is being accomplished in a multi-staged research program at ORNL: 1) establishment of a single-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' 2) establishment of a dual-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' and 3) implementation of the dual-laser DH system on the Proto-MPEX device. The status of the diagnostic development effort will be presented. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of ORNL, managed by UT Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E.

  9. ORNL fission product release tests VI-6

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The ORNL fission product release tests investigate release and transport of the major fission products from high-burnup fuel under LWR accident conditions. The two most recent tests (VI-4 and VI-5) were conducted in hydrogen. In three previous tests in this series (VI-1, VI-2, and VI-3), which had been conducted in steam, the oxidized Zircaloy cladding remained largely intact and acted as a barrier to steam reaction with the UO{sub 2}. Test VI-6 was designed to insure significant oxidation of the UO{sub 2} fuel, which has been shown to enhance release of certain fission products, especially molybdenum and ruthenium. The BR3 fuel specimen used in test VI-6 will be heated in hydrogen to 2300 K; the Zircaloy cladding is expected to melt and runoff at {approximately}2150 K. Upon reaching the 2300 K test temperature, the test atmosphere will be changed to steam, and that temperature will be maintained for 60 min, with the three collection trains being operated for 2-, 18-, and 40-min periods. The releases of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 137}Cs will be monitored continuously throughout the test. Posttest analyses of the material collected on the three trains will provide results on the release and transport of Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, and Eu as a function of time at 2300 K. Continuous monitoring of the hydrogen produced during the steam atmosphere period at high temperature will provide a measure of the oxidation rate of the cladding and fuel. Following delays in approval of the safety documentation and in decontamination of the hot cell and test apparatus, test VI-6 will be conducted in late May.

  10. Pressure Safety Program Implementation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark; Etheridge, Tom; Oland, C. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. In February 2006, DOE promulgated worker safety and health regulations to govern contractor activities at DOE sites. These regulations, which are provided in 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program, establish requirements for worker safety and health program that reduce or prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and accidental losses by providing DOE contractors and their workers with safe and healthful workplaces at DOE sites. The regulations state that contractors must achieve compliance no later than May 25, 2007. According to 10 CFR 851, Subpart C, Specific Program Requirements, contractors must have a structured approach to their worker safety and health programs that at a minimum includes provisions for pressure safety. In implementing the structured approach for pressure safety, contractors must establish safety policies and procedures to ensure that pressure systems are designed, fabricated, tested, inspected, maintained, repaired, and operated by trained, qualified personnel in accordance with applicable sound engineering principles. In addition, contractors must ensure that all pressure vessels, boilers, air receivers, and supporting piping systems conform to (1) applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (2004) Sections I through XII, including applicable code cases; (2) applicable ASME B31 piping codes; and (3) the strictest applicable state and local codes. When national consensus codes are not applicable because of pressure range, vessel geometry, use of special materials, etc., contractors must implement measures to provide equivalent protection and ensure a level of safety greater than or equal to the level of protection afforded by the ASME or applicable state or local codes. This report documents the work performed to address legacy pressure vessel deficiencies and comply

  11. Research opportunities and facilities at ORNL`s residual stress user center

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.R.; Watkins, T.R.; Kozaczek, K.; Wang, X.-L.; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program at ORNL was established to help solve high-temperature materials problems that limit the efficiency and reliability of advanced energy-conversion systems. Both proprietary and nonproprietary research can be conducted within the user program. The facilities are open to researchers in US industry, universities, and federal laboratories. The Residual Stress User Center (RSUC), one of the six HTML user centers, was recently established and consists of two high precision x-ray diffraction systems for measurement of residual strain and texture. Both biaxial and triaxial residual strain data can be collected. Attachments to the diffraction system include a position sensitive detector and a laser specimen positioning system. The RSUC has capabilities for electropolishing and strain measurement with strain gauges. A complementary neutron diffraction facility has recently been developed and demonstrated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. The neutron diffraction facility enables mapping of macro residual stresses throughout the volume of a component, complementing the near surface stress measurements available by x-ray diffraction. The neutron facility has been proposed as an addition to the RSUC.

  12. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anjuli L A; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces.

  13. The Processing of Human Emotional Faces by Pet and Lab Dogs: Evidence for Lateralization and Experience Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Anjuli L. A.; Randi, Dania; Müller, Corsin A.; Huber, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    From all non-human animals dogs are very likely the best decoders of human behavior. In addition to a high sensitivity to human attentive status and to ostensive cues, they are able to distinguish between individual human faces and even between human facial expressions. However, so far little is known about how they process human faces and to what extent this is influenced by experience. Here we present an eye-tracking study with dogs emanating from two different living environments and varying experience with humans: pet and lab dogs. The dogs were shown pictures of familiar and unfamiliar human faces expressing four different emotions. The results, extracted from several different eye-tracking measurements, revealed pronounced differences in the face processing of pet and lab dogs, thus indicating an influence of the amount of exposure to humans. In addition, there was some evidence for the influences of both, the familiarity and the emotional expression of the face, and strong evidence for a left gaze bias. These findings, together with recent evidence for the dog's ability to discriminate human facial expressions, indicate that dogs are sensitive to some emotions expressed in human faces. PMID:27074009

  14. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  15. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  16. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  17. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  18. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  19. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

  20. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

  1. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations related to the phenomenon of

  2. Effects of Normal and Abnormal Visual Experience on the Development of Opposing Aftereffects for Upright and Inverted Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel A.; Maurer, Daphne; Hatry, Alexandra; Anzures, Gizelle; Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We used opposing figural aftereffects to investigate whether there are at least partially separable representations of upright and inverted faces in patients who missed early visual experience because of bilateral congenital cataracts (mean age at test 19.5 years). Visually normal adults and 10-year-olds were tested for comparison. Adults showed…

  3. Head Start Family and Experiences Survey: FACES Findings--New Research on Head Start Outcomes and Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) collects data on a nationally representative sample of Head Start programs, classrooms, teachers, parents, and children examining the quality and effects of Head Start. Three waves of data collection have occurred: in 1997, 2000, and 2003. Information presented in this publication is…

  4. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  5. Prospects for the ORNL/TAMU Barium Fluoride Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Austin; McIntosh, Alan; Youngs, Mike; Mosby, Shea; Varner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state is essential to understanding properties such as the structure of a neutron star or its gravitational collapse, leading to supernovae. It has been suggested that to better constrain the symmetry energy one can use the bremmstrahlung gamma rays emitted from the hot, dense nuclear matter in the early stages of heavy ion collisions. These gamma rays have the potential to provide a cleaner probe than the more traditional hadronic probes. To measure these bremmstrahlung photons, barium fluoride scintillation crystals were chosen for their ability to detect photons across a large energy range and for their inherent pulse shape discrimination properties. This summer, the detectors of the TAMU/ORNL barium fluoride array were tested in preparation for such an experiment. Signals from each detector were recorded individually for cosmic rays and radioactive source events. The full waveforms were digitized with flash ADCs. A selected set of detectors was assembled and tested with beam from the K500 cyclotron. With this in-beam data, waveform integration parameters may be optimized. Results from the testing of these detectors with flash digitizers will be presented. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Cyclotron Institute.

  6. BIFoR FACE: A ten-year Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment in Old Growth Deciduous English Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Ellsworth, D.; Hemming, D.; Crous, K.; Pope, F.; Blaen, P.; Poynter, A.; Hamilton, L.; Blenkhorn, D.; Jarvis-Rouse, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) will perform fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR to study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to against a large step-change in atmospheric [CO2] is the BIFoR Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England. The facility will enable elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment and 6 control plots), commencing in spring 2016. Under eCO2 conditions primary research questions will investigate carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses. As well as describing the facility and experimental design, we present baseline data collected throughout 2015, prior to fumigation. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; phenology camera derivatives; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and enhanced atmospheric chemistry. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatinus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is an exciting new international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  7. Review of recent ORNL specific-plant analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Dickson, T.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been helping the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) develop the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) evaluation methodology since the mid-1970s. During the early 1980s, ORNL developed the integrated PTS (IPTS) methodology, which is a probabilistic approach that includes postulation of PTS transients, estimation of their frequencies, thermal/hydraulic analyses to obtain the corresponding thermal and pressure loadings on the reactor pressure vessel, and probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses. The scope of the IPTS program included development of the probabilistic fracture mechanics code OCA-P and application of the IPTS methodology to three nuclear plants in the US (Oconee I, Calvert Cliffs I, and H. B. Robinson II). The results of this effort were used to help establish the PTS Rule (10CFR50.61) and Regulatory Guide 1.154, which pertains to the PTS issue. The IPTS Program was completed in 1985, and since that time the ORNL related effort has been associated with long-term programs aimed at improving/updating the probabilistic fracture mechanics methodology and input data. In 1990, the NRC requested that ORNL review a vessel-integrity evaluation report submitted to the NRC by the Yankee Atomic Electric Co. for the Yankee Rowe reactor and that ORNL also perform an independent probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Details of the methodology and preliminary results are the subject of this paper/presentation.

  8. Review of recent ORNL specific-plant analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Dickson, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been helping the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) develop the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) evaluation methodology since the mid-1970s. During the early 1980s, ORNL developed the integrated PTS (IPTS) methodology, which is a probabilistic approach that includes postulation of PTS transients, estimation of their frequencies, thermal/hydraulic analyses to obtain the corresponding thermal and pressure loadings on the reactor pressure vessel, and probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses. The scope of the IPTS program included development of the probabilistic fracture mechanics code OCA-P and application of the IPTS methodology to three nuclear plants in the US (Oconee I, Calvert Cliffs I, and H. B. Robinson II). The results of this effort were used to help establish the PTS Rule (10CFR50.61) and Regulatory Guide 1.154, which pertains to the PTS issue. The IPTS Program was completed in 1985, and since that time the ORNL related effort has been associated with long-term programs aimed at improving/updating the probabilistic fracture mechanics methodology and input data. In 1990, the NRC requested that ORNL review a vessel-integrity evaluation report submitted to the NRC by the Yankee Atomic Electric Co. for the Yankee Rowe reactor and that ORNL also perform an independent probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Details of the methodology and preliminary results are the subject of this paper/presentation.

  9. The Tromso Infant Faces Database (TIF): Development, Validation and Application to Assess Parenting Experience on Clarity and Intensity Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Maack, Jana K.; Bohne, Agnes; Nordahl, Dag; Livsdatter, Lina; Lindahl, Åsne A.W.; Øvervoll, Morten; Wang, Catharina E. A.; Pfuhl, Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Newborns and infants are highly depending on successfully communicating their needs; e.g., through crying and facial expressions. Although there is a growing interest in the mechanisms of and possible influences on the recognition of facial expressions in infants, heretofore there exists no validated database of emotional infant faces. In the present article we introduce a standardized and freely available face database containing Caucasian infant face images from 18 infants 4 to 12 months old. The development and validation of the Tromsø Infant Faces (TIF) database is presented in Study 1. Over 700 adults categorized the photographs by seven emotion categories (happy, sad, disgusted, angry, afraid, surprised, neutral) and rated intensity, clarity and their valance. In order to examine the relevance of TIF, we then present its first application in Study 2, investigating differences in emotion recognition across different stages of parenthood. We found a small gender effect in terms of women giving higher intensity and clarity ratings than men. Moreover, parents of young children rated the images as clearer than all the other groups, and parents rated “neutral” expressions as more clearly and more intense. Our results suggest that caretaking experience provides an implicit advantage in the processing of emotional expressions in infant faces, especially for the more difficult, ambiguous expressions. PMID:28392772

  10. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  11. Tropical forest response to elevated CO2: Model-experiment integration at the AmazonFACE site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenberg, C.; Berry, J. A.; Guanter, L.; Joiner, J.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere's response to current and future elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) is a large source of uncertainty in future projections of the C cycle, climate and ecosystem functioning. In particular, the sensitivity of tropical rainforest ecosystems to eCO­2 is largely unknown even though the importance of tropical forests for biodiversity, carbon storage and regional and global climate feedbacks is unambiguously recognized. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) project will be the first ecosystem scale eCO2 experiment undertaken in the tropics, as well as the first to be undertaken in a mature forest. AmazonFACE provides the opportunity to integrate ecosystem modeling with experimental observations right from the beginning of the experiment, harboring a two-way exchange, i.e. models provide hypotheses to be tested, and observations deliver the crucial data to test and improve ecosystem models. We present preliminary exploration of observed and expected process responses to eCO2 at the AmazonFACE site from the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, highlighting opportunities and pitfalls for model integration of tropical FACE experiments. The preliminary analysis provides baseline hypotheses, which are to be further developed with a follow-up multiple model inter-comparison. The analysis builds on the recently undertaken FACE-MDS (Model-Data Synthesis) project, which was applied to two temperate FACE experiments and exceeds the traditional focus on comparing modeled end-target output. The approach has proven successful in identifying well (and less well) represented processes in models, which are separated for six clusters also here; (1) Carbon fluxes, (2) Carbon pools, (3) Energy balance, (4) Hydrology, (5) Nutrient cycling, and (6) Population dynamics. Simulation performance of observed conditions at the AmazonFACE site (a.o. from Manaus K34 eddy flux tower) will highlight process-based model deficiencies, and aid the separation

  12. Tropical forest response to elevated CO2: Model-experiment integration at the AmazonFACE site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, K.

    2015-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere's response to current and future elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) is a large source of uncertainty in future projections of the C cycle, climate and ecosystem functioning. In particular, the sensitivity of tropical rainforest ecosystems to eCO­2 is largely unknown even though the importance of tropical forests for biodiversity, carbon storage and regional and global climate feedbacks is unambiguously recognized. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) project will be the first ecosystem scale eCO2 experiment undertaken in the tropics, as well as the first to be undertaken in a mature forest. AmazonFACE provides the opportunity to integrate ecosystem modeling with experimental observations right from the beginning of the experiment, harboring a two-way exchange, i.e. models provide hypotheses to be tested, and observations deliver the crucial data to test and improve ecosystem models. We present preliminary exploration of observed and expected process responses to eCO2 at the AmazonFACE site from the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, highlighting opportunities and pitfalls for model integration of tropical FACE experiments. The preliminary analysis provides baseline hypotheses, which are to be further developed with a follow-up multiple model inter-comparison. The analysis builds on the recently undertaken FACE-MDS (Model-Data Synthesis) project, which was applied to two temperate FACE experiments and exceeds the traditional focus on comparing modeled end-target output. The approach has proven successful in identifying well (and less well) represented processes in models, which are separated for six clusters also here; (1) Carbon fluxes, (2) Carbon pools, (3) Energy balance, (4) Hydrology, (5) Nutrient cycling, and (6) Population dynamics. Simulation performance of observed conditions at the AmazonFACE site (a.o. from Manaus K34 eddy flux tower) will highlight process-based model deficiencies, and aid the separation

  13. ORNL Resonance Evaluation for ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C; Guber, Klaus H; Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Cross-section evaluations in the resonance region are performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the computer code SAMMY based on formalisms derived from the R-matrix theory. Resonance parameters (RPs) obtained in the evaluation, combined with resonance formalism, replicate a regression of the experimental data. The RPs are also used to generate cross-section data for neutron transport calculations in analyses of nuclear reactor design and nuclear criticality safety. In addition to generating RPs, the evaluation also generates the resonance parameter covariance (RPC) data. Several ORNL resonance evaluations, including RPs and RPCs, were incorporated in the recently released US-evaluated nuclear data library, ENDF/B-VII.1. A brief summary of the RPs and RPCs evaluated at ORNL is given.

  14. Procedures manual for the ORNL Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1987-04-01

    The portion of the radiological survey program performed by ORNL is the subject of this Procedures Manual. The RASA group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at ORNL is responsible for the planning, conducting, and reporting of the results of radiological surveys at specified sites and associated vicinity properties. The results of these surveys are used by DOE in determining the need for and extent of remedial actions. Upon completion of the necessary remedial actions, the ORNL-RASA group or other OOS contractor may be called upon to verify the effectiveness of the remedial action. Information from these postremedial action surveys is included as part of the data base used by DOE in certifying a site for unrestricted use.

  15. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  16. ORNL Lightweighting Research Featured on MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    PBS MotorWeek, television's longest running automotive series, featured ORNL lightweighting research for vehicle applications in an episode that aired in early April 2014. The crew captured footage of research including development of new metal alloys, additive manufacturing, carbon fiber production, advanced batteries, power electronics components, and neutron imaging applications for materials evaluation.

  17. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-19

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  18. ORNL takes energy-efficient housing to a new level

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TVA and the Department of Energy are taking energy-saving research into a West Knox County neighborhood. In the Campbell Creek subdivision, ORNL researchers have helped builders to construct three homes with three different levels of energy-saving features.

  19. ORNL Lightweighting Research Featured on MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-15

    PBS MotorWeek, television's longest running automotive series, featured ORNL lightweighting research for vehicle applications in an episode that aired in early April 2014. The crew captured footage of research including development of new metal alloys, additive manufacturing, carbon fiber production, advanced batteries, power electronics components, and neutron imaging applications for materials evaluation.

  20. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  1. The use of faces as stimuli in neuroimaging and psychological experiments: a procedure to standardize stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Smeets, Floortje; Vuurman, Eric F P M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle

    2009-11-01

    In psychological experiments involving facial stimuli, it is of great importance that the basic perceptual or psychological characteristics that are investigated are not confounded by factors such as brightness and contrast, head size, hair cut and color, skin color, and the presence of glasses and earrings. Standardization of facial stimulus materials reduces the effect of these confounding factors. We therefore employed a set of basic image processing techniques to deal with this issue. The processed images depict the faces in grayscale, all at the same size, brightness, and contrast, and confined to an oval mask revealing only the basic features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth. The standardization was successfully applied to four different face databases, consisting of male and female faces and including neutral as well as happy facial expressions. An important advantage of the proposed standardization is that featural as well as configurational information is retained. We also consider the procedure to be a major contribution to the development of a de facto standard for the use of facial stimuli in psychological experiments. Such methodological standardization would allow a better comparison of the results of these studies.

  2. International Medical Mission Facing Global Increase of Chronic Disease: 2-Year Experience in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialists of developing countries are facing the epidemic growth of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). From 2011 to 2013, I, as a Korean volunteer doctor, had been working in a local primary healthcare center in Bangladesh, assessing rates of NCDs. Proportion of patients with NCDs was increased from 74.96% in 1999 to 83.05% in 2012, particularly due to the spreading of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and tuberculosis. To succeed in medical mission in developing countries, volunteer doctors have to take measures for preventing chronic diseases along with proper treatment. PMID:26839491

  3. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  4. Simulation and experiment research of face recognition with modified multi-method morphological correlation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Xuping, Zhang

    2007-03-01

    Morphological definition of similarity degree of gray-scale image and general definition of morphological correlation (GMC) are proposed. Hardware and software design for a compact joint transform correlator are presented in order to implement GMC. Two kinds of modified general morphological correlation algorithm are proposed. The gray-scale image is decomposed into a set of binary image slices in certain decomposition method. In the first algorithm, the edge of each binary joint image slice is detected, width adjustability of which is investigated, and the joint power spectrum of the edge is summed. In the second algorithm, the joint power spectrum of each pair is binarized or thinned and then summed in one situation, and the summation of the joint power spectrums of these pairs is binarized or thinned in the other situation. Computer-simulation results and real face image recognition results indicate that the modified algorithm can improve the discrimination capabilities with respect to the gray-scale face images of high similarity.

  5. The Two Faces of Teacher Candidates' Portfolio Experiences: Tradition and Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsak, Hanife Gulhan Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the effectiveness of facebook in the process of preparing a portfolio, it will be significant to profit by teacher candidates' experiences on facebook and traditional environments. Therefore in this phenomenon study to fathom of the portfolio experiences on both environments is intended. In this regard the opinions of the volunteers who…

  6. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  7. Will Elevated CO2 Increase Forest Productivity? Evidence from an Australian FACE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, L.

    2015-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 may enhance forest productivity via CO2 fertilisation and increased soil moisture associated with water savings. Quantification of the response of forest productivity to rising CO2 concentrations is important, as increased forest productivity may contribute to the mitigation of anthropogenic climate change. Vegetation greenness indices derived from digital photographs have been correlated with a number of measures of ecosystem productivity including total biomass, leaf area index and gross primary productivity. Our study examines the effect of elevated CO2 on patterns in overstorey and understorey vegetation greenness at a Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility (EucFACE) situated within a temperate eucalypt forest in Sydney, Australia. EucFACE consists of six treatment areas, three subjected to ambient CO2 ('ambient') and three with ambient plus 150 ppm CO2 ('elevated'). Each treatment area had one camera monitoring canopy greenness for a 12 month period and four cameras monitoring one understorey vegetation plot (2.25 m2) each for a 15 month period. Vegetation greenness was measured daily using the green chromatic coordinate (GCC). Understorey and overstorey GCC and rates of understorey greening and browning were not affected by elevated CO2. Periodic differences in canopy greening and browning between CO2 treatments were observed, though these probably reflect an insect defoliation event in one treatment area. Increases in canopy and understorey GCC were associated with a combination of extended periods of high soil volumetric water content (VWC) (>0.1) and high maximum temperatures (>25 °C). Browning appeared to be associated with a combination of periods of high maximum temperatures and low VWC or low minimum temperatures. Our short term findings suggest that eucalypt forest productivity will be sensitive to changes in climate, but may be relatively insensitive to changes in CO2 in the near future.

  8. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  9. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-01

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  10. Overview of Fuel Rod Simulator Usage at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J.; McCulloch, Reg

    2004-02-04

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operated large out-of-reactor experimental facilities to resolve thermal-hydraulic safety issues in nuclear reactors. The fundamental research ranged from material mechanical behavior of fuel cladding during the depressurization phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) to basic heat transfer research in gas- or sodium-cooled cores. The largest facility simulated the initial phase (less than 1 min. of transient time) of a LOCA in a commercial pressurized-water reactor. The nonnuclear reactor cores of these facilities were mimicked via advanced, highly instrumented electric fuel rod simulators locally manufactured at ORNL. This paper provides an overview of these experimental facilities with an emphasis on the fuel rod simulators.

  11. Evaluation of the ORNL area for future waste burial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Byerly, D.W.; Gonzales, S.

    1983-10-01

    Additional waste-burial facilities will be needed at ORNL within this decade. In order to find environmentally acceptable sites, the ORNL area must be systematically evaluated. This document represents the first step in that selection process. Geologic and hydrologic data from the literature and minor field investigations are used to identify more favorable sites for Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7. Also underway at this time is a companion study to locate a Central Waste Storage Area which could be used in the future to accommodate wastes generated by the X-10, Y-12, and K-25 facilities. From the several watershed options available, the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin is selected as the most promising hydrologic regime. This area contains all past and present waste-disposal facilities and is thus already well monitored. The seven bedrock units within the ORNL area are evaluated as potential burial media. Shales of the Conasauga Group, which are currently used for waste burial in the Whiteoak Creek drainage basin, and the Knox Group are considered the leading candidates. Although the residuum derived from and overlying the Knox dolomite has many favorable characteristics and may be regarded as having a high potential for burial of low-level wastes, at the present it is unproven. Therefore, the Conasauga shales are considered a preferable option for SWSA 7 within the ORNL area. Since the Conasauga interval is currently used for waste burial, it is better understood. One tract in Melton Valley that is underlain by Conasauga shales is nominated for detailed site-characterization studies, and several other tracts are recommended for future exploratory drilling. Exploration is also suggested for a tract in the upper Whiteoak Creek basin where Knox residuum is the shallow subsurface material.

  12. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer…

  13. Overview of Local Flaps of the Face for Reconstruction of Cutaneous Malignancies: Single Institutional Experience of Seventy Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jagdeep K; Shende, Kaustubh Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Context: The most common malignant tumours of the face are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. While the results of skin graft are less than satisfactory for large areas to cover, distant flaps are bulky with a poor colour match. Local fasciocutaneous flaps provide reasonable option for reconstruction of facial defects with good colour and texture match and good success rate. Aims: This study aimed to analyse the various modalities of reconstruction after resection of facial malignancies and their advantages and disadvantages. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective study. Materials and Methods: Of 70 patients, 34 were managed with V-Y advancement flap, 24 with nasolabial flap, 8 with median forehead flap and 4 with standard forehead flap cover. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: Of 34 V-Y advancement flaps, 2 showed suture dehiscence at the apex of triangle which was allowed to heal secondarily with regular dressings. All the 24 nasolabial flaps were healthy without any complication. All patients had satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcomes. Conclusions: In our experience, local flaps give the best results and are the first choice for reconstruction of the face. Most defects can be best closed by nasolabial, V-Y advancement and forehead flap. Outstanding functional and cosmetic results can be achieved. Proper execution requires considerable technical skill and experience. PMID:28163451

  14. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  15. Environmental Data from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for Biogeochemical Dynamics

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) is a NASA-sponsored source for biogeochemical and ecological data and models useful in environmental research. Data have been collected on the ground, by aircraft, by satellite, and from computer models. The extent of data and model products ranges from site specific to global, and durations range from days to years. Data products and models are free, but users must typically register. Major field campaigns with available data include: • The Boreal Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) • The First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) Project) • The Large-Scale Biosphere - Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) • The North American Carbon Program (NACP) • Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project • The SAFARI 2000 (S2K) Project in Africa • Superior National Forest(SNF)Project Validation projects with available data include: • BigFoot • The Accelerated Canopy Chemistry Program (ACCP) • The EOS Land Validation Project • FLUXNET • MODIS • The Prototype Validation Exercise (PROVE) The ORNL DAAC also provides access to data for many regional and global projects and to a model archive. (Specialized Interface)(Registration Required)

  16. Integrated Planning for Cleanup of Bethel Valley and Revitalization of the ORNL Main Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S. D.; Myrick, T. E.; Eidam, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the efforts currently underway to integrate the planning for, and performance of, the cleanup and modernization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). UT-Battelle, LLC, is the DOE Office of Science (SC) contractor responsible for ORNL Operations and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, is the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for cleanup of the ORNL site. The two companies are working together to address the 50+ year old ORNL contamination legacy while new facilities for the next 50 years of ORNL operation are being built. These joint efforts have accomplished a number of ''early cleanup actions'' that have significantly reduced the current risk from legacy contamination, are securing approval for cleanup of the ORNL main plant area, and, at the same time, have launched the ORNL modernization efforts.

  17. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants' behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants' facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate's facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition.

  18. Poker Face of Inelastic Dark Matter: Prospects at Upcoming Direct Detection Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Daniele S.M.; Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    The XENON100 and CRESST experiments will directly test the inelastic dark matter explanation for DAMA's 8.9{sigma} anomaly. This article discusses how predictions for direct detection experiments depend on uncertainties in quenching factor measurements, the dark matter interaction with the Standard Model and the halo velocity distribution. When these uncertainties are accounted for, an order of magnitude variation is found in the number of expected events at CRESST and XENON100. The process of testing the DAMA anomaly highlights many of the challenges inherent to direct detection experiments. In addition to determining the properties of the unknown dark matter particle, direct detection experiments must also consider the unknown flux of the incident dark matter, as well as uncertainties in converting a signal from one target nucleus to another. The predictions for both the CRESST 2009 run and XENON100 2010 run show an order of magnitude uncertainty. The nuclear form factor for {sup 184}W, when combined with additional theoretical and experimental uncertainties, will likely prevent CRESST from refuting the iDM hypothesis with an exposure of {Omicron}(100 kg-d) in a model-independent manner. XENON100, on the other hand, will be able to make a definitive statement about a spin-independent, inelastically scattering dark matter candidate. Still, the CRESST 2009 data can potentially confirm iDM for a large range of parameter space. In case of a positive signal, the combined data from CRESST and XENON100 will start probing the properties of the Milky Way DM profile and the interaction of the SM with the dark matter.

  19. Laboratory Experiments of Silica Powder Lubrication Between Rock Faces at Coseismic Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K.; Kavehpour, P.; Brodsky, E.

    2004-12-01

    One of the unresolved problems in earthquake mechanics is the physical process controlling friction on faults during the rupture of large earthquakes. Many studies suggest that coseismic friction is low even at great depths and several mechanisms have been introduced to explain these observations. In these experiments, we attempt to investigate the physics of mechanical lubrication between rock surfaces by using dry powder. To simulate rock friction, we utilize a tribo-rheometer where two novaculite disks, with 1-inch diameter and 5-micron surface roughness, are compressed together with a thin layer of 5-micron silica powder applied in between. The tribo-rheometer is a highly sensitive instrument that measures torque and normal force when a test substance is placed between the rotating plates. The measurements can be used to directly calculate the viscosity and the friction coefficient. These experiments investigate the velocity dependence of friction by rotating the top disk through velocities from 10-3 to 102 rad/sec while the normal stress is kept constant on the order of 104 Pa. The preliminary experiments show frictional regimes of boundary, mixed, and hydrodynamic lubrication; together known as the Stribeck curve. At high shear rates of >10 rad/sec, hydrodynamic lubrication occurs when fluid-like behavior of granular flow are responsible for the shear stress between the surfaces. In contrast, boundary lubrication has full asperity contact between the top and bottom surfaces during low shear rates of <0.01 rad/sec and shear stress arises from physical interactions. Between the two regimes above, the mixed lubrication is where there is a combination of surface asperity and powder lubricant interactions. From the data, we find the friction coefficient drops from a boundary lubrication value of ˜0.3 -- 0.4 to a mixed regime minimum of ˜0.2 -- 0.3 while transitioning to the hydrodynamic lubrication. The transition corresponds to a change from solid

  20. Finding medical care for colorectal cancer symptoms: experiences among those facing financial barriers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maria D; Siminoff, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer symptoms. Using verbatim transcripts of the narratives collected from patients between 2008 and 2010, three themes were identified: insurance status as a barrier (discussed by n = 84; 100% of subsample), finding medical care (discussed by n = 30; 36% of subsample) and, insurance companies as barriers (discussed by n = 7; 8% of subsample). Our analysis revealed that insurance status is more nuanced than the categories insured/uninsured and differentially affects how patients attempt to secure health care. While barriers to medical care for the uninsured have been well documented, the experiences of those who are underinsured are less well understood. To improve outcomes in these patients it is critical to understand how financial barriers to medical care are manifested. Even with anticipated changes of the Affordable Care Act, it remains important to understand how perceived financial barriers may be influencing patient behaviors, particularly those who have limited health care options due to insufficient health insurance coverage.

  1. Prepare the patient for future challenges when facing hemodialysis: nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Sturesson, Anna; Ziegert, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem due to the significant financial burden for the healthcare system and likewise for the patient who needs the treatment. The patient's whole life situation is turned upside down with chronic kidney disease when they are confronted with the forced change to start treatment with hemodialysis. Patients with chronic kidney disease experience a lack of adequate emotional support from nurses during the transition to hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of giving support to patients during the transition to hospital-bound hemodialysis. The study had a qualitative descriptive design with a content analysis approach; eight nurses from four hospitals in the south of Sweden participated. The results showed that the nurses gave threshold support with an openness and awareness of the patient's individual needs during the transition, except that there seemed to be a lack of knowledge and ability to provide emotional support. Patient support during the transition could therefore be absent. Education, at local and national levels, is needed for the nurse to be able to give professional emotional support. Further research is also desired in order to provide nurses with the tools they need to give emotional support, which is of utmost importance. PMID:24717268

  2. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences Among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer symptoms. Using verbatim transcripts of the narratives collected from patients between 2008 and 2010, three themes were identified: insurance status as a barrier (discussed by n = 84; 100% of subsample), finding medical care (discussed by n = 30; 36% of subsample) and, insurance companies as barriers (discussed by n = 7; 8% of subsample). Our analysis revealed that insurance status is more nuanced than the categories insured/uninsured and differentially affects how patients attempt to secure health care. While barriers to medical care for the uninsured have been well documented, the experiences of those who are underinsured are less well understood. To improve outcomes in these patients it is critical to understand how financial barriers to medical care are manifested. Even with anticipated changes of the Affordable Care Act, it remains important to understand how perceived financial barriers may be influencing patient behaviors, particularly those who have limited health care options due to insufficient health insurance coverage. PMID:25394821

  3. The faces of breastfeeding support: Experiences of mothers seeking breastfeeding support online.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to advance understanding of the experiences of mothers using closed Facebook groups attached to the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA) and how these mothers find and share breastfeeding support and information using this forum. The study involved members of three closed Facebook groups that were chosen as interesting cases for study, based on the volume and nature of their posts. Members of these three groups then participated in online depth interviews and online semi-structured focus groups. The overarching theme identified was support, with four sub-themes that describe the nature of online breastfeeding support within the Facebook environment. These sub-themes are: community, complementary, immediate and information. It was found that social networking sites (SNSs) provide support from the trusted community. It is immediate, it complements existing support or services that ABA provides and also provides practical and valuable information for its users.

  4. Face adaptation depends on seeing the face.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Farshad; Koch, Christof; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2005-01-06

    Retinal input that is suppressed from visual awareness can nevertheless produce measurable aftereffects, revealing neural processes that do not directly result in a conscious percept. We here report that the face identity-specific aftereffect requires a visible face; it is effectively cancelled by binocular suppression or by inattentional blindness of the inducing face. Conversely, the same suppression does not interfere with the orientation-specific aftereffect. Thus, the competition between incompatible or interfering visual inputs to reach awareness is resolved before those aspects of information that are exploited in face identification are processed. We also found that the face aftereffect remained intact when the visual distracters in the inattention experiment were replaced with auditory distracters. Thus, cross-modal or cognitive interference that does not affect the visibility of the face does not interfere with the face aftereffect. We conclude that adaptation to face identity depends on seeing the face.

  5. Experiences of stigma and discrimination faced by family caregivers of people with schizophrenia in India.

    PubMed

    Koschorke, Mirja; Padmavati, R; Kumar, Shuba; Cohen, Alex; Weiss, Helen A; Chatterjee, Sudipto; Pereira, Jesina; Naik, Smita; John, Sujit; Dabholkar, Hamid; Balaji, Madhumitha; Chavan, Animish; Varghese, Mathew; Thara, R; Patel, Vikram; Thornicroft, Graham

    2017-04-01

    Stigma associated with schizophrenia significantly affects family caregivers, yet few studies have examined the nature and determinants of family stigma and its relationship to their knowledge about the condition. This paper describes the experiences and determinants of stigma reported by the primary caregivers of people living with schizophrenia (PLS) in India. The study used mixed methods and was nested in a randomised controlled trial of community care for people with schizophrenia. Between November 2009 and October 2010, data on caregiver stigma and functional outcomes were collected from a sample of 282 PLS-caregiver dyads. In addition, 36 in-depth-interviews were conducted with caregivers. Quantitative findings indicate that 'high caregiver stigma' was reported by a significant minority of caregivers (21%) and that many felt uncomfortable to disclose their family member's condition (45%). Caregiver stigma was independently associated with higher levels of positive symptoms of schizophrenia, higher levels of disability, younger PLS age, household education at secondary school level and research site. Knowledge about schizophrenia was not associated with caregiver stigma. Qualitative data illustrate the various ways in which stigma affected the lives of family caregivers and reveal relevant links between caregiver-stigma related themes ('others finding out', 'negative reactions' and 'negative feelings and views about the self') and other themes in the data. Findings highlight the need for interventions that address both the needs of PLS and their family caregivers. Qualitative data also illustrate the complexities surrounding the relationship between knowledge and stigma and suggest that providing 'knowledge about schizophrenia' may influence the process of stigmatisation in both positive and negative ways. We posit that educational interventions need to consider context-specific factors when choosing anti-stigma-messages to be conveyed. Our findings suggest

  6. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  7. Recent Activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Bannister, Mark E; Hale, Jerry W; Havener, C C; Krause, Herbert F; Vane, C Randy; Deng, Shihu; Draganic, Ilija N; Harris, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent activities at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) are summarized. A brief summary of the MIRF high voltage (HV) platform and floating beam line upgrade is provided. An expansion of our research program to the use of molecular ion beams in heavy-particle and electron collisions, as well as in ion-surface interactions is described, and a brief description is provided of the most recently added Ion Cooling and Characterization End-station (ICCE) trap. With the expansion to include molecular ion beams, the acronym MIRF for the facility, however, remains unchanged: M can now refer to either Multicharged or Molecular.

  8. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

  9. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Domingues, Tomas F.; Duursma, Remko A.; Ellsworth, David S.; Goll, Daniel S.; Lapola, David M.; Luus, Kristina A.; MacKenzie, A. Rob; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Univ. of Western Sydney, NSW . Hawkesbury Inst. for the Environment; Pavlick, Ryan; Rammig, Anja; Technische Univ. Munchen, Garching . TUM School of Life Sciences; Smith, Benjamin; Thomas, Rick; Thonicke, Kirsten; Walker, Anthony P.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Zaehle, Sönke

    2015-08-06

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model–data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity.

  10. Brain Network Activity During Face Perception: The Impact of Perceptual Familiarity and Individual Differences in Childhood Experience.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Jasmin; Li, Tianyi; Mišić, Bratislav; Correll, Joshua; Berman, Marc G

    2016-08-13

    An extended distributed network of brain regions supports face perception. Face familiarity influences activity in brain regions involved in this network, but the impact of perceptual familiarity on this network has never been directly assessed with the use of partial least squares analysis. In the present work, we use this multivariate statistical analysis to examine how face-processing systems are differentially recruited by characteristics of the targets (i.e. perceptual familiarity and race) and of the perceivers (i.e. childhood interracial contact). Novel faces were found to preferentially recruit a large distributed face-processing network compared with perceptually familiar faces. Additionally, increased interracial contact during childhood led to decreased recruitment of distributed brain networks previously implicated in face perception, salience detection, and social cognition. Current results provide a novel perspective on the impact of cross-race exposure, suggesting that interracial contact early in life may dramatically shape the neural substrates of face perception generally.

  11. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  12. Cirrus Clouds Optical, Microphysical and Radiative Properties Observed During Crystal-Face Experiment: I. A Radar-Lidar Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrescu, C.; Haynes, J. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Heymsfield, G. M.; McGill, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    A method of retrieving cloud microphysical properties using combined observations from both cloud radar and lidar is introduced. This retrieval makes use of an improvement to the traditional optimal estimation retrieval method, whereby a series of corrections are applied to the state vector during the search for an iterative solution. This allows faster convergence to a solution and is less processor intensive. The method is first applied to a synthetic cloud t o demonstrate its validity, and it is shown that the retrieval reliably reproduces vertical profiles of ice water content. The retrieval method is then applied to radar and lidar observations from the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment, and vertical profiles of ice crystal diameter, number concentration, and ice water content are retrieved for a cirrus cloud layers observed one day of that experiment. The validity of the relationship between visible extinction coefficient and radar reflectivity was examined. While synthetic tests showed such a functional relationship, the measured data only partially supported such a conclusion. This is due to errors in the forward model (as explained above) as well as errors in the data sets, including possible mismatch between lidar and radar profiles or errors in the optical depth. Empirical relationships between number concentrations and mean particle diameter were also examined. The results indicate that a distinct and robust relationship exists between these retrieved quantities and it is argued that such a relationship is more than an artifact of the retrieval process offering insight into the nature of the microphysical processes taking place in cirrus.

  13. The ORNL Chemical Technology Division, 1950-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Genung, R.K.; McNeese, L.E.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    This document attempts to reconstruct the role played by the Chemical Technology Division (Chem Tech) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the atomic era since the 1940`s related to the development and production of nuclear weapons and power reactors. Chem Tech`s early contributions were landmark pioneering studies. Unknown and dimly perceived problems like chemical hazards, radioactivity, and criticality had to be dealt with. New chemical concepts and processes had to be developed to test the new theories being developed by physicists. New engineering concepts had to be developed and demonstrated in order to build facilities and equipment that had never before been attempted. Chem Tech`s role was chemical separations, especially uranium and plutonium, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. With diversification of national and ORNL missions, Chem Tech undertook R&D studies in many areas including biotechnology; clinical and environmental chemistry; nuclear reactors; safety regulations; effective and safe waste management and disposal; computer modeling and informational databases; isotope production; and environmental control. The changing mission of Chem Tech are encapsulated in the evolving activities.

  14. Evaluation of the ORNL residential energy-use model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, D.

    1982-06-01

    The architecture, empirical foundation, and applications of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Residential Energy Use Model are valuated. A particular effort is made to identify the strengths and shortcomings of the model for alternative uses and to identify areas where model structure and empirical support could be upgraded. Concrete suggestions are made for improving model logic, strengthening the empirical basis for behavioral and technical parameters, and reducing the biases in the model that arise from aggregation. The overall conclusion is that the model has the potential to provide adequate forecasts, at a regional or national level, of the aggregate impacts of policies whose effects on households are relatively homogeneous. There are a number of model changes which would be relatively easy to implement and which should substantially improve forecasts of this sort. The version of the ORNL model reviewed here makes it fundamentally unsuitable for applications to geographical areas smaller than DOE regions or to policies that have a heterogeneous impact on households.

  15. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE's Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  16. ORNL Remedial Action Program strategy (FY 1987-FY 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.; Myrick, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    Over 40 years of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations have produced a diverse legacy of contaminated inactive facilities, research areas, and waste disposal areas that are potential candidates for remedial action. The ORNL Remedial Action Program (RAP) represents a comprehensive effort to meet new regulatory requirements and ensure adequate protection of on-site workers, the public, and the environment by providing appropriate corrective measures at over 130 sites contaminated historically with radioactive, hazardous chemical, or mixed wastes. A structured path of program planning, site characterization, alternatives assessment, technology development, engineering design, continued site maintenance and surveillance, interim corrective action, and eventual site closure or decommissioning is required to meet these objectives. This report documents the development of the Remedial Action Program, through its preliminary characterization, regulatory interface, and strategy development activities. It provides recommendations for a comprehensive, long-term strategy consistent with existing technical, institutional, and regulatory information, along with a six-year plan for achieving its initial objectives. 53 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. ORNL/NSF elementary science leadership leadership institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Begun as a Teacher Enhancement Project in 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is now hosting as annual four-week Elementary Science Leadership summer institute for twenty-five teacher/administrator participants. During 1993-95 summer institutes, the participants receive instruction in science/math content, pedagogy, leadership training, and evaluation techniques. Science topics and instruction will be selected from the best available resources at ORNL, pedagogy and evaluation techniques will be directed by the University of Tennessee`s College of Education, and leadership training will be based on established leadership training models. During the academic year component, participants will: (1) share new math/science knowledge and curriculum with their students and fellow teachers while continuing to develop additional curriculum to share with other Leadership Institute participants, (2) work with the established state-wide advisory group to contribute to systemic reform in math/science education, and (3) prepare and deliver NSF leadership Institute-related math/science presentations at local and state educational conferences. Graduate credit for summer and academic-year participation in the NSF Leadership Institute will be offered through the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

  18. A cultural setting where the other-race effect on face recognition has no social-motivational component and derives entirely from lifetime perceptual experience.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Reynolds, Katherine J; Irons, Jessica L; McKone, Elinor

    2015-11-01

    Competing approaches to the other-race effect (ORE) see its primary cause as either a lack of motivation to individuate social outgroup members, or a lack of perceptual experience with other-race faces. Here, we argue that the evidence supporting the social-motivational approach derives from a particular cultural setting: a high socio-economic status group (typically US Whites) looking at the faces of a lower status group (US Blacks) with whom observers typically have at least moderate perceptual experience. In contrast, we test motivation-to-individuate instructions across five studies covering an extremely wide range of perceptual experience, in a cultural setting of more equal socio-economic status, namely Asian and Caucasian participants (N = 480) tested on Asian and Caucasian faces. We find no social-motivational component at all to the ORE, specifically: no reduction in the ORE with motivation instructions, including for novel images of the faces, and at all experience levels; no increase in correlation between own- and other-race face recognition, implying no increase in shared processes; and greater (not the predicted less) effort applied to distinguishing other-race faces than own-race faces under normal ("no instructions") conditions. Instead, the ORE was predicted by level of contact with the other-race. Our results reject both pure social-motivational theories and also the recent Categorization-Individuation model of Hugenberg, Young, Bernstein, and Sacco (2010). We propose a new dual-route approach to the ORE, in which there are two causes of the ORE-lack of motivation, and lack of experience--that contribute differently across varying world locations and cultural settings.

  19. Closure of a unique mixed waste storage canal at the Dept. of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Etheridge, J.T.; Thompson, W.T.

    1994-09-01

    At the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) a unique closure was accomplished for a storage canal that contained both hazardous chemical contaminants controlled by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive contaminants controlled by the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). During 1991 and 1992, after approvals were received from the DOE and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), subcontractors to DOE`s Construction Manager were mobilized and remote controlled equipment was operated on site to remove the RCRA and radioactive contamination (referred to hereafter as mixed wastes) from the 3001 Storage Canal at ORNL. After numerous {open_quotes}surprises{close_quotes} during the removal activities, each requiring problem resolution and approvals from DOE and TDEC, the canal closure was completed in September 1992 and final closure certification was submitted to TDEC in October 1992. The following discussion describes the learning experiences that ORNL and DOE acquired from a RCRA closure project for a mixed waste storage canal containing high radiation levels. The project was successful, especially since worker exposures were minimized, but was lengthy, requiring 30 months from notification of a leak in the canal until final demobilization of the subcontractor, and expensive to complete (total overall cost of $3 million).

  20. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-Dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  1. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Hill, David E

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to find a Federal sponsor

  2. Study of plasma-facing components in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment with the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Jacobson, C. M.; Schmitt, J. C.; Allain, J. P.; Bedoya, F.; Gonderman, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a spherical torus designed to accommodate solid or liquid lithium as the primary plasma-facing component (PFC). We present initial results from the implementation on LTX of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic, a collaboration among PPPL, Purdue University, and the University of Illinois. MAPP is a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic, and its operation on LTX will provide the first ever in situ surface measurements of a tokamak first wall environment. With MAPP's analysis techniques, we will study the evolution of the surface chemistry of LTX's first wall as a function of varied temperature and lithium coating. During its 2013 run campaign, LTX will use an electron beam to evaporate lithium onto the first wall from an in-vessel reservoir. We will use two quartz crystal microbalances to estimate thickness of lithium coatings thus applied to the MAPP probe. We have recently installed a set of triple Langmuir probes on LTX, and they will be used to relate LTX edge plasma parameters to MAPP results. We will combine data from MAPP and the triple probes to estimate the local edge recycling coefficient based on desorption of retained hydrogen. This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Proposal for secondary enclosure setup for experiments to expose plasma facing materials to tritiated plasma in VISIONI

    SciTech Connect

    Broeckx, W.E.K.; Dylst, K.; Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.

    2015-03-15

    VISIONI is an equipment at SCK-CEN that allows the exposure of candidate plasma facing materials to tritium - deuterium plasmas at ITER first wall conditions. VISIONI itself, being a vacuum setup, acts as primary confinement. To protect operators against exposure to a tritiated atmosphere VISIONI must be placed in a secondary confinement. The current Tritium lab at SCK-CEN has a walk-in process cell which can be used to enclose the plasma chamber and diagnostics of the VISIONI setup, which have a limited tritium inventory. This allows easy accessibility to the setup in a well-ventilated environment. Routine operations should be conducted from outside the process cell and maintenance operations can be conducted from within the process cell with proper protections. The tritium storage and supply can be enclosed in a glove box with a dedicated air detritiation system which is activated during an experiment or in case of an incident. The detritiation system will oxidize tritium and capture it on molecular sieves. By using this confinement approach it is possible to expose materials to a tritiated plasma while maintaining good accessibility of the VISIONI setup. This paper describes the proposed confinement system and compares it to the most common approach where the entire system is enclosed into one large glovebox.

  4. Student Experiences of Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy: Conceptions of Learning, Approaches to Learning and the Integration of Face-to-Face and On-Line Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Brillant, Martha; Prosser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates fourth-year pharmacy students' experiences of problem-based learning (PBL). It adopts a phenomenographic approach to the evaluation of problem-based learning, to shed light on the ways in which different groups of students conceive of, and approach, PBL. The study focuses on the way students approach solving problem…

  5. Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, E.R.; Switek, J.; Llopis, J.L.; Farmer, C.D.

    1985-07-01

    Geophysical investigations at ORNL solid waste storage area 3 have been carried out. The investigations included very-low-frequency-electromagnetic resistivity (VLF-EM), electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction surveys. The surveys resulted in the measurement of basic geophysical rock properties, as well as information on the depth of weathering and the configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the study area. Survey results also indicate that a number of geophysical anomalies occur in the shallow subsurface at the site. In particular, a linear feature running across the geologic strike in the western half of the waste disposal facility has been identified. This feature may conduct water in the subsurface. The geophysical investigations are part of an ongoing effort to characterize the site's hydrogeology, and the data presented will be valuable in directing future drilling and investigations at the site. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  6. An Evaluation of the ORNL Cray XT3

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Sadaf R; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Roth, Philip C; Barrett, Richard F; Messer, Bronson; Vetter, Jeffrey S; Fahey, Mark R; Mills, Richard T; Worley, Patrick H

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, Oak Ridge National Laboratory received delivery of a 5,294 processor Cray XT3. The XT3 is Cray's third-generation massively parallel processing system. The ORNL system uses a singleprocessor node built around the AMD Opteron and uses a custom chip-called SeaStar-for interprocessor communication. The system uses a lightweight operating system called Catamount on its compute nodes. This paper provides a performance evaluation of the Cray XT3, including measurements for microbenchmark, kernel, and application benchmarks. In particular, we provide performance results for strategic Department of Energy applications areas including climate, biology, astrophysics, combustion, and fusion. Our results, on up to 4,096 processors, demonstrate that the Cray XT3 provides competitive processor performance, high interconnect bandwidth, and high parallel efficiency on a diverse application workload, typical in the DOE Office of Science.

  7. The New ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility Floating Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Fred W; Fogle, Mark R.; Hale, Jerry W

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development and implementation of a new beam line at the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) that is floatable at up to -12 kV and injected by a 10 GHz CAPRICE ECR ion source and is part of a major facility upgrade project. With the floating beam line operating at negative high voltage, and the ECR source at ground potential, intense DC beam deceleration into grounded experimental chambers to energies as low as a few eV/q is made possible. The primary application of these ion beams is to study fundamental collisional interactions of multicharged ions with electrons, atoms, and surfaces. Design details of the floating beam line, including source extraction, deceleration optics and voltage isolation will be presented. The novel features of a LABVIEW-based computer control system developed for the floating beam line will be described as well.

  8. GLIDES – Efficient Energy Storage from ORNL

    ScienceCinema

    Momen, Ayyoub M.; Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Odukomaiya, Wale; Akinina, Alla

    2016-07-12

    The research shown in this video features the GLIDES (Ground-Level Integrated Diverse Energy Storage) project, which has been under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 2013. GLIDES can store energy via combined inputs of electricity and heat, and deliver dispatchable electricity. Supported by ORNL’s Laboratory Director’s Research and Development (LDRD) fund, this energy storage system is low-cost, and hybridizes compressed air and pumped-hydro approaches to allow for storage of intermittent renewable energy at high efficiency. A U.S. patent application for this novel energy storage concept has been submitted, and research findings suggest it has the potential to be a flexible, low-cost, scalable, high-efficiency option for energy storage, especially useful in residential and commercial buildings.

  9. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  10. Electron-Impact Ionization of Multicharged Ions: Cross-Sections Data from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    This website presents experimental ionization cross sections measured using the Electron-Ion Crossed Beams apparatus in the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at the Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The data are given in both graphical and tabular form along with the reference to the original publication of the experimental results. Also presented in the figures are theoretical cross sections supporting the experiments. For details of the theoretical work, refer to the original publication given for the particular experiment. These pages are based primarily on three technical memorandums issued by ORNL: 1(D. H. Crandall, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. C. Gregory, Electron Impact Ionization of Multicharged Ions, ORNL/TM-7020, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1979; 2) D. C. Gregory, D. H. Crandall, R. A. Phaneuf, A. M. Howald, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Also presented are more recent (1993-present) data, both published and unpublished. The data pages feature dynamic plotting, allowing the user to choose which sets of data to plot and zoom in on regions of interest within the plot. [Taken from http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/xbeam/index.html

  11. The influence of crystal faces on corrosion behavior of copper surface: First-principle and experiment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Gao, Lin

    2017-02-01

    When the MBT-:Cl- ratio is 50-10:1 in a solution containing of NaCl and Na-MBT (sodium salt of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole), the copper sample-1 (S1) was passivated; when the ration is 10-5:1, it was corroded. The copper sample-2 (S2) had no anti-corrosive ability in all solutions with MBT-:Cl- = 50-5:1. First-principle calculation revealed that the Cu atoms of (220) face, the main face of S1, have more unsaturated and energetic electrons than that of (200) and (111) faces, the main faces of S2. The highest chemical activation of the (220) face leads the S1 surface to show a better anti-corrosive ability.

  12. HPRR operating experience and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Sims, C.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) is a small, unmoderated fast pulse reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HPRR is the principal research tool of ORNL's Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group. The reactor is described, its operating experience is presented, and its major applications are discussed.

  13. [First experience of supraclavicular flap application for the closure of defects localized in the lower third of the face and neck].

    PubMed

    Galich, S P; Reznikov, A V; Dabizha, A Iu; Gindich, O A; Ogorodnik, Ia P; Al'tman, I V; Valikhnovskiĭ, R L

    2011-04-01

    First experience of the supraclavicular flap transposition for closure of superficial, but extended, defects of the soft tissues in the lower third of face and neck region in 6 patients is presented. In all the patients good functional and cosmetic result was achieved.

  14. Comparing a FACE experiment with mechanistic ecohydrological modeling: which processes are reliably simulated under elevated CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Scenarios for the future terrestrial carbon and water cycle rely on numerical tools that simulate the dynamics of vegetation from assimilation of carbon through stomata to long-term forest development at the global scale. However, these tools are rarely tested to perform well in conditions different from the historical climate and comparisons are mostly limited to carbon and energy fluxes. A combination of numerical modeling and observations is used here to investigate the capability of a mechanistic approach to simulate the hydrology and the vegetation behavior of a forest exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Specifically, we thoroughly compare data from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a mature deciduous forest in Switzerland with realizations from a state-of-the-art ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris). Model realizations compare favorably with field observations of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, sap flow, leaf and fruit litter, as well as qualitative changes in soil moisture. The simulated differences between CO2 scenarios for both the carbon and water balance are generally very small (less than 10%) and fall within the uncertainty of experimental observations. More problematic is the simulation of stem growth which is significantly higher in the modeled scenario with elevated CO2 but not in the observations even though current accuracy of field measurements precludes robust conclusions. These results demonstrate that while ecohydrological models can be used to reliably simulate multi-year energy, water, and carbon fluxes, evaluating the modeled carbon allocation remains critical. However, experimental evidence suggests that the structure of current vegetation models which use the photosynthesized carbon to directly drive plant growth should be revised because plant tissue growth is very sensitive to direct controls of environmental variables, independently of the amount of assimilated carbon.

  15. Model-experiment synthesis at two FACE sites in the southeastern US. Forest ecosystem responses to elevated CO[2]. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Medlyn, B. E.; Dietze, M.; Hickler, T.; Iversen, C. M.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Parton, W. J.; Prentice, C.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Warren, J.; Weng, E.; Hanson, P. J.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem observations from two long-term Free-Air CO[2] Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Duke forest and Oak Ridge forest) were used to evaluate the assumptions of 11 terrestrial ecosystem models and the consequences of those assumptions for the responses of ecosystem water, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes to elevated CO[2] (eCO[2]). Nitrogen dynamics were the main constraint on simulated productivity responses to eCO[2]. At Oak Ridge some models reproduced the declining response of C and N fluxes, while at Duke none of the models were able to maintain the observed sustained responses. C and N cycles are coupled through a number of complex interactions, which causes uncertainty in model simulations in multiple ways. Nonetheless, the major difference between models and experiments was a larger than observed increase in N-use efficiency and lower than observed response of N uptake. The results indicate that at Duke there were mechanisms by which trees accessed additional N in response to eCO[2] that were not represented in the ecosystem models, and which did not operate with the same efficiency at Oak Ridge. Sequestration of the additional productivity under eCO[2] into forest biomass depended largely on C allocation. Allocation assumptions were classified into three main categories--fixed partitioning coefficients, functional relationships and a partial (leaf allocation only) optimisation. The assumption which best constrained model results was a functional relationship between leaf area and sapwood area (pipe-model) and increased root allocation when nitrogen or water were limiting. Both, productivity and allocation responses to eCO[2] determined the ecosystem-level response of LAI, which together with the response of stomatal conductance (and hence water-use efficiency; WUE) determined the ecosystem response of transpiration. Differences in the WUE response across models were related to the representation of the relationship of stomatal conductance to CO[2] and

  16. Science and Technology Highlights of ORNL's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.

    1998-11-01

    ORNL's EE/RE research has always involved partnering with outside organizations, but collaborations tended toward industrial and university partners. Recognizing the value of working with state energy agencies, ORNL began in the early 1990s to establish stronger relations with state energy offices (SEOs) and the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI). In a 1993 meeting, states offered to help DOE deliver technology to the marketplace and indicated that the national laboratories could help them solve technology-related problems. In 1994, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory responded with a new program to establish federal-state collaborations. In 1996 ORNL began the State Partnerships Program (SPP), incorporating lessons learned from our sister laboratory. Core funding for SPP is provided by ORNL's EE/RE Program to pay for ORNL staff expertise and assistance. Partners contribute through either direct funding or in-kind resources. SPP has funded 38 projects and technical-assistance activities in 18 states. Partners include SEOS, ASERTTI members, utilities, universities, industrial firms, trade associations, and DOE regional support offices. All four sectors covered by ORNL's EE/RE Program-buildings, transportation, industry, and utility--are represented in the project mix. How can your organization participate? Twice yearly, calls for proposals are issued to ORNL staff, SEOS, and ASERTTI members. (Requests for 2-to 4-day technical assistance efforts are welcome any time!) Proposals must be developed in collaboration with ORNL researchers and must address issues integral to the EE/RE missions of DOE and ORNL.

  17. ORNL long-range environmental and waste management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    This report, the ORNL Long-Range Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.

  18. Safety-analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 20WC-5 - special form packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of large quantities of solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. the package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (formerly Sandia Corporation), on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of large quantities of non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. 7 figures.

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - special form package

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.

  20. Bat Acoustic Survey Report for ORNL: Bat Species Distribution on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, Kitty; Giffen, Neil R.; Haines, Angelina; Guge, B. J.; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes results of a three-year acoustic survey of bat species on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The survey was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division and ORNL Facilities and Operations Directorate, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency’s ORR wildlife manager, a student from Tennessee Technological University, and a technician contracted through Excel Corp. One hundred and twenty-six sites were surveyed reservation-wide using Wildlife Acoustics SM2+ Acoustic Bat Detectors.

  1. Facing facts: neuronal mechanisms of face perception.

    PubMed

    Dekowska, Monika; Kuniecki, Michał; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The face is one of the most important stimuli carrying social meaning. Thanks to the fast analysis of faces, we are able to judge physical attractiveness and features of their owners' personality, intentions, and mood. From one's facial expression we can gain information about danger present in the environment. It is obvious that the ability to process efficiently one's face is crucial for survival. Therefore, it seems natural that in the human brain there exist structures specialized for face processing. In this article, we present recent findings from studies on the neuronal mechanisms of face perception and recognition in the light of current theoretical models. Results from brain imaging (fMRI, PET) and electrophysiology (ERP, MEG) show that in face perception particular regions (i.e. FFA, STS, IOA, AMTG, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex) are involved. These results are confirmed by behavioral data and clinical observations as well as by animal studies. The developmental findings reviewed in this article lead us to suppose that the ability to analyze face-like stimuli is hard-wired and improves during development. Still, experience with faces is not sufficient for an individual to become an expert in face perception. This thesis is supported by the investigation of individuals with developmental disabilities, especially with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

  2. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  3. The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver…

  4. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2011. The associated FY 2011 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  5. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2010. The associated FY 2010 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2011/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  6. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2012. The associated FY 2012 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2012/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system.

  8. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2008. The associated FY 2008 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2008/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  9. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2009. The associated FY 2009 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2010/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  10. ORNLs Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2013 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports its status to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in March of each year. The program operates under the authority of DOE Order 413.2B, “Laboratory Directed Research and Development” (April 19, 2006), which establishes DOE’s requirements for the program while providing the Laboratory Director broad flexibility for program implementation. LDRD funds are obtained through a charge to all Laboratory programs. This report includes summaries of all ORNL LDRD research activities supported during FY 2013. The associated FY 2013 ORNL LDRD Self-Assessment (ORNL/PPA-2014/2) provides financial data and an internal evaluation of the program’s management process.

  11. penORNL: a parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport package using PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bekar, Kursat B.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The parallel Monte Carlo photon and electron transport code package penORNL was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to enable advanced scanning electron microscope (SEM) simulations on high-performance computing systems. This paper discusses the implementations, capabilities and parallel performance of the new code package. penORNL uses PENELOPE for its physics calculations and provides all available PENELOPE features to the users, as well as some new features including source definitions specifically developed for SEM simulations, a pulse-height tally capability for detailed simulations of gamma and x-ray detectors, and a modified interaction forcing mechanism to enable accurate energy deposition calculations. The parallel performance of penORNL was extensively tested with several model problems, and very good linear parallel scaling was observed with up to 512 processors. penORNL, along with its new features, will be available for SEM simulations upon completion of the new pulse-height tally implementation.

  12. Appendix I: Weather, soils, cultural practices, and cotton growth data from the 1989 FACE Experiment in IBSNAT Format

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, B.A.; La Morte, R.L.; Peresta, G.J.; Mauney, J.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-12-31

    A major objective of the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) project is to provide data suitable for validation of plant growth models. These models are intended to have the capability to predict the effects of the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and its interactions with climate variables on future plant growth, yield, and water use. And indeed one such model called COTCO2 has been written for cotton in cooperation with the FACE project. Therefore, it is important that the data from the project be assembled for convenient use by modelers seeking to validate COTCO2 or other cotton growth models. The objective of this Appendix is to present these data in a standard format used by many plant growth models (the data are also available on diskette by request). 31 refs.

  13. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  14. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  15. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL00-0605: Advanced Engine/Aftertreatment System R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Pihl, Josh A; West, Brian H; Toops, Todd J; Adelman, Brad; Derybowski, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Navistar and ORNL established this CRADA to develop diesel engine aftertreatment configurations and control strategies that could meet emissions regulations while maintaining or improving vehicle efficiency. The early years of the project focused on reducing the fuel penalty associated with lean NOx trap (LNT), also known as NOx adsorber catalyst regeneration and desulfation. While Navistar pursued engine-based (in-cylinder) approaches to LNT regeneration, complementary experiments at ORNL focused on in-exhaust fuel injection. ORNL developed a PC-based controller for transient electronic control of EGR valve position, intake throttle position, and actuation of fuel injectors in the exhaust system of a Navistar engine installed at Oak Ridge. Aftertreatment systems consisting of different diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) in conjunction with a diesel particle filter and LNT were evaluated under quasi-steady-state conditions. Hydrocarbon (HC) species were measured at multiple locations in the exhaust system with Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Under full-load, rated speed conditions, injection of fuel upstream of the DOC reduced the fuel penalty for a given level of NOx reduction by 10-20%. GC-MS showed that fuel compounds were 'cracked' into smaller hydrocarbon species over the DOC, particularly light alkenes. GC-MS analysis of HC species entering and exiting the LNT showed high utilization of light alkenes, followed by mono-aromatics; branched alkanes passed through the LNT largely unreacted. Follow-on experiments at a 'road load' condition were conducted, revealing that the NOx reduction was better without the DOC at lower temperatures. The improved performance was attributed to the large swings in the NOx adsorber core temperature. Split-injection experiments were conducted with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and three pure HC compounds: 1-pentene, toluene, and iso-octane. The pure compound experiments

  16. Development of a high-heat-flux target for multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beams at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Bush, C.E.; Foster, C.A.; Haselton, H.H.; Hayes, P.H.; Menon, M.M.; Moeller, J.A.; Sluss, F.; Tsai, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A high-heat-flux target has been developed for intercepting multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beam power at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Water-cooled copper swirl tubes are used for the heat transfer medium; these tubes exhibit an enhancement in burnout heat flux over conventional axial-flow tubes. The target consists of 126 swirl tubes (each 0.95 cm in outside diameter with 0.16-cm-thick walls and approx. =1 m long) arranged in a V-shape. Two arrays of parallel tubes inclined at an angle ..cap alpha.. to the beam axis form the V-shape, and this geometry reduces the surface heat flux by a factor of 1/sin ..cap alpha.. (for the present design, ..cap alpha.. =13/sup 0/ and 21/sup 0/). In tests with the ORNL long-pulse ion source (13- by 43-cm grid), the target has handled up to 3-MW, 30-s beam pulses with no deleterious effects. The peak power density was estimated at approx. =15 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (5.4 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces). The water flow rate through the target was 41.6 L/s (660 gpm) or 0.33 L/s (5.2 gpm) per tube (axial flow velocity = 11.6 m/s). The corresponding pressure drop across the target was 1.14 MPa (165 psi) with an inlet pressure of 1.45 MPa (210 psia). Data are also presented from backup experiments in which individual tubes were heated by a small ion source (10-cm-diam grid) to characterize tube performance. These results suggest that the target should handle peak power densities in the range 25 to 30 kW/cm/sup 2/ normal to the beam axis (approx. =10 kW/cm/sup 2/ maximum on tube surfaces) with the present flow parameters. This translates to beam power levels of 5 to 6 MW for equivalent beam optics.

  17. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL98-0521 : Development of an Electric Bus Inverter Based on ORNL Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART) Soft-Switching Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    2001-05-08

    The Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has for many years been developing technologies for power converters for motor drives and many other applications. Some of the research goals are to improve efficiency and reduce audible and electromagnetic interference noise generation for inverters and the driven loads. The converters are being required to produce more power with reduced weight and volume, which requires improvements in heat removal from the electronics, as well as improved circuit designs that have fewer electrical losses. PEEMRC has recently developed and patented a soft-switching inverter topology called an Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART), and this design has been tested and proven at ORNL using a 10-kW laboratory prototype. The objective of this project was to develop, test, and install the ART inverter technology in an electric transit bus with the final goal of evaluating performance of the ORNL inverter under field conditions in a vehicle. A scaled-up inverter with the capacity to drive a 22-e bus was built based on the 10-kW ORNL laboratory prototype ART soft-switching inverter. Most (if not all) commercially available inverters for traction drive and other applications use hard-switching inverters. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was established with the Chattanooga Area Regional Transit Authority (CARTA), the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute (ETVI), and Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS), all of Chattanooga, along with ORNL. CARTA, which maintains and operates the public transit system in Chattanooga, provided an area for testing the vehicle alongside other similar vehicles in the normal operating environment. ETVI offers capabilities in standardized testing and reporting and also provides exposure in the electric transit vehicle arena for ORNL's technologies. The third Chattanooga partner, (AVS) manufactures all-electric and hybrid electric transit buses using

  18. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    SciTech Connect

    Bartling, M.H.; Bayne, C.K.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity.

  19. AmazonFACE: Assessing the Effects of Increasing Atmospheric CO2 on the Resilience of the Amazon Forest through Integrative Model-Experiment Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  20. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species’ faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets), and when task-irrelevant (distractors), even when in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns, but that human adults process own-species’ faces more efficiently than other species’ faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development, or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics’ faces. PMID:25113852

  1. [Optoelectronic display system for minimal invasive laparoscopic operations: initial experiences with new face-mounted display video eyeglasses].

    PubMed

    Harms, J; Schneider, A

    2002-03-01

    A major aspect of efforts to improve minimally invasive surgery is the optimization of visualization, which is currently unsatisfactory due to the limited number of pixels in the monitors used, and inadequate alignment of the optical axis. Optical systems provided with commercially available head-mounted displays have failed to improve optical quality and significantly facilitate or improve laparoscopic surgery [2,3]. Innovations in the field of consumer video using a new optical prism and a high-resolution matrix (180,000 pixels) are the core elements of a new face-mounted display (FMD-Eye-Trek 700, Olympus Optical Co, Europe GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) that provides high image quality. This device has now been tested for the first time during laparoscopic procedures (n = 14) and combined laparoscopic-endoscopic procedures (n = 7) under clinical conditions. Impressive optical, ergonomic and surgeon-related benefits were established.

  2. ORNL Soils Remediation and Slabs Removal - The Bridge from D and D to Redevelopment - 12342

    SciTech Connect

    Travaglini, Mike; Halsey, Pat; Conger, Malinda; Schneider, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The landscape of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has dramatically changed over the past 2 years with demolition of aging facilities in the Central Campus. Removal of these infrastructure legacies was possible due to an influx of DOE-Environmental Management funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Facility D and D traditionally removes everything down to the building slab, and the Soils and Sediments Program is responsible for slabs, below-grade footers and sub-grade structures, abandoned waste utilities, and soils contaminated above certain risk levels that must be removed before the site can be considered for redevelopment. DOE-EM has used a combination of base and ARRA funding to facilitate the clean-up process in ORNL's 2000 Area. Demolition of 13 buildings in the area was funded by the ARRA. Characterization of the remaining slabs, underground pipelines and soils was funded by DOE-EM base funding. Additional ARRA funding was provided for the removal of the slabs, pipelines and contaminated soils. Removal work is in progress and consists of removing and disposing of approximately 7,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of concrete, 2,000 m{sup 3} of debris, and 400 m{sup 3} of contaminated soil. Immediately adjacent to the 2000 Area is the Oak Ridge Science and Technology Park and the modernized ORNL western campus. The Science and Technology Park is the only private sector business and technology park located within the footprint of a national laboratory. The completion of this work will not only greatly reduce the risk to the ORNL campus occupants but also allow this much sought after space to be available for redevelopment and site reuse efforts at ORNL. Demolition of aging facilities enabled by injection of ARRA funding has significantly altered the landscape at ORNL while reducing risk to laboratory personnel and operations and providing valuable central campus land parcels for redevelopment to expand and enhance the

  3. PREPARING FOR EXASCALE: ORNL Leadership Computing Application Requirements and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Wayne; Kothe, Douglas B; Nam, Hai Ah

    2009-12-01

    In 2009 the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), elicited petascale computational science requirements from leading computational scientists in the international science community. This effort targeted science teams whose projects received large computer allocation awards on OLCF systems. A clear finding of this process was that in order to reach their science goals over the next several years, multiple projects will require computational resources in excess of an order of magnitude more powerful than those currently available. Additionally, for the longer term, next-generation science will require computing platforms of exascale capability in order to reach DOE science objectives over the next decade. It is generally recognized that achieving exascale in the proposed time frame will require disruptive changes in computer hardware and software. Processor hardware will become necessarily heterogeneous and will include accelerator technologies. Software must undergo the concomitant changes needed to extract the available performance from this heterogeneous hardware. This disruption portends to be substantial, not unlike the change to the message passing paradigm in the computational science community over 20 years ago. Since technological disruptions take time to assimilate, we must aggressively embark on this course of change now, to insure that science applications and their underlying programming models are mature and ready when exascale computing arrives. This includes initiation of application readiness efforts to adapt existing codes to heterogeneous architectures, support of relevant software tools, and procurement of next-generation hardware testbeds for porting and testing codes. The 2009 OLCF requirements process identified numerous actions necessary to meet this challenge: (1) Hardware capabilities must be

  4. Implementation of data citations and persistent identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Robert B.; Vannan, Suresh K. S.; McMurry, Benjamin F.; Wright, Daine M.; Wei, Y.; Boyer, Alison G.; Kidder, J. H.

    2016-03-08

    A requirement of data archives is that data holdings can be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) since 1998 has issued data citations that have been accepted and used in peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, year, product title, and information to locate), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The approach used at the ORNL DAAC also allows for referring to subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial extent, and parameters used. Data citations allow readers to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. The ORNL DAAC uses a manual method to compile data citations and has developed a database that links research articles and their use of specific ORNL DAAC data products. Automation of the data citation compilation process, as is the case for articles, will enable data citations to become a more common practice. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set.

  5. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  6. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL, calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.

    1988-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 to apply corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. These studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. 10 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Implementation of Data Citations and Persistent Identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; McMurry, B. F.; Kidder, J. H.; Shanafield, H. A.; Palanisamy, G.

    2013-12-01

    As research in Earth Science becomes more data intensive, a critical requirement of data archives is that data needs to be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). Beginning in 1998, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) has issued data product citations that have been accepted and used in AGU and other peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, titles, information to locate, and version), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The citation approach used at the DAAC also allows for referring to specific subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial portions of the data actually used. Citations allow others to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set. The ORNL DAAC has developed a database that links research articles and their use of ORNL DAAC data products. The database allows determination of who, in which journal, and how the data have been used, in a manner analogous to author citation indices. The ORNL DAAC has been an initial contributor to the Thomson Reuters Data Citation Index. In addition, research data products deposited at the ORNL DAAC are linked using DOIs to relevant articles in Elsevier journals available on ScienceDirect. The ultimate goal of this implementation is that citations to data products become a routine part of the scientific process.

  8. Responses of wheat and rice to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and temperature in FACE experiments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuang; Yin, Xinyou; He, Shuaiqi; Jiang, Wenyu; Si, Chuanfei; Struik, Paul C; Luo, Weihong; Li, Gang; Xie, Yingtian; Xiong, Yan; Pan, Genxing

    2016-02-01

    Elevated CO2 and temperature strongly affect crop production, but understanding of the crop response to combined CO2 and temperature increases under field conditions is still limited while data are scarce. We grew wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two levels of CO2 (ambient and enriched up to 500 μmol mol(-1) ) and two levels of canopy temperature (ambient and increased by 1.5-2.0 °C) in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems and carried out a detailed growth and yield component analysis during two growing seasons for both crops. An increase in CO2 resulted in higher grain yield, whereas an increase in temperature reduced grain yield, in both crops. An increase in CO2 was unable to compensate for the negative impact of an increase in temperature on biomass and yield of wheat and rice. Yields of wheat and rice were decreased by 10-12% and 17-35%, respectively, under the combination of elevated CO2 and temperature. The number of filled grains per unit area was the most important yield component accounting for the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature in wheat and rice. Our data showed complex treatment effects on the interplay between preheading duration, nitrogen uptake, tillering, leaf area index, and radiation-use efficiency, and thus on yield components and yield. Nitrogen uptake before heading was crucial in minimizing yield loss due to climate change in both crops. For rice, however, a breeding strategy to increase grain number per m(2) and % filled grains (or to reduce spikelet sterility) at high temperature is also required to prevent yield reduction under conditions of global change.

  9. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - special form packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1982-10-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Package was fabricated for the transport of large quantities of solid nonfissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of large quantities of nonfissile radioactive materials in special form.

  11. Social dimensions of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avenanti, Alessio; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Borgomaneri, Sara

    2014-09-01

    In this issue, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] provide an integrative review of neuroscientific, psychological, cultural and philosophical aspects of pain experience and discuss some critical examples of its regulation. Here we focus on the two main social phenomena that are addressed in the review, namely the 'pain of separation' and 'empathy for pain' and further support the idea that these phenomena are intrinsically linked to physical pain, which may provide a 'proximal' physiological base to further understand them. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary 'ultimate' bases of such phenomena and suggest that they are linked to the evolution of parental care in social animals and as such support the development of social bonds. We conclude by considering the effect that positive social relationships and empathy have on the experience of pain.

  12. Research and Development on Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning Applications: Proceedings of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, V. A.; Powell, R. H., Jr.

    1985-08-01

    This conference was planned to provide information on current activities in the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Building Equipment Research (BER) Program. It was primarily for the benefit of HVAC equipment manufacturers and other interested parties, including utilities, independent research and development organizations, universities, other government groups, and research funding and management organizations. The technical presentations were grouped into two principal subject areas: electric systems and thermally activated systems. Electric-system topics included field performance studies, laboratory experiments on cycling performance, analytical estimates of the benefits of variable capacity and zone control, nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures, ground-coupled systems, and an analysis of Stirling-cycle heat pumps. In the area of thermally activated heat pumps, presentations centered on the development of absorption systems, Stirling-engine-driven systems, and a linear, free-piston IC-engine compressor. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 27 presentations for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, Jim; Fung, Inez; Thornton, Peter E; Covey, Curtis; Bonan, Gordon; Running, Steven; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N

  14. [Knowledge and life experiences of mothers facing certain addictive behaviours in youths in the region of Tunis].

    PubMed

    Askri, M; Belgacem, B; Zine, I; Haddad, M; Besrour, M

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 415 mothers who regularly consult primary healthcare centres about their knowledge of addictive behavior in teenagers in relation to tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Most mothers considered the teenage period difficult. Apprehension of this period increased with the educational level of the mothers. Mothers did not often discuss the issue of addiction with their children, especially related to alcohol and drugs. Nevertheless, the mothers were aware of the risks of addiction. They considered information campaigns about this topic an efficient means of prevention. About half of the mothers had experience of addictive conduct involving a family member. They resolved the problems through family help or consultation with a specialist.

  15. Fast wave current drive technology development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ryan, P.M.; deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R.

    1993-12-01

    The technology required for fast wave current drive (FWCD) systems is discussed. Experiments are underway on DIII-D, JET, and elsewhere. Antennas for FWCD draw heavily upon the experience gained in the design of ICRF heating systems with the additional requirement of launching a directional wave spectrum. Through collaborations with DIII-D, JET, and Tore Supra rapid progress is being made in the demonstration of the physics and technology of FWCD needed for TPX and ITER.

  16. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, Neil R; Reasor, R. Scott; Campbell, Claire L.

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  17. Compatibility of lithium plasma-facing surfaces with high edge temperatures in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeski, Dick

    2016-10-01

    High edge electron temperatures (200 eV or greater) have been measured at the wall-limited plasma boundary in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). High edge temperatures, with flat electron temperature profiles, are a long-predicted consequence of low recycling boundary conditions. The temperature profile in LTX, measured by Thomson scattering, varies by as little as 10% from the plasma axis to the boundary, determined by the lithium-coated high field-side wall. The hydrogen plasma density in the outer scrape-off layer is very low, 2-3 x 1017 m-3 , consistent with a low recycling metallic lithium boundary. The plasma surface interaction in LTX is characterized by a low flux of high energy protons to the lithium PFC, with an estimated Debye sheath potential approaching 1 kV. Plasma-material interactions in LTX are consequently in a novel regime, where the impacting proton energy exceeds the peak in the sputtering yield for the lithium wall. In this regime, further increases in the edge temperature will decrease, rather than increase, the sputtering yield. Despite the high edge temperature, the core impurity content is low. Zeff is 1.2 - 1.5, with a very modest contribution (<0.1) from lithium. So far experiments are transient. Gas puffing is used to increase the plasma density. After gas injection stops, the discharge density is allowed to drop, and the edge is pumped by the low recycling lithium wall. An upgrade to LTX which includes a 35A, 20 kV neutral beam injector to provide core fueling to maintain constant density, as well as auxiliary heating, is underway. Two beam systems have been loaned to LTX by Tri Alpha Energy. Additional results from LTX, as well as progress on the upgrade - LTX- β - will be discussed. Work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  18. Investigating the Multiple Food Sources and N Chemistry of Invasive Earthworms at the Rhinelander, WI, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can directly and indirectly alter biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems through changes to plant productivity, tissue chemistry, and associated feedbacks to microbial and faunal communities. At the Rhinelander free air CO2 enrichment site (FACE), Rhinelander WI, we examined the consumption and movement of plant tissue and soil by invasive earthworm species using a multi-proxy stable isotope and amino acid chemistry analysis of plant and soil, as well as fecal matter extracted from invasive earthworms present at the site. Using an isotopic mixing model that exploits the 13C-depleted CO2 source and a previous 15N labeling in the FACE experiment, we determined potential sources to the earthworm fecal matter and the movement of amino compounds. For epigeic, surface dwelling earthworms, the stable isotope modeling showed the largest contribution to the C and N in fecal matter was from leaf litter (up to 80%) which was depleted in amino acid C under elevated CO2 conditions. Fecal matter from the endogeic, mineral soil dwelling earthworms was primarily derived from 0-5 cm soil (up to 56%) and fine root tissue (up to 70%). Additionally, amino acid C in this group of earthworms had a proportionately greater relative concentration compared to the epigeic species and the 0-5cm soil. Here we demonstrate that earthworms are incorporating multiple sources (leaf litter, root, and soil) into their fecal matter, which then get deposited throughout the soil profile, where nutrients could become available for plant use.

  19. ORNL Evaluation of Electrabel Safety Cases for Doel 3 / Tihange 2: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Bennett Richard; Dickson, Terry L.; Gorti, Sarma B.; Klasky, Hilda B.; Nanstad, Randy K.; Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Williams, Paul T.; Server, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed a detailed technical review of the 2015 Electrabel (EBL) Safety Cases prepared for the Belgium reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) at Doel 3 and Tihange 2 (D3/T2). The Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) in Belgium commissioned ORNL to provide a thorough assessment of the existing safety margins against cracking of the RPVs due to the presence of almost laminar flaws found in each RPV. Initial efforts focused on surveying relevant literature that provided necessary background knowledge on the issues related to the quasilaminar flaws observed in D3/T2 reactors. Next, ORNL proceeded to develop an independent quantitative assessment of the entire flaw population in the two Belgian reactors according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Criteria for Protection Against Failure, New York (1992 and 2004). That screening assessment of all EBL-characterized flaws in D3/T2 used ORNL tools, methodologies, and the ASME Code Case N-848, Alternative Characterization Rules for QuasiLaminar Flaws . Results and conclusions from the ORNL flaw acceptance assessments of D3/T2 were compared with those from the 2015 EBL Safety Cases. Specific findings of the ORNL evaluation of that part of the EBL structural integrity assessment focusing on stability of the flaw population subjected to primary design transients include the following: ORNL s analysis results were similar to those of EBL in that very few characterized flaws were found not compliant with the ASME (1992) acceptance criterion. ORNL s application of the more recent ASME Section XI (2004) produced only four noncompliant flaws, all due to LOCAs. The finding of a greater number of non-compliant flaws in the EBL screening assessment is due principally to a significantly more restrictive (conservative) criterion for flaw size acceptance used by EBL. ORNL s screening assessment results

  20. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W

    2000-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26--28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  1. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems: Annual Report for FY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    2000-06-13

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26-28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  2. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1999-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1998 Annual Program Review held July 20-22, 1998. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the Applied Superconductivity Conference (September 1998) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  3. ORNL ADCP POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods, along with guidance for post-processing the ADCP stationary measurements using MATLAB algorithms that were evaluated and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are presented following an overview of the ADCP operating principles, deployment methods, error sources and recommended protocols for removing and replacing spurious data.

  4. WUFI (Wärme and Feuchte Instationär)-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Kehrer, ORNL

    2014-05-20

    WUFI - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Fraunhofer IBP is a menu-driven PC program which allows realistic calculation of the transient coupled one-dimensional heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components exposed to natural weather. It is based on the newest findings regarding vapor diffusion and liquid transport in building materials and has been validated by detailed comparison with measurements obtained in the laboratory and on outdoor testing fields. Together with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fraunhofer IBP has developed a special version of WUFI ® for North America. WUFI® ORNL is a functionally limited free version of WUFI® Pro for non-commercial purposes. It contains climate data for 62 cities in the USA and Canada which are all available in the free version. http://web.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/wufi/ http://www.WUFI.com/ORNL

  5. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative-reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research.

  6. Simulating the effects of elevated CO2 on productivity at the Duke Forest FACE experiment: a test of the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickler, T.; Prentice, I. C.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M. T.

    2003-04-01

    The LPJ dynamic global vegetation model was tested against the observed effect of four years of CO_2 enhancement on the production of a young loblolly pine forest (the Duke Forest FACE experiment). The observed annual NPP enhancement associated with an increase of atmospheric CO_2 to 560 ppmv was ≈23% during 1997 to 2000. LPJ predicted an NPP enhancement between 15% and 33% (averaged for 1997 to 2000), within the range of uncertainty of the observed response for 1999 and 2000. The magnitude of the modeled response depended on alternative assumptions as to the factors controlling plant respiration. The higher NPP enhancement level (33%) was predicted when plant maintenance respiration was modeled as an Arrhenius function of temperature, the lower value (15%) when maintenance respiration was set to a constant fraction of GPP. The modeled and observed CO2 effect tended to be stronger in drier years when the vegetation experienced water stress.

  7. Facing the fear of failure: An explorative qualitative study of client experiences in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program for university students with academic evaluation anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per-Einar; Moltu, Christian; Dundas, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the subjective experiences of 29 university students who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program for academic evaluation anxiety. Participants who self-referred to the Student Counseling Service underwent individual semi-structured interviews about how they experienced the personal relevance and practical usefulness of taking the MBSR program. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed through a team-based explorative–reflective thematic approach based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological epistemology. Five salient patterns of meaning (themes) were found: (1) finding an inner source of calm, (2) sharing a human struggle, (3) staying focused in learning situations, (4) moving from fear to curiosity in academic learning, and (5) feeling more self-acceptance when facing difficult situations. We contextualize these findings in relation to existing research, discuss our own process of reflexivity, highlight important limitations of this study, and suggest possible implications for future research. PMID:26297629

  8. ICRF heating on TFTR with the ORNL antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gardner, W.L.; Ryan, P.M.; Greene, G.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Wilson, J.R.; Stevens, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Initial ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating experiments on TFTR began in the summer of 1988. Although we were in the commissioning stage for much of the equipment, some plasma coupling measurements were made in the fall. This paper is focused on the results from the Bay L antenna. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Jamin-interferometer-setup for the determination of concentration and temperature dependent face-specific crystal growth rates from a single experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Cornelia; Choscz, Carsten; Müller, Vesna; Briesen, Heiko

    2015-09-01

    An interference technique that permits the investigation of the crystal growth from a temperature controlled solution is presented. Contrary to Mach-Zehnder- or Michelson-type interferometers, the Jamin-interferometer applied in this work is characterized by improved thermal and long-time stability. In consequence a single experiment may comprise several temperature steps leading to significant changes in the bulk concentration. A procedure for the automated analysis of the acquired sequence of interference patterns is presented. Within this evaluation procedure the position of the selected crystal face, the bulk concentration and the vertical concentration distribution above the crystal are determined simultaneously. Long-term single crystal growth experiments in the range from 20 to 60 °C with sucrose and lactose crystals are used to test the method. The exact bulk concentration is determined by the interferometer. The obtained results for the growth rate of sucrose are consistent with values given in the literature. The vertical concentration distribution above the two saccharide crystals differs clearly indicating that the diffusion strongly limits the sucrose growth but not the growth of the lactose crystal. The major benefit of the described setup is that the data of a single experiment are sufficient to deduce the parameters of the model equation for the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation.

  10. Bayesian face recognition and perceptual narrowing in face-space.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to 'perceptual narrowing', the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in 'face-space', a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face-space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise.

  11. Implementation of data citations and persistent identifiers at the ORNL DAAC

    DOE PAGES

    Cook, Robert B.; Vannan, Suresh K. S.; McMurry, Benjamin F.; ...

    2016-03-08

    A requirement of data archives is that data holdings can be easily discovered, accessed, and used. One approach to improving data discovery and access is through data citations coupled with Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) since 1998 has issued data citations that have been accepted and used in peer-reviewed journals. Citation elements established by the ORNL DAAC are similar to those used for journal articles (authors, year, product title, and information to locate), and beginning in 2007 included a DOI that is persistent, actionable, specific, and complete. The approach usedmore » at the ORNL DAAC also allows for referring to subsets of the data, by including within the citation the temporal and spatial extent, and parameters used. Data citations allow readers to find data and reproduce the results of the research article, and also use those data to test new hypotheses, design new sample collections, or construct or evaluate models. The ORNL DAAC uses a manual method to compile data citations and has developed a database that links research articles and their use of specific ORNL DAAC data products. Automation of the data citation compilation process, as is the case for articles, will enable data citations to become a more common practice. In addition to enhancing discovery and access of the data used in a research article, the citation gives credit to data generators, data centers and their funders, and, through citation indices, determine the scientific impact of a data set.« less

  12. Feasibility of an online and a face-to-face version of a self-management program for young adults with a rheumatic disease: experiences of young adults and peer leaders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on the self-efficacy theory, an online and a face-to-face self-management programs ‘Challenge your Arthritis’ for young adults with a rheumatic disease have recently been developed. These two courses are led by young peer leaders. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of the online and face-to-face self-management program. Methods Feasibility was evaluated on items of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, user-acceptance, and adherence to both programs in young adults and peer leaders. Additional analyses of interactions on the e-Health applications, discussion board and chat board, were conducted. Results Twenty-two young adults with a diagnosed rheumatic disease participated in the study: 12 young adults followed the online program and 10 followed the face-to-face program. Both programs appeared to be feasible, especially in dealing with problems in daily life, and the participants indicated the time investment as ‘worthwhile’. In using the online program, no technical problems occurred. Participants found the program easy to use, user friendly, and liked the ‘look and feel’ of the program. Conclusions Both the online and the face-to-face versions of a self-management program. ‘Challenge your arthritis’ were found to be feasible and well appreciated by young adults with a rheumatic disease. Because these programs are likely to be a practical aid to health practices, a randomized controlled study to investigate the effects on patient outcomes is planned. PMID:24666817

  13. Conceptions of reality and the experience of pain. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Anna, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    A core of neurobiological mechanisms is implicated in different forms of pain. Fabbro and Crescentini [4] show that this fact is significant both on the scientific level and on the philosophical level. Their main philosophical claim is that the existence of a neural circuit devoted to the experience of time suggests that time might not be real. An upshot would be that the objects which populate the world of our experience might not be real either, and hence the attachment to them and the mechanisms of pain for the separation from them that were developed through evolution would be misplaced. By contrast, in their view, we inhabit a Heraclitean or Buddhist world of processes: indeed, by inhibiting our time circuits, mindful meditation releases us from perceiving reality as a world of objects and thereby reliefs us from pain. Fabbro and Crescentini remark on a limitation of attempts to employ mindful meditation as a pain killer in clinical contexts: a long time of meditation practice is needed for a subject to be able to alleviate pain through that method.

  14. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  15. Face Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadash, Dre Ann

    1984-01-01

    Eighth graders made prints of their own faces, using photographic papers and chemicals. Describes the supplies needed and the printing process involved. Because junior high school students are so concerned with self, this was a very meaningful activity for them. (CS)

  16. Charging and corona modifications to the ORNL 25URC accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, N.F.; McPherson, R.L.

    1986-11-01

    A chain-charge monitoring system was first installed in the 25URC accelerator in October 1982, and has provided valuable information about the charging system. Additions to the system during the past year have significantly increased the amount of information provided by the monitor. Cables connecting pickoff wheels and inductors in the terminal were improved to provide higher reliability of the charging system. The tube corona points supplied with the 25URC accelerator had a point-to-plane spacing of 0.175 inches. Our operating experience indicated that the corona currents for the normal gas pressure and voltage range of the accelerator were lower than optimum. Current-voltage characteristics of a three-needle point set were measured at several spacings and gas pressures to provide criteria for ordering new points.

  17. Face Search at Scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  18. Adaptive face coding and discrimination around the average face.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Maloney, Laurence T; Turner, Jenny; Ewing, Louise

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation paradigms highlight the dynamic nature of face coding and suggest that identity is coded relative to an average face that is tuned by experience. In low-level vision, adaptive coding can enhance sensitivity to differences around the adapted level. We investigated whether sensitivity to differences around the average face is similarly enhanced. Converging evidence from three paradigms showed no enhancement. Discrimination of small interocular spacing differences was not better for faces close to the average (Study 1). Nor was perceived similarity reduced for face pairs close to (spanning) the average (Study 2). On the contrary, these pairs were judged most similar. Maximum likelihood perceptual difference scaling (Studies 3 and 4) confirmed that sensitivity to differences was reduced, not enhanced, around the average. We conclude that adaptive face coding does not enhance discrimination around the average face.

  19. CERL/ORNL research and development programs in support of prestressed concrete reactor vessel development

    SciTech Connect

    Hornby, I.W.; Naus, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    In support of the evolution of PCRV designs being developed both in the UK and USA, research and developments programmers are being conducted at the CEGB Central Electricity Research Laboratories (CERL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) respectively. In the UK, recent work has focused on elevated temperature effects on concrete properties and instrument systems for PCRVs. The concrete development program at ORNL consists of generic studies designed to provide technical support for ongoing prestressed concrete reactor vessel-related activities, to contribute to the technological data base, and to provide independent review and evaluation of the relevant technology. Recent activities have been related to the development of properties for high-strength concrete mix designs for the PCRV of a 2240 MW(t) HTGR-SC/C lead plant project, and the development of PCRV model testing techniques.

  20. ORNL review of TRUEX flowsheet proposed for deployment at the Rockwell Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; Bell, J.T.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-03-01

    The Transuranium Extraction (TRUEX) process will be installed at the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purposes are to process the PFP waste to recover the plutonium, to isolate the americium, and to have the remaining waste converted to a non-TRU waste. Rockwell requested that ORNL provide an outside review of the process and its implementation. This review addresses the generation of the TRUEX feed, the chemical flowsheet, and the products and raffinates. It suggests that present PFP operations be modified to reduce the amount of transuranium elements that will be in the TRUEX process feed. This review also includes an assessment of the TRUEX solvent extraction flowsheet on the bases of material balance, adequate extraction and stripping stages, and solvent cleanup. The final part of the review includes results of three-party discussions (RHO, ORNL, and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)) of some major issues.

  1. Summary of ORNL work on NRC-sponsored HTGR safety research, July 1974-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Harrington, R.M.; Hatta, M.; Hedrick, R.A.; Johnson, L.G.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    A summary is presented of the major accomplishments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research program on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety. This report is intended to help the nuclear Regulatory Commission establish goals for future research by comparing the status of the work here (as well as at other laboratories) with the perceived safety needs of the large HTGR. The ORNL program includes extensive work on dynamics-related safety code development, use of codes for studying postulated accident sequences, and use of experimental data for code verification. Cooperative efforts with other programs are also described. Suggestions for near-term and long-term research are presented.

  2. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold source project at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Chang, S.J.; Freels, J.D.

    1998-06-01

    Following the decision to cancel the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it was determined that a hydrogen cold source should be retrofitted into an existing beam tube of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at ORNL> The preliminary design of this system has been completed and an approval in principal of the design has been obtained from the internal ORNL safety review committees and the US Department of Energy (DOE) safety review committee. The cold source concept is basically a closed loop forced flow supercritical hydrogen system. The supercritical approach was chosen because of its enhanced stability in the proposed high heat flux regions. Neutron and gamma physics of the moderator have been analyzed using the 3D Monte Carlo code MCNP. A 3D structural analysis model of the moderator vessel, vacuum tube, and beam tube was completed to evaluate stress loadings and to examine the impact of hydrogen detonations in the beam tube. A detailed ATHENA system model of the hydrogen system has been developed to simulate loop performance under normal and off-normal transient conditions. Semi-prototypic hydrogen loop tests of the system have been performed at the Arnold Engineering Design Center (AEDC) located in Tullahoma, Tennessee to verify the design and benchmark the analytical system model. A 3.5 kW refrigerator system has been ordered and is expected to be delivered to ORNL by the end of this calendar year. The present schedule shows the assembling of the cold source loop on side during the fall of 1999 for final testing before insertion of the moderator plug assembly into the reactor beam tube during the end of the year 2000.

  3. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  4. Data and Information Management System for the ORNL Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; Owen, P.T.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Bibliographic Data Base, (2) the Records Control Data Base, and (3) the Numeric Data Base. This paper/poster emphasizes the Numeric Data Base, including its development and organization, and also summarizes the status of other activities associated with management and use of such data (i.e., bibliographic information, records control, geographic information, and quality assurance). The types of data currently available have been summarized, and a synopsis of the contents of the RAP numeric data base has been compiled in a menu-driven program available on PC diskettes. The synopsis will be demonstrated at the conference. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; Hawsey, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1996 Annual Program Review held July 31 and August 1, 1996. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  6. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  7. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.; Turner, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1995 Annual Program Review held August 1-2, 1995. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  8. Buried transuranic wastes at ORNL: Review of past estimates and reconciliation with current data

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    Inventories of buried (generally meaning disposed of) transuranic (TRU) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been estimated for site remediation and waste management planning over a period of about two decades. Estimates were required because of inadequate waste characterization and incomplete disposal records. For a variety of reasons, including changing definitions of TRU wastes, differing objectives for the estimates, and poor historical data, the published results have sometimes been in conflict. The purpose of this review was (1) to attempt to explain both the rationale for and differences among the various estimates, and (2) to update the estimates based on more recent information obtained from waste characterization and from evaluations of ORNL waste data bases and historical records. The latter included information obtained from an expert panel`s review and reconciliation of inconsistencies in data identified during preparation of the ORNL input for the third revision of the Baseline Inventory Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The results summarize current understanding of the relationship between past estimates of buried TRU wastes and provide the most up-to-date information on recorded burials thereafter. The limitations of available information on the latter and thus the need for improved waste characterization are highlighted.

  9. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems: Annual report for FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; O`Hara, L.M.; Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and developments activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1997 Annual Program Review held July 21--23, 1997. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  10. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  11. ORNL superconducting technology program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are conductor development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1993 Annual Program Review held July 28--29, 1993. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to industrial competitiveness projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  12. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems--Annual Report for FY 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, RA

    2002-02-18

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. A new part of the wire research effort was the Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 2001 Annual Program Review held August 1-3, 2001. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference/Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 2001) are included in this report as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  13. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B.; Guay, K.P.; Smith, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  14. Results from ORNL characterization of ZrO2-500-AK2 - surrogate TRISO material

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D

    2005-06-01

    This document is a compilation of the characterization data for the TRISO-coated surrogate particles designated ZrO2-500-AK2 that was produced at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) program. The ZrO2-500-AK2 material contains nominally 500 {micro}m kernels of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated with all TRISO layers (buffer, inner pyrocarbon, silicon carbide, and outer pyrocarbon). The ZrO2-500-AK2 material was created for: (1) irradiation testing in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and (2) limited dissemination to laboratories as deemed appropriate to the AGR program. This material was created midway into a TRISO fuel development program to accommodate a sudden opportunity to perform irradiation testing on surrogate material. While the layer deposition processes were chosen based on the best technical understanding at the time, technical progress at ORNL has led to an evolution in the perceived optimal deposition conditions since the creation of ZrO2-500-AK2. Thus, ZrO2-500-AK2 contains a reasonable TRISO microstructure, but does differ significantly from currently produced TRISO surrogates and fuel at ORNL. In this document, characterization data of the ZrO2-500-AK2 surrogate includes: size, shape, coating thickness, and density.

  15. Final Inventory Work-Off Plan for ORNL transuranic wastes (1986 version)

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, L.S.

    1988-05-01

    The Final Inventory Work-Off Plan (IWOP) for ORNL Transuranic Wastes addresses ORNL's strategy for retrieval, certification, and shipment of its stored and newly generated contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the proposed geologic repository near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document considers certification compliance with the WIPP waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and is consistent with the US Department of Energy's Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management. This document characterizes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) TRU waste by type and estimates the number of shipments required to dispose of it; describes the methods, facilities, and systems required for its certification and shipment; presents work-off strategies and schedules for retrieval, certification, and transportation; discusses the resource needs and additions that will be required for the effort and forecasts costs for the long-term TRU waste management program; and lists public documentation required to support certification facilities and strategies. 22 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing

    PubMed Central

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Floyd, R. Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically. PMID:26223027

  17. 'It is the situation that makes it difficult': experiences of nursing students faced with a high-stakes drug calculation test.

    PubMed

    Røykenes, Kari; Smith, Kari; Larsen, Torill M B

    2014-08-01

    Test anxiety affects the learning, performance and well-being of students, and it increases as the stakes get higher. Norwegian nursing students must pass a drug calculation test with a flawless performance if they are to qualify as nurses. The aim of the current study was to investigate the test anxiety experiences of students faced with such a high-stakes test. We used a mixed methods approach where the data were collected using a survey questionnaire and a focus group interview. In total, 203 freshman nursing students completed the questionnaire, six of whom also participated in the focus group interview. The survey results showed that 44.3% of the students reported high mathematics test anxiety in the months before the drug calculation test. More than 12% of the high-anxiety students reported a low mathematics self-concept. High and medium self-concept students also experienced high test anxiety. Our analysis of the focus group interview data confirmed that the high stakes of the test increased the test anxiety dramatically.

  18. Changes in mass and energy transfer between the canopy and the atmosphere: model development and testing with a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Paolo; Grant, Robert F.; Feng, Yongshen; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pinter, Paul J.; La Morte, Robert L.; Hunsaker, Douglas J.; Wall, D.

    2002-02-01

    The rationale for this study is found in the probable higher temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns that are expected in the future as a result of increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. In particular, higher air temperatures may cause an increase in evapotranspiration demand while a reduction in rainfall could increase the severity and duration of drought in arid and semi-arid regions. Representation of the water transfer scheme includes water uptake by roots and the interaction between evapotranspiration and CO2 enrichment. The predicted response of a spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yecora rojo) canopy in terms of energy exchange processes to elevated atmospheric CO2 level was tested against measurements collected at the FACE (Free Air Enrichment Experiment) site in 1994. Simulated and measured canopy conductances were reduced by about 30% under elevated [CO2] under optimum conditions of water supply. Reductions in latent heat fluxes under elevated instead of ambient [CO2] caused reductions in both simulated and measured seasonal water use of 6% under optimum and 2% under suboptimum irrigation. The soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme proposed here offers several advances in the simulation of land surface interactions. First, the stomatal resistance model minimizes assumptions in existing land surface schemes about the effects of interactions among environmental conditions (radiation, temperature, CO2) upon stomatal behavior. These interactions are resolved in the calculation of CO2 in which processes are already well understood.

  19. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  20. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  1. ORNL experience and perspectives related to processing of thorium and 233U for nuclear fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Croff, Allen G.; Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, G. D.; ...

    2016-05-01

    Thorium-based nuclear fuel cycles have received renewed attention in both research and public circles since about the year 2000. Much of the attention has been focused on nuclear fission energy production that utilizes thorium as a fertile element for producing fissionable 233U for recycle in thermal reactors, fast reactors, or externally driven systems. Here, lesser attention has been paid to other fuel cycle operations that are necessary for implementation of a sustainable thorium-based fuel cycle such as reprocessing and fabrication of recycle fuels containing 233U.

  2. Matching Faces Against the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219

  3. The Influence of Splat Events on the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Bedload Transport over Bedforms: Laboratory Experiments Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, K. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Despite numerous experimental and numerical studies investigating transport over ripples and dunes in rivers, the spatiotemporal details of the pattern of transport over bedforms remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bedload motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bedload motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward-facing step. Particle imaging velocimetry algorithms were applied to the laser sheet images to obtain two-dimensional field of two-dimensional vectors while manual particle tracking techniques were applied to the video images of the bed. As expected, the experiments exhibit a strong positive correlation between sediment flux and near-bed fluid velocity. The effect of flow separation on the pattern of sediment flux is explored by comparing experimentally observed sediment transport to sediment transport modeled as a function of boundary shear stress using a Meyer-Peter Müller type equation. Modeled sediment transport underestimates observed sediment transport near flow reattachment. This region of underestimated transport corresponds to an increase in the variance of near-bed vertical fluid velocity. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events are more apparent near flow reattachment than farther downstream. Often, these high-magnitude events are seen to have significant cross-stream particle velocities. In addition, downstream and cross-stream sediment transport events are of comparable magnitudes near reattachment. In contrast, farther downstream of the zone of underestimated transport, cross-stream transport events are small compared to downstream transport. The pattern of intermittent, high-magnitude cross- and downstream transport events near flow reattachment is

  4. Results from ORNL Characterization of Nominal 350 µm LEUCO Kernels from the BWXT G73D-20-69302 Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D

    2005-08-01

    This document is a compilation of characterization data obtained on the nominal 350 {micro}m low enrichment uranium oxide/uranium carbide kernels (LEUCO) produced by BWXT for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program. A 4502 g composite of LEUCO kernels was produced at BWXT by combining kernels from 8 forming runs sintered in 6 separate lots. 2150 grams were shipped to ORNL. ORNL has performed size, shape, density, and microstructural analysis on riffled samples from the kernel composite.

  5. Facing Oneself: An Embodied Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Rita L.

    2000-01-01

    States that teachers must "face" themselves in order to encourage experimentation with practices that evoke embodied experiences. Discusses "facing yourself," the process of knowing who you are, who you are not, and allowing for the self-transformation that should follow. (CMK)

  6. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human face detection might be driven by skin-coloured face-shaped templates. To explore this idea, this study compared the detection of faces for which the natural height-to-width ratios were preserved with distorted faces that were stretched vertically or horizontally. The impact of stretching on detection performance was not obvious when faces were equated to their unstretched counterparts in terms of their height or width dimension (Experiment 1). However, stretching impaired detection when the original and distorted faces were matched for their surface area (Experiment 2), and this was found with both vertically and horizontally stretched faces (Experiment 3). This effect was evident in accuracy, response times, and also observers' eye movements to faces. These findings demonstrate that height-to-width ratios are an important component of the cognitive template for face detection. The results also highlight important differences between face detection and face recognition.

  7. Artificial faces are harder to remember.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to "out-groups" defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the "in-group." Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an "out-group" in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing.

  8. Artificial faces are harder to remember

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to “out-groups” defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the “in-group.” Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an “out-group” in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing. PMID:26195852

  9. Gender-Based Prototype Formation in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Brochard, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    The role of gender categories in prototype formation during face recognition was investigated in 2 experiments. The participants were asked to learn individual faces and then to recognize them. During recognition, individual faces were mixed with faces, which were blended faces of same or different genders. The results of the 2 experiments showed…

  10. Biological Sex Determines Whether Faces Look Real

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Judging whether a face is real or artificial can be done relatively rapidly and accurately, even when visual information is substantially impoverished. The perception of animacy in the face also has several interesting properties that may reflect both the underlying “tuning” of face space to preferentially represent real face appearance and the diagnosticity of individual features for categorizing faces as animate or inanimate. In the current study, we examined how sex categories interact with animacy perception by separately characterizing animacy judgments as a function of stimulus sex. We find that stimulus sex affects subjective ratings of animacy and sex categorization of real and artificial faces. Specifically, female faces look more artificial and artificial faces look more female. We discuss our results in terms of the ecology of real and artificial faces and the possible role of visual experience with artificial female faces, and the objectification of female faces. PMID:24244103

  11. An Assessment of ORNL PIE Capabilities for the AGR Program Capsule Post Irradiation Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel

    2006-09-01

    ORNL has facilities and experienced staff that can execute +the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) task. While the specific PIE breakdown needs to be more formally defined, the basic outline is clear and the existing capabilities can be assessed within the needs of the tasks defined in the program plan. A one-to-one correspondence between the program plan tasks and the current ORNL PIE status was conducted and while some shortcomings were identified, the general capability is available. Specific upgrade needs were identified and reviewed. A path forward was formulated. Building 3525 is available for this work and this building is currently receiving renewed attention from management so that it will be in good working order prior to the expected PIE start date. This building is equipped with the tools necessary for PIEs of this nature, but the long hiatus in coated particle fuel work has left it with aging analysis tools. This report identified several of these tools and rough estimates of what would be required to update and replace them. In addition, other ORNL buildings are available to support Building 3525 in specialized tasks along with the normal laboratory infrastructure. Before the AGR management embarks on any equipment development effort, the PIE tasks should be updated against current program (modeling and data) needs and better defined so that the items to be measured, their measurement uncertainties, and thru-put needs can be reviewed. A Data Task Matrix (DTM) should be prepared so that the program data needs can be compared against the identified PIE tasks and what is practical in the hot cell environment to make sure nothing is overlooked. Finally, thought should be given to the development of standardized equipment designs between sites to avoid redundant design efforts and different measurement techniques. This is a potentially cost saving effort that can also avoid data inconsistencies.

  12. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump Deployment in the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Lewis, Ben; Johnson, Marshall A.; Randolph, J. G.

    2001-03-01

    In FY 1998, Pulsating Mixer Pump (PMP) technology, consisting of a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for deployment in one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to mobilize settled solids. The pulsating mixer pump technology was identified during FY 1996 and FY 1997 technical exchanges between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the DOE complex. During FY 1997, the pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to suspend settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for remote sludge mobilization of Gunite tank sludge and reduce the cost of operation and maintenance of more expensive mixing systems. The functions and requirements of the system were developed by combining the results and recommendations from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL with the requirements identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks. The PMP is comprised of a pump chamber, check valve, a working gas supply pipe, a discharge manifold, and four jet nozzles. The pump uses two distinct cycles, fill and discharge, to perform its mixing action. During the fill cycle, vacuum is applied to the pump chamber by an eductor, which draws liquid into the pump. When the liquid level inside the chamber reaches a certain level, the chamber is pressurized with compressed air to discharge the liquid through the jet nozzles and back into the tank to mobilize sludge and settled solids.

  13. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  14. Type B investigation report of curium-244 exposure at the ORNL TRU Facility, January 15, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.L.; Butler, H.M.; Duncan, D.T.; Oakes, T.W.

    1986-04-01

    This Type B Investigative Report provides an evaluation of relevant events and activities that led to, were a part of, or resulted from the release of curium-244 in the Building 7920 facility at ORNL in January 1986. Impacts have been evaluated with respect to employee exposures and the costs and loss of productivity resulting from increased bioassay analyses and activities of investigative committees. Management systems evaluated include (1) training of employees performing lab analyses, (2) adherence to procedures, and (3) response to unusual circumstances.

  15. Fast-reactor-data testing of ENDF/B-V at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.; Ford, W.E. III; Lucius, J.L.; Webster, C.C.; Marable, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is coordinating a program to assess the adequacy of ENDF/B-V cross sections for both fast- and thermal-reactor design applications. A secondary goal is to evaluate cross-section processing codes, cross-section libraries, and radiation-transport codes. Fast reactor data testing (FRDT) goals are accomplished, in part, by comparison of calculated results with documented performance parameters of CSEWG fast reactor benchmarks and with results obtained by other data testers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of FRDT at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of lung dose in ORNL phantom for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Markovic, V M; Jovanovic, Z; Milenkovic, B; Nikezic, D; Atanackovic, J

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate dose for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The computational model of male Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom was used to simulate tumours in the lung. Calculations have been performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. In this simulation, two opposite neutron beams were considered, in order to obtain uniform neutron flux distribution inside the lung. The obtained results indicate that the lung cancer could be treated by BNCT under the assumptions of calculations.

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.; Mouring, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations.

  18. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  19. Local feature suppression effect in face and non-face stimuli.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kim, Hyojung; Danek, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J; Rangelov, Dragan

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that the cognitive system processes human faces faster and more precisely than other stimuli. Also, faces summon visual attention in an automatic manner, as evidenced by efficient, 'pop-out' search for face targets amongst homogeneous non-face distractors. Pop-out for faces implies that faces are processed as a basic visual 'feature' by specialized face-tuned detectors, similar to the coding of other features (e.g., color, orientation, motion, etc.). However, it is unclear whether such face detectors encode only the global face configuration or both global and local face features. If the former were correct, the face detectors should be unable to support search for a local face feature, rendering search slower relative to non-face stimuli; that is, there would be local feature suppression (LFS) for faces. If the latter was the case, there should be no difference in the processing of local and, respectively, global face features. In two experiments, participants discerned the presence (vs. absence) of a local target defined as a part of either a normal or a scrambled (schematic or realistic) face or of a non-face (Kanizsa diamond or realistic house) configuration. The results consistently showed a robust LFS effect in both reaction times and error rates for face stimuli, and either no difference or even a local feature enhancement effect for the control stimuli. Taken together, these findings indicate that faces are encoded as a basic visual feature by means of globally tuned face detectors.

  20. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  1. Choosing between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Community College Student Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2014-01-01

    In this study, community college students discussed their experiences with online and face-to-face learning as well as their reasons for selecting online (rather than face-to-face) sections of specific courses. Students reported lower levels of instructor presence in online courses and that they needed to "teach themselves." Accordingly,…

  2. Learning Faces: Similar Comparator Faces Do Not Improve Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Scott P.; Dwyer, Dominic M.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that comparison of two similar faces can aid subsequent discrimination between them. However, the fact that discrimination between two faces is facilitated by comparing them directly does not demonstrate that comparison produces a general improvement in the processing of faces. It remains an open question whether the opportunity to compare a “target” face to similar faces can facilitate the discrimination of the exposed target face from other nonexposed faces. In Experiment 1, selection of a target face from an array of novel foils was not facilitated by intermixed exposure to the target and comparators of the same sex. Experiment 2 also found no advantage for similar comparators (morphed towards the target) over unmorphed same sex comparators, or over repeated target exposure alone. But all repeated exposure conditions produced better performance than a single brief presentation of the target. Experiment 3 again demonstrated that repeated exposure produced equivalent learning in same sex and different sex comparator conditions, and also showed that increasing the number of same sex or different sex comparators failed to improve identification. In all three experiments, exposure to a target alongside similar comparators failed to support selection of the target from novel test stimuli to a greater degree than exposure alongside dissimilar comparators or repeated target exposure alone. The current results suggest that the facilitatory effects of comparison during exposure may be limited to improving discrimination between exposed stimuli, and thus our results do not support the idea that providing the opportunity for comparison is a practical means for improving face identification. PMID:25590574

  3. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  4. Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Volker; Ward, Neil; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts. PMID:27729889

  5. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at ORNL: Calendar year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.; Newman, K.A.; Owen, P.T.; Rosen, A.E.

    1989-04-01

    The ORNL Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in 1985 in response to state and federal regulations mandating corrective actions at contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the type and extent of contamination. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP during 1988 are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Numeric Data Base, (2) the Bibliographic Data Base, and (3) the Records Control Data Base. This report addresses all three data bases, but focuses on a description of the contents of the Numeric Data Base. The types of numeric data currently available are summarized in the tables and figures. More detailed information on the contents of the RAP Numeric Data Base has been assembled in a menu-driven format on IBM PC diskettes, which are available upon request. 6 refs.

  6. Development of in situ vitrification for remediation of ORNL contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tixier, J.S.; Spalding, B.P.

    1994-08-01

    A full-scale field treatability study of in situ vitrification (ISV) is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the remediation of radioactive liquid waste seepage pits and trenches that received over one million curies of mixed fission products (mostly {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr) during the 1950s and 1960s. The treatability study is being conducted on a portion of the original seepage pit and will support an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) for closure of one or more of the seven seepage pits and trenches in early fiscal year (FY) 1996. Mr treatability study will establish ft technical performance of ISV for remediation of the contaminated soil sites. Melt operations at ORNL are expected to begin in early FY 1994. This paper presents the latest accomplishments of the project in preparation for the field testing. Discussion centers on the results of a parametric crucible melt study, a description of the site characterization efforts, and the salient features of a new hood design.

  7. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  8. Production of Thorium-229 at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Boll, Rose Ann; Garland, Marc A; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of targeted cancer therapy using -emitters has developed considerably in recent years and clinical trials have generated promising results. In particular, the initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the -emitter 213Bi in killing cancer cells [1]. Pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both 213Bi and its 225Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy [2]. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of the 10-d 225Ac parent, a member of the 7340-y 229Th chain. Currently, 233U is the only viable source for high purity 229Th; however, due to increasing difficulties associated with 233U safeguards, processing additional 233U is presently unfeasible. The recent decision to downblend and dispose of enriched 233U further diminished the prospects for extracting 229Th from 233U stock. Nevertheless, the anticipated growth in demand for 225Ac may soon exceed the levels of 229Th (~40 g or ~8 Ci; ~80 times the current ORNL 229Th stock) present in the aged 233U stockpile. The alternative routes for the production of 229Th, 225Ra and 225Ac include both reactor and accelerator approaches [3]. Here, we describe production of 229Th via neutron transmutation of 226Ra targets in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  9. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Energy Systems. Annual report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hawsey, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1992 Peer Review of Projects, conducted by DOE`s Office of Program Analysis, Office of Energy Research. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer to US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making tremendous progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  10. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  11. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets With Face Mating Gears. Part 1: Basic Theoretical and Cad Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are the Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion possesses threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three types transmis- sions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three types transmissions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in this study. The presented research shows that the synthesis is realized by application of two mathematical models: pitch contact point and mesh region models. Two approaches for synthesis of the gear drives in accordance with Olivier's principles are illustrated. The algorithms and computer programs for optimization synthesis and design of the studied hyperboloid gear drives are presented.

  12. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  13. An example-based face relighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunjung; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new face relighting algorithm powered by a large database of face images captured under various known lighting conditions (a Multi-PIE database). Key insight of our algorithm is that a face can be represented by an assemble of patches from many other faces. The algorithm finds the most similar face patches in the database in terms of the lighting and the appearance. By assembling the matched patches, we can visualize the input face under various lighting conditions. Unlike existing face relighting algorithms, we neither use any kinds of face model nor make a physical assumption. Instead, our algorithm is a data-driven approach, synthesizing the appearance of the image patch using the appearance of the example patch. Using a data-driven approach, we can account for various intrinsic facial features including the non-Lambertian skin properties as well as the hair. Also, our algorithm is insensitive to the face misalignment. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm by face relighting and face recognition experiments. Especially, the synthesized results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully handle various intrinsic features of an input face. Also, from the face recognition experiment, we show that our method is comparable to the most recent face relighting work.

  14. Orienting to Eye Gaze and Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipples, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The author conducted 7 experiments to examine possible interactions between orienting to eye gaze and specific forms of face processing. Participants classified a letter following either an upright or inverted face with averted, uninformative eye gaze. Eye gaze orienting effects were recorded for upright and inverted faces, irrespective of whether…

  15. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  16. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  17. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, R. C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace.

  18. Sensor integation using concurrent computing on-board the ORNL mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Jones, J.P.; Beckerman, M.; Glover, C.W.; Farkas, L.; Einstein, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The mobile robot prototypes developed at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are equipped with sonar sensors, CCD cameras and a laser range camera that are used to support autonomous navigation and inspection tasks in an a priori unknown and unstructured dynamic environment. This paper summarizes work directed at extracting information from data collected with these sensors and integrating it, in order to produce reliable descriptions of the robot's environment. The approach consists in studying different world models and mappings among them, sensor models and parallel algorithms for sensor information processing, and appropriate integration strategies. Specifically, the paper describes the integration of two-dimensional vision and sonar range information, and the integration of laser range and luminance images. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Initial formulation results for in situ grouting of a waste trench at ORNL Site No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted by the Chemical Technology Division to assist the Environmental Sciences Division in developing a grout formulation for use in testing in situ grouting in a waste trench at ORNL Site 6. This final report satisfies the milestone of Subtack 12 entitled, ''Low Level Waste (LLW) Trench Grouting Assessment,'' which was initially issued as RAP-86-7, December 31, 1985. Grouts prepared from dry-solid blends containing Type I Portland cement, ASTM Class C or Class F fly ash, and bentonite, mixed water at ratios of 10 to 15 lb/gal, were evaluated. The grouts prepared with ASTM Class C fly ash exhibited significantly better properties than those prepared with ASTM Class F fly ash. The grouts containing ASTM Class C fly ash satisfy tentative performance criteria for the project. 8 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Twenty-second ORNL intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems, August 12-16, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.

    1986-05-01

    The twenty-second in a series of criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 12-16, 1985. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode over Storage Pit No. 1 was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from nine organizations measured neutron doses between 0.36 and 3.78 Gy and gamma doses between 0.22 and 0.80 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. Approximately 68% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, thermoluminescent, hair activation, and blood sodium activation methods were within +-25% of reference values. About 44% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/ phosphors) were within 20% of reference doses. The generally poor measurement accuracy exhibited in this study indicates a need for continuing ORNL accident dosimetry intercomparison and training programs.

  2. ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area 6 trench photos and geologic descriptions, July 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Stansfield, R.G.; Dreier, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated a photographic and descriptive geologic study of low-level waste trenches opened in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6). From July 1984 through September 1985, trenches were excavated, geologically described, and photographed before being filled and closed. Only three trenches (Nos. 438, 448, and 465) were excavated and closed before photography could be scheduled. It is recommended that the systematic trench characterization procedure outlined in this report be continued under the direction of ORNL's Operations Division with support from both Environmental Sciences and the Engineering divisions. Publication of such a compilation of trench photos on a yearly basis will serve not only as a part of Department of Energy trench documentation requirements but also as a component of a SWSA-6 geologic data base being developed for current research and development activities. 2 refs., 38 figs.

  3. Thermal and stress analysis of the Faraday shield for the ORNL/TFTR rf antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, C.J.; Nelson, B.E.; Walls, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Baity, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The rf antenna designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is an ion cyclotron resonance heating antenna operating in the 40- to 80-MHz frequency range with a power output of 4 MW for a 2-s pulse. The antenna was delivered to Princeton in November 1987. A review of the antenna design began in early 1988 to ensure compatibility with D-T operation of TFTR. Owing to the serious consequences of a water leak during D-T operation and to other concerns, it was concluded that the Faraday shield of the antenna should be rebuilt. In addition, because of increased heat loads and more stringent acceptance criteria, a new thermal and stress analysis of the shield was authorized. 1 ref., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Different neural correlates of facing pain with mindfulness: Contributions of strategy and skill. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gard, Tim

    2014-09-01

    As Fabbro and Crescentini [1] state at the beginning of their perspective article, pain is an inevitable, complex and multifaceted phenomenon. While acute pain fulfills an important alerting function, persistent pain is considered maladaptive and associated with unnecessary suffering. The definition of pain "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" indicates the presence of sensory and emotional components [2]. In the brain the sensory aspects of pain, or its intensity, is associated with activations in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex while the emotional aspects of pain or pain unpleasantness are related to brain activation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [3,4]. Physical and emotional pain have overlapping mechanisms [5,6] as Fabbro and Crescentini [1] discuss with respect to social exclusion, empathy and the pain of separation including the fear of death.

  5. Summary and analsysis of the 1986 ORNL personnel dosimetry intercomparison study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Weng, P.S.; Sims, C.S.; Yeh, S.H.

    1987-04-01

    The Twelfth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during April 14 to 17, 1986. Objectives of this study were to determine neutron dosimeter performance characteristics at neutron dose equivalent levels near the minimum specified for accreditation testing programs and to provide several radiation fields different from those that have been considered in prior ORNL intercomparisons. Dosimeter badges from 49 participating organizations were mounted on Lucite block phantoms and exposed to six mixed-radiation fields (five using the Health Physics Research Reactor and one using a PuBe source) with neutron dose equivalents of about 1.5 mSv and gamma dose equivalents between 0.04 and 5.37 mSv. Results of this study indicated that participants had no difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron exposure at dose equivalent levels of about 1.5 mSv. Average neutron results for all dosimeter types were within approximately 60% of reference values with hard spectra being more accurately measured than soft spectra. Considering all irradiations, albedo and direct interaction TLD systems provided about the same performance characteristics. With regard to precision, about 58% of the reported neutron results had single standard deviations within 10% at the means which indicates that precision was not a problem relative to accuracy for over half of the participants. Average gamma results varied from 0.98 to 2.22 times reference values for all exposures with TLD systems being more accurate than film. Some participants, especially those using film, had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of gamma exposures at dose equivalent levels lower than 0.09 mSv. About 69% of all neutron results and 77% of all gamma results met regulatory standards for measurement accuracy and approximately 65% of all neutron data satisfied national dosimetry accreditation criteria for accuracy plus precision. 18 refs., 1 fig., 30 tabs.

  6. The ORNL Basemapping and Imagery Project: Data collection, processing and dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, M.; Pace, P.

    1996-04-01

    Over the past three years, the GIS and Computer Modeling (GCM) Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has been engaged in creating a very comprehensive geospatial data base for Department of Energy (DOE) installations managed by the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). This effort encompasses topographic, planimetric, land use/land cover, flood plain, digital elevation, and digital imagery data for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding areas. The ORR covers approximately 34,800 acres and includes ORNL, the K-25 Site and the Y-12 Plant. The geographic extent of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project covers the ORR and surrounding area and two other DOE plants (Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky) for a total of 166,000 acres. The resulting data represent a major improvement in the spatial accuracy and currency of data which are used as a foundation for environmental restoration, facility studies, and other GIS data applications. A GIS data server was also created in order to store and disseminate the new basemapping data. This paper describes the history of the Base Mapping and Imagery Project with emphasis on the logistical aspects of data quality assessment. data tracking, and data product work flow for a large comprehensive spatial data base. The paper then describes the evolution of the GIS data server including its design from an FTP server to a NetScape-based World Wide Web interface. This combination of data and data access provides the ORR environmental community with a carefully configured and managed GIS dataset.

  7. ORNL production of the experimental alpha emitters bismuth-213 and actinium-225 for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, O.F.; Krichinsky, A.M.; Yong, L.K.

    1998-09-01

    Due to their short range in tissue (50 to 80 {micro}m), alpha emitters are of considerable interest for certain radioimmunotherapy applications. These applications require the destruction of single cells or small clusters of cells. The radioisotope {sup 213}Bi, which is milked from {sup 225}Ac, is an alpha emitter that is currently being used in phase-1 human leukemia trials at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The most readily achievable route for producing {sup 225}Ac generators involves separating ingrown {sup 229}Th daughters from the {sup 233}U parent. Thorium-229 is then used as a parent generator for {sup 225}Ac. Thorium-229 is easier to handle than {sup 233}U, which is fissile and typically contains trace concentrations of {sup 232}U. Uranium-232 has a radioactive daughter, {sup 208}Tl, which emits a high-energy (2.6-MeV) photon when it decays. An alternative method for producing {sup 229}Th is through neutron irradiation of {sup 227}Ra. However, this method is less desirable due to the production of very high levels of {sup 228}Th. Thorium-229 accumulates in stored {sup 233}U oxides by natural decay. The current ORNL process for extracting {sup 229}Th from stored {sup 233}U oxides includes dissolution, strong-acid anion exchange, and calcination of the uranium. This ORNL process has provided high-purity {sup 225}Ac generators to medical researchers. Bismuth-213 has been extracted and used in initial human trials and already has demonstrated a potency and specificity for attacking cancerous cells.

  8. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  9. ORNL testing of DOT specification 17H drums (55-gallon) for compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Lasher, L.C.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes using Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 17H drums (55-gal) for transporting low-level waste (LLW) to Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) for interim storage. This container type was tested and found to be in compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging.

  10. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  11. Ethical considerations in face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles S; Gander, Brian; Cunningham, Michael; Furr, Allen; Vasilic, Dalibor; Wiggins, Osborne; Banis, Joseph C; Vossen, Marieke; Maldonado, Claudio; Perez-Abadia, Gustavo; Barker, John H

    2007-10-01

    Human face transplantation is now a clinical reality. The surgical techniques necessary to perform these procedures have been used routinely in reconstructive microsurgery for many years. From an immunological standpoint since face and hand contain mostly the same tissues it is reasonable to assume that the same immunosuppressive regimen found to be effective in human hand transplants should also work in face transplantation. It is the ethical issues associated with the risks and benefits of performing facial transplantation that have posed the greatest challenges leading up to performing this new procedure. In this editorial, we will review some of the main events that have led to the recently performed human face transplants, specifically focusing on the key ethical issues at the center of this debate. We will discuss how the research and clinical experience in human hand transplantation laid the foundation for performing face transplantation and describe the research and the ethical guidelines upon which a team at the University of Louisville based their position "to move ahead" in spite of much criticism. Finally we will outline some of the key arguments against face transplantation, and conclude with a discussion on what comes next now that the first human face transplants have been performed.

  12. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D.; Stansfield, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  13. Inferring character from faces: a developmental study.

    PubMed

    Cogsdill, Emily J; Todorov, Alexander T; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2014-05-01

    Human adults attribute character traits to faces readily and with high consensus. In two experiments investigating the development of face-to-trait inference, adults and children ages 3 through 10 attributed trustworthiness, dominance, and competence to pairs of faces. In Experiment 1, the attributions of 3- to 4-year-olds converged with those of adults, and 5- to 6-year-olds' attributions were at adult levels of consistency. Children ages 3 and above consistently attributed the basic mean/nice evaluation not only to faces varying in trustworthiness (Experiment 1) but also to faces varying in dominance and competence (Experiment 2). This research suggests that the predisposition to judge others using scant facial information appears in adultlike forms early in childhood and does not require prolonged social experience.

  14. Technical evaluation of the prototype ORNL alpha radiation detector/probe with the AN/PDR-77 RADIAC set. Technical report, Nov 91-Jan 92

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, M.J.; Kaplowitz, I.A.

    1992-06-01

    A new alpha particle detector, designed and fabricated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was procured and technically evaluated by the U.S. Army. Two of the three detectors procured were tested under guidelines obtained from U.S. Army requirements for an alpha detector probe. The probes represent the state-of-the-art in alpha particle detector design and fabrication affording ruggedness in design, accuracy at low count rates(+ or - 10%) below 30 CPM, excellent operating temperature (-30 to 60 deg C), and insensitivity to gamma rays (CS-137) up to 2 R/hr. Its unique feature centers on the solid state construction of the alpha detector which is composed of a transparent epoxy having embedded silver actuated zinc sulfide as the scintillator. A flat light pipe coupled to a photomultiplier tube provides the light sensing design. Test results indicate a drop in response as one approaches the edge of the detector face due to the geometry of a flat light pipe design, suggesting a redesign from a flat geometry to one having a cone shape.

  15. Face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition method using a multiscale Markov Random Fields (MRF) model. Our system has three components: 1) given a face photo, synthesizing a sketch drawing; 2) given a face sketch drawing, synthesizing a photo; and 3) searching for face photos in the database based on a query sketch drawn by an artist. It has useful applications for both digital entertainment and law enforcement. We assume that faces to be studied are in a frontal pose, with normal lighting and neutral expression, and have no occlusions. To synthesize sketch/photo images, the face region is divided into overlapping patches for learning. The size of the patches decides the scale of local face structures to be learned. From a training set which contains photo-sketch pairs, the joint photo-sketch model is learned at multiple scales using a multiscale MRF model. By transforming a face photo to a sketch (or transforming a sketch to a photo), the difference between photos and sketches is significantly reduced, thus allowing effective matching between the two in face sketch recognition. After the photo-sketch transformation, in principle, most of the proposed face photo recognition approaches can be applied to face sketch recognition in a straightforward way. Extensive experiments are conducted on a face sketch database including 606 faces, which can be downloaded from our Web site (http://mmlab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/facesketch.html).

  16. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; Cone, John M.; Hendrickson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker’s face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods. PMID:21113354

  17. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Configuration and Data Management Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Schlicher, Bob G

    2006-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involvement in the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) research with both government agencies and private companies dates back to 1989. The discussion here will focus on the US Army's current need for an automated WIM system to weigh and determine the center-of-balance for military wheeled vehicles and cargo and the expanded uses of WIM data. ORNL is addressing configuration and data management issues as they relate to deployments for both military and humanitarian activities. The transition from the previous WIM Gen I to the current Gen II system illustrates a configuration and data management solution that ensures data integration, integrity, coherence and cost effectiveness. Currently, Army units use portable and fixed scales, tape measures, and calculators to determine vehicle axle, total weights and center of balance for vehicles prior to being transshipped via railcar, ship, or airlifted. Manually weighing and measuring all vehicles subject to these transshipment operations is time-consuming, labor-intensive, hazardous and is prone to human errors (e.g., misreading scales and tape measures, calculating centers of balance and wheel, axle, and vehicle weights, recording data, and transferring data from manually prepared work sheets into an electronic data base and aggravated by adverse weather conditions). Additionally, in the context of the military, the timeliness, safety, success, and effectiveness of airborne heavy-drop operations can be significantly improved by the use of an automated system to weigh and determine center of balance of vehicles while they are in motion. The lack of a standardized airlift-weighing system for joint service use also creates redundant weighing requirements at the cost of scarce resources and time. This case study can be judiciously expanded into commercial operations related to safety and enforcement. The WIM program will provide a means for the Army to automatically identify/weigh and monitor

  19. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  20. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification. PMID:26576452

  1. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification.

  2. The Many Faces of Study Abroad: An Update on the Research on L2 Gains Emerged during a Study Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the existing literature on gains in a second language (L2) as a result of a study abroad (SA) experience. The aim of this article is (a) to provide an updated overview of the empirical evidence of L2 gains emerging during an SA experience in order to know what the current situation is, and (b) to identify…

  3. What constitutes pain?. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Franco Fabbro and Cristiano Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    In their thought provoking perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the neuropsychological mechanisms of pain, encompassing physical and psychological pain. An underlying assumption of the article is that experiences, ranging from physical pain to the feelings that accompany thoughts of one's own death, can all be subsumed under the banner of pain. While Fabbro and Crescentini are certainly not alone in amalgamating these diverse experiences, I would argue that it is not pain that binds them, but rather suffering.

  4. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  5. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance.

  6. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  7. ORNL Resolved Resonance Covariance Generation for ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.; Guber, K.; Wiarda, D.; Arbanas, G.; Derrien, H.; Sayer, R.; Larson, N.; Dunn, M.

    2012-12-15

    Resonance-parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) evaluations in the resolved resonance regionwere done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the chromium isotopes, titanium isotopes, {sup 19}F, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 39}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu using the computer code SAMMY. The retroactive approach of the code SAMMY was used to generate the RPCMs for {sup 233}U. For {sup 235}U, the approach used for covariance generation was similar to the retroactive approach with the distinction that real experimental data were used as opposed to data generated from the resonance parameters. RPCMs for {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu were generated together with the resonance parameter evaluations. The RPCMs were then converted in the ENDF format using the FILE32 representation. Alternatively, for computer storage reasons, the FILE32 was converted in the FILE33 cross section covariance matrix (CSCM). Both representations were processed using the computer code PUFF-IV. This paper describes the procedures used to generate the RPCM and CSCM in the resonance region for ENDF/B-VII.1. The impact of data uncertainty in nuclear reactor benchmark calculations is also presented.

  8. ORNL Resolved Resonance Covariance Generation for ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Luiz C.; Guber, Klaus H.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran; Derrien, Herve; Sayer, Royce O.; Larson, Nancy M.; Dunn, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    Resonance-parameter covariance matrix (RPCM) evaluations in the resolved resonance regionwere done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the chromium isotopes, titanium isotopes, 19F, 58Ni, 60Ni, 35Cl, 37Cl, 39K, 41K, 55Mn, 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using the computer code SAMMY. The retroactive approach of the code SAMMY was used to generate the RPCMs for 233U. For 235U, the approach used for covariance generation was similar to the retroactive approach with the distinction that real experimental data were used as opposed to data generated from the resonance parameters. RPCMs for 238U and 239Pu were generated together with the resonance parameter evaluations. The RPCMs were then converted in the ENDF format using the FILE32 representation. Alternatively, for computer storage reasons, the FILE32 was converted in the FILE33 cross section covariance matrix (CSCM). Both representations were processed using the computer code PUFF-IV. This paper describes the procedures used to generate the RPCM and CSCM in the resonance region for ENDF/B-VII.1. The impact of data uncertainty in nuclear reactor benchmark calculations is also presented.

  9. Data base management activities for the Remedial Action Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL)

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, L.A.; Voorhees, L.D.; Gentry, M.J.; Faulkner, M.A.; Shaakir-Ali, J.A.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in 1985 in response to state and federal regulations requiring comprehensive control over facility discharges and cleanup of contaminated sites. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed for RAP to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated facilities and sites. The current status of DIMS and its role in supporting RAP during 1989 are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Numeric Data Base, (2) the Bibliographic Data Base, and (3) the Records Control Data Base. This report addresses all three data bases, but focuses on the contents of the Numeric Data Base. Significant progress was made last year with the geographic information system (GIS) and ARC/INFO, which can be interfaced with SAS/GRAPH to provide combined mapping and statistical graphic products. Several thematic layers of GIS data for the Oak Ridge Reservation are now available. 18 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Data Quality Assurance and Control for AmeriFlux Network at CDIAC, ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shem, W.; Boden, T.; Krassovski, M.; Yang, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) serves as the long-term data repository for the AmeriFlux network. Datasets currently available include hourly or half-hourly meteorological and flux observations, biological measurement records, and synthesis data products. Currently there is a lack of standardized nomenclature and specifically designed procedures for data quality assurance/control in processing and handling micrometeorological and ecological data at individual flux sites. CDIAC's has bridged this gap by providing efficient and accurate procedures for data quality control and standardization of the results for easier assimilation by the models used in climate science. In this presentation we highlight the procedures we have put in place to scrutinize continuous flux and meteorological data within Ameriflux network. We itemize some basic data quality issues that we have observed over the past years and include some examples of typical data quality issues. Such issues, e.g., incorrect time-stamping, poor calibration or maintenance of instruments, missing or incomplete metadata and others that are commonly over-looked by PI's, invariably impact the time-series observations.

  11. Progress report on the design of a Low-Level Waste Pilot Facility at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, L. C.; Turner, V. L.; Pruitt, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    All low-level radioactive solid wastes, excluding TRU wastes, are disposed of by shallow land burial at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contaminated liquids and sludges are hydrofractures. The TRU wastes are stored in a retrievable fashion in concrete storage facilities. Currently, the capacity for low-level radioactive waste burial at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is adequate for another six years of service at the current solids disposal rate which ranges between 80,000 and 100,000 cu ft per year. Decontamination and decommissioning of a number of ORNL facilities will be a significant activity in the next few years. Quantities of radioactive materials to be stored or disposed of as a result of these activities will be large; therefore, the technology to dispose of large quantities of low-level radioactive wastes must be demonstrated. The UCC-ND Engineering Division, in concert with divisions of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been requested to prepare a conceptual design for a facility to both dispose of the currently produced low-level radioactive waste and also to provide a test bed for demonstration of other processes which may be used in future low-level radioactive wastes disposal facilities. This facility is designated as the Low-Level Waste Pilot Facility (LLWPF). This paper describes the status of the conceptual design of a facility for disposal of the subject radioactive waste.

  12. A 400-pellet feed system for the ORNL centrifuge pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.; Qualls, A.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Schechter, D.E.; Dyer, G.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1993-11-01

    An improved and extended pellet fabrication and feed mechanism is being developed for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) centrifuge pellet injector that is presently installed on Tore Supra. This upgrade will extend the number of pellets available for a single-plasma discharge from 100 to 400. In addition, a new pusher and delivery system is expected to improve the performance of the device. As in the original system, deuterium ice is deposited from the gas phase on a liquid-helium-cooled rotating disk, forming a rim of solid deuterium. The rim of ice is machined to a parabolic profile from which pellets are pushed. In the new device, a stack of four ice rims are formed simultaneously, thereby increasing the capacity from 100 to 400 pellets. An improved method of ice formation has also been developed that produces clear ice. The pellet pusher and delivery system utilizes a four-axis, brushless dc servo system to precisely cut and deliver the pellets from the ice rim to the entrance of the centrifuge wheel. Pellets can be formed with sizes ranging from 2.5- to 4-mm diam at a rate of up to 8 per second. The operation of the injector is fully automated by a computer control system. The design and test results of the device are reported.

  13. An Investigation of the Applicability and Limitations of the ORNL Expanded Plug Test

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, Wallace J.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-01-15

    The expanded plug test technique for measuring the circumferential tensile properties of irradiated nuclear fuel cladding was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has been used successfully in several applications. The primary advantage of this technique over other procedures is its simplicity for application in the complex hot cell environment. During the development stage, efforts were made to both qualify the technique as much as possible regarding its experimental application and to develop and validate the data reduction procedures. However, since this is a new technique, the technical community is cautious in adopting a procedure that has not been fully vetted. The purpose of this effort was to address several baseline issues regarding the applicability of the technique and the precision of the use of experimental expanded ring load-deformation data to calculate material circumferential stress-strain properties. The tests performed, in conjunction with the developed data reduction procedures, demonstrate good reliability in the prediction of ring material stress-strain behavior for several materials of widely different strengths.

  14. ORNL contributions to the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project for October 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J.

    1987-11-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Facility - formerly called the Center for Neutron Research - will provide the world's best facilities for the study of neutron scattering. The ANS high power density reactor will be fueled with uranium silicide and cooled, moderated, and reflected by D/sub 2/O. Peak neutron fluxes in the reflector are expected to be 5 to 10 x 10/sup 19/ neutrons per square meter with a power level between 270 MW and 300 MW. This report describes the status of technical work at ORNL on the ANS Project during the first half of FY 1987. The scope of this report includes Research and Development Tasks; Safety Tasks; Conceptual Design Tasks; and Project Support. The last two areas were only initiated as separate activities during this reporting period. Technical highlights include a better understanding of the relationship among neutron flux, core power, and core volume; preconceptual design work on a cold source for use in a very high gamma and neutron flux environment; identification of the major applicable safety rules and guidelines; and establishment of initial functional objectives for the containment structure.

  15. Results of Small-Scale Tests for Removing Mercury from ORNL Process Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.

    1999-06-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) received a new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit from the state of Tennessee in 1997. This permit reduced the limit for mercury in the effluent from the Process Wastewater Treatment Complex - Building 3608 (PWTC-3608) to 19 ppt for the monthly average, which is well below the current effluent concentration. The mercury limit is being appealed, so it is not currently being enforced, but experimental work is being done to determine if it is possible to meet this new limit. Various mercury sorbents were evaluated in small, continuous-flow columns. The first set of sorbent tests that were conducted at PWTC-3608 in August 1997 showed excellent mercury removal by the Forager Sponge, even at high flow rates. Subsequent tests, however, showed that the mercury removal by the Forager Sponge, even at high flow rates. Subsequent tests, however, showed that the mercury removal efficiency of the sorbents varied considerably over time, probably as a result of changes in the form of the mercury in the wastewater. A significant portion of the mercury in PWTC-3608 water was bound to small particles during the later tests, which made the mercury less accessible to the sorbents. Chlorination of the water, which could convert the mercury to an ionic form, improved the performance of some of the sorbents.

  16. Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1994-06-01

    The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m{sup 3} (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m{sup 3} (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents.

  17. Results of Inspections of Operation of the ORNL Mock Feed/Withdrawal System

    SciTech Connect

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Laughter, Mark D; Krichinsky, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    Remote monitoring of process activities is one tool under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to handle increasing demands for conducting verification inspections at safeguarded facilities. The ability for the IAEA to continuously monitor feed and withdrawal (F&W) station operations (e.g., load cells and other process attributes) would provide independent verification of normal plant operations, supply data that would make safeguards more effective and efficient, and enable information-driven inspections. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assembled a mock UF6 F&W system using water in lieu of UF6 to test the feasibility of advanced process monitoring systems and concepts (such as remote monitoring) for safeguards. One use of the F&W mockup involves exploring how a safeguards inspector would interact with the data and use it to perform onsite inspections more effectively, so the researchers divided staff into two groups: operators and inspectors. This paper will discuss this process and the promising results of the inspections that have been performed at the mock facility to verify operator declarations and detect material diversion. This paper also will present the intuitive and user-friendly graphic interface researchers used to analyze the information. Although the data gathered previously came from a computer local to the F&W system, future work will include remote transmission and analysis of the data.

  18. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  19. Face familiarity promotes stable identity recognition: exploring face perception using serial dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Rebecca; Van der Burg, Erik; Rhodes, Gillian; Alais, David

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that familiar faces are processed in a manner distinct from unfamiliar faces and that familiarity with a face confers an advantage in identity recognition. Our visual system seems to capitalize on experience to build stable face representations that are impervious to variation in retinal input that may occur due to changes in lighting, viewpoint, viewing distance, eye movements, etc. Emerging evidence also suggests that our visual system maintains a continuous perception of a face's identity from one moment to the next despite the retinal input variations through serial dependence. This study investigates whether interactions occur between face familiarity and serial dependence. In two experiments, participants used a continuous scale to rate attractiveness of unfamiliar and familiar faces (either experimentally learned or famous) presented in rapid sequences. Both experiments revealed robust inter-trial effects in which attractiveness ratings for a given face depended on the preceding face's attractiveness. This inter-trial attractiveness effect was most pronounced for unfamiliar faces. Indeed, when participants were familiar with a given face, attractiveness ratings showed significantly less serial dependence. These results represent the first evidence that familiar faces can resist the temporal integration seen in sequential dependencies and highlight the importance of familiarity to visual cognition.

  20. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  1. N170 face specificity and face memory depend on hometown size.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin; Saville, Alyson

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition depends on visual experience in a number of different ways. Infrequent exposure to faces belonging to categories defined by species, age, or race can lead to diminished memory for and discrimination between members of those categories relative to faces belonging to categories that dominate an observer's environment. Early visual impairment can also have long-lasting and broad effects on face discrimination - just a few months of visual impairment due to congenital cataracts can lead to diminished discrimination between faces that differ in their configuration, for example (Le Grand et al., 2001). Presently, we consider a novel aspect of visual experience that may impact face recognition: The approximate amount of different faces observers encountered during their childhood. We recruited undergraduate observers from small (500-1000 individuals) and large communities (30,000-100,000 individuals) and asked them to complete a standard face memory test and a basic ERP paradigm designed to elicit a robust N170 response, including the classic face inversion effect. We predicted that growing up in a small community might lead to diminished face memory and an N170 response that was less specific to faces. These predictions were confirmed, suggesting that the sheer number of faces one can interact with during their upbringing shapes their behavioral abilities and the functional architecture of face processing in the brain.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - tritium trap package. [Tritium absorbed as solid uranium tritide in depleted uranium trap

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 6M--Tritium Trap Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B quantities of tritium as solid uranium tritide. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container, a drop test performed by the ORNL Operations Division, and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approvals on a similar tritium transport container. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities of tritium. 4 references, 8 figures.

  3. "You're Facing That Machine but There's a Human Being behind It": Students' Affective Experiences on an Online Doctoral Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Gray, Morag

    2016-01-01

    Online students use highly emotional language to describe their experiences, indicating that learners do feel a great deal online. This paper draws on Wetherell's exploration of affective practice to theorise learners' responses to the pedagogical and technological online environment. Findings of a research project that focused on two cohorts of…

  4. Feedback from the Coal-Face: How the Lived Experience of Women Casual Academics Can Inform Human Resources and Academic Development Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Casual academics form the backbone of learning and teaching practice in higher education in many developed countries and in many respects can be considered the norm around which academic policy and practice might be formed. Yet a narrative inquiry into the lived experience of women casual academics within Australian universities reveals that…

  5. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  6. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  7. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  8. Struggling toward reward: Recent experience of anhedonia interacts with motivation to predict reward pursuit in the face of a stressful manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jessica; Winer, E. Samuel; Salem, Taban; Nadorff, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Anhedonia, or the loss of interest and/or pleasure, is a core symptom of depression. Individuals experiencing anhedonia have difficulty motivating themselves to pursue rewarding stimuli, which can result in dysfunction. Action orientation is a motivational factor that might interact with anhedonia to potentially buffer against this dysfunction, as action-oriented individuals upregulate positive affect to quickly motivate themselves to complete goals in the face of stress. The Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT) is a promising new method for examining differences in motivation in individuals experiencing anhedonia. In the EEfRT, participants choose either easier tasks associated with smaller monetary rewards or harder tasks associated with larger monetary rewards. We examined the relationship between action orientation and EEfRT performance following a negative mood induction in a sample with varying levels of anhedonia. There were two competing hypotheses: (1) action orientation would act as a buffer against anhedonia such that action-oriented individuals, regardless of anhedonic symptoms, would be motivated to pursue greater rewards despite stress, or (2) anhedonia would act as a debilitating factor such that individuals with elevated anhedonic symptoms, regardless of action orientation, would not pursue greater rewards. We examined these hypotheses via Generalized Estimating Equations and found an interaction between anhedonia and action orientation. At low levels of anhedonia, action orientation was associated with effort for reward, but this relationship was not present at high levels of anhedonia. Thus, at low levels of anhedonia, action orientation acted as a buffer against stress, but at high levels, anhedonia debilitated action orientation so that it was no longer a promotive factor. PMID:28273126

  9. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  10. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W.S.; Hawsey, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The three major elements of this program are conductor development, applications development, and the Superconductivity Partnership Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1994 Annual Program Review held July 19--20, 2994. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to industrial competitiveness projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire products.

  12. Developing a strategy and closure criteria for radioactive and mixed waste sites in the ORNL remedial action program: Regulatory interface

    SciTech Connect

    Trabalka, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    Some options for stabilization and treatment of contaminated sites can theoretically provide a once-and-for-all solution (e.g., removal or destruction of contaminants). Most realizable options, however, leave contaminants in place (in situ), potentially isolated by physical or chemical, but more typically, by hydrologic measures. As a result of the dynamic nature of the interactions between contaminants, remedial measures, and the environment, in situ stablization measures are likely to have limited life spans, and maintenance and monitoring of performance become an essential part of the scheme. The length of formal institutional control over the site and related questions about future uses of the land and waters are of paramount importance. Unique features of the ORNL site and environs appear to be key ingredients in achieving the very long term institutional control necessary for successful financing and implementation of in situ stabilization. Some formal regulatory interface is necessary to ensure that regulatory limitations and new guidance which can affect planning and implementation of the ORNL Remedial Action Program are communicated to ORNL staff and potential technical and financial limitations which can affect schedules or alternatives for achievement of long-term site stabilization and the capability to meet environmental regulations are provided to regulatory bodies as early as possible. Such an interface should allow decisions on closure criteria to be based primarily on technical merit and protection of human health and the environment. A plan for interfacing with federal and state regulatory authorities is described. 93 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. ORNL IntelligentFreight Initiative:Enhanced End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility of Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the post September 11, 2001 (9/11) world the federal government has increased its focus on the manufacturing, distributing, warehousing, and transporting of hazardous materials. In 2002, Congress mandated that the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) designate a subset of hazardous materials that could pose a threat to the American public when transported in sufficiently large quantities. This subset of hazardous materials, which could be weaponized or subjected to a nefarious terrorist act, was designated as Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials (SSHM). Radioactive materials (RAM) were of special concern because actionable intelligence had revealed that Al Qaeda desired to develop a homemade nuclear device or a dirty bomb to use against the United States (US) or its allies.1 Because of this clear and present danger, it is today a national priority to develop and deploy technologies that will provide for visibility and real-time exception notification of SSHM and Radioactive Materials in Quantities of Concern (RAMQC) in international commerce. Over the past eight years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing, implementing, and deploying sensor-based technologies to enhance supply chain visibility. ORNL s research into creating a model for shipments, known as IntelligentFreight, has investigated sensors and sensor integration methods at numerous testbeds throughout the national supply chain. As a result of our research, ORNL believes that most of the information needed by supply chain partners to provide shipment visibility and exceptions-based reporting already exists but is trapped in numerous proprietary or agency-centric databases.

  14. A Comparative View of Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, David A.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Face perception serves as the basis for much of human social exchange. Diverse information can be extracted about an individual from a single glance at their face, including their identity, emotional state, and direction of attention. Neuropsychological and fMRI experiments reveal a complex network of specialized areas in the human brain supporting these face-reading skills. Here we consider the evolutionary roots of human face perception by exploring the manner in which different animal species view and respond to faces. We focus on behavioral experiments collected from both primates and non-primates, assessing the types of information that animals are able to extract from the faces of their conspecifics, human experimenters, and natural predators. These experiments reveal that faces are an important category of visual stimuli for animals in all major vertebrate taxa, possibly reflecting the early emergence of neural specialization for faces in vertebrate evolution. At the same time, some aspects of facial perception are only evident in primates and a few other social mammals, and may therefore have evolved to suit the needs of complex social communication. Since the human brain likely utilizes both primitive and recently evolved neural specializations for the processing of faces, comparative studies may hold the key to understanding how these parallel circuits emerged during human evolution. PMID:20695655

  15. Overcoming Student Resistance to Group Work: Online Versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…

  16. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.

    2014-09-01

    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  17. Eleventh ORNL personnel dosimetry intercomparison study, May 22-23, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Eleventh Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during May 22-23, 1985. Dosimeter badges from 44 participating organizations were mounted on Lucite block phantoms and exposed to four mixed-radiation fields with neutron dose equivalents around 5 mSv and gamma dose equivalents between 0.1 and 0.7 mSv. Results of this study indicated that no participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron exposure at the provided dose equivalent levels, and very few had difficulty obtaining indication of gamma exposure at dose equivalents as low as 0.10 mSv. Average neutron results for all dosimeter types were within 20% of reference values with no obvious spectrum dependence. Different dosimeter types (albedo, direct interaction TLD, film, recoil track, and combination albedo-track) with 10 or more reported measurements provided average results within 35% of reference values for all spectra. With regard to precision, about 80% of the reported neutron results had single standard deviations within 10% at the means which indicates that precision is not a problem relative to accuracy for most participants. Average gamma results were greater than reference values by factors of 1.07 to 1.52 for the four exposures with TLD systems being more accurate than film. About 80% of all neutron results and 67% of all gamma results met regulatory standards for measurement accuracy and approximately 70% of all neutron data satisfied national dosimetry accreditation criteria for accuracy plus precision. In general, neutron dosimeter performance observed in this intercomparison was much improved compared to that observed in the prior studies while gamma dosimeter performance was about the same.

  18. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    PubMed

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  19. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  20. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  1. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for July-August 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of July and August in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized, Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series of discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel, pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEX-PVFX programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data, The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  2. Characterization of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) waste tanks located at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) is located in Melton Valley within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 and includes five underground storage tanks (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T9) ranging from 13,000 to 25,000 gal. capacity. During the period of 1996--97 there was a major effort to re-sample and characterize the contents of these inactive waste tanks. The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, examine concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and to provide the data needed to meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data collected on both the supernatant and sludge samples taken from three different locations in each of the OHF tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) do not satisfy the denature ratios required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The fissile isotope of plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) are diluted with thorium far above the WAC requirements. In general, the OHF sludge was found to be hazardous (RCRA) based on total metal content and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the OHF sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  3. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use.

    PubMed

    Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena

    2008-10-01

    Planning for future needs has traditionally been considered to be restricted to human cognition. Although recent studies on great ape and corvid cognition challenge this belief, the phylogenesis of human planning remains largely unknown. The complex skill for future planning has not yet been satisfactorily established in any other extant primate species than our own. In humans, planning for future needs rely heavily on two overarching capacities, both of which lie at the heart of our cognition: self-control, often defined as the suppression of immediate drives in favor of delayed rewards, and mental time travel, which could be described as a detached mental experience of a past or future event. Future planning is linked to additional high complexity cognition such as metacognition and a consciousness usually not attributed to animals. In a series of four experiments based on tool use, we demonstrate that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) override immediate drives in favor of future needs, and they do not merely rely on associative learning or semantic prospection when confronted with a planning task. These results suggest that great apes engage in planning for the future by out competing current drives and mentally pre-experiencing an upcoming event. This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed.

  4. Connect the Book. I Face the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This month's feature is Vicki Cobb's "I Face the Wind" (Illus. by Julia Gorton. HarperCollins, 2003) which introduces the wind's characteristics and actions through experiments and observations complemented with Gorton's creative illustrations. "I Face the Wind" was a 2004 Sibert Honor Book. The Sibert Award and Honor books are awarded annually to…

  5. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  6. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  7. Famous faces as icons. The illusion of being an expert in the recognition of famous faces.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2008-01-01

    It is a common belief that we are experts in the processing of famous faces. Although our ability to quickly and accurately recognise pictures of famous faces is quite impressive, we might not really process famous faces as faces per se, but as 'icons' or famous still pictures of famous faces. This assumption was tested in two parallel experiments employing a recognition task on famous, but personally unfamiliar, and on personally familiar faces. Both tests included (a) original, 'iconic' pictures, (b) slightly modified versions of familiar pictures, and (c) rather unfamiliar pictures of familiar persons. Participants (n = 70 + 70) indeed recognised original pictures of famous and personally familiar people very accurately, while performing poorly in recognising slightly modified, as well as unfamiliar versions of famous, but not personally familiar persons. These results indicate that the successful processing of famous faces may depend on icons imbued in society but not on the face as such.

  8. Results from ORNL Characterization of Nominal 350 ?m LEUCO Kernels (LEU03) from the BWXT G73V-20-69303 Composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D

    2006-11-01

    Measurements were made using optical microscopy to determine the size and shape of the LEU03 kernels. Hg porosimetry was performed to measure density. The results are summarized in Table 1-1. Values in the table are for the composite and are calculated at 95% confidence from the measured values of a random riffled sample. The LEu03 kernel composite met all the specifications in Table 1-1. The BWXT results for measuring the same kernel properties are given in Table 1-2. BWXT characterization methods were significantly different from ORNL methods, which resulted in slight differences in the reported results. BWXT performed manual microscopy measurements for mean diameter (100 particles measured along 2 axes) and aspect ratio (100 particles measured); ORNL used automated image acquisition and analysis (3847 particles measured along 180 axes). Diameter measurements were in good agreement. The narrower confidence interval in the ORNL results for average mean diameter is due to the greater number of particles measured. The critical limits for mean diameter reported at ORNL and BWXT are similar, because ORNL measured a larger standard deviation (10.46 {micro}m vs. 8.70 {micro}m). Aspect ratio satisfied the specification with greater margin in the ORNL results mostly because of the larger sample size resulting in a lower uncertainty in the binomial distribution statistical calculation. ORNL measured 11 out of 3847 kernels exceeding the control limit (1.05); BWXT measured 1 out of 100 particles exceeding the control limit. BWXT used the aspect ratio of perpendicular diameters in a random image plane, where one diameter was a maximum or a minimum. ORNL used the aspect ratio of the absolute maximum and minimum diameters in a random image plane. The ORNL technique can be expected to yield higher measured aspect ratios. Hand tabling was performed at ORNL prior to characterization by repeatedly pouring a small fraction of the kernels in a pan and tilting the pan so that rounder

  9. The hows and whys of face memory: level of construal influences the recognition of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Wyer, Natalie A.; Hollins, Timothy J.; Pahl, Sabine; Roper, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the influence of level of construal (i.e., the interpretation of actions in terms of their meaning or their details) on different stages of face memory. We employed a standard multiple-face recognition paradigm, with half of the faces inverted at test. Construal level was manipulated prior to recognition (Experiment 1), during study (Experiment 2) or both (Experiment 3). The results support a general advantage for high-level construal over low-level construal at both study and at test, and suggest that matching processing style between study and recognition has no advantage. These experiments provide additional evidence in support of a link between semantic processing (i.e., construal) and visual (i.e., face) processing. We conclude with a discussion of implications for current theories relating to both construal and face processing. PMID:26500586

  10. Hemisphere-Dependent Holistic Processing of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon, Meike; Rossion, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    In two behavioral experiments involving lateralized stimulus presentation, we tested whether one of the most commonly used measures of holistic face processing--the composite face effect--would be more pronounced for stimuli presented to the right as compared to the left hemisphere. In experiment 1, we investigated the composite face effect in a…

  11. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  12. Status of the Nab Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J. David

    2016-09-01

    The Nab experiment seeks to measure the electron-neutrino correlation coefficient, a, with a fractional uncertainty of .001. The experiment is now preparing for installation on the Fundamental Physics Beamline at ORNL-SNS. The angle between the electron and neutrino is reconstructed from the recoil proton time of flight in a magnetic field expansion spectrometer. I will review the principles of operation of the spectrometer, discuss the progress towards installation, and review the statistical and systematic uncertainty budgets.

  13. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  14. Females excel at basic face perception.

    PubMed

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.

  15. 'Lysi-T-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndl, Markus; Pötsch, Erich; Kandolf, Matthias; Bohner, Andreas; Schaumberger, Andreas; Resch, Reinhard; Graiss, Wilhelm; Krautzer, Bernhard; Buchgraber, Karl

    2010-05-01

    During the past century the average global surface air temperature has already increased by 1°C. A doubling of atmospheric concentration of CO2 near the end of the 21st century is predicted to result in a 3°C temperature increase. The Alpine region has experienced above average warming over the last century and is considered particularly vulnerable to global change. In Austria in some regions, grassland production suffered severe droughts during the last decade leading to serious damages and even temporal shortage in feed supply. Changes in temperature and precipitation have evident consequences for grassland vegetation. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is a major driver of climate change. Photosynthesis and productivity of most grassland species might be stimulated by increasing CO2 when soil nutrients and water are not limiting. On dry grassland sites increasing CO2 also reduces plant water loss, thereby increasing plant water use efficiency. When plant production is limited by seasonal cold temperatures as e.g. in the inner Alpine parts of Austria and in high altitude or high latitude grasslands, combined warming and higher CO2 might continue to enhance plant production. However, it is still unknown to what extend a further increase of temperature and CO2 will result in higher biomass yield in different grassland communities. To study the effects of global warming on future grassland communities and management, the application of a heating treatment combined with free-air controlled enhancement of CO2 (T-FACE) to open-field plant canopies at lysimeters is an innovative approach which allows studying responses of the plant-soil-systems as well as carbon- water and nutrient fluxes under expected future climate. The experiment is scheduled to run in the first phase 6 years (2011-2017) and is located at the AREC Raumberg-Gumpenstein, Upper Enns Valley, Austria (47,49; 14,10). Heater arrays and miniFACE rings are installed in 1.6 m diameter plots and expose

  16. Patient and carer experiences of clinical uncertainty and deterioration, in the face of limited reversibility: A comparative observational study of the AMBER care bundle

    PubMed Central

    Bristowe, Katherine; Carey, Irene; Hopper, Adrian; Shouls, Susanna; Prentice, Wendy; Caulkin, Ruth; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinical uncertainty is emotionally challenging for patients and carers and creates additional pressures for those clinicians in acute hospitals. The AMBER care bundle was designed to improve care for patients identified as clinically unstable, deteriorating, with limited reversibility and at risk of dying in the next 1–2 months. Aim: To examine the experience of care supported by the AMBER care bundle compared to standard care in the context of clinical uncertainty, deterioration and limited reversibility. Design: A comparative observational mixed-methods study using semi-structured qualitative interviews and a followback survey. Setting/participants: Three large London acute tertiary National Health Service hospitals. Nineteen interviews with 23 patients and carers (10 supported by AMBER care bundle and 9 standard care). Surveys completed by next of kin of 95 deceased patients (59 AMBER care bundle and 36 standard care). Results: The AMBER care bundle was associated with increased frequency of discussions about prognosis between clinicians and patients (χ2 = 4.09, p = 0.04), higher awareness of their prognosis by patients (χ2 = 4.29, p = 0.04) and lower clarity in the information received about their condition (χ2 = 6.26, p = 0.04). Although the consistency and quality of communication were not different between the two groups, those supported by the AMBER care bundle described more unresolved concerns about caring for someone at home. Conclusion: Awareness of prognosis appears to be higher among patients supported by the AMBER care bundle, but in this small study this was not translated into higher quality communication, and information was judged less easy to understand. Adequately powered comparative evaluation is urgently needed. PMID:25829443

  17. Revised Heating Load Line Analysis: Addendum to ORNL/TM-2015/281

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C. Keith; Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som S.

    2016-07-01

    The original heating load line analysis of ORNL TM-2015/281 was modified to incorporate two adjustments of (1) removing mechanical ventilation and (2) resizing the heat pump units based on new criteria. This resulted in a lowering of the HLL slope factor from the originally rounded 1.3 level to 1.15 in DOE Region IV and V while leaving unchanged the zero-load ambient at a rounded value of 55 F. For the other four DOE regions, the zero-load ambients dropped by 1 to 2 F from those found earlier and the rounded HLL slope factors ranged from 1.05 to 1.3. The average rounded HLL slope factor over all six DOE regions is 1.15. Effects of the revised slope factor on rated HSPFs (Region IV) for single- and two-capacity units dropped from 16% in the original work to 12.6% in this report. For VS units, the HSPF reductions of 14 to 25% in the original report were lowered to a range of 9 to 21%. As in the original report, for VS units that do not limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient, the average HSPF reduction for the cases evaluated is approximately the same as for single- and two-capacity units. For VS units that do limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient, the lower 1.15 slope factor of this report generally results in small overpredictions of rated HSPF by 1 to 3% compared to functional HSPF. An exception is minimum-speed-limited VS units where the minimum speed COP at 47 F is higher than that at 62 F; one such unit was found to have an HSPF overprediction of over 14% with the 1.15 HLL slope factor level. For such VS exception cases, a default HSPF penalty should be considered. For the more typical VS units that limit minimum speed operation, use of a 1.15 slope factor for rated HSPF was found to still acceptably limit the HSPF error. If slope factors lower than 1.15 are used for HSPF ratings, some means should be considered to appropriately derate the HSPFs for VS units which limit minimum speed operation below 47 F ambient.

  18. SCALE TSUNAMI Analysis of Critical Experiments for Validation of 233U Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Don; Rearden, Bradley T

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff used the SCALE TSUNAMI tools to provide a demonstration evaluation of critical experiments considered for use in validation of current and anticipated operations involving {sup 233}U at the Radiochemical Development Facility (RDF). This work was reported in ORNL/TM-2008/196 issued in January 2009. This paper presents the analysis of two representative safety analysis models provided by RDF staff.

  19. Explaining Sad People's Memory Advantage for Faces.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people.

  20. In Your Face: Startle to Emotional Facial Expressions Depends on Face Direction

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Henriette; Øvervoll, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Although faces are often included in the broad category of emotional visual stimuli, the affective impact of different facial expressions is not well documented. The present experiment investigated startle electromyographic responses to pictures of neutral, happy, angry, and fearful facial expressions, with a frontal face direction (directed) and at a 45° angle to the left (averted). Results showed that emotional facial expressions interact with face direction to produce startle potentiation: Greater responses were found for angry expressions, compared with fear and neutrality, with directed faces. When faces were averted, fear and neutrality produced larger responses compared with anger and happiness. These results are in line with the notion that startle is potentiated to stimuli signaling threat. That is, a forward directed angry face may signal a threat toward the observer, and a fearful face directed to the side may signal a possible threat in the environment. PMID:28321290

  1. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621

  2. Interference among the Processing of Facial Emotion, Face Race, and Face Gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-01-01

    People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).

  3. In Your Face: Startle to Emotional Facial Expressions Depends on Face Direction.

    PubMed

    Åsli, Ole; Michalsen, Henriette; Øvervoll, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Although faces are often included in the broad category of emotional visual stimuli, the affective impact of different facial expressions is not well documented. The present experiment investigated startle electromyographic responses to pictures of neutral, happy, angry, and fearful facial expressions, with a frontal face direction (directed) and at a 45° angle to the left (averted). Results showed that emotional facial expressions interact with face direction to produce startle potentiation: Greater responses were found for angry expressions, compared with fear and neutrality, with directed faces. When faces were averted, fear and neutrality produced larger responses compared with anger and happiness. These results are in line with the notion that startle is potentiated to stimuli signaling threat. That is, a forward directed angry face may signal a threat toward the observer, and a fearful face directed to the side may signal a possible threat in the environment.

  4. Evidence for view-invariant face recognition units in unfamiliar face learning.

    PubMed

    Etchells, David B; Brooks, Joseph L; Johnston, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task. Later, participants attempted to recognize both seen and novel views of the learned faces (recognition phase). Experiment 1 tested participants' recognition of a novel view, a day after learning. Experiment 2 was identical, but tested participants on the same day as learning. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 1, but tested participants on a novel view that was outside the rotation of those views learned. Results revealed a significant advantage, across all experiments, for recognizing a novel view when two views had been learned compared to single view learning. The observed view invariance supports the notion that an FRU representation is established during multi-view face learning under particular learning conditions.

  5. Phase II CRADA ORNL99-0568 Report : Developing Transmission-Less Inverter Drive Systems for Axial-Gap Permanent magnet Accessory and Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, J.W.

    2001-08-06

    Researchers of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNLs) Power Electronics and Electric Machine Research Center (PEEMRC) collaborated with Visual Computing Systems (VCS) to develop an electric axial-gap permanent magnet (PM) motor controlled by a self-sensing inverter for driving vehicle accessories such as power steering, air conditioning, and brakes. VCS designed an 8 kW motor based on their Segmented Electromagnetic Array (SEMA) technology. ORNL designed a 10 kW inverter to fit within the volume of a housing, which had been integrated with the motor. This modular design was pursued so that multiple modules could be used for higher power applications. ORNL built the first inverter under the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) ORNL 98-0514 and drove a refurbished Delta motor with no load during the Merit Review at ORNL on Monday, May 17, 1999. Inverter circuitry and instructions for assembling the inverters were sent to VCS. A report was prepared and delivered during the Future Car Congress in April 2000, at Arlington, Virginia. Collaboration continued under CRADA ORNL 99-0568 as VCS designed and built a SEMA motor with a dual coil platter to be the traction motor for an electric truck. VCS and ORNL assembled two 45 kW inverters. Each inverter drove one coil, which was designed to deliver 15 kW continuous power and 45 kW peak power for 90 s. The vehicle was road tested as part of the Future Truck Competition. A report was prepared and delivered during the PCIM in October 2000, at Boston, Massachusetts.

  6. RELAP5/MOD3 code quality assurance plan for ORNL ANS narrow channel flow and heat transfer correlations

    SciTech Connect

    MIller, C.S.; Shumway, R.W.

    1992-11-01

    Modifications have been made to REIAP5 to account for flow and heat transfer in narrow channels between fuel plates such as found in the cores of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactors. These early models were supplied by Art Ruggles of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Don Fletcher of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and were adapted to and implemented into RELAP5 by Rich Riemke, Rex Shumway and Ken Katsma. The purpose of this report is to document the current status of these special models in the standard version of RELAP5/MOD3 and describe the quality assurance procedures.

  7. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.

  8. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  9. Face transplantation: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Face transplantation is a complex vascular composite allotransplantation (VCA) surgery. It involves multiple types of tissue, such as bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves to be transferred from the donor to the recipient as one unit. VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Final Rule and National Organ Transplant Act. Prior to harvest of the face from the donor, a tracheostomy is usually performed. The osteotomies and dissection of the midface bony skeleton may involve severe hemorrhagic blood loss often requiring transfusion of blood products. A silicon face mask created from the facial impression is used to reconstruct the face and preserve the donor’s dignity. The recipient airway management most commonly used is primary intubation of an existing tracheostoma with a flexometallic endotracheal tube. The recipient surgery usually averages to 19-20 h. Since the face is a very vascular organ, there is usually massive bleeding, both in the dissection phase as well as in the reperfusion phase. Prior to reperfusion, often, after one sided anastomosis of the graft, the contralateral side is allowed to bleed to get rid of the preservation solution and other additives. Intraoperative product replacement should be guided by laboratory values and point of care testing for coagulation and hemostasis. In face transplantation, bolus doses of pressors or pressor infusions have been used intraoperatively in several patients to manage hypotension. This article reviews the anesthetic considerations for management for face transplantation, and some of the perioperative challenges faced. PMID:28058213

  10. Model Synthesis of Data from Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norby, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have produced rich data sets that provide benchmarks for evaluating the ability of ecosystem process and land surface models to predict the responses of the carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles of different ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Model-data comparisons also provide a mechanism for identifying key model assumptions and areas of uncertainty needing further research and model development. To evaluate how well current models represent temperate forest responses to elevated CO2 (eCO2) a suite of 11 models, which differed in scale, structure, and underlying assumptions, was challenged with data from the FACE experiments in forest stands at Duke University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Site history, soil characteristics, local climate data, and initial vegetation characteristics were used to initiate the models. Meteorological data and measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations in ambient (~380 ppm) and eCO2 (~550 ppm) plots provided site-specific input after a considerable effort in ensuring that the data were properly gap-filled and in a common format. A wide variety of annual ecosystem response outputs from the models were analyzed in relation to measured experimental responses. The models generally reproduced measured NPP well, but individual models differed considerably in their interannual variation. Modeling belowground processes, including allocation to fine-root production and N uptake, is particularly problematic, yet critical to understanding ecosystem response. The fraction of NPP accounted for by fine-root production was overestimated by the 11 models in this activity, and the large response to eCO2 observed at ORNL was not reproduced in most models, thereby missing an important mechanism in C and N cycling. Most models predicted greater N uptake and less responsiveness to eCO2 than was apparent in experimental results. Further analyses in this model-data synthesis activity will

  11. Intentionally forgetting other-race faces: costs and benefits?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L; Oriet, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Eyewitnesses to events with multiple actors might be aware that during a subsequent investigation some actors will need to be remembered and others can be forgotten. Research on the directed-forgetting procedure suggests that when some information is cued to be forgotten, retention of other information is enhanced. In three experiments, directed-forgetting conditions were compared with control conditions to assess potential costs and benefits of forgetting other-race faces. In Experiment 1, undergraduate students (N = 148; mostly Caucasian) viewed all Black faces or all Asian faces followed by overt remember or forget cues. Participants in the directed-forgetting conditions of Experiments 2 and 3 received more covert cues instructing them to remember the faces of one race and to forget the faces of another race. In Experiment 2, undergraduate students (N = 116; all Caucasian) viewed Black and Asian faces within the context of a criminal storyline. In Experiment 3, undergraduate students (N = 94; all Caucasian) again viewed Black and Asian faces; however, the remember and forget cues were embedded in a noncriminal narrative. Although faces generally were forgotten on cue, forgetting some faces did not enhance memory for other faces. Furthermore, recognition of remember-cued faces was impaired by exposure to forget-cued faces. These findings indicate that faces can be forgotten on cue, but that doing so confers no benefit for remembering other faces. Eyewitnesses are advised that exposure to irrelevant faces reduces the likelihood that relevant faces will be remembered, even when effort is allocated to forgetting the irrelevant faces.

  12. Post-irradiation Examination Plan for ORNL and University of California Santa Barbara Assessment of UCSB ATR-2 Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sokolov, M. A.

    2014-01-25

    New and existing databases will be combined to support development of physically based models of transition temperature shifts (TTS) for high fluence-low flux (φ < 10{sup 11}n/cm{sup 2}-s) conditions, beyond the existing surveillance database, to neutron fluences of at least 1×10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). All references to neutron flux and fluence in this report are for fast neutrons (>1 MeV). The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) task of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is working with various organizations to obtain archival surveillance materials from commercial nuclear power plants to allow for comparisons of the irradiation-induced microstructural features from reactor surveillance materials with those from similar materials irradiated under high flux conditions in test reactors

  13. ORNL experience and perspectives related to processing of thorium and 233U for nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, Allen G.; Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, G. D.; Wymer, R. G.; Krichinsky, Alan M.; Spencer, B. B.; Patton, Brad D.

    2016-05-01

    Thorium-based nuclear fuel cycles have received renewed attention in both research and public circles since about the year 2000. Much of the attention has been focused on nuclear fission energy production that utilizes thorium as a fertile element for producing fissionable 233U for recycle in thermal reactors, fast reactors, or externally driven systems. Here, lesser attention has been paid to other fuel cycle operations that are necessary for implementation of a sustainable thorium-based fuel cycle such as reprocessing and fabrication of recycle fuels containing 233U.

  14. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions.

  15. Judging Normality and Attractiveness in Faces: Direct Evidence of a More Refined Representation for Own-Race, Young Adult Faces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaomei; Short, Lindsey A; Chan, Harmonie S J; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-09-01

    Young and older adults are more sensitive to deviations from normality in young than older adult faces, suggesting that the dimensions of face space are optimized for young adult faces. Here, we extend these findings to own-race faces and provide converging evidence using an attractiveness rating task. In Experiment 1, Caucasian and Chinese adults were shown own- and other-race face pairs; one member was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal (a task that requires referencing a norm) and which was more expanded (a task that simply requires discrimination). Participants showed an own-race advantage in the normality task but not the discrimination task. In Experiment 2, participants rated the facial attractiveness of own- and other-race faces (Experiment 2a) or young and older adult faces (Experiment 2b). Between-rater variability in ratings of individual faces was higher for other-race and older adult faces; reduced consensus in attractiveness judgments reflects a less refined face space. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence that the dimensions of face space are optimized for own-race and young adult faces, which may underlie face race- and age-based deficits in recognition.

  16. Individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity are linked to individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms.

  17. The concept of entropic rectifier facing experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lairez, D.; Clochard, M.-C.; Wegrowe, J.-E.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of molecules in confined media is subject to entropic barriers. So theoretically, asymmetry of the confinement length may lead to molecular ratchets with entropy as the only driving force for the biased transport. We address experimentally this question by performing alternative ionic current measurements on electrolytes confined in neutral conical nanopores. In case anions and cations widely differ in size, we show that rectification of ionic current can be obtained that depends on ions size and cycle frequency, consistently with the entropic ratchet mechanism. PMID:27941925

  18. The concept of entropic rectifier facing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lairez, D.; Clochard, M.-C.; Wegrowe, J.-E.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of molecules in confined media is subject to entropic barriers. So theoretically, asymmetry of the confinement length may lead to molecular ratchets with entropy as the only driving force for the biased transport. We address experimentally this question by performing alternative ionic current measurements on electrolytes confined in neutral conical nanopores. In case anions and cations widely differ in size, we show that rectification of ionic current can be obtained that depends on ions size and cycle frequency, consistently with the entropic ratchet mechanism.

  19. Face-to-Face vs. Real-Time Clinical Education: No Significant Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Y. Q.; Waddington, G.; Donnan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot research project was to determine whether the use of an internet broadband link to stream physiotherapy clinical education workshop proceedings in "real-time" is of equivalent educational value to the traditional face-to-face experience. This project looked at the benefits of using the above technology as…

  20. Faculty Perceptions of Moving a Face-to-Face Course to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Kari; Terras, Katherine; Smart, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 faculty members who developed and taught an online course that they had previously taught in a face-to-face classroom. The categories from the data analysis included planning, implementation, and reflection. Within the categories, eight themes emerged from the data. The themes addressed…

  1. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  2. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  3. Presentation Anxiety Analysis: Comparing Face-to-Face Presentations and Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study is an exploration in the changing landscape of how people deliver presentations in an attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both forms. The study focused on key differences of student expectations and experiences delivering a presentation to an audience in the same location (face-to-face) compared to a presentation…

  4. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading: Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a parent education program and the contextual factors that influenced the experiences of families in the program. Seventeen parents completed a 9-week, face-to-face program and 15 parents completed a similar online program. This study was designed as a multiple case study and utilized multimethods for data…

  5. A case study: using a multi-grout barrier to control {sup 90}Sr release at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.D.; Huff, D.D.; Naudts, A.A.

    1997-02-01

    During summer 1996, low-pressure permeation grouting was performed inside portions of four unlined, shallow waste disposal trenches at a radioactive waste burial ground that was opened in 1951 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective was to selectively control sources that release about 25 percent of all strontium 90 (90Sr) discharged from the ORNL complex. A unique grouting methodology was adapted to control interaction of wastes with natural runoff at this humid site. Driven sleeve pipes were injected 4 to 5 times with multiple formulae of type III portland cement- based grouts, ultra fine cement-based grouts, and acrylamide grouts. Multiple-hole grout injection was monitored continuously using real time monitoring equipment. Apparent Lugeon values were calculated during grouting operations and grout formulae were continually adjusted during injection to maximize permeation, durability, and economy. Over 500 cubic meters of combined grout types were emplaced. At the completion of production grouting, the effectiveness of grout spread and in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted mass were assessed. The average residual hydraulic conductivity measured in more than 20 check pipes was less than I x 10` cm/sec. Hydrologic monitoring has been established to determine the overall effectiveness of the project for 9OSr control.

  6. Fabrication of ORNL Fuel Irradiated in the Peach Bottom Reactor and Postirradiation Examination of Recycle Test Elements 7 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Jr. E.L.

    2001-10-25

    Seven full-sized Peach Bottom Reactor. fuel elements were fabricated in a cooperative effort by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Gulf General Atomic (GGA) as part of the National HTGR Fuel Recycle Development Program. These elements contain bonded fuel rods and loose beds of particles made from several combinations of fertile and fissile particles of interest for present and future use in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The portion of the fuel prepared for these elements by ORNL is described in detail in this report, and it is in conjunction with the GGA report (GA-10109) a complete fabrication description of the test. In addition, this report describes the results obtained to date from postirradiation examination of the first two elements removed from the Peach Bottom Reactor, RTE-7 and -4. The fuel examined had relatively low exposure, up to about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} neutrons/cm* fast (>0.18 MeV) fluence, compared with the peak anticipated HTGR fluence of 8.0 x 10{sup 21}, but it has performed well at this exposure. Dimensional data indicate greater irradiation shrinkage than expected from accelerated test data to higher exposures. This suggests that either the method of extrapolation of the higher exposure data back to low exposure is faulty, or the behavior of the coated particles in the neutron spectrum characteristic of the accelerated tests does not adequately represent the behavior in an HTGR spectrum.

  7. Viscosity, electrical conductivity, and cesium volatility of ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) vitrified soils with limestone and sodium additives

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.; Piepel, G.F.

    1990-05-01

    Engineering- and pilot-scale tests of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process have been conducted for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of applying ISV to seepage trenches and pits at ORNL. These sites contain soil that overlies crushed limestone fill; therefore, the ISV process is applied to a soil-limestone mixture. Previous testing indicated that while a good retention level of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr was achieved in the melt, it would be desirable to improve {sup 137}Cs retention to 99.99% if possible to minimize activity in the off-gas system. Previous testing was limited to one soil-limestone composition. Both Cs volatility and ISV power requirements are in part dependent on melt temperature and viscosity, which depend on melt composition. The study described in this report determined the effect of varying soil and limestone compositions, as well as the addition of a sodium flux, on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and Cs volatility. 10 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Results of sampling the contents of the liquid low-level waste evaporator feed tank W-22 at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, M.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fall 1994 sampling of the contents of the liquid low- level waste (LLLW) tank W-22 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Tank W-22 is the central collection and holding tank for LLLW at ORNL before the waste is transferred to the evaporators. Samples of the tank liquid and sludge were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) the metals listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of the determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water-soluble volatile organic compounds were also determined. Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis in support of (1) waste management for the active LLLW system and (2) planning for the treatment and disposal of the waste.

  9. ORNL Drawing Q-6240-2 (Rev. 3) and Parts List Q-6240-5 (Engineering Materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Kryter, R.C.

    1989-06-22

    Copies of ORNL Drawing Q-6240-2 (Rev. 3), along with related drawings and fabrication information, were provided by me to Sammie C. Harris of the Office of Technology Applications on December 20, 1988 for his distributions to companies that have established formal licensing agreements with MMES for commercial use of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) technology developed at ORNL. This printed circuit board layout was provided to Mr. Harris in four forms: as a blueprint, a full-size negative transparency, a full-size positive transparency, and as a machine readable file on 5.25-inch flexible disk. The flexible disk, which Archer Haskins now wishes to clear for outside'' distribution, contains no ASCII text but rather a single data file (filename-Q6240-2.DRA) which can be input to a P870 printed circuit board (pcb) layout computer program to regenerate the original drawing (or a modified version thereof) in hardcopy form suitable for pcb manufacture.

  10. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  11. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505

  12. Social presence and the composite face effect.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Fonseca, Ricardo; Prada, Marilia

    2015-06-01

    A robust finding in social psychology research is that performance is modulated by the social nature of a given context, promoting social inhibition or facilitation effects. In the present experiment, we examined if and how social presence impacts holistic face perception processes by asking participants, in the presence of others and alone, to perform the composite face task. Results suggest that completing the task in the presence of others (i.e., mere co-action) is associated with better performance in face recognition (less bias and higher discrimination between presented and non-presented targets) and with a reduction in the composite face effect. These results make clear that social presence impact on the composite face effect does not occur because presence increases reliance on holistic processing as a "dominant" well-learned response, but instead, because it increases monitoring of the interference produced by automatic response.

  13. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  14. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  15. Preference for Attractive Faces in Human Infants Extends beyond Conspecifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Paul C.; Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not…

  16. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... and facial skin. That is why sometimes a plastic surgeon (for skin and face) and a neurosurgeon ( ... Mosby; 2015:chap 24. McGrath MH, Pomerantz J. Plastic surgery. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, ...

  17. Meet The Simpsons: top-down effects in face learning.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Lesley; Burton, A Mike; Jenkins, Rob; McNeill, Allan; Vicki, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether prior knowledge of a person affects the visual processes involved in learning a face. In two experiments, subjects were taught to associate human faces with characters they knew (from the TV show The Simpsons) or characters they did not (novel names). In each experiment, knowledge of the character predicted performance in a recognition memory test, relying only on old/new confidence ratings. In experiment 1, we established the technique and showed that there is a face-learning advantage for known people, even when face items are counterbalanced for familiarity across the experiment. In experiment 2 we replicated the effect in a setting which discouraged subjects from attending more to known than unknown people, and eliminated any visual association between face stimuli and a character from The Simpsons. We conclude that prior knowledge about a person can enhance learning of a new face.

  18. Does Face Inversion Change Spatial Frequency Tuning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenbockel, Verena; Fiset, Daniel; Chauvin, Alan; Blais, Caroline; Arguin, Martin; Tanaka, James W.; Bub, Daniel N.; Gosselin, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined spatial frequency (SF) tuning of upright and inverted face identification using an SF variant of the Bubbles technique (F. Gosselin & P. G. Schyns, 2001). In Experiment 1, they validated the SF Bubbles technique in a plaid detection task. In Experiments 2a-c, the SFs used for identifying upright and inverted inner facial…

  19. Down Syndrome and Automatic Processing of Familiar and Unfamiliar Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Guadalupe E.; Lopez, Ernesto O.

    2010-01-01

    Participants with Down syndrome (DS) were required to participate in a face recognition experiment to recognize familiar (DS faces) and unfamiliar emotional faces (non DS faces), by using an affective priming paradigm. Pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented (one face after another) with a short Stimulus Onset Asynchrony of 300…

  20. Effect of face familiarity on age decision.

    PubMed

    Bruyer, Raymond; Mejias, Sandrine; Doublet, Sophie

    2007-02-01

    The present experiment was planned to check whether the extraction of apparent age is affected by face identity (familiarity) or not. According to the traditional view, age estimation should be carried out independently of face identity, because it is one of the visually derived semantic codes (like gender and ethnicity). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, some recent studies have cast doubt on the parallel thesis regarding facial expression, facial speech, ethnicity, and gender. Given the promising results of a pilot experiment (n=24), 16 Caucasian participants were enrolled in an "age decision" task on morphed faces derived from one old and one young source-face, in the proportion 70:30. The respondents had previously been familiarised with half the source faces by a learning procedure (associating the face, surname, occupation and city of residence of the person displayed), while the remaining half were unfamiliar. The results showed that age decision was affected by face familiarity, at least when the task was perceptually difficult enough. This adds support to the thesis that the identification of identity and the extraction of visually derived semantic codes are not made independently from each other. The status of age, within the visually derived semantic codes, is also discussed.

  1. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    PubMed

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil

    2017-03-07

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0:87 on the LFW benchmark (13K faces of 5; 749 individuals), which drops to 0:27 on the largest dataset considered (13K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0:71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  2. Tolerance of geometric distortions in infant's face recognition.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Wakayo; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study is to reveal the effect of global linear transformations (shearing, horizontal stretching, and vertical stretching) on the recognition of familiar faces (e.g., a mother's face) in 6- to 7-month-old infants. In this experiment, we applied the global linear transformations to both the infants' own mother's face and to a stranger's face, and we tested infants' preference between these faces. We found that only 7-month-old infants maintained preference for their own mother's face during the presentation of vertical stretching, while the preference for the mother's face disappeared during the presentation of shearing or horizontal stretching. These findings suggest that 7-month-old infants might not recognize faces based on calculating the absolute distance between facial features, and that the vertical dimension of facial features might be more related to infants' face recognition rather than the horizontal dimension.

  3. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework.

  4. Face-Sensitive Processes One Hundred Milliseconds after Picture Onset

    PubMed Central

    Dering, Benjamin; Martin, Clara D.; Moro, Sancho; Pegna, Alan J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity – P1 and N170 – are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the “face–object” sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1. We then used face–car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car) and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset. PMID:21954382

  5. Flood analyses for Department of Energy Y-12, ORNL and K-25 Plants. Flood analyses in support of flood emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The study involved defining the flood potential and local rainfall depth and duration data for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and K-25 plants. All three plants are subject to flooding from the Clinch River. In addition, the Y-12 plant is subject to flooding from East Fork Poplar and Bear Creeks, the ORNL plant from Whiteoak Creek and Melton Branch, and the K-25 plant from Poplar Creek. Determination of flood levels included consideration of both rainfall events and postulated failures of Norris and Melton Hill Dams in seismic events.

  6. Successful Decoding of Famous Faces in the Fusiform Face Area

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Yovel, Galit

    2015-01-01

    What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition. PMID:25714434

  7. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  8. Compositional Dictionaries for Domain Adaptive Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Qiang Qiu; Chellappa, Rama

    2015-12-01

    We present a dictionary learning approach to compensate for the transformation of faces due to the changes in view point, illumination, resolution, and so on. The key idea of our approach is to force domain-invariant sparse coding, i.e., designing a consistent sparse representation of the same face in different domains. In this way, the classifiers trained on the sparse codes in the source domain consisting of frontal faces can be applied to the target domain (consisting of faces in different poses, illumination conditions, and so on) without much loss in recognition accuracy. The approach is to first learn a domain base dictionary, and then describe each domain shift (identity, pose, and illumination) using a sparse representation over the base dictionary. The dictionary adapted to each domain is expressed as the sparse linear combinations of the base dictionary. In the context of face recognition, with the proposed compositional dictionary approach, a face image can be decomposed into sparse representations for a given subject, pose, and illumination. This approach has three advantages. First, the extracted sparse representation for a subject is consistent across domains, and enables pose and illumination insensitive face recognition. Second, sparse representations for pose and illumination can be subsequently used to estimate the pose and illumination condition of a face image. Last, by composing sparse representations for the subject and the different domains, we can also perform pose alignment and illumination normalization. Extensive experiments using two public face data sets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for face recognition.

  9. Calculation of indoor effective dose factors in ORNL phantoms series due to natural radioactivity in building materials.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the effective dose in the age-dependent ORNL phantoms series, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, was calculated. The absorbed doses for various organs or human tissues have been calculated. The MCNP-4B computer code was used for this purpose. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP Publication 74. The obtained values of dose conversion factors for a standard room are: 1.033, 0.752 and 0.0538 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1 for elements of the U and Th decay series and for the K isotope, respectively. The values of effective dose agreed generally with those found in the literature, although the values estimated here for elements of the U series were higher in some cases.

  10. Absolute measurement of anti. nu. /sub p/ for /sup 252/Cf using the ORNL large liquid scintillator neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.R.; Gwin, R.; Ingle, R.

    1981-08-01

    The ORNL large liquid scintillator detector was used in a precise determination of anti ..nu../sub p/, the number of neutrons emitted promptly, for spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf. Measurements of the detector efficiency over a broad energy region were made by means of a proton-recoil technique employing the ORELA white neutron source. Monte Carlo calculation of the detector efficiency for a spectrum representative of /sup 252/Cf fission neutrons was calibrated with these elaborate measurements. The unusually flat response of the neutron detector resulted in elimination of several known sources of error. Experimental measurement was coupled with calculational methods to correct for other known errors. These measurements lead to an unusually small estimated uncertainty of 0.2% in the value obtained, anti ..nu../sub p/ = 3.773 +- 0.007.

  11. Remote Systems Experience at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory--A Summary of Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Burgess, Thomas W; Rowe, John C

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history in the development of remote systems to support the nuclear environment. ORNL, working in conjunction with Central Research Laboratories, created what is believed to be the first microcomputer-based implementation of dual-arm master-slave remote manipulation. As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, ORNL developed the dual-arm advanced servomanipulator focusing on remote maintainability for systems exposed to high radiation fields. ORNL also participated in almost all of the various technical areas of the U.S. Department of Energy s Robotics Technology Development Program, while leading the Decontamination and Decommissioning and Tank Waste Retrieval categories. Over the course of this involvement, ORNL has developed a substantial base of working knowledge as to what works when and under what circumstances for many types of remote systems tasks as well as operator interface modes, control bandwidth, and sensing requirements to name a few. By using a select list of manipulator systems that is not meant to be exhaustive, this paper will discuss history and outcome of development, field-testing, deployment, and operations from a lessons learned perspective. The final outcome is a summary paper outlining ORNL experiences and guidelines for transition of developmental remote systems to real-world hazardous environments.

  12. Strange-face illusions during inter-subjective gazing.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2013-03-01

    In normal observers, gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, triggers the perception of strange faces, a new visual illusion that has been named 'strange-face in the mirror'. Individuals see huge distortions of their own faces, but they often see monstrous beings, archetypal faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In the experiment described here, strange-face illusions were perceived when two individuals, in a dimly lit room, gazed at each other in the face. Inter-subjective gazing compared to mirror-gazing produced a higher number of different strange-faces. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions were always dissociative of the subject's self and supported moderate feeling of their reality, indicating a temporary lost of self-agency. Unconscious synchronization of event-related responses to illusions was found between members in some pairs. Synchrony of illusions may indicate that unconscious response-coordination is caused by the illusion-conjunction of crossed dissociative strange-faces, which are perceived as projections into each other's visual face of reciprocal embodied representations within the pair. Inter-subjective strange-face illusions may be explained by the subject's embodied representations (somaesthetic, kinaesthetic and motor facial pattern) and the other's visual face binding. Unconscious facial mimicry may promote inter-subjective illusion-conjunction, then unconscious joint-action and response-coordination.

  13. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-07-16

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model.

  14. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  15. Perception of facial features and face-to-face communications in space.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines how human face-to-face communications may be compromised by exposure to the microgravity environment of space. Although efficient face-to-face communications are acknowledged to be essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, the space environment causes facial edema, and allows speakers and listeners to confront one another in multiple orientations that can potentially interfere with many important non-linguistic communication cues. In addition, high background noises in space shuttles and stations can mask auditory messages. Currently, the effects of spaceflight on the ability to identify facial features, to read lips, to integrate visual and auditory sensory information, and to interpret spoken messages in noisy environments while the speakers are at various orientations with respect to the listeners, are virtually unknown. Ground-based experiments conducted in our laboratory with computer-displayed facial images presented at various orientations have suggested how non-linguistic cues may be degraded by changes in the retinal orientations of facial images. The results of our ground-based studies illustrating impaired recognition of facial features in non-erect images are described, their implications for effective face-to-face communications among astronauts in space are discussed, and two experiments that can quantify the effects of microgravity on face-to-face communications in space are outlined.

  16. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  17. Left face matching bias: right hemisphere dominance or scanning habits?

    PubMed

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Havard, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    A large body of work report a leftward bias in face processing. However, it is not clear whether this leftward bias purely reflects the dominance of the right hemisphere or is influenced by scanning habits developed by reading directions. Here, we report two experiments examining how well native readers of right to left Arabic scripts (Egyptians) could match (for identity) a target face that appeared with a companion to a line-up of 10 faces. There was a significant advantage for matching faces that appeared on the left. However, Experiment 2 found that the magnitude of this left face matching bias was almost three times weaker than the magnitude of the leftward bias shown by native readers of left to right English scripts (British). Accordingly, we suggest that the right hemisphere dominance for face processing underlies the leftward face perception bias, but with the interaction of scanning habits.

  18. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  19. Analyze D2O Losses from the D2O loaded AgZ provided in FY15 By ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd; Nenoff, Tina M.; Jarek, Russell L.; Mowry, Curtis D.

    2016-04-20

    This milestone is focused on utilizing NMR and various gas chromatograph set ups (thermal conductivity and/ionizing detection) at SNL, to analyze the relative ratio of water and deuterated water in Ag-MOR samples of natural zeolite sent to SNL in FY15 by ORNL.

  20. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  1. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  2. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  3. Facing the Not Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to face the not knowing and offers a strategy to fill the gap of not knowing. In coping with constant change, he describes a strategy for library staff that might help in the absence of certainty. This includes: (a) guarding the data with one's life; (b) build not for longevity, but obsolescence; (c)…

  4. Automated Face Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    done at the University of California San Diego will be given(3, 1). Finally, the review will end with a short overview of the Karhunen Lorve and...define a face space. This basis set which is optimally tuned to the training data is derived using the Karhunen Lorve principal component analysis (7

  5. Facing Up to Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  6. Two Faces of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  7. Lightweight Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  8. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  9. Workforce Issues Facing HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium facilitated by Eugene Andette on work force issues facing human resources development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Meaning Construction and Personal Transformation: Alternative Dimensions of Job Loss" (Terri A. Deems) reports a study conducted to explore the ways…

  10. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  11. Informal Face-to-Face Interaction Improves Mood State Reflected in Prefrontal Cortex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS). We also observed that the verbal working memory (WM) task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity accompanied by WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:27199715

  12. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel “eyes-face” stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. PMID:24950500

  13. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    PubMed

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.

  14. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests.

  15. Variability in photos of the same face.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; White, David; Van Montfort, Xandra; Mike Burton, A

    2011-12-01

    Psychological studies of face recognition have typically ignored within-person variation in appearance, instead emphasising differences between individuals. Studies typically assume that a photograph adequately captures a person's appearance, and for that reason most studies use just one, or a small number of photos per person. Here we show that photographs are not consistent indicators of facial appearance because they are blind to within-person variability. Crucially, this within-person variability is often very large compared to the differences between people. To investigate variability in photos of the same face, we collected images from the internet to sample a realistic range for each individual. In Experiments 1 and 2, unfamiliar viewers perceived images of the same person as being different individuals, while familiar viewers perfectly identified the same photos. In Experiment 3, multiple photographs of any individual formed a continuum of good to bad likeness, which was highly sensitive to familiarity. Finally, in Experiment 4, we found that within-person variability exceeded between-person variability in attractiveness. These observations are critical to our understanding of face processing, because they suggest that a key component of face processing has been ignored. As well as its theoretical significance, this scale of variability has important practical implications. For example, our findings suggest that face photographs are unsuitable as proof of identity.

  16. Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Hillel; Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R; Meschino, Wendy S; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias is modulated by the similarity between the actual expression of the presented face and the facial expression that would typically fit the context, e.g. disgust faces are more similar to anger than to sadness faces and, consequently, are more strongly influenced by contexts expressing anger than by contexts expressing sadness. Since context effects on facial expression perception are not explicitly controlled, their pattern serves as an implicit measure of the processing of facial expressions. In this study we took advantage of the face-in-context design to compare explicit recognition of face-expressions by Huntington's disease mutation-carriers, with evidence for processing the expressions deriving from implicit measures. In an initial experiment we presented a group of 21 Huntington's disease mutation-carriers with standard tests of face-expression recognition. Relative to controls, they displayed deficits in recognizing disgust and anger faces despite intact recognition of these emotions from non-facial images. In a subsequent experiment, we embedded the disgust faces on images of people conveying sadness and anger as expressed by body language and additional paraphernalia. In addition, sadness and anger faces were embedded on context images conveying disgust. In both cases participants were instructed to categorize the facial expressions, ignoring the context. Despite the deficient explicit recognition of isolated disgust and anger faces, the perception of the emotions

  17. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  18. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  19. The own-age face recognition bias is task dependent.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) in face recognition (more accurate recognition of own-age than other-age faces) is robust among young adults but not older adults. We investigated the OAB under two different task conditions. In Experiment 1 young and older adults (who reported more recent experience with own than other-age faces) completed a match-to-sample task with young and older adult faces; only young adults showed an OAB. In Experiment 2 young and older adults completed an identity detection task in which we manipulated the identity strength of target and distracter identities by morphing each face with an average face in 20% steps. Accuracy increased with identity strength and facial age influenced older adults' (but not younger adults') strategy, but there was no evidence of an OAB. Collectively, these results suggest that the OAB depends on task demands and may be absent when searching for one identity.

  20. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker's face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals' face processing abilities differ from monolinguals'. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  1. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  2. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement.

  3. Algorithm for detecting human faces based on convex-hull.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsick; Park, Chang-Woo; Park, Mignon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2002-03-25

    In this paper, we proposed a new method to detect faces in color based on the convex-hull. We detect two kinds of regions that are skin and hair likeness region. After preprocessing, we apply the convex-hull to their regions and can find a face from their intersection relationship. The proposed algorithm can accomplish face detection in an image involving rotated and turned faces as well as several faces. To validity the effectiveness of the proposed method, we make experiment with various cases.

  4. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing.

  5. Fundamental neutron physics beamline at the spallation neutron source at ORNL

    DOE PAGES

    Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Allen, R. R.; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, we describe the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FnPB) facility located at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The FnPB was designed for the conduct of experiments that investigate scientific issues in nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology using a pulsed slow neutron beam. Finally, we present a detailed description of the design philosophy, beamline components, and measured fluxes of the polychromatic and monochromatic beams.

  6. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  7. CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), under funding from NASA, participated in the CRYSTAL/FACE field campaign in July, 2002 with measurements of cirrus cloud hydrometeors in the size range from 0.5 to 1600 microns. The measurements were made with the DMT Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) that was flown on NASA's WB57F. With the exception of the first research flight when the data system failed two hours into the mission, the measurement system performed almost flawlessly during the thirteen flights. The measurements from the CAPS have been essential for interpretation of cirrus cloud properties and their impact on climate. The CAPS data set has been used extensively by the CRYSTAL/FACE investigators and as of the date of this report, have been included in five published research articles, 10 conference presentations and six other journal articles currently in preparation.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  9. The left perceptual bias for adult and infant faces in adults and 5-year-old children: face age matters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.

  10. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  11. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  12. The asymmetric distribution of informative face information during gender recognition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fengpei; Hu, Huan; Xu, Lian; Qin, Jungang

    2013-02-01

    Recognition of the gender of a face is important in social interactions. In the current study, the distribution of informative facial information was systematically examined during gender judgment using two methods, Bubbles and Focus windows techniques. Two experiments found that the most informative information was around the eyes, followed by the mouth and nose. Other parts of the face contributed to the gender recognition but were less important. The left side of the face was used more during gender recognition in two experiments. These results show mainly areas around the eyes are used for gender judgment and demonstrate perceptual asymmetry with a normal (non-chimeric) face.

  13. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise.

  14. Teachers and Mothers: Facing New Beginnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Karen Kepler

    1984-01-01

    New mothers and beginning teachers face many of the same types of feelings and experiences as they learn to cope with their new roles. Implications for changing the conditions of support for new teachers and suggestions for involving more individuals in teaching are offered. (DF)

  15. Face averages enhance user recognition for smartphone security.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David J; Kramer, Robin S S; Burton, A Mike

    2015-01-01

    Our recognition of familiar faces is excellent, and generalises across viewing conditions. However, unfamiliar face recognition is much poorer. For this reason, automatic face recognition systems might benefit from incorporating the advantages of familiarity. Here we put this to the test using the face verification system available on a popular smartphone (the Samsung Galaxy). In two experiments we tested the recognition performance of the smartphone when it was encoded with an individual's 'face-average'--a representation derived from theories of human face perception. This technique significantly improved performance for both unconstrained celebrity images (Experiment 1) and for real faces (Experiment 2): users could unlock their phones more reliably when the device stored an average of the user's face than when they stored a single image. This advantage was consistent across a wide variety of everyday viewing conditions. Furthermore, the benefit did not reduce the rejection of imposter faces. This benefit is brought about solely by consideration of suitable representations for automatic face recognition, and we argue that this is just as important as development of matching algorithms themselves. We propose that this representation could significantly improve recognition rates in everyday settings.

  16. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces.

  17. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  18. Perceptions of human attractiveness comprising face and voice cues.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Baguley, Thom; Sergeant, Mark; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In human mate choice, sexually dimorphic faces and voices comprise hormone-mediated cues that purportedly develop as an indicator of mate quality or the ability to compete with same-sex rivals. If preferences for faces communicate the same biologically relevant information as do voices, then ratings of these cues should correlate. Sixty participants (30 male and 30 female) rated a series of opposite-sex faces, voices, and faces together with voices for attractiveness in a repeated measures computer-based experiment. The effects of face and voice attractiveness on face-voice compound stimuli were analyzed using a multilevel model. Faces contributed proportionally more than voices to ratings of face-voice compound attractiveness. Faces and voices positively and independently contributed to the attractiveness of male compound stimuli although there was no significant correlation between their rated attractiveness. A positive interaction and correlation between attractiveness was shown for faces and voices in relation to the attractiveness of female compound stimuli. Rather than providing a better estimate of a single characteristic, male faces and voices may instead communicate independent information that, in turn, provides a female with a better assessment of overall mate quality. Conversely, female faces and voices together provide males with a more accurate assessment of a single dimension of mate quality.

  19. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  20. 9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA