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Sample records for oropharyngeal mass biopsy

  1. Rhinosporidiosis presenting as an oropharyngeal mass: A clinical predicament?

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Rachna; Baig, Shadab Ali; Debata, Tribikram

    2015-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis, is a chronic granulomatous disease presenting as a polypoidal mass in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi and is endemic in India and Sri Lanka. Diagnosis is mainly by clinical observations and is confirmed by histopathology. We report a case of atypical rhinosporidiosis that presented as an oropharyngeal mass and mimicked chronic tonsillitis. Hence possibility of this atypical rhinosporidiosis should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of any posterior oral or oropharyngeal mass, particularly when managing patients from rural endemic areas. PMID:25810674

  2. Update on Renal Mass Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Kutikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Renal masses are diagnosed with an increasing frequency. However, a significant proportion of these masses are benign, and the majority of malignant tumors are biologically indolent. Furthermore, renal tumors are often harbored by the elderly and comorbid patients. As such, matching of renal tumor biology to appropriate treatment intensity is an urgent clinical need. Renal mass biopsy is currently a very useful clinical tool that can assist with critical clinical decision-making in patients with renal mass. Yet, renal mass biopsy is associated with limitations and, as such, may not be appropriate for all patients.

  3. Sentinel node biopsy for early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sandro J; Alkureishi, Lee W T; Ross, Gary L

    2009-06-01

    The appearance of lymph node metastases represents the most important adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, accurate staging of the cervical nodes is crucial in these patients. The management of the clinically and radiologically negative neck in patients with early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is still controversial, though most centers favor elective neck dissection for staging of the neck and removal of occult disease. As only approximately 30% of patients harbor occult disease in the neck, most of the patients have to undergo elective neck dissection with no benefit. The sentinel node biopsy concept has been adopted from the treatment of melanoma and breast cancer to early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma during the last decade with great success. Multiple validation studies in the context of elective neck dissections revealed sentinel node detection rates above 95% and negative predictive values for negative sentinel nodes of 95%. Sentinel node biopsy has proven its ability to select patients with occult lymphatic disease for elective neck dissection, and to spare the costs and morbidity to patients with negative necks. Many centers meanwhile have abandoned routine elective neck dissection and entered in observational trials. These trials so far were able to confirm the high accuracy of the validation trials with less than 5% of the patients with negative sentinel nodes developing lymph node metastases during observation. In conclusion, sentinel node biopsy for early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma can be considered as safe and accurate, with success rates in controlling the neck comparable to elective neck dissection. This concept has the potential to become the new standard of care in the near future.

  4. Incidental finding of an extensive oropharyngeal mass in magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with temporomandibular disorder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Omolehinwa, Temitope T.; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe the incidental finding of an oropharyngeal mass in a patient who presented with a chief complaint of temporomandibular pain. The patient was initially evaluated by an otorhinolaryngologist for complaints of headaches, earache, and sinus congestion. Due to worsening headaches and trismus, he was further referred for the management of temporomandibular disorder. The clinical evaluation was uneventful except for limited mouth opening (trismus). An advanced radiological evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal region. The mass occupied the masticatory space and extended superioinferiorly from the skull base to the mandible. A diagnostic biopsy of the lesion revealed a long-standing human papilloma virus (HPV-16)-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. This case illustrates the need for the timely radiological evaluation of seemingly innocuous orofacial pain. PMID:28035308

  5. Renal mass biopsy--a renaissance?

    PubMed

    Lane, Brian R; Samplaski, Mary K; Herts, Brian R; Zhou, Ming; Novick, Andrew C; Campbell, Steven C

    2008-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the natural history and limited aggressive potential of many small renal masses, expanding treatment options and the integration of molecular factors into prognostic and therapeutic algorithms have stimulated renewed interest in percutaneous renal mass biopsy. A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed to evaluate the indications, techniques, complications and efficacy of renal mass biopsy. Reported techniques of renal mass biopsy vary widely with different modes of radiographic guidance, needle size, number of cores and pathological analyses. Percutaneous renal mass biopsy with 2 or 3 cores using 18 gauge needles may improve diagnostic accuracy without increasing morbidity. Serious complications of percutaneous biopsy are rare and the minor complication rate in recent series has been less than 5%. The reported rate of technical failure of renal mass biopsy due to insufficient material was about 9% before 2001 and 5% in more recent studies. The likelihood of indeterminate or inaccurate pathological findings has decreased from 10% to 4% when comparing clinical studies before and since 2001. Currently a total success rate of greater than 90% is attainable using renal mass biopsy with standard histopathological analysis. Recent studies demonstrated that combining immunohistochemical and molecular analyses may further improve renal mass biopsy accuracy. Research on expanded analysis of percutaneous renal mass biopsy specimens should remain a top priority. Enhanced renal mass biopsy should not change treatment in most patients with small renal masses, who should be treated with surgical excision. However, future clinical algorithms will likely incorporate enhanced biopsy in situations in which decision making is more challenging.

  6. Identification of transcriptionally active HPV infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morbini, Patrizia; Alberizzi, Paola; Tinelli, Carmine; Paglino, Chiara; Bertino, Giulia; Comoli, Patrizia; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Benazzo, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenic activity is the result of viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression in infected cells. Oncogene expression analysis is, however, not part of the routine diagnostic evaluation of HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) since it requires fresh tumor tissue. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of several methods commonly employed for HPV characterization in OPSCC with the results of the newly available HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy samples, in order to establish if the latter should be introduced in the diagnostic routine to increase accuracy when fresh tissue is not available. p16 immunostain, DNA ISH for high-risk HPV genotypes, SPF LiPA amplification and genotyping, and HPV16 E6 amplification were performed on 41 consecutive OPSCC samples. Twenty (48.7%) cases were positive by mRNA ISH; sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 90% for p16, 90% and 100% for DNA ISH, 70% and 76% for SPF10 LiPA, 90% and 76% for E6 amplification. A diagnostic algorithm considering p16 immunostain as first step followed by either high-risk HPV DNA ISH or HPV16 E6 amplification in p16-positive cases correctly characterized 90% of mRNA-positive and all mRNA-negative cases; combining the 3 tests correctly identified all cases. While no stand-alone test was sufficiently accurate for classifying HPV-associated OPSCC, the high sensitivity and specificity of the established combination of p16 immunostain, DNA ISH, and HPV16 DNA amplification suggests that the introduction of labour- and cost-intensive mRNA ISH, is not necessary in the diagnostic routine of oropharyngeal tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [A rare cause of oropharyngeal mass: bilateral aberrant internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Yılmazer, Rasim; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Damar, Murat; Değer, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral pharyngeal internal carotid artery aberration is a rarely seen variation which poses a risk during the surgical interventions of this area. A 74-year-old male patient was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of a sensation of fullness in his throat and dysphagia. Oropharyngeal examination revealed bilateral smooth-surfaced masses in the posterior pharyngeal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an aberrant internal carotid artery. The patient was followed up with necessary warnings. The pulsation on the pharyngeal masses should be definitely evaluated and aberrant internal carotid artery should be kept in mind, if present.

  8. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Biopsies - Overview A biopsy is the removal of tissue ... What are the limitations of biopsies? What are biopsies? A biopsy is the removal of tissue in ...

  9. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Seung Beom

    2014-01-01

    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  10. Association of pretreatment body mass index and survival in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albergotti, William G; Davis, Kara S; Abberbock, Shira; Bauman, Julie E; Ohr, James; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) >25kg/m(2) is a positive prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. Previous studies have not been adequately stratified by human papilloma virus (HPV) status or subsite. Our objective is to determine prognostic significance of pretreatment BMI on overall survival in HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). This is a retrospective review of patients with HPV+ OPSCC treated between 8/1/2006 and 8/31/2014. Patients were stratified by BMI status (>/<25kg/m(2)). Univariate and multivariate analyses of survival were performed. 300 patients met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Patients with a BMI >25kg/m(2) had a longer overall survival (HR=0.49, P=0.01) as well as a longer disease-specific survival (HR=0.43, P=0.02). Overall survival remained significantly associated with high BMI on multivariate analysis (HR=0.54, P=0.04). Pre-treatment normal or underweight BMI status is associated with worse overall survival in HPV+ OPSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  12. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management. PMID:26744691

  13. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nemcek AA. Percutaneous biopsy. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, Venbrux AC, Morgan RA, eds. Image- ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  14. Percutaneous Kidney Biopsy for a Small Renal Mass: A Critical Appraisal of Results.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Seo, Seong Il; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han-Yong; Song, Cheryn; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ahn, Hanjong; Jeong, In Gab

    2016-03-01

    We report the diagnostic accuracy of renal mass biopsy for a small renal mass (4 cm or less) and identify predictors of successful renal mass biopsy in a contemporary cohort of patients from 2 large tertiary referral centers. A total of 442 biopsies of renal tumors 4 cm or less at 2 tertiary centers between 2008 and 2015 were included in study. Biopsy outcomes (malignant, benign or nondiagnostic) and concordance rates between renal mass biopsy and final surgical pathology were determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors indicative of nondiagnostic biopsy. The initial biopsy was diagnostic in 393 cases (88.9%) and nondiagnostic in 49 (11.1%). Of diagnostic biopsies 76% revealed renal cell carcinoma and 24% were benign. Renal cell carcinoma histological subtyping and grading was possible in 90.2% and 31.3% of cases, respectively. A second biopsy was performed in 11 of the 49 nondiagnostic cases and a diagnosis was possible in 100%, including renal cell carcinoma in 10 and oncocytoma in 1. Small tumor size, cystic nature of tumors and biopsy during the initial years of the study were independent predictors of nondiagnostic biopsy. The rates of accuracy in identifying malignancies, histiotyping and 2-tier grading between renal mass biopsy and surgical pathology were 97.1%, 95.1% and 68.8%, respectively. Renal mass biopsy for a small renal mass can be performed accurately. Nondiagnostic renal mass biopsy was common for smaller masses and cystic masses, and during the initial years of the study. A second biopsy should be considered in nondiagnostic biopsy cases. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal mass: FNA or core needle biopsy?

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Shun; Choi, Euna; Idrees, Muhammad T; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wu, Howard H

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing indications for percutaneous renal biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA), with or without core needle biopsy (CB), has been used increasingly in the management of renal tumors at the study institution. A computerized search of laboratory records was conducted to retrieve FNA cases of renal masses as well as the correlating CB and/or nephrectomy specimens. The cases spanned a period of 10 years (2006-2015). The diagnoses were classified into 5 categories: malignant, suspicious for malignancy, neoplastic, atypical, and negative/nondiagnostic. Based on the results of the nephrectomy specimens, the diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated among 3 groups of specimens: FNA only, CB only, and combined FNA and CB. A total of 247 cases of FNA with 123 correlating CB and 101 follow-up nephrectomy specimens were identified. The diagnostic rate, sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy were 72%, 78%, and 96%, respectively, for FNA; 87%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for CB; and 92%, 92%, and 94%, respectively, for the combined FNA and CB group. Renal cell carcinoma and its variants were the most common histologic diagnoses (112 of 174 cases; 64%). Significant diagnostic discrepancy was noted in one case: a malignant melanoma that was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma in both the preoperative FNA specimen and in the CB specimen. In the current study, both FNA and CB demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy (96% and 94%, respectively). The combination of FNA and CB was found to significantly improve the diagnostic rate when compared with either FNA alone (92% vs 72%; P<.05) or CB alone (92% vs 87%). Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:407-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Percutaneous needle biopsy for indeterminate renal masses: a national survey of UK consultant urologists

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Azhar A; Shergill, Iqbal S; Quereshi, Sheila; Arya, Manit; Vandal, Mohammed T; Gujral, Sandeep S

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of percutaneous needle biopsy in the evaluation of indeterminate renal masses is controversial and its role in management remains largely unclear. We set to establish current practice on this issue in UK urology departments. Methods We conducted a national questionnaire survey of all consultant urologists in the UK, to establish current practice and attitudes towards percutaneous needle biopsy in the management of indeterminate renal masses. Results 139 (43%) consultant urologists never use biopsy, whereas 111 (34%) always employ it for the diagnosis of indeterminate renal masses. 75 (23%) urologists use biopsy only for a selected patient group. Mass in a solitary kidney, bilateral renal masses and a past history of non-renal cancer were the main indications for use of percutaneous biopsy. The risk of false negative results and biopsy not changing the eventual management of their patients were the commonest reasons not to perform biopsy. Conclusion There is a wide and varied practice amongst UK Consultant Urologists in the use of percutaneous biopsy as part of the management of indeterminate renal masses. The majority of urologists believe biopsy confers no benefit. However there is a need to clarify this issue in the wake of recent published evidence as biopsy results may provide critical information for patients with renal masses in a significant majority. It not only differentiates benign from malignant tissue but can also help in deciding the management option for patients undergoing minimally invasive treatments. PMID:17610739

  17. Evaluation of renal mass biopsy risk stratification algorithm for robotic partial nephrectomy--could a biopsy have guided management?

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Haider; Bhayani, Sam; Stifelman, Michael; Kaouk, Jihad; Allaf, Mohamad; Marshall, Susan; Zargar, Homayoun; Ball, Mark W; Larson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Craig

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated a published biopsy directed small renal mass management algorithm using a large cohort of patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomy for tumors 4 cm or smaller. A simplified algorithm of biopsy directed small renal mass management previously reported using risk stratified biopsies was applied to 1,175 robotic partial nephrectomy cases from 5 academic centers. A theoretical assumption was made of perfect biopsies that were feasible for all patients and had 100% concordance to final pathology. Pathology risk groups were benign, favorable, unfavorable and intermediate. The algorithm assigned favorable or intermediate tumors smaller than 2 cm to active surveillance and unfavorable or intermediate 2 to 4 cm tumors to treatment. Higher surgical risk patients were defined as ASA® 3 or greater and age 70 years or older. Patients were assigned to the pathology risk groups of benign (23%), favorable (13%), intermediate (51%) and unfavorable (12%). Patients were also assigned to the management groups of benign pathology (275, 23%), active surveillance (336, 29%) and treatment (564, 48%). Most of the 611 (52%) patients in the benign or active surveillance groups were low surgical risk and had safe treatment (2.6% high grade complications). A biopsy may not have been feasible or accurate in some tumors that were anterior (378, 32%), hilar (93, 7.9%) or less than 2 cm (379, 32%). Of 129 (11%) high surgical risk patients the biopsy algorithm assigned 70 (54%) to benign or active surveillance groups. The theoretical application of a biopsy driven, risk stratified small renal mass management algorithm to a large robotic partial nephrectomy database suggests that about half of the patients might have avoided surgery. Despite the obvious limitations of a theoretical assumption of all patients receiving a perfect biopsy, the data support the emerging role of renal mass biopsies to guide management, particularly in high surgical risk patients. Copyright

  18. US-guided biopsy of neck masses in postoperative management of patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R T; Reading, C C; Charboneau, J W; James, E M; Grant, C S; Hay, I D

    1988-09-01

    High-frequency (10-MHz) sonography demonstrated a cervical mass or lymphadenopathy, or both, during postoperative follow-up of 52 patients who had undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. Percutaneous biopsy with ultrasonographic (US) guidance was performed in all 52 masses, 44 of which were nonpalpable. Malignant cells were obtained in 29 biopsies, and the results of 20 biopsies were negative, yielding benign lymphocytes only. Results in three biopsies were nondiagnostic due to hypocellular specimens. Therefore, 94% of biopsy results (49) of 52) were confidently assigned as either positive (56%) or negative (38%) for malignancy. There were no complications. High-frequency sonography can demonstrate clinically occult thyroid bed tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases. US-guided biopsy is an accurate and safe technique to confirm or exclude malignancy in patients at high risk of recurrence of thyroid cancer.

  19. Contemporary results of percutaneous biopsy of 100 small renal masses: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Mattar, Kamal; Finelli, Antonio; Kachura, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Geddie, William R; Jewett, Michael A S

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous biopsy of small renal tumors has not been historically performed because of concern about complications and accuracy. We reviewed our experience with percutaneous needle biopsy of small renal masses to assess the safety and accuracy of the procedure, the potential predictors of a diagnostic result and the role of biopsy in clinical decision making. A total of 100 percutaneous needle biopsies of renal masses less than 4 cm were performed between January 2000 and May 2007 with 18 gauge needles and a coaxial technique under ultrasound and/or computerized tomography guidance. A retrospective chart review was performed to document the complication rate and the ability to obtain sufficient tissue for diagnosis. Tumor size, tumor type (solid vs cystic), image guidance, biopsy number and core length were assessed for the ability to predict a diagnostic biopsy. No tumor seeding or significant bleeding was observed. Of the core biopsies 84 (84%) were diagnostic for a malignant (66) or a benign (18) tumor. Larger tumor size and a solid pattern were significant predictors of a diagnostic result. Histological subtyping and grading were possible on core biopsies in 93% and 68% of renal cell carcinomas, respectively. A total of 20 patients underwent surgery after a diagnostic biopsy. The histological concordance of biopsies and surgical specimens was 100%. Percutaneous needle biopsy of renal masses less than 4 cm is safe and provides adequate tissue for diagnosis in most cases. Larger tumor size and a solid pattern are significant predictors of a successful biopsy. Renal tumor biopsy decreases the rate of unnecessary surgery for benign tumors and can assist the clinician with treatment decision making, especially in elderly and unfit patients.

  20. Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy of Deep Pelvic Masses: How We Do It.

    PubMed

    Plett, Sara K; Poder, Liina; Brooks, Rebecca A; Morgan, Tara A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the rationale and indications for transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy can be a helpful tool for diagnosis and treatment planning in the evaluation of pelvic masses, particularly when the anatomy precludes a transabdominal or posterior transgluteal percutaneous biopsy approach. A step-by-step summary of the technique with preprocedure and postprocedure considerations is included. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Candida is a fungus present in the mouths of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroid use. In most people, untreated candidiasis persists for months or years unless associated risk factors are treated or eliminated. In neonates, spontaneous cure of oropharyngeal candidiasis usually occurs after 3 to 8 weeks. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in: adults having treatment causing immunosuppression; infants and children; people with diabetes; people with dentures; and people with HIV infection? Which treatments reduce the risk of acquiring resistance to antifungal drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 51 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antifungals (absorbed or partially absorbed, and topical absorbed/partially absorbed/non-absorbed: e.g., amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole) used for intermittent or continuous prophylaxis or treatment, and denture hygiene. PMID:22348417

  2. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Candida is a fungus present in the mouths of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroid use. In most people, untreated candidiasis persists for months or years unless associated risk factors are treated or eliminated. In neonates, spontaneous cure of oropharyngeal candidiasis usually occurs after 3 to 8 weeks. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in: adults undergoing treatments that cause immunosuppression; infants and children; people with dentures; and people with HIV infection? Which antifungal regimens reduce the risk of acquiring resistance to antifungal drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 47 RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antifungals (absorbed, partially or topically absorbed, or non-absorbed; for example, imidazole [ketoconazole, clotrimazole, toiconazole, miconazole], polyene [amphotericin B, nystatin], triazole [fluconazole, itraconazole], melaleuca and posaconazole), intermittent or continuous prophylaxis, or treatment, and denture hygiene. PMID:24209593

  3. Candidiasis (oropharyngeal)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Candida is a fungus present in the mouths of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and corticosteroid use. In most people, untreated candidiasis persists for months or years unless associated risk factors are treated or eliminated. In neonates, spontaneous cure of oropharyngeal candidiasis usually occurs after 3 to 8 weeks. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent and treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in: adults having treatment causing immunosuppression; infants and children; people with diabetes; people with dentures; and people with HIV infection? Which treatments reduce the risk of acquiring resistance to antifungal drugs? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 46 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antifungals (absorbed or partially absorbed, and topical absorbed/partially absorbed/non-absorbed: e.g., amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and nystatin) used for intermittent or continuous prophylaxis or therapy, and denture hygiene. PMID:19445752

  4. Accessible or Inaccessible? Diagnostic Efficacy of CT-Guided Core Biopsies of Head and Neck Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Jane D. McCusker, Mark W.; Power, Sarah; PearlyTi, Joanna; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul; Lee, Michael J.; O’Hare, Alan; Looby, Seamus

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTissue sampling of lesions in the head and neck is challenging due to complex regional anatomy and sometimes necessitates open surgical biopsy. However, many patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidity. Thus, we evaluated the use of CT guidance for establishing histopathological diagnosis of head and neck masses.MethodsAll consecutive patients (n = 22) who underwent CT-guided core biopsy of head or neck masses between April 2009 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using the departmental CT interventional procedures database. The indication for each biopsy performed was to establish or exclude a diagnosis of neoplasia in patients with suspicious head or neck lesions found on clinical examination or imaging studies. Patients received conscious sedation and 18 G, semiautomated core needle biopsies were performed by experienced neuroradiologists using 16-slice multidetector row CT imaging guidance (Somatom Definition Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). Histopathology results of each biopsy were analysed.ResultsSixteen of 22 biopsies that were performed (73 %) yielded a pathological diagnosis. Anatomic locations biopsied included: masticator (n = 7), parapharyngeal (n = 3), parotid (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), perivertebral (n = 3), pharyngeal (n = 2), and retropharyngeal (n = 1) spaces. Six biopsies (27 %) were nondiagnostic due to inadequate tissue sampling, particularly small biopsy sample size and failure to biopsy the true sampling site due to extensive necrosis. No major complications were encountered.ConclusionsThe use of CT guidance to perform core biopsies of head and neck masses is an effective means of establishing histopathological diagnosis and reduces the need for diagnostic open surgical biopsy and general anaesthesia.

  5. CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of head and neck masses

    SciTech Connect

    Gatenby, R.A.; Mulhern, C.B. Jr.; Strawitz, J.

    1983-03-01

    Six patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous pharyngeal or laryngeal biopsies. A retromandibular approach was used in five of these patients. Accurate cytologic information was obtained in all six cases, and no complications were encountered. This technique can be helpful in certain clinical settings.

  6. Image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of soft-tissue masses in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Metz, Terrence; Heider, Amer; Vellody, Ranjith; Jarboe, Marcus D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Grove, Jason J; Smith, Ethan A; Mody, Rajen; Newman, Erika A; Dillman, Jonathan R

    2016-07-01

    A paucity of literature describes the use of imaged-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for the diagnosis and characterization of pediatric soft-tissue masses and lesions. To retrospectively determine whether image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy is adequate for diagnosing and characterizing benign and malignant pediatric soft-tissue masses and lesions. We identified children (≤18 years old) who underwent US- or CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of a soft-tissue mass or other lesion between January 2012 and March 2014. Using medical records, we documented the following data: age and gender, site of the mass or lesion, size and number of biopsy specimens, whether the biopsy procedure was diagnostic, whether sufficient tissue was obtained for necessary ancillary testing (e.g., cytogenetic evaluation), and whether there was a procedural complication within 1 week. One hundred eight soft-tissue masses or lesions were biopsied under imaging guidance in 84 children; 39 (46%) were girls. Mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 12.1 ± 5.1 years (range 6 months to 18 years). Of these procedures, 105/108 (97%) were diagnostic; 82/108 (76%) were US-guided; 87/108 (81%) were performed using a 17-gauge introducer needle/18-gauge biopsy instrument. The mean number ± SD of core needle biopsy specimens obtained was 8.9 ± 5.0. For newly diagnosed malignancies, adequate tissue was obtained for ancillary testing in 28/30 (93%) masses. One minor complication was documented. Image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of pediatric soft-tissue masses is safe, has a high diagnostic rate, and provides sufficient tissue for ancillary testing.

  7. Renal biopsies for small renal masses. For whom, when and how.

    PubMed

    Stakhovsky, Oleksandr; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Yap, Stanley A; Finelli, Antonio; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Lenoir, Stéphane; Strauss, Christiane; Validire, Pierre; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives in kidney biopsies in small renal masses (BSRM). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding BSRM. A literature research of English, French and Spanish languages was performed using the Pubmed database from 2000 to February 2012 using the terms renal mass biopsy and renal tumor biopsy. Manuscripts providing a highest level of evidence were selected for the review.Clinical experience from author's Institutions is also reflected in the manuscript. Considerable technical advances have been made in imaging over the last decade. The latter allow for a comprehensive sharp diagnosis of small renal masses (SRM). Therapeutic decision for SRM's is supported by objective knowledge of histological features and renal biopsy represents an accurate and safe option to particularize treatment in renal incidentalomas. Furthermore, renal biopsies are incorporated in the application and follow-up of patients undergoing ablative therapies. An important number of clinical reports have been published in the subject but there is lack of technical standardization. The available experience is limited to referral centers and there are still up to 30% of biopsies that fail to provide clear diagnosis. Renal biopsies have significantly improved in its diagnostic accuracy and it is indicated when tissue diagnosis can change the therapeutic approach of SRM's. Meantime, the role of renal biopsies keeps on growing and limitations of the procedure are less when compared to the benefits it provides.

  8. Evaluation of core needle biopsy as a substitute to open biopsy in the diagnosis of soft-tissue masses.

    PubMed

    Ray-Coquard, I; Ranchère-Vince, D; Thiesse, P; Ghesquières, H; Biron, P; Sunyach, M-P; Rivoire, M; Lancry, L; Méeus, P; Sebban, C; Blay, J-Y

    2003-09-01

    Open biopsy is recommended for a soft-tissue sarcoma (s-t-S) diagnosis. Core needle biopsy (CNB) was recently associated with minimal morbidity, cost and time-consumption, but also potential inaccuracy. Its diagnostic utility was investigated retrospectively in 110 patients with soft-tissue masses (s-t-M) undergoing CNB between September 1994 and September 2000. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were determined for malignancy (benign/malign), soft-tissue tumour (yes/no), and sarcoma diagnosis (yes/no), comparing CNB and the best standard test available; concordance was evaluated. 103/110 CNB were suitable for analysis. Final diagnosis was 23 benign tumours (19%), 65 s-t-S (59%), 9 lymphomas (8%), 6 fibromatoses (desmoid) (5%) and 7 carcinomas (6%). CNB Sp and PPV were 100%, Se was 95, 99 and 92%, and NPV 85, 95 and 88% for diagnosing malignancy, soft-tissue tumour and sarcoma. CNB Se and NPV were 100% for malignancy, connective tumour and sarcoma in lymphomas, high-grade sarcomas and desmoid tumours. In low grade sarcomas, Se was 94 and 85%, and NPV 84 and 77% for malignancy and sarcoma. Histological grade on CNB seems uneasy, except for grade-III tumours. CNB is accurate, not misleading for s-t-M diagnosis, avoids open biopsy complications, and allows one-surgery or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy planning when combined with appropriate imaging.

  9. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of solid pancreatic masses: Results in 250 patients.

    PubMed

    Kahriman, Guven; Ozcan, Nevzat; Dogan, Serap; Ozmen, Soner; Deniz, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy and complications of percutaneous sonographic (US)-guided core needle-needle biopsy in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses. Cases of US-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of solid pancreatic masses performed in our department between July 2009 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic data, lesions' size and location, pathology results, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and complications of the biopsies were determined. A total of 250 patients (150 males, 100 females; age range, 16-88 years; mean age, 64.3 ± 12.1 years) were included in the study. The overall diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of all 250 biopsies were 94.8%, 94.3%, 97.2%, 99.5%, and 75%, respectively, and changed to 98.4%, 99%, 94.7%, 99%, and 94.7%, respectively, after the biopsy was repeated in 12 patients. Four (1.6%) major complications, including a pseudoaneurysm of the gastroduodenal artery, and three cases of acute pancreatitis, and one (0.4%) minor complication (a vaso-vagal syncope), were observed. There was no biopsy-related death. US-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy is a safe and highly effective method with acceptable complication rates in the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:470-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Weight and body mass index in relation to irradiated volume and to overall survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Sandra; Söderström, Karin; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per; Zackrisson, Björn; Laurell, Göran

    2014-07-22

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) treated with radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the present study were to determine if treated volume (TV), as a measure of the radiation dose burden, can predict weight loss in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and to analyze weight loss and body mass index (BMI) in the same patient group in relation to 5-year overall survival. The ARTSCAN trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial in patients with SCCHN. Nutritional data from the ARTSCAN trial were analyzed retrospectively using univariate and multivariate statistical methods based on information on percentage weight loss from the start of RT up to five months after the termination of RT (study cohort 1, n = 232) and information on patients' BMI at the start of RT (study cohort 2, n = 203). TV was defined as the volume of the patient receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose. TV64.6 Gy encompasses macroscopic tumor and TV43.7 Gy elective lymph nodes of the neck. TV64.6 Gy and TV43.7 Gy were both significantly correlated with higher weight loss up to five months after the termination of RT in study cohort 1 (p < 0.001 for both). BMI at the start of RT was shown to be a prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival in study cohort 2 but weight loss was not. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.78 (1.46-9.75) and 2.57 (1.43-4.62) in patients with underweight and normal weight, respectively. TV can predict weight loss during RT in patients with oropharyngeal cancer regardless of clinical stage. A high BMI (>25 kg/m2) at the start of RT is positively associated with survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  11. The emerging role of percutaneous biopsy in diagnosis and management of small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Yap, Stanley A; Stakhovskyi, Oleksandr; Finelli, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Percutaneous biopsy has an emerging role in the diagnosis and management of small renal masses. The increasing importance of percutaneous biopsy is related to both a better understanding of the natural history of these tumors as well as new developments in treatment strategies. We discuss the emerging role of biopsy in the current practice setting. Additionally, we review recent data regarding its diagnostic accuracy, important technical considerations, and possible complications. Finally, we speculate on its future role in managing these patients. The role of percutaneous renal biopsy in the management of small renal masses continues to evolve. It is critically important at this juncture to evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of such an approach.

  12. [Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Pinel, B; Cassou-Mounat, T; Bensadoun, R-J

    2012-05-01

    The oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common condition in cancer patients treated by irradiation, during and after their treatment. For example, almost 70% of patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer are colonized, and 40% of symptomatic patients have an oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, we noticed an increase in non-albicans Candida strains, which are present in almost 50% of samples. Cancer treatments, especially radiation therapy, and comorbidities are risk factors of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis has substantial effects on quality of life, and may limit treatment. Epidemiologic data, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis criteria, consequences and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis will be discussed in this article.

  13. A modified triple test for palpable breast masses: the value of ultrasound and core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christina J; Al-Mubarak, Ghada; Homer, Marc J; Goldkamp, Allison; Samenfeld-Specht, Marja; Lee, Yoojin; Logvinenko, Tanya; Rothschild, Janice G; Graham, Roger A

    2013-03-01

    The original triple test score (TTS)--clinical examination, mammogram, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy--has long been used to evaluate palpable breast masses. We modified the original TTS to include ultrasound (US) and core biopsy to determine their role in evaluating palpable breast masses. A retrospective chart review of 320 female patients was performed. We developed a modified triple test score (mTTS) that included physical examination, mammogram and/or US, and FNA and/or core biopsy. For the examination and imaging score, 1-3 points were given for low, moderate, or high suspicion. Biopsy scores were characterized as benign, atypical, or malignant. Final outcome was determined by open biopsy or follow-up greater than 1 year. Physical examination was 92% accurate (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.96, p < 0.0001) at predicting whether a mass was benign or malignant. Imaging was 88% accurate (95% CI 0.84-0.92, p < 0.0001) and needle biopsy was 95% accurate (95% CI 0.92-0.98, p < 0.0001). The modified triple test was 99% accurate (95% CI 0.98-1.00, p < 0.0001). Each 1-point increment in the mTTS was associated with an increased risk of cancer, with an odds ratio of 9.73 (CI 5.16-18.4, p < 0.0001). For 150 patients, we compared the original TTS with the mTTS. US and core biopsy changed the scores of 24 patients; only three changed clinical management. For patients with a palpable breast mass and a mTTS score of 3-4, no further assessment is necessary. Those with a mTTS of 8-9 can proceed to definitive therapy. Patients with a mTTS of 5-7 require further assessment. US and/or core biopsy added little to the accuracy or predictive value of the original TTS.

  14. Midkine and pleiotrophin concentrations in needle biopsies of breast and lung masses.

    PubMed

    Giamanco, Nicole M; Jee, Youn Hee; Wellstein, Anton; Shriver, Craig D; Summers, Thomas A; Baron, Jeffrey

    2017-09-07

    Midkine (MDK) and pleiotrophin (PTN) are two closely related heparin-binding growth factors which are overexpressed in a wide variety of human cancers. We hypothesized that the concentrations of these factors in washout of biopsy needles would be higher in breast and lung cancer than in benign lesions. Seventy subjects underwent pre-operative core needle biopsies of 78 breast masses (16 malignancies). In 11 subjects, fine needle aspiration was performed ex vivo on 7 non-small cell lung cancers and 11 normal lung specimens within surgically excised lung tissue. The biopsy needle was washed with buffer for immunoassay. The MDK/DNA and the PTN/DNA ratio in most of the malignant breast masses were similar to the ratios in benign masses except one lobular carcinoma in situ (24-fold higher PTN/DNA ratio than the average benign mass). The MDK/DNA and PTN/DNA ratio were similar in most malignant and normal lung tissue except one squamous cell carcinoma (38-fold higher MDK/DNA ratio than the average of normal lung tissue). Both MDK and PTN are readily measurable in washout of needle biopsy samples from breast and lung masses and levels are highly elevated only in a specific subset of these malignancies.

  15. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration].

    PubMed

    Barroso, Julia

    2009-11-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia, or inability to swallow liquids and/or solids, is one of the less well known geriatric syndromes, despite its enormous impact on functional ability, quality of life and health in affected individuals. The origin of oropharyngeal dysphagia can be structural or functional. Patients with neurodegenerative or cerebrovascular diseases and the frail elderly are the most vulnerable. The complications of oropharyngeal dysphagia are malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration, all of which are serious and provoke high morbidity and mortality. Oropharyngeal aspiration causes frequent respiratory infections and aspiration pneumonias. Antibiotic therapy must cover the usual microorganisms of the oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal dysphagia should be identified early in risk groups through the use of screening methods involving clinical examination of swallowing and diagnostic confirmation methods. The simplest and most effective therapeutic intervention is adaptation of the texture of the solid and the viscosity of the liquid.

  16. Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Alone or in Combination: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Management of Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Cate, Frances; Kapp, Meghan E; Arnold, Shanna A; Gellert, Lan L; Hameed, Omar; Clark, Peter E; Wile, Geoffrey; Coogan, Alice; Giannico, Giovanna A

    2017-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration with and without concurrent core needle biopsy is a minimally invasive method to diagnose and assist in management of renal masses. We assessed the pathological accuracy of fine needle aspiration compared to and associated with core needle biopsy and the impact on management. We performed a single institution, retrospective study of 342 cases from 2001 to 2015 with small and large renal masses (4 or less and greater than 4 cm, respectively). Diagnostic and concordance rates, and the impact on management were analyzed. Adequacy rates for fine needle aspiration only, core needle biopsy only and fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy were 21%, 12% and 8% (aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.026). In the aspiration plus biopsy group adding aspiration to biopsy and biopsy to aspiration reduced the inadequacy rate from 23% to 8% and from 27% to 8% for a total reduction rate of 15% and 19%, respectively, corresponding to 32 cases (9.3%). Rapid on-site examination contributed to a 22.5% improvement in fine needle aspiration adequacy rates. In this cohort 30% of aspiration only, 5% of biopsy only and 12% of aspiration plus biopsy could not be subtyped (aspiration vs biopsy p <0.0001, aspiration vs aspiration plus biopsy p <0.0127 and biopsy vs aspiration plus biopsy p = 0.06). The diagnostic concordance rate with surgical resection was 99%. Conversion of an inadequate specimen to an adequate one by a concurrent procedure impacted treatment in at least 29 of 32 patients. Limitations include the retrospective design and accuracy measurement based on surgical intervention. Fine needle aspiration plus core needle biopsy vs at least fine needle aspiration alone may improve diagnostic yield when sampling renal masses but it has subtyping potential similar to that of core needle biopsy only. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy of Canine Brain Masses: Technique and Clinical Results in 26 Cases.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John Henry; Andriani, Rudy T; Cecere, Thomas E; Lahmers, Kevin; LeRoith, Tanya; Zimmerman, Kurt L; Gibo, Denise; Debinski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, diagnostic yield, and adverse events (AE) associated with frame-based stereotactic brain biopsies (FBSB) obtained from 26 dogs with solitary forebrain lesions. Medical records were reviewed from dogs that underwent FBSB using two stereotactic headframes designed for use in small animals and compatible with computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Stereotactic plans were generated from MR and CT images using commercial software, and FBSB performed both with (14/26) and without intraoperative image guidance. Records were reviewed for diagnostic yield, defined as the proportion of biopsies producing a specific neuropathological diagnosis, AE associated with FBSB, and risk factors for the development of AE. Postprocedural AE were evaluated in 19/26 dogs that did not proceed to a therapeutic intervention immediately following biopsy. Biopsy targets included intra-axial telencephalic masses (24/26), one intra-axial diencephalic mass, and one extra-axial parasellar mass. The median target volume was 1.99 cm(3). No differences in patient, lesion, or outcome variables were observed between the two headframe systems used or between FBSB performed with or without intraoperative CT guidance. The diagnostic yield of FBSB was 94.6%. Needle placement error was a significant risk factor associated with procurement of non-diagnostic biopsy specimens. Gliomas were diagnosed in 24/26 dogs, and meningioma and granulomatous meningoencephalitis in 1 dog each. AE directly related to FBSB were observed in a total of 7/26 (27%) of dogs. Biopsy-associated clinical morbidity, manifesting as seizures and transient neurological deterioration, occurred in 3/19 (16%) of dogs. The case fatality rate was 5.2% (1/19 dogs), with death attributable to intracranial hemorrhage. FBSB using the described apparatus was relatively safe and effective at providing neuropathological diagnoses in dogs with focal forebrain lesions.

  18. Frame-Based Stereotactic Biopsy of Canine Brain Masses: Technique and Clinical Results in 26 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John Henry; Andriani, Rudy T.; Cecere, Thomas E.; Lahmers, Kevin; LeRoith, Tanya; Zimmerman, Kurt L.; Gibo, Denise; Debinski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, diagnostic yield, and adverse events (AE) associated with frame-based stereotactic brain biopsies (FBSB) obtained from 26 dogs with solitary forebrain lesions. Medical records were reviewed from dogs that underwent FBSB using two stereotactic headframes designed for use in small animals and compatible with computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Stereotactic plans were generated from MR and CT images using commercial software, and FBSB performed both with (14/26) and without intraoperative image guidance. Records were reviewed for diagnostic yield, defined as the proportion of biopsies producing a specific neuropathological diagnosis, AE associated with FBSB, and risk factors for the development of AE. Postprocedural AE were evaluated in 19/26 dogs that did not proceed to a therapeutic intervention immediately following biopsy. Biopsy targets included intra-axial telencephalic masses (24/26), one intra-axial diencephalic mass, and one extra-axial parasellar mass. The median target volume was 1.99 cm3. No differences in patient, lesion, or outcome variables were observed between the two headframe systems used or between FBSB performed with or without intraoperative CT guidance. The diagnostic yield of FBSB was 94.6%. Needle placement error was a significant risk factor associated with procurement of non-diagnostic biopsy specimens. Gliomas were diagnosed in 24/26 dogs, and meningioma and granulomatous meningoencephalitis in 1 dog each. AE directly related to FBSB were observed in a total of 7/26 (27%) of dogs. Biopsy-associated clinical morbidity, manifesting as seizures and transient neurological deterioration, occurred in 3/19 (16%) of dogs. The case fatality rate was 5.2% (1/19 dogs), with death attributable to intracranial hemorrhage. FBSB using the described apparatus was relatively safe and effective at providing neuropathological diagnoses in dogs with focal forebrain lesions. PMID:26664949

  19. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling using core biopsy needle as a percutaneous biopsy rescue for diagnosis of solid liver mass: Combined histological-cytological analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Nah; Moon, Jong Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Choi, Hyun Jong; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Dong Choon; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Young Seok

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is one of the alternative methods for tissue sampling of liver solid mass. However, the diagnostic efficacy using cytology alone was limited. In this study, we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) as a percutaneous biopsy rescue for liver solid mass. The EUS-FNB using core biopsy needle for liver solid mass was performed prospectively for patients who were failure to acquire a tissue or achieve a diagnosis using percutaneous liver biopsy. The primary outcome was the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB for malignancy and specific tumor type. The secondary outcomes were the median numbers of passes required to establish a diagnosis, the proportions of patients in whom immunohistochemical (IHC) stain was possible and obtained adequate specimen, and safety of EUS-FNB. Twenty-one patients (12 women; mean age, 63 years [range, 37-81]) underwent EUS-FNB for solid liver masses. The median number of needle passes was 2.0 (range, 1-5). On-site cytology and cytology with Papanicolaou stain showed malignancy in 16 patients (76.2%) and 17 patients (81.0%), respectively. In histology with HE stain, 19 patients (90.5%) were diagnosed malignancy and optimal to IHC stain. The overall diagnostic accuracy for malignancy and specific tumor type were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. No complications were seen. EUS-FNB with core biopsy needle for solid liver mass may be helpful in the management of patients who are unable to diagnose using percutaneous liver biopsy. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    PubMed

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  1. Shear-wave elastography and greyscale assessment of palpable probably benign masses: is biopsy always required?

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Elisabetta; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Thomson, Kim; McLean, Dennis; Purdie, Colin; Jordan, Lee; Evans, Andy

    2016-06-01

    To establish if palpable breast masses with benign greyscale ultrasound features that are soft on shear-wave elastography (SWE) (mean stiffness <50 kPa) have a low enough likelihood of malignancy to negate the need for biopsy or follow-up. The study group comprised 694 lesions in 682 females (age range 17-95 years, mean age 56 years) presenting consecutively to our institution with palpable lesions corresponding to discrete masses at ultrasound. All underwent ultrasound, SWE and needle core biopsy. Static greyscale images were retrospectively assigned Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) scores by two readers blinded to the SWE and pathology findings, but aware of the patient's age. A mean stiffness of 50 kPa was used as the SWE cut-off for calling a lesion soft or stiff. Histological findings were used to establish ground truth. No cancer had benign characteristics on both modalities. 466 (99.8%) of the 467 cancers were classified BI-RADS 4a or above. The one malignant lesion classified as BI-RADS 3 was stiff on SWE. 446 (96%) of the 467 malignancies were stiff on SWE. No cancer in females under 40 years had benign SWE features. 74 (32.6%) of the 227 benign lesions were BI-RADS 3 and soft on SWE; so, biopsy could potentially have been avoided in this group. Lesions which appear benign on greyscale ultrasound and SWE do not require percutaneous biopsy or short-term follow-up, particularly in females under 40 years. None of the cancers had benign characteristics on both greyscale ultrasound and SWE, and 32% of benign lesions were BI-RADS 3 and soft on SWE; lesions that are benign on both ultrasound and SWE may not require percutaneous biopsy or short-term follow-up.

  2. Improving needle biopsy accuracy in small renal mass using tumor-specific DNA methylation markers.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Sameer; Liu, Jie; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Nichols, Peter W; Aron, Manju; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Collings, Clayton K; Syan, Sumeet; Hu, Brian; Desai, Mihir; Aron, Monish; Duddalwar, Vinay; Gill, Inderbir; Liang, Gangning; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2017-01-17

    The clinical management of small renal masses (SRMs) is challenging since the current methods for distinguishing between benign masses and malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are frequently inaccurate or inconclusive. In addition, renal cancer subtypes also have different treatments and outcomes. High false negative rates increase the risk of cancer progression and indeterminate diagnoses result in unnecessary and potentially morbid surgical procedures. We built a predictive classification model for kidney tumors using 697 DNA methylation profiles from six different subgroups: clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC, benign angiomylolipomas, oncocytomas, and normal kidney tissues. Furthermore, the DNA methylation-dependent classifier has been validated in 272 ex vivo needle biopsy samples from 100 renal masses (71% SRMs). In general, the results were highly reproducible (89%, n=70) in predicting identical malignant subtypes from biopsies. Overall, 98% of adjacent-normals (n=102) were correctly classified as normal, while 92% of tumors (n=71) were correctly classified malignant and 86% of benign (n=29) were correctly classified benign by this classification model. Overall, this study provides molecular-based support for using routine needle biopsies to determine tumor classification of SRMs and support the clinical decision-making.

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy: role in diagnosis of pediatric head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Anne, Samantha; Teot, Lisa A; Mandell, David L

    2008-10-01

    To assess the feasibility and role of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a diagnostic tool in children with neck masses. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care children's hospital. Consecutive series of 71 children with a head and neck mass who underwent FNAB as the primary diagnostic modality. FNAB was performed and interpreted by a pediatric cytopathologist. Rapid on-site analysis was performed to allow immediate assessment of specimen adequacy and to attain a preliminary diagnosis, after which routine cytologic staining was performed. Flow cytometry was performed on cytological specimens when malignancy was suspected, and open biopsy was performed when the cytologic diagnosis was in question. Technical feasibility of FNAB in children, complications, cytopathological diagnoses, accuracy of rapid on-site analysis, need for subsequent diagnostic evaluations, clinical outcomes and follow-up. Mean age was 8.4 years (S.D. 5.3 years), with mean follow-up of 4.1 months (S.D. 9.6 months). FNAB was performed under general anesthesia in 54 cases (76%). There were no technical complications. On-site rapid interpretation was completed in 55 cases, 18/55 confirmed adequacy of specimen only, 37/55 yielded a preliminary diagnosis, and in 34/37 cases, was same as final cytopathologic result. Overall, FNAB biopsy demonstrated 64 benign lesions, 3 malignant diagnoses, 2 follicular thyroid neoplasms, and 2 non-diagnostic specimens. FNAB was the only pathological test performed in 54 (76%) cases. The most common diagnosis was reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 39), followed by benign granulomatous disease (n = 8). Flow cytometry was performed on 7 specimens (non-diagnostic in 5, negative for malignancy in 2). Of the 15 cases with surgical specimens, 3 revealed a pathologic diagnosis different from initial FNAB. There were no cases in which FNAB missed a malignancy, and there were 2 cases where FNAB suggested malignancy, with benign disease subsequently found on open biopsy

  4. Cost Comparisons Between Different Techniques of Percutaneous Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rahul; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Vernez, Simone L; Kaler, Kamaljot; Gulati, Anjalie T; Youssef, Ramy F; Nelson, Kari; Lotan, Yair; Landman, Jaime

    2016-05-01

    To compare the costs associated with ultrasound (US)-guided hospital-based (UGHB), CT-guided hospital-based (CTG), and US-guided office-based (UGOB) percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) for small renal masses (SRMs). We retrospectively analyzed patient demographics, tumor characteristics, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores, and cost data of patients undergoing PRB for SRM at our institution from May 2012 to September 2015. Cost data, including facility costs, professional fees, and pathology, were obtained from the departments of urology, radiology, and pathology. A total of 78 patients were included in our analysis: 19, 31, and 28 UGHB, CTG, and UGOB, respectively. There was no difference in age, gender distribution, or tumor size among the three groups (p-values 0.131, 0.241, and 0.603, respectively). UGOB tumors had lower R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry scores (p=0.008). There were no differences in nondiagnostic rates between the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB groups [4 (21%), 5 (16%), and 6 (21%)] (p=0.852). There were no differences in final tumor treatment strategies utilized among the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB groups (p=0.447). There were 0, 2 (6%), and 0 complications in the UGHB, CTG, and UGOB biopsy groups. Total facility costs were $3449, $3280, and $1056 for UGHB, CTG, and UGOB PRB, respectively (p<0.0001). There was no difference between the urologist's and radiologist's professional fees (p=0.066). Total costs, including facility costs, pathology fees, and professional fees, were $4598, $4470, and $2129 for UGHB, CTG, and UGOB renal biopsy, respectively (p<0.0001). For select patients with less anatomically complex, exophytic, and posteriorly located tumors, UGOB PRB provides equivalent diagnostic and complication rates while being significantly more cost-effective than either UGHB or CTG renal biopsy.

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Transvaginal Core Biopsy of Pelvic Masses: Feasibility, Safety, and Short-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided transvaginal core biopsy of pelvic masses. Fifty-five pelvic masses in 55 consecutive women who underwent US-guided transvaginal core biopsy were enrolled in our study. All lesions were detected on CT or MRI before biopsy. The procedure was performed with local anesthesia using a transvaginal US probe equipped with a guide and an 18-gauge needle with an automatic biopsy gun. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and complication rate of the procedure. All acquired specimens were adequate for the histopathologic analysis. The overall diagnostic accuracy of US-guided transvaginal core biopsy was 93% (51/55). Of the 55 lesions, 46 (84%) were confirmed to be either benign or malignant tumors, and five (9%) were diagnosed as active or chronic inflammatory lesions. Four lesions (7%) were not histopathologically diagnosed after biopsy: two were confirmed as fibrothecoma and leiomyosarcoma after surgery, and the remaining two were clinically determined to be recurrent cancer. In terms of minor complications, vaginal bleeding occurred in 10 patients (18%), and gross hematuria occurred in two patients (4%). These complications resolved spontaneously in all patients without further workup or treatment. US-guided transvaginal core biopsy seems to be safe and reliable procedure for the histopathologic diagnosis of pelvic masses.

  6. Lessons learned from the comparative study between renal mass biopsy and the analysis of the surgical specimen.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Esteban, M; Villacampa-Aubá, F; Garcia-Muñóz, H; Tejido Sánchez, A; Romero Otero, J; de la Rosa Kehrmann, F

    2014-12-01

    The role of renal mass (RM) biopsy is currently under discussion. As a result of the progressive increase in the incidental diagnosis of RMs (which have a higher percentage of benignity and well-differentiated cancers), new approaches have emerged such as observation, especially with elderly patients or those with significant comorbidity. RM biopsy (RMB) should provide sufficient information for making this decision, but so far this has not been the case. We examine our prospective series of in-bench RMBs after surgery and compare them with the anatomy of the removed specimen. We obtained (prospectively, in-bench and with a 16-gauge needle) 4 biopsies of RMs operated on in our department from October 2008 to December 2009. These RMs were analyzed by 2 uropathologists and compared with the results of the specimen. We analyzed 188 biopsies (47 RMs); 12.75% were "not valid". The ability of biopsy to diagnose malignancy or benignity was 100%, and the coincidence in the histological type was 95%. The success in determining the tumor grade was 100% when the cancer was low-grade and 62% when high-grade. None of the analyzed data (necrosis, size, etc.) influenced the results in a statistically significant manner. RMB with a 16-G needle enables the differentiation between malignancy and benignity in 100% of cases, with a very similar diagnostic accuracy in the tumor type. Tumor grade is still the pending issue with renal mass biopsy. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Issues and challenges associated with classifying neoplasms in percutaneous needle biopsies of incidentally found small renal masses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous needle core biopsy has become acceptable for classifying renal tumours and guiding patient management in the setting of an incidentally-detected small renal mass (SRM), defined as an asymptomatic, non-palpable mass <4cm in maximum dimension. Long-held concerns preventing the incorporation of biopsies into routine patient care, including the perception of poor diagnostic yield and risks of complications such as bleeding or biopsy tract seeding, have largely been disproven. While needle biopsies for SRMs have traditionally been performed in academic centres, pathologists based in non-academic centres can expect to encounter these specimens as urologists and/or interventional radiologist trainees complete their training programs and begin work in non-academic centres. This review covers the rationale for performing these biopsies, the expected diagnostic yield, relevant differential diagnoses and an approach to classifying SRMs based on limited samples as well as the use of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining panels to aid in this process. There is also an undeniable learning curve for pathologists faced with reporting these biopsies and a number of issues and potential pitfalls attributable to sampling must be kept in mind by pathologists and clinicians alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal Mass Biopsy to Guide Treatment Decisions for Small Incidental Renal Tumors: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Debra A.; Hartman, Rebecca I.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.; Feldman, Adam S.; Mueller, Peter R.; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of using renal mass biopsy to guide treatment decisions for small incidentally detected renal tumors. Materials and Methods: A decision-analytic Markov model was developed to estimate life expectancy and lifetime costs for patients with small (≤4-cm) renal tumors. Two strategies were compared: renal mass biopsy to triage patients to surgery or imaging surveillance and empiric nephron-sparing surgery. The model incorporated biopsy performance, the probability of track seeding with malignant cells, the prevalence and growth of benign and malignant tumors, treatment effectiveness and costs, and patient outcomes. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to identify strategy preference under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $75 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Effects of changes in key parameters on strategy preference were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results: Under base-case assumptions, the biopsy strategy yielded a minimally greater quality-adjusted life expectancy (4 days) than did empiric surgery at a lower lifetime cost ($3466), dominating surgery from a cost-effectiveness perspective. Over the majority of parameter ranges tested in one-way sensitivity analysis, the biopsy strategy dominated surgery or was cost-effective relative to surgery based on a $75 000-per-QALY willingness-to-pay threshold. In two-way sensitivity analysis, surgery yielded greater life expectancy when the prevalence of malignancy and propensity for biopsy-negative cancers to metastasize were both higher than expected or when the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy were both lower than expected. Conclusion: The use of biopsy to guide treatment decisions for small incidentally detected renal tumors is cost-effective and can prevent unnecessary surgery in many cases. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.10092013/-/DC1 PMID

  9. Ultrasound-guided cable-free 13-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy of non-mass breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jiwoon; Jang, Mijung; Yun, Bo La; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, So Yeon; Moon, Woo Kyung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Bohyoung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcomes of ultrasound-guided core biopsy for non-mass breast lesions by the novel 13-gauge cable-free vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) and by the conventional 14-gauge semi-automated core needle biopsy (CCNB). Materials and methods Our institutional review board approved this prospective study, and all patients provided written informed consent. Among 1840 ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsies performed from August 2013 to December 2014, 145 non-mass breast lesions with suspicious microcalcifications on mammography or corresponding magnetic resonance imaging finding were subjected to 13-gauge VAB or 14-gauge CCNB. We evaluated the technical success rates, average specimen numbers, and tissue sampling time. We also compared the results of percutaneous biopsy and final surgical pathologic diagnosis to analyze the rates of diagnostic upgrade or downgrade. Results Ultrasound-guided VAB successfully targeted and sampled all lesions, whereas CCNB failed to demonstrate calcification in four (10.3%) breast lesions with microcalcification on specimen mammography. The mean sampling time were 238.6 and 170.6 seconds for VAB and CCNB, respectively. No major complications were observed with either method. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) lesions were more frequently upgraded after CCNB (8/23 and 3/5, respectively) than after VAB (2/26 and 0/4, respectively P = 0.028). Conclusion Non-mass breast lesions were successfully and accurately biopsied using cable-free VAB. The underestimation rate of ultrasound-detected non-mass lesion was significantly lower with VAB than with CCNB. Trial registration CRiS KCT0002267. PMID:28628656

  10. Renal mass biopsy using Raman spectroscopy identifies malignant and benign renal tumors: potential for pre-operative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufei; Du, Zhebin; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Haowen

    2017-05-30

    The accuracy of renal mass biopsy to diagnose malignancy can be affected by multiple factors. Here, we investigated the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish malignant and benign renal tumors using biopsy specimens. Samples were collected from 63 patients who received radical or partial nephrectomy, mass suspicious of cancer and distal parenchyma were obtained from resected kidney using an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Four Raman spectra were obtained for each sample, and Discriminant Analysis was applied for data analysis. A total of 383 Raman spectra were eventually gathered and each type of tumor had its characteristic spectrum. Raman could separate tumoral and normal tissues with an accuracy of 82.53%, and distinguish malignant and benign tumors with a sensitivity of 91.79% and specificity of 71.15%. It could classify low-grade and high-grade tumors with an accuracy of 86.98%. Besides, clear cell renal carcinoma was differentiated with oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma with accuracy of 100% and 89.25%, respectively. And histological subtypes of cell carcinoma were distinguished with an accuracy of 93.48%. When compared with final pathology and biopsy, Raman spectroscopy was able to correctly identify 7 of 11 "missed" biopsy diagnoses. These results suggested that Raman may serve as a promising non-invasive approach in the future for pre-operative diagnosis.

  11. Proteomic analysis of human biopsy samples by single two-dimensional electrophoresis: Coomassie, silver, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Jason L; Neverova, Irina; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2002-08-01

    Proteomic analysis of myocardial tissue from patient populations is critical to our understanding of cardiac disease, but has been limited until now by the small size of biopsies (approximately 20-50 microg), and complicated by the difference in relative abundance of contractile proteins over other cellular components. Here we describe an approach to analysis of myocardial biopsies from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. First, individual biopsies are selectively extracted, producing subfractions that correspond to the contractile proteins and the cytosolic proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis separated proteins are detected by first staining with Coomassie blue then silver, to permit a wider range of accurate quantification. Western blotting of two-dimensional separated samples, to validate peptide mass fingerprinting data, previously required additional gel separations for transfer since staining protocols are not compatible with transfer to membranes or immunoblotting. An existing silver destaining protocol was adapted to allow removal of silver from a whole gel, followed by transfer and Western blotting. An existing Coomassie blue removal protocol was also adapted to permit Western blotting of gels stained with Coomassie blue and silver. Together, these techniques permit peptide mass fingerprinting concurrent with Western blotting of a single protein spot from a single biopsy, eliminating the need for repeated gel separations, and improving spot alignment between immunoblots and stained gels. In the end, this approach may allow a more complete characterization of protein changes in small human biopsies, and also reduce the number of repeated gel separations necessary for a standard proteomic analysis.

  12. Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of deep thoracic and abdominal masses in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bussadori, C; Zatelli, A; De Lorenzi, D; Masserdotti, C; Bertazzolo, W; Faverzani, S; Ghisleni, G; Capobianco, R; Caniatti, M

    2004-04-01

    Percutaneous fine-needle biopsy was used to investigate thoracic and abdominal masses in the dog and cat. One hundred and thirty-two cases were included in the study; 20 cases were excluded from the comparative study due to poor cellularity or blood contamination (retrieval rate 86.8 per cent). One hundred samples (56 dogs and 44 cats) were classified by cytology as neoplastic. All the cytological diagnoses of neoplasia were confirmed by histological samples obtained either by non-surgical methods, at surgery or during postmortem examination. No false positive diagnoses of neoplasia were made. Thirty-two samples were cytologically classified as 'negative for neoplasia'. Subsequent histological examination revealed 18 true negative and 14 false negative results. The procedure had an overall 89.4 per cent (118 cases out of 132) agreement between the diagnosis of inflammatory disease versus neoplasia, with a sensitivity of 87.8 per cent, a specificity of 100 per cent, a predictive value of a positive test of 100 per cent and a predictive value of a negative test of 56.3 per cent.

  13. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  14. Genomic Adequacy from Solid Tumor Core Needle Biopsies of ex Vivo Tissue and in Vivo Lung Masses: Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Neema; Huang, Danshan; Abtin, Fereidoun G; Loh, Christopher T; Kee, Stephen T; Suh, Robert D; Yamamoto, Shota; Das, Kingshuk; Dry, Sarah; Binder, Scott; Enzmann, Dieter R; Kuo, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To identify the variables and factors that affect the quantity and quality of nucleic acid yields from imaging-guided core needle biopsy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors prospectively obtained 232 biopsy specimens from 74 patients (177 ex vivo biopsy samples from surgically resected masses were obtained from 49 patients and 55 in vivo lung biopsy samples from computed tomographic [CT]-guided lung biopsies were obtained from 25 patients) and quantitatively measured DNA and RNA yields with respect to needle gauge, number of needle passes, and percentage of the needle core. RNA quality was also assessed. Significance of correlations among variables was assessed with analysis of variance followed by linear regression. Conditional probabilities were calculated for projected sample yields. Results The total nucleic acid yield increased with an increase in the number of needle passes or a decrease in needle gauge (two-way analysis of variance, P < .0001 for both). However, contrary to calculated differences in volume yields, the effect of needle gauge was markedly greater than the number of passes. For example, the use of an 18-gauge versus a 20-gauge biopsy needle resulted in a 4.8-5.7 times greater yield, whereas a double versus a single pass resulted in a 2.4-2.8 times greater yield for 18- versus 20-gauge needles, respectively. Ninety-eight of 184 samples (53%) had an RNA integrity number of at least 7 (out of a possible score of 10). Conclusion With regard to optimizing nucleic acid yields in CT-guided lung core needle biopsies used for genomic analysis, there should be a preference for using lower gauge needles over higher gauge needles with more passes. (©)RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. An earlier incorrect version of this article appeared online. This article was corrected on October 21, 2016.

  15. Use of magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy of a vertebral body mass to diagnose osteosarcoma in a Rottweiler.

    PubMed

    Krimins, Rebecca A; Fritz, Jan; Gainsburg, Larry A; Gavin, Patrick R; Ihms, Elizabeth A; Huso, David L; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2017-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11. Two 3.5-cm-long osseous core biopsy specimens of the mass were obtained by MRI guidance. Histologic appearance of the specimens was consistent with osteosarcoma. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The owners of the dog declined further treatment owing to a poor prognosis. The dog was euthanized within 12 months after diagnosis because of a declining quality of life. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The acquisition of biopsy specimens by MRI guidance is an emerging technique in veterinary medicine. As evidenced by the dog of this report, MRI-guided biopsy can be used to safely obtain diagnostic biopsy specimens from tissues at anatomic locations that are difficult to access. This technique can potentially be used to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of disease, which could improve patient outcome. The MRI guidance technique described may also be useful for local administration of chemotherapeutics or radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation of various neoplasms of the vertebral column.

  16. C-Arm Cone-Beam CT Virtual Navigation-Guided Percutaneous Mediastinal Mass Biopsy: Diagnostic Accuracy and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Min; Goo, Jin Mo

    2015-12-01

    To assess the usefulness of C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal mass biopsy in terms of diagnostic accuracy and complication rates. Seventy-eight CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal mass biopsies were performed in 75 patients (M:F, 38:37; mean age, 48.55 ± 18.76 years). The procedural details, diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and complication rate were investigated. Mean lesion size was 6.80 ± 3.08 cm, skin-to-target distance was 3.67 ± 1.80 cm, core needle biopsy rate was 96.2 % (75/78), needle indwelling time was 9.29 ± 4.34 min, total procedure time was 13.26 ± 5.29 min, number of biopsy specimens obtained was 3.13 ± 1.02, number of CBCTs performed was 3.03 ± 0.68, rate of lesion border discrimination from abutting mediastinal structures on CBCT was 26.9 % (21/78), technical success rate was 100 % (78/78), estimated effective dose was 5.33 ± 4.99 mSv, and the dose area product was 12,723.68 ± 10,665.74 mGy⋅cm(2). Among the 78 biopsies, 69 were malignant, 7 were benign and 2 were indeterminate. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancies were 97.1 % (67/69), 100 % (7/7) and 97.4 % (74/76), respectively, with a complication rate of 3.85 % (3/78), all of which were small pneumothoraces. CBCT virtual navigation-guided biopsy is a highly accurate and safe procedure for the evaluation of mediastinal lesions. • CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal biopsy is highly accurate • CBCT virtual navigation-guided percutaneous mediastinal biopsy is a safe procedure • Mediastinal vascular injury can be avoided under CBCT virtual navigation guidance.

  17. Is there a role for body mass index in the assessment of prostate cancer risk on biopsy?

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Ketchum, Norma S; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Thompson, Ian M

    2014-10-01

    We examine the role of body mass index in the assessment of prostate cancer risk. A total of 3,258 participants who underwent biopsy (including 1,902 men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer) were identified from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. The associations of body mass index with prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer were examined using logistic regression, adjusting for age, race, body mass index adjusted prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, family history of prostate cancer, biopsy history, prostate specific antigen velocity, and time between study entry and the last biopsy. The prediction models were compared with our previously developed body mass index adjusted Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial prostate cancer risk calculator. Of the study subjects 49.1% were overweight and 29.3% were obese. After adjustment, among men without a known family history of prostate cancer, increased body mass index was not associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (per one-unit increase in logBMI OR 0.83, p=0.54) but was significantly associated with a higher risk of high grade prostate cancer (ie Gleason score 7 or greater prostate cancer) (OR 2.31, p=0.03). For men with a known family history of prostate cancer the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer increased rapidly as body mass index increased (prostate cancer OR 3.73, p=0.02; high grade prostate cancer OR 7.95, p=0.002). The previously developed risk calculator generally underestimated the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. Body mass index provided independently predictive information regarding the risks of prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer after adjusting for other risk factors. Body mass index, especially in men with a known family history of prostate cancer, should be considered for inclusion in any clinical assessment of prostate cancer risk and recommendations regarding prostate biopsy. Copyright © 2014

  18. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a biopsy because of a tumor, lump, or mass, don't hit the panic button. Often, a lump or bump is benign, which means it's not cancerous. If you're worried, talk with your doctor, your ... For Teens For Kids ...

  19. Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Goldenberg, David

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer represents a growing proportion of head and neck malignancies. This has been associated with the increase in infection of the oropharynx by oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has opened the door for minimally invasive surgery for HPV-related and non-HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Compared to traditional open surgical approaches, TORS has been shown to improve functional outcomes in speech and swallowing, while maintaining good oncologic outcomes. PMID:24808952

  20. Diagnosis of a submucosal mass at the staple line after sigmoid colon cancer resection by endoscopic cutting-mucosa biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Koinuma, Koji; Lefor, Alan K; Horie, Hisanaga; Ito, Homare; Sata, Naohiro; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Sunada, Keijiro; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old man underwent laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection for cancer and surveillance colonoscopy was performed annually thereafter. Five years after the resection, a submucosal mass was found at the anastomotic staple line, 15 cm from the anal verge. Computed tomography scan and endoscopic ultrasound were not consistent with tumor recurrence. Endoscopic mucosa biopsy was performed to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Mucosal incision over the lesion with the cutting needle knife technique revealed a creamy white material, which was completely removed. Histologic examination showed fibrotic tissue without caseous necrosis or tumor cells. No bacteria, including mycobacterium, were found on culture. The patient remains free of recurrence at five years since the resection. Endoscopic biopsy with a cutting mucosal incision is an important technique for evaluation of submucosal lesions after rectal resection. PMID:27114752

  1. Local anesthesia for fine-needle aspiration biopsy of palpable breast masses: the effectiveness of a jet injection system.

    PubMed

    Florentine, B D; Frankel, K; Raza, A; Cobb, C J; Greaves, T; Carriere, C; Martin, S E

    1997-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Biojector 2000 needle-free lidocaine injection system in achieving satisfactory local anesthesia for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of palpable breast lesions, we studied 29 female patients. Each patient served as her own control and had two FNA biopsies performed on the lesion. The first FNA biopsy was preceded by either no anesthesia, ethyl chloride cold spray, or traditional needle lidocaine injection. The second FNA was preceded by the Biojector 2000. Twenty-four patients (83%) reported that they preferred the Biojector 2000 over either no anesthesia, ethyl chloride spray, or needle and syringe lidocaine injection. The Biojector 2000 needle-free injection system is an effective and useful method of local anesthesia for FNA of palpable breast masses.

  2. Investigation of the presence of HPV related oropharyngeal and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Jeffrey; Monjane, Leonel; Prasad, Manju; Carrilho, Carla; Judson, Benjamin L

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is endemic in East Africa. Recent, dramatic, increases in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in the United States and Europe are linked to the same high risk HPV genotypes responsible for cervical cancer. Currently, there is extremely limited data regarding the role of HPV in head and neck cancers in Africa. Evidence of HPV as an etiologic agent in head and neck cancers in Africa would have important prevention and treatment implications. A retrospective single institution review of oral tongue and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas diagnosed between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Individual case data for 51 patients with biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from the oropharynx (n=22) and oral tongue (n=29) were identified. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded biopsy samples were obtained and evaluated for p16 by immunohistochemistry and HPV genotype 16 specific oncogenes, E6 and E7, by PCR. All of the positive controls, but none of the oropharyngeal samples stained positively for p16. Two of the oral tongue samples stained positive for p16. None of the oropharyngeal or oral tongue cases demonstrated PCR products for HPV-16 E6 or E7. Though Mozambique has extremely high levels of HPV positive cervical cancer this study demonstrates an absence of HPV positive oropharyngeal or oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma within biopsy samples from a single referral hospital in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the Gleason score of prostate biopsies in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinxian; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Gang; Ping, Jigen; Lu, Yong; Hou, Jianquan; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the correlation between BMI and Gleason score in prostate biopsies in Chinese Population. In this retrospective study, we collected the Gleason score, PSA, BMI, age, race, and other related clinical data on 290 patients who had undergone prostatic biopsy. We then compared the prostate cancer detection rates and Gleason scores between the high BMI group (BMI ≥ 25; 143 cases) and low BMI group (< 25; 147 cases). Among the 137 patients in whom prostate cancer detected, 70 had high BMIs and 67 had normal BMIs, making the detection rates 48.95% and 45.58% respectively. Seventeen prostate cancer patients had low Gleason scores (Gleason score < 7), while 120 had high Gleason scores (≥ 7). Within the high BMI group, 44.76% had high Gleason scores, which was significantly greater than the 38.10% in the low BMI group (P = 0.027). These results indicate that while there was no effect of BMI on the rate of positive prostate cancer biopsies, the rate of high Gleason scores was greater in the high BMI group than the normal BMI group. PMID:27556510

  4. Higher body mass index increases the risk for biopsy-mediated detection of prostate cancer in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Bo; Bai, Pei-De; Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5-22.9 (normal weight), 23-24.9 (overweight), 25-29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10-1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97-1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa.

  5. Higher Body Mass Index Increases the Risk for Biopsy-Mediated Detection of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shuo; Zhang, Li-Min; Xu, Hua; Na, Rong; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Ding, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk at biopsy in Chinese men. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1,807 consecutive men who underwent initial multicore (≥10) prostate biopsy under transrectal ultrasound guidance between Dec 2004 and Feb 2014. BMI was categorised based on the Asian classification of obesity as follows: <18.5 (underweight), 18.5–22.9 (normal weight), 23–24.9 (overweight), 25–29.9 (moderately obese), and ≥30 kg/m2 (severely obese). The odds ratios (OR) of each BMI category for risk of PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥4+3) detection were estimated in crude, age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted models. Prevalence ratios and accuracies of PSA predicted PCa were also estimated across BMI groups. Results In total, PCa was detected by biopsy in 750 (45.4%) men, and HGPCa was detected in 419 (25.4%) men. Compared with men of normal weight, underweight men and obese men were older and had higher prostate specific antigen levels. The risk of overall PCa detection via biopsy presented an obvious U-shaped relationship with BMI in crude analysis. Overall, 50.0%, 37.4%, 45.6% 54.4% and 74.1% of the men in the underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderately obese and severely obese groups, respectively, were diagnosed with PCa via biopsy. In multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly correlated with a higher risk of PCa detection (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.10–1.25, P<0.001). However, higher BMI was not correlated with HGPCa detection (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.97–1.09, P = 0.29). There were no significant differences in the accuracy of using PSA to predict PCa or HGPCa detection across different BMI categories. Conclusion Obesity was associated with higher risk of PCa detection in the present Chinese biopsy population. No significant association was detected between obesity and HGPCa. PMID:25861033

  6. Worldwide trends show oropharyngeal cancer rates increasing

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer significantly increased during the period 1983-2002 among people in countries that are economically developed. Oropharyngeal cancer occurs primarily in the middle part of the throat behind t

  7. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  8. Fiber-Optic Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy of Small Renal Masses: Toward Real-Time Optical Diagnostic Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Ming; Kuo, Jennifer; Allan, Robert W; Liao, Joseph C; Ritari, Kellie L; Tomeny, Patrick E; Carter, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    The incidental detection of small renal masses is increasing. However, not all require aggressive treatments as up to 20% are benign and the majority of malignant tumors harbor indolent features. Improved preoperative diagnostics are needed to differentiate tumors requiring aggressive treatment from those more suitable for surveillance. We evaluated and compared confocal laser endomicroscopy with standard histopathology in ex vivo human kidney tumors as proof of principle towards diagnostic optical biopsy. Patients with a solitary small renal mass scheduled for partial or radical nephrectomy were enrolled in study. Two kidneys were infused with fluorescein via intraoperative intravenous injection and 18 tumors were bathed ex vivo in dilute fluorescein prior to confocal imaging. A 2.6 mm confocal laser endomicroscopy probe was used to image tumors and surrounding parenchyma from external and en face surfaces after specimen bisection. Confocal laser endomicroscopy images were compared to standard hematoxylin and eosin analysis of corresponding areas. Ex vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging revealed normal renal structures that correlated well with histology findings. Tumor tissue was readily distinguishable from normal parenchyma, demonstrating features unique to benign and malignant tumor subtypes. Topical fluorescein administration provided more consistent confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging than the intravenous route. Additionally, en face tumor imaging was superior to external imaging. We report what is to our knowledge the first feasibility study using confocal laser endomicroscopy to evaluate small renal masses ex vivo and provide a preliminary atlas of images from various renal neoplasms with corresponding histology. These findings serve as an initial and promising step toward real-time diagnostic optical biopsy of small renal masses. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Real-Time 3D Fluoroscopy-Guided Large Core Needle Biopsy of Renal Masses: A Critical Early Evaluation According to the IDEAL Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeze, Stephanie G. C.; Huisman, Merel; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Diest, Paul J. van; Ruud Bosch, J. L. H.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2012-06-15

    Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT is a promising new technique for image-guided biopsy of solid tumors. We evaluated the technical feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and complications of this technique for guidance of large-core needle biopsy in patients with suspicious renal masses. Methods: Thirteen patients with 13 suspicious renal masses underwent large-core needle biopsy under 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT guidance. Imaging acquisition and subsequent 3D reconstruction was done by a mobile flat-panel detector (FD) C-arm system to plan the needle path. Large-core needle biopsies were taken by the interventional radiologist. Technical success, accuracy, and safety were evaluated according to the Innovation, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term study (IDEAL) recommendations. Results: Median tumor size was 2.6 (range, 1.0-14.0) cm. In ten (77%) patients, the histological diagnosis corresponded to the imaging findings: five were malignancies, five benign lesions. Technical feasibility was 77% (10/13); in three patients biopsy results were inconclusive. The lesion size of these three patients was <2.5 cm. One patient developed a minor complication. Median follow-up was 16.0 (range, 6.4-19.8) months. Conclusions: 3D real-time fluoroscopy cone beam CT-guided biopsy of renal masses is feasible and safe. However, these first results suggest that diagnostic accuracy may be limited in patients with renal masses <2.5 cm.

  10. Teledynamic Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; McCullough, Gary; He, Xuming; McWeeny, Elizabeth; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to test the feasibility and clinical utility of a real-time Internet-based protocol for remote, telefluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Method: In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated 32 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke or head/neck cancer. All…

  11. Teledynamic Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; McCullough, Gary; He, Xuming; McWeeny, Elizabeth; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to test the feasibility and clinical utility of a real-time Internet-based protocol for remote, telefluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Method: In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated 32 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke or head/neck cancer. All…

  12. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers. PMID:28423662

  13. Comparative analysis of HPV16 gene expression profiles in cervical and in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Andrea; Annunziata, Clorinda; Tortora, Marianna; Starita, Noemy; Stellato, Giovanni; Greggi, Stefano; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2017-05-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the major cause of cervical cancer and of a fraction of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Few studies compared the viral expression profiles in the two types of tumor. We analyzed HPV genotypes and viral load as well as early (E2/E4, E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7) and late (L1 and L2) gene expression of HPV16 in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer biopsies. The study included 28 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and ten oropharyngeal SCC, along with pair-matched non-tumor tissues, as well as four oropharynx dysplastic tissues and 112 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia biopsies. Viral load was found higher in cervical SCC (<1 to 694 copies/cell) and CIN (<1 to 43 copies/cell) compared to oropharyngeal SCC (<1 to 4 copies/cell). HPV16 E2/E4 and E5 as well as L1 and L2 mRNA levels were low in cervical SCC and CIN and undetectable in oropharynx cases. The HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were consistently high in cervical SCC and low in oropharyngeal SCC. The analysis of HPV16 E6 mRNA expression pattern showed statistically significant higher levels of E6*I versus E6*II isoform in cervical SCC (p = 0.002) and a slightly higher expression of E6*I versus E6*II in oropharyngeal cases. In conclusion, the HPV16 E5, E6, E6*I, E6*II and E7 mRNA levels were more abundant in cervical SCC compared to oropharyngeal SCC suggesting different carcinogenic mechanisms in the two types of HPV-related cancers.

  14. Diagnostic Yield of Computed Tomography-Guided Coaxial Core Biopsy of Undetermined Masses in the Free Retroperitoneal Space: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stattaus, Joerg Kalkmann, Janine Kuehl, Hilmar; Metz, Klaus A.; Nowrousian, Mohammad R.; Forsting, Michael Ladd, Susanne C.

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of core biopsy in coaxial technique under guidance of computed tomography (CT) for retroperitoneal masses. We performed a retrospective analysis of CT-guided coaxial core biopsies of undetermined masses in the non-organ-bound retroperitoneal space in 49 patients. In 37 cases a 15-G guidance needle with a 16-G semiautomated core biopsy system, and in 12 cases a 16-G guidance needle with an 18-G biopsy system, was used. All biopsies were technically successful. A small hematoma was seen in one case, but no relevant complication occurred. With the coaxial technique, up to 4 specimens were obtained from each lesion (mean, 2.8). Diagnostic accuracy in differentiation between malignant and benign diseases was 95.9%. A specific histological diagnosis could be established in 39 of 42 malignant lesions (92.9%). Correct subtyping of malignant lymphoma according to the WHO classification was possible in 87.0%. Benign lesions were correctly identified in seven cases, although a specific diagnosis could only be made in conjunction with clinical and radiological information. In conclusion, CT-guided coaxial core biopsy provides safe and accurate diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses. A specific histological diagnosis, which is essential for choosing the appropriate therapy, could be established in most cases of malignancy.

  15. A Quantitative Proteomic Workflow for Characterization of Frozen Clinical Biopsies: Laser Capture Microdissection Coupled with Label-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, John P.; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Merchant, Anand S.; Satoskar, Anjali; Taslim, Cenny; Lin, Shili; Rovin, Brad H.; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati; Freitas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, highly efficient and robust proteomic workflow for routine liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of Laser Microdissection Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) isolates. Highly efficient protein recovery was achieved by optimization of a “one-pot” protein extraction and digestion allowing for reproducible proteomic analysis on as few as 500 LMPC isolated cells. The method was combined with label-free spectral count quantitation to characterize proteomic differences from 3,000–10,000 LMPC isolated cells. Significance analysis of spectral count data was accomplished using the edgeR tag-count R package combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. To illustrate the capability of this robust workflow, two examples are presented: 1) analysis of keratinocytes from human punch biopsies of normal skin and a chronic diabetic wound and 2) comparison of glomeruli from needle biopsies of patients with kidney disease. Differentially expressed proteins were validated by use of immunohistochemistry. These examples illustrate that tissue proteomics carried out on limited clinical material can obtain informative proteomic signatures for disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the suitability of this approach for biomarker discovery. PMID:23022584

  16. A quantitative proteomic workflow for characterization of frozen clinical biopsies: laser capture microdissection coupled with label-free mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, John P; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Merchant, Anand S; Satoskar, Anjali; Taslim, Cenny; Lin, Shili; Rovin, Brad H; Sen, Chandan K; Roy, Sashwati; Freitas, Michael A

    2012-12-21

    This paper describes a simple, highly efficient and robust proteomic workflow for routine liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of Laser Microdissection Pressure Catapulting (LMPC) isolates. Highly efficient protein recovery was achieved by optimization of a "one-pot" protein extraction and digestion allowing for reproducible proteomic analysis on as few as 500 LMPC isolated cells. The method was combined with label-free spectral count quantitation to characterize proteomic differences from 3000-10,000 LMPC isolated cells. Significance analysis of spectral count data was accomplished using the edgeR tag-count R package combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. To illustrate the capability of this robust workflow, two examples are presented: 1) analysis of keratinocytes from human punch biopsies of normal skin and a chronic diabetic wound and 2) comparison of glomeruli from needle biopsies of patients with kidney disease. Differentially expressed proteins were validated by use of immunohistochemistry. These examples illustrate that tissue proteomics carried out on limited clinical material can obtain informative proteomic signatures for disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the suitability of this approach for biomarker discovery.

  17. Is Body Mass Index the Best Adiposity Measure for Prostate Cancer Risk? Results From a Veterans Affairs Biopsy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Guerrios-Rivera, Lourdes; Howard, Lauren; Frank, Jennifer; De Hoedt, Amanda; Beverly, Devon; Grant, Delores J; Hoyo, Cathrine; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    To test multiple adiposity measures and prostate cancer (PC) risk in men undergoing prostate biopsy. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI), body fat, and waist circumference would be highly correlated, and all would be associated with aggressive PC, but not overall risk. A case (483)-control (496) study among men undergoing prostate biopsy from 2007 to 2016 was conducted at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Anthropometric and self-reported measurements were taken. Percent body fat was measured. Associations between adiposity measures and PC risk and high-grade PC (Gleason ≥7) were examined using logistic regression. BMI, percent body fat, and waist circumference were highly correlated (ρ ≥ .79) (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, BMI (P = .011) was associated with overall PC risk, but percent body fat (P = .16) and waist circumference (P = .19) were not. However, all adiposity measurements were associated with high-grade disease (P < .001). We found a strong relationship between self-reported and measured weight (ρ = .97) and height (ρ = .92). BMI, body fat, and waist circumference were all highly correlated and associated with aggressive PC. This study supports the idea that higher adiposity is selectively associated with high-grade PC and reinforces the continued use of self-reported BMI as a measure of obesity in epidemiologic studies of PC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. CT-guided percutaneous core-needle biopsy of pancreatic masses: comparison of the standard mesenteric/retroperitoneal versus the trans-organ approaches.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M-Y; Pan, K-T; Chen, C-M; Lui, K-W; Chu, S-Y; Lin, Y-Y; Hung, C-F; Huang, Y-T; Tseng, J-H

    2016-06-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) of pancreatic masses traversing the gastrointestinal tract or solid viscera versus trans-mesenteric and retroperitoneal approaches. CT-guided CNB of pancreatic lesions performed between May 2004 and December 2014 were retrospectively analysed at a single centre. Biopsies were performed using 18- or 20-G needles with a coaxial system. CT images, histopathology reports, medical records, and procedural details for all patients were reviewed to evaluate the biopsy route, complications, and diagnostic accuracy. According to the routes, biopsies were divided into trans-mesenteric, retroperitoneal and trans-organ approaches for comparison. A total of 85 patients, who had undergone 89 CNBs for pancreatic masses were reviewed. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CNB for detecting malignancy via various routes were 88.8%, 100%, and 89.9%, respectively, with a complication rate of 20.2%. Trans-organ biopsies of pancreatic masses (n=22) were performed safely via a direct pathway traversing the stomach (n=14), colon (n=3), small bowel (n=2), liver (n=2), and spleen (n=1). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 90.5%, 100%, and 90.9%, respectively. In the trans-organ biopsy group, three biopsies (13.6%) resulted in minor haematomas, but no major complications occurred. There were no statistically significant differences in the diagnostic efficacy or complication rate among the different biopsy routes. Percutaneous CT-guided CNB using a trans-organ approach is a feasible technique for diagnosing pancreatic malignancy; however, as this series was small, more data is required. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  20. Bladder biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - bladder ... A bladder biopsy can be done as part of a cystoscopy . Cystoscopy is a telescopic examination of the inside of the ... informed consent form before you have a bladder biopsy. In most cases, you are asked to urinate ...

  1. Biopsy - polyps

    MedlinePlus

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  2. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal biopsy References ...

  3. Neurogenic [corrected] and oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Laia; Clavé, Pere; Ouyang, Ann; Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Vilardell, Natalia; Ortega, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a swallowing disorder caused by congenital abnormalities and structural damage and disease-associated damage of the oral cavity, pharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter. Patients with OD lack the protective mechanisms necessary for effective swallowing, exhibiting difficulty controlling food in the mouth and initiating a swallow, leading to choking, coughing, and nasal regurgitation. OD is a major risk factor for malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia. The following on OD includes commentaries on the application of simulation of oropharyngeal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and maneuvers like the Shaker exercise to improve the safety and efficacy of swallow in OD patients; the prevalence of esophageal pathologies in OD patients and the need to evaluate the esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and stomach; and strategies for clinical screening to detect OD and aspiration among high-risk patients and to improve oral health care, maintain nutrition and hydration, and prevent aspiration pneumonia. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: screening and assessment.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée

    2013-12-01

    This article provides an overview of bedside screening and assessment tools in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia including the diagnostic performance of screening tools; the gold standards in assessment of dysphagia (videofluoroscopic and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing); a variety of clinical assessment tools; patient self-evaluation questionnaires; and a list of supplementary methods. In addition, some methodologic issues are discussed, and the need for standardization of terminology, screening and assessment protocols, and the call for evidence-based clinical guidelines.

  5. Radiation Therapy and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. The negative predictive value of ultrasound-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses: a validation study of 339 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Charlie; Lewis, Darrell R; Nasute, Paola; Hayes, Malcolm; Warren, Linda J; Gordon, Paula B

    2012-10-31

    To determine the negative predictive value of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses, with detailed analysis of any false-negative cases. We reviewed 669 cases of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsies that had benign pathologic findings. Given a benign pathology on core biopsy, true-negatives had either benign pathology on surgical excision or at least 2 years of stable imaging and/or clinical follow-up; false-negatives had malignant histology on surgical excision. Follow-up was available for 339 breast lesions; 117 were confirmed to be benign via surgical excision, and 220 were stable after 2 years or more of imaging or clinical follow-up (mean follow-up time 33.1 months, range 24-64 months). The negative predictive value was determined to be 99.4%. There were 2 false-negative cases, giving a false-negative rate of 0.1%. There was no delay in diagnosis in either case because the radiologist noted discordance between imaging and core biopsy pathology, and recommended surgical excision despite the benign core biopsy pathology. Sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy provides a high negative predictive value in assessing breast lesions. Radiologic/pathologic correlation should be performed to avoid delay in the diagnosis of carcinoma.

  7. Core needle versus standard needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy of solid pancreatic masses: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Napoléon, Bertrand; Saint Paul, Marie Christine; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Wangermez, Marc; Bichard, Philippe; Subtil, Clément; Koch, Stéphane; Grandval, Philippe; Gincul, Rodica; Karsenti, David; Heyries, Laurent; Duchmann, Jean-Christophe; Bourgaux, Jean François; Levy, Michaël; Calament, Gilles; Fumex, Fabien; Pujol, Bertrand; Lefort, Christine; Poincloux, Laurent; Pagenault, Maël; Bonin, Eduardo Aimé; Fabre, Monique; Barthet, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A new core biopsy needle for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling has recently been developed. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to compare this needle with a standard needle in patients with solid pancreatic masses. Consecutive patients with solid pancreatic masses referred to 17 centers for EUS-guided sampling were included. Each patient had two passes with a standard 22G needle and a single pass with a 22G core needle performed in a randomized order. Samples from both needles were separately processed for liquid-based cytology and cell-block preparation and were assessed independently by two blinded expert pathologists. The primary endpoint was the accuracy of the detection of malignancy. The reference standard was based on further cytohistological analysis obtained under ultrasound or computed tomography scanning, endoscopic or surgical guidance, and/or by clinical follow-up with repeated imaging examinations for at least 12 months. The secondary endpoints were the rate of technical failure and the quality of the cytohistological samples obtained. Of the 80 patients included (49 men; mean age 67.1 ± 11.1), 87.5 % had final malignant diagnoses (adenocarcinoma n = 62, 77.5 %). There was no difference between the needles in diagnostic accuracy (standard needle 92.5 % vs. core needle 90 %; P = 0.68) or technical failure. Both pathologists found the overall sample quality significantly better for the standard needle (expert 1, P = 0.009; expert 2, P = 0.002). The diagnostic accuracy of EUS sampling for solid pancreatic masses using standard and core needles seems comparable but with a better overall histological sample quality for the former. ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT01479803. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A comparison of immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry for determining the amyloid fibril protein from formalin-fixed biopsy tissue.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Janet A; Theis, Jason D; Vrana, Julie A; Lachmann, Helen; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Whelan, Carol; Hawkins, Philip N; Dogan, Ahmet; Gillmore, Julian D

    2015-04-01

    Amyloidosis is caused by deposition in tissues of abnormal protein in a characteristic fibrillar form. There are many types of amyloidosis, classified according to the soluble protein precursor from which the amyloid fibrils are derived. Accurate identification of amyloid type is critical in every case since therapy for systemic amyloidosis is type specific. In ∼20-25% cases, however, immunohistochemistry (IHC) fails to prove the amyloid type and further tests are required. Laser microdissection and mass spectrometry (LDMS) is a powerful tool for identifying proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. We undertook a blinded comparison of IHC, performed at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre, and LDMS, performed at the Mayo Clinic, in 142 consecutive biopsy specimens from 38 different tissue types. There was 100% concordance between positive IHC and LDMS, and the latter increased diagnostic accuracy from 76% to 94%. LDMS in expert hands is a valuable tool for amyloid diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy J; Mendez, Anthony; Donald, Carrlene; Nagel, Thomas Harold

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can infect the tonsillar tissues of the oropharynx and is associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article provides an overview to guide primary care providers in screening patients for oropharyngeal cancer and making appropriate referrals. The article also reviews available HPV vaccines and immunization adherence rates.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  11. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway. (a...

  12. Prospective Study for Comparison of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition Using 25- and 22-Gauge Core Biopsy Needles in Solid Pancreatic Masses.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Woo; Chung, Moon Jae; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Hyun Jik; Park, Jeong Yup; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Kim, Hoguen; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Although thicker needles theoretically allow more tissue to be collected, their decreased flexibility can cause mechanical damage to the endoscope, technical failure, and sample blood contamination. The effects of needle gauge on diagnostic outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) of pancreatic mass lesions remain unknown. This study compared procurement rates of histologic cores obtained from EUS-FNB of pancreatic masses using 25- and 22-gauge core biopsy needles. From March 2014 to July 2014, 66 patients with solid pancreatic mass underwent EUS-FNB with both 25- and 22-gauge core biopsy needles. Among them, 10 patients were excluded and thus 56 patients were eligible for the analyses. Needle sequences were randomly assigned, and two passes were made with each needle, consisting of 10 uniform to-and-fro movements on each pass with 10 mL syringe suction. A pathologist blinded to needle sequence evaluated specimens for the presence of histologic core. The mean patient age was 65.8 ± 9.5 years (range, 44-89 years); 35 patients (62.5%) were men. The mean pancreatic mass size was 35.3 ± 17.1 mm (range 14-122.3 mm). Twenty-eight patients (50%) had tumors at the pancreas head or uncinate process. There were no significant differences in procurement rates of histologic cores between 25-gauge (49/56, 87.5%) and 22-gauge (46/56, 82.1%, P = 0.581) needles or diagnostic accuracy using only histologic cores (98% and 95%). There were no technical failures or procedure-related adverse events. The 25-gauge core biopsy needle could offer acceptable and comparable outcomes regarding diagnostic performance including histologic core procurement rates compared to the 22-gauge core biopsy needle, although the differences were not statistically significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01795066.

  13. Prospective Study for Comparison of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Tissue Acquisition Using 25- and 22-Gauge Core Biopsy Needles in Solid Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Hyun Jik; Park, Jeong Yup; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Kim, Hoguen; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Although thicker needles theoretically allow more tissue to be collected, their decreased flexibility can cause mechanical damage to the endoscope, technical failure, and sample blood contamination. The effects of needle gauge on diagnostic outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) of pancreatic mass lesions remain unknown. This study compared procurement rates of histologic cores obtained from EUS-FNB of pancreatic masses using 25- and 22-gauge core biopsy needles. Patients and Methods From March 2014 to July 2014, 66 patients with solid pancreatic mass underwent EUS-FNB with both 25- and 22-gauge core biopsy needles. Among them, 10 patients were excluded and thus 56 patients were eligible for the analyses. Needle sequences were randomly assigned, and two passes were made with each needle, consisting of 10 uniform to-and-fro movements on each pass with 10 mL syringe suction. A pathologist blinded to needle sequence evaluated specimens for the presence of histologic core. Results The mean patient age was 65.8 ± 9.5 years (range, 44–89 years); 35 patients (62.5%) were men. The mean pancreatic mass size was 35.3 ± 17.1 mm (range 14–122.3 mm). Twenty-eight patients (50%) had tumors at the pancreas head or uncinate process. There were no significant differences in procurement rates of histologic cores between 25-gauge (49/56, 87.5%) and 22-gauge (46/56, 82.1%, P = 0.581) needles or diagnostic accuracy using only histologic cores (98% and 95%). There were no technical failures or procedure-related adverse events. Conclusions The 25-gauge core biopsy needle could offer acceptable and comparable outcomes regarding diagnostic performance including histologic core procurement rates compared to the 22-gauge core biopsy needle, although the differences were not statistically significant. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01795066 PMID:27149404

  14. Reduced-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  15. Gum biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sealed off with an electric current or laser. This is called electrocauterization . After the numbness wears ... Images Gum biopsy Tooth anatomy References Ellis E. Principles of differential diagnosis and biopsy. In: Hupp JR, ...

  16. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right diagnosis. What should a person do days before a kidney biopsy? Days before the procedure, ... procedure. What can a person expect on the day of the kidney biopsy? A person should arrive ...

  17. Body mass index and prostate cancer severity: do obese men harbor more aggressive disease on prostate biopsy?

    PubMed

    Chamie, Karim; Oberfoell, Stephanie; Kwan, Lorna; Labo, Jessica; Wei, John T; Litwin, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    To examine the association of obesity with the prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, clinical stage, and D'Amico tumor risk in 2 independent cohorts of men with prostate cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer from California's Improving Access, Counseling and Treatment for Californians with Prostate Cancer program and from a random sample of men treated at the University of Michigan. We performed multivariate analyses to examine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with the prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, clinical stage, and D'Amico tumor risk, while controlling for demographics. The mean age was 61.5 years, and the median prebiopsy PSA level was 6.7 ng/mL. Greater than 70% of men were at least overweight. On univariate analysis, the BMI was not associated with prebiopsy PSA levels, Gleason score, or D'Amico tumor risk. On multivariate analysis, we found no association between BMI and log-transformed PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, or D'Amico risk. Advancing age was associated with a greater risk of a higher prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, and D'Amico tumor risk. Obese men with prostate cancer were no more likely to have a higher prebiopsy PSA level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, or D'Amico risk than those of normal weight. Although we do not know whether the BMI affected the prebiopsy PSA values in those without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, our findings suggest that the BMI does not affect the interpretation of the prebiopsy PSA levels in those with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges in establishing the diagnosis of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Truong Lam, Michelle; O'Sullivan, Brian; Gullane, Patrick; Huang, Shao Hui

    2016-10-01

    To describe initial presentations and idiosyncrasies in establishing the diagnosis for human papillomavirus-related (HPV(+) ) compared to HPV-unrelated (HPV(-) ) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). A single institution retrospective series derived from an institutional prospectively compiled database supplemented by chart review. We reviewed consecutive OPC patients referred to an academic tertiary cancer center from 2009 to 2011. HPV status was evaluated by p16 staining. Signs/symptoms and procedures to establish diagnosis were recorded independently by two abstractors blinded to the HPV status during data retrieval. Initial presentations (signs/symptoms), interval, and the procedures to establish the diagnosis were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(-) OPC. The most common initial presentation was an asymptomatic nodal mass for HPV(+) patients (n = 208; 69% vs. 29%, P < .001) in contrast to dysphagia/odynophagia for HPV(-) (n = 96; 34% vs. 63%, P < .001). Protracted interval (>12 months) from onset of signs/symptoms to diagnosis was observed in 18 (9%) HPV(+) versus three (3%) HPV(-) patients (P = .058). More HPV(+) patients required repeated (≥2) biopsy procedures (56% vs. 10%, P < .001). Misattribution to other disease occurred in eight (4%) HPV(+) patients (seven were mistaken as having a "branchial cleft cyst" when there were cystic lymph nodes and one as having a "lymphoma") compared to none in HPV(-) . About two-thirds of HPV(+) patients present with an asymptomatic neck mass and often require multiple biopsy procedures to establish the diagnosis. Idiosyncrasies in appreciating the diagnostic setting (cystic lymph node, misattribution to other entities, or submucosal location of the tumor) or patient-related factors could delay the diagnosis of HPV(+) OPC. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2270-2275, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet for oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a commonly encountered problem in daily clinical practice. Topical therapies for oropharyngeal candidiasis are considered preferable to systemic therapies in most patient populations. However, traditional topical therapies have limitations including short contact time with the oral mucosa and the need for multiple doses each day. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet has recently been approved in Europe (Loramyc®) and the USA (Oravig™) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. This tablet adheres to the oral mucosa and provides sustained local release of miconazole over a period of several hours with just one daily application. This article reviews the pharmacology, safety and efficacy of this novel agent. PMID:21171872

  20. Oropharyngeal styloids: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Thotappa, Lathadevi Hassan; Doni, Bharati R

    2012-01-01

    The close proximity of the styloid process to many of the vital neurovascular structures in the neck makes it clinically significant. The styloid process is said to be elongated if it is longer than 3.0 cm in length. Anatomical variations are very common and clinical symptoms arising from such variations have to be recognized. Elongated styloid processes may cause chronic throat pain along with foreign body sensation, dysphagia, vague facial pain, and otalgia. Surgical excision of an elongated styloid is considered as a satisfactory treatment for such cases. Here, we present a unique case of bilaterally elongated styloids that could be visualized just by depressing the tongue, when they appeared like the tusks of an elephant in the oropharyngeal region.

  1. [Oropharyngeal candidiasis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Laurent, Marie; Gogly, Bruno; Tahmasebi, Farzad; Paillaud, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The prevalence in the hospital or institution varies from 13 to 47% of elderly persons. The main clinical types are denture stomatitis, acute atrophic glossitis, thrush and angular cheilitis. Diagnosis is usually made on clinical ground. Culture and sensitivity testing should be undertaken if initial therapy is unsuccessful. Predisposing factors of oral candidiasis could be local and/or systemic. Local factors include wearing dentures, impaired salivary gland function and poor oral health. Systemic factors include antibiotics and some other drugs, malnutrition, diabetes, immunosuppression and malignancies. Management involves an appropriate antifungal treatment and oral hygiene. Predisposing factors should be treated or eliminated where feasible. Oral hygiene involves cleaning the teeth and dentures. Dentures should be disinfected daily and left out overnight.

  2. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  3. Rehabilitation needs of patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tippett, Donna C; Webster, Kimberly T

    2012-08-01

    Swallowing and swallowing-related impairments present important posttreatment challenges in individuals undergoing organ preservation therapy for head and neck cancer. Literature pertinent to this topic is reviewed. A protocol for treatment of speech and swallowing deficits related to oropharyngeal cancer and treatment performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital is described. Data collected from a sample of oropharyngeal patients with cancer, with and without human papillomavirus-related disease, are summarized. Future directions for further study of this population are discussed.

  4. [Efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2007-01-01

    efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia. In our country the practice of speech-language pathology in oropharyngeal dysphagia has increased significantly and, at this moment, deserves attention since practice needs to be based on scientific evidence. Therapeutic techniques and the outcome of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia have been studied since the 70s, reaching its high point during the 80s and 90s. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of therapy in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the vast majority have tried to prove the effects of therapy on the dynamics of swallowing. In Brazil, the studies about oropharyngeal dysphagia have, in great part, investigated assessment procedures, and only a few have worried about rehabilitation. to present a critical analysis about the efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia. this review of the literature indicates that non-randomized studies have compromised the results, once the casuistic of the researches are very heterogeneous--they include neurogenic and mechanical oropharyngeal dyshagia caused by different etiologies. Besides that, therapeutic programs which are used are not sufficiently described, compromising the reproduction of the methodology by other researchers. These results suggest the need for more randomized studies, which can be initially developed as case studies in order to exclude the control variables of therapy efficacy. Another suggestion is, as proposed by present researches, to use scales that can measure the impact of swallowing training in the nutritional and pulmonary condition of dysphagic patients. An important research area, related to the control of therapeutic efficacy and efficiency, are the studies that aim to establish the decrease in hospital and home care costs as a consequence of speech-language intervention with patients with oropharyngeal dyspahgia.

  5. Biliary plastic stent does not influence the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Filippo; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Giorgini, Sara; Fabbri, Carlo; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Scarpelli, Marina; Macarri, Giampiero

    2017-08-01

    While the presence of biliary stent significantly decreases the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for pancreatic head cancer staging, its impact on the EUS-guided sampling accuracy is still debated. Furthermore, data on EUS-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using core biopsy needles in patients with pancreatic mass and biliary stent are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of biliary stent on the adequacy and accuracy of EUS-FNB in patients with pancreatic head mass. All patients who underwent EUS-guided sampling with core needles of solid pancreatic head masses causing obstructive jaundice were retrospectively identified in a single tertiary referral center. Adequacy, defined as the rate of cases in which a tissue specimen for proper examination was achieved, with and without biliary stent, was the primary outcome measure. The diagnostic accuracy and complication rate were the secondary outcome measures. A total of 130 patients with pancreatic head mass causing biliary obstruction were included in the study: 74 cases of them were sampled without stent and 56 cases with plastic stent in situ. The adequacy was 96.4% in the stent group and 90.5% in the group without stent (p=0.190). No significant differences were observed for sensitivity (88.9% vs. 85.9%), specificity (100% for both groups), and accuracy (89.3% vs. 86.5%) between those with and without stent, respectively. The accuracy was not influenced by the timing of stenting (<48h or ≥48h before EUS). No EUS-FNB related complications were recorded. The presence of biliary stent does not influence the tissue sampling adequacy, the diagnostic accuracy and the complication rate of EUS-FNB of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost savings associated with the use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis of palpable masses in a community hospital-based FNAB clinic.

    PubMed

    Florentine, Barbara D; Staymates, Barry; Rabadi, Munif; Sarda, Nayibe; Barstis, John; Black, Alexander

    2006-11-01

    Generally, it is assumed that fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis of superficial, palpable masses is a less expensive alternative to diagnostic open surgical biopsy; however, to the authors' knowledge few studies to date have sought to quantify the number of diagnostic surgical procedures avoided and cost savings involved. In this article, the authors report their experience with 664 FNAB procedures that were performed by a cytopathologist/cytotechnologist team practicing in a community setting. Records from a total of 664 consecutive FNAB cases from 607 patients who underwent FNAB in a community hospital-based FNAB clinic between 2003 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively, and follow-up data were obtained. Surgery was averted entirely as a result of the FNAB in 83% or 505 of 609 cases with follow-up available. The FNAB procedure was highly accurate and considerably less expensive than surgical biopsy. For patients who presented with palpable masses, FNAB was a reliable, cost-effective initial method for obtaining a tissue diagnosis. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  7. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ...

  8. Value of cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration as a screening test for ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy in nonpalpable breast masses.

    PubMed

    Lieu, David

    2009-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of breast masses in the United States has been on the decline for the last decade and has been largely replaced by ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (UG-CNB). Some studies show core-needle biopsy (CNB) is superior to FNA in terms of absolute sensitivity, specificity, and inadequate rate. However, the importance of a skilled aspirator, experienced cytopathologist, and immediate cytological evaluation (ICE) in FNA is often not considered. CNB is more expensive, invasive, risky, and painful than FNA. This prospective study examines the value of cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided FNA (UG-FNA) with ICE as a screening test for cytopathologist-performed UG-CNB on nonpalpable or difficult-to-palpate solid breast masses visible on ultrasound. One hundred twenty consecutive nonpalpable or difficult-to-palpate presumably solid breast masses in 109 female patients from January2, 2008 to June 30, 2008 underwent cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA with ICE. Twenty cases were converted to cytopathologist-performed UG-CNB because ICE was inadequate, hypocellular, atypical, suspicious, or malignant. Patients with clearly benign cytology did not undergo UG-CNB. UG-FNA with ICE reduced the percentage of patients undergoing UG-CNB by 87%. A new role for cytopathologist-performed UG-FNA of nonpalpable breast masses has been identified.

  9. Oropharyngeal Dermoid Cyst in an Infant with Intermittent Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Haileselassie, Bereketeab; Kannan, Sujatha; Chen, Cynthia; Poretti, Andrea; Tunkel, David E.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dermoid cysts are benign epithelial inclusions and cystic lesions that may occur in several locations including the oropharynx. We describe the case of a two-month-old baby girl who presented with progressive respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and feeding difficulties because of an oropharyngeal dermoid cyst. The child had an airway work-up that included laryngoscopy. However, the mass remained undetected. This is most likely explained by the mobile nature of the lesion, prolapsing into the high nasopharynx in supine position. In our patient, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), initially performed to rule out brainstem pathology, revealed an oropharyngeal dermoid cyst. This case shows the potential role of neuroimaging in the diagnostic work-up of a young child presenting with respiratory distress by excluding a central nervous system lesion and diagnosing an “unexpected” nasopharyngeal mass lesion. In addition, MRI allowed exclusion of skull base lesions of neural origin such as an anterior meningoencephalocele or heterotopic neuroglial tissue which would be managed differently from pharyngeal masses. PMID:25260210

  10. Pulmonary Masses: Initial Results of Cone-beam CT Guidance with Needle Planning Software for Percutaneous Lung Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Braak, Sicco J.; Herder, Gerarda J. M.; Heesewijk, Johannes P. M. van Strijen, Marco J. L. van

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB) findings using cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) guidance (CBCT guidance) and compared to conventional biopsy guidance techniques. Methods: CBCT guidance is a stereotactic technique for needle interventions, combining 3D soft-tissue cone-beam CT, needle planning software, and real-time fluoroscopy. Between March 2007 and August 2010, we performed 84 Tru-Cut PLBs, where bronchoscopy did not provide histopathologic diagnosis. Mean patient age was 64.6 (range 24-85) years; 57 patients were men, and 25 were women. Records were prospectively collected for calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy. We also registered fluoroscopy time, room time, interventional time, dose-area product (DAP), and complications. Procedures were divided into subgroups (e.g., location, size, operator). Results: Mean lesion diameter was 32.5 (range 3.0-93.0) mm, and the mean number of samples per biopsy procedure was 3.2 (range 1-7). Mean fluoroscopy time was 161 (range 104-551) s, room time was 34 (range 15-79) min, mean DAP value was 25.9 (range 3.9-80.5) Gy{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, and interventional time was 18 (range 5-65) min. Of 84 lesions, 70 were malignant (83.3%) and 14 were benign (16.7%). Seven (8.3%) of the biopsy samples were nondiagnostic. All nondiagnostic biopsied lesions proved to be malignant during surgical resection. The outcome for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] 86-96), 100% (95% CI 82-100), 100% (95% CI 96-100), 66.7% (95% CI 55-83), and 91.7% (95% CI 86-96), respectively. Sixteen patients (19%) had minor and 2 (2.4%) had major complications. Conclusion: CBCT guidance is an effective method for PLB, with results comparable to CT/CT fluoroscopy guidance.

  11. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal buildup of iron deposits) Systemic lupus erythematosus (autoimmune disease that affects the skin, joints, and other organs) ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Autoimmune Diseases Read more Biopsy Read more Fungal Infections Read ...

  12. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than surgical biopsy and may not require general anesthesia. Tell your doctor about any recent illnesses or ... and whether you have any allergies, especially to anesthesia. Discuss any medications you’re taking, including herbal ...

  13. Tongue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results Mean Abnormal results may mean: Amyloidosis Tongue (oral) cancer Viral ulcer Benign tumors Risks Risks for this ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Biopsy Read more Oral Cancer Read more Tongue Disorders Read more A.D. ...

  14. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting as an umbilical mass (Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Donizete; Wakely, Paul E

    2006-04-01

    The Sister Mary Joseph (SMJ) nodule is a clinical sign of metastatic cancer involving the umbilicus. The vast majority of these instances represent adenocarcinomas arising from ovarian or colorectal primaries. We present a patient who presented with ascites and the SMJ lesion that turned out to be a metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor after fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The lesion was subsequently histologically confirmed. Gastrointestinal stroma tumor involving the umbilicus is exceedingly uncommon and only rarely presents in this fashion. The cytomorphological features, differential diagnosis, and comparison with the tissue specimen are made.

  15. Epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pytynia, Kristen B.; Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is increasing in incidence in epidemic proportion. This site specific increase in incidence is due to an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma, while the incidence of tobacco related squamous cell carcinoma is decreasing. In particular, the incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increased among middle aged white men, and sexual behavior is a risk factor. HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma represents a growing etiologically distinct subset of head and neck cancers with unique epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics that differ from those of HPV-unassociated cancers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HPV-related OPSCC, the prevalence of oral/oropharyngeal HPV infection, and efforts aimed at reducing the incidence of HPV-related OPSCC. PMID:24461628

  16. Impact of HPV in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, Linda; Hammarstedt, Lalle

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers has increased in the western world and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been recognised as a risk factor in the last decades. During the same period the prevalence of HPV in oropharyngeal tumours has increased and HPV has been suggested responsible for the increase. The HPV-positive tumours are today recognized as a distinct subset of head and neck cancers with its own clinopathological and risk profile and have a significantly improved prognosis regardless of treatment strategy. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding human papillomavirus biology, oncogenic mechanisms, risk factors, and impact of treatment. PMID:21234307

  17. Randomized trial comparing the 22-gauge aspiration and 22-gauge biopsy needles for EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ji Young; Hebert-Magee, Shantel; Trevino, Jessica; Ramesh, Jayapal; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2012-08-01

    To overcome limitations of cytology, biopsy needles have been developed to procure histologic samples during EUS. To compare 22-gauge (G) FNA and 22G biopsy needles (FNB) for EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic masses. Randomized trial. Tertiary-care medical center. This study involved 56 patients with solid pancreatic masses. Sampling of pancreatic masses by using 22G FNA or 22G FNB devices. Compare the median number of passes required to establish the diagnosis, diagnostic sufficiency, technical performance, complication rates, procurement of the histologic core, and quality of the histologic specimen. A total of 28 patients were randomized to the FNA group and 28 to the FNB group. There was no significant difference in median number of passes required to establish the diagnosis (1 [interquartile range 1-2.5] vs 1 [interquartile range 1-1]; P = .21), rates of diagnostic sufficiency (100% vs 89.3%; P = .24), technical failure (0 vs 3.6%; P = 1.0), or complications (3.6% for both) between FNA and FNB needles, respectively. Patients in whom diagnosis was established in passes 1, 2, and 3 were 64.3% versus 67.9%, 10.7% versus 17.9%, and 25% versus 3.6%, respectively, for FNA and FNB cohorts. There was no significant difference in procurement of the histologic core (100% vs 83.3%; P = .26) or the presence of diagnostic histologic specimens (66.7% vs 80%; P = .66) between FNA and FNB cohorts, respectively. Only pancreatic masses were evaluated. Diagnostic sufficiency, technical performance, and safety profiles of FNA and FNB needles are comparable. There was no significant difference in yield or quality of the histologic core between the 2 needle types. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Randomized trial comparing the 22-gauge aspiration and 22-gauge biopsy needles for EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic mass lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Ji Young; Hebert-Magee, Shantel; Trevino, Jessica; Ramesh, Jayapal; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background: To overcome limitations of cytology, biopsy needles have been developed to procure histologic samples during EUS. Objective: To compare 22-gauge (G) FNA and 22G biopsy needles (FNB) for EUS-guided sampling of solid pancreatic masses. Design: Randomized trial. Setting: Tertiary-care medical center. Patients: This study involved 56 patients with solid pancreatic masses. Intervention: Sampling of pancreatic masses by using 22G FNA or 22G FNB devices. Main Outcome Measurements: Compare the median number of passes required to establish the diagnosis, diagnostic sufficiency, technical performance, complication rates, procurement of the histologic core, and quality of the histologic specimen. Results: A total of 28 patients were randomized to the FNA group and 28 to the FNB group. There was no significant difference in median number of passes required to establish the diagnosis (1 [interquartile range 1-2.5] vs 1 [interquartile range 1-1]; P = .21), rates of diagnostic sufficiency (100% vs 89.3%; P = .24), technical failure (0 vs 3.6%; P = 1.0), or complications (3.6% for both) between FNA and FNB needles, respectively. Patients in whom diagnosis was established in passes 1, 2, and 3 were 64.3% versus 67.9%, 10.7% versus 17.9%, and 25% versus 3.6%, respectively, for FNA and FNB cohorts. There was no significant difference in procurement of the histologic core (100% vs 83.3%; P = .26) or the presence of diagnostic histologic specimens (66.7% vs 80%; P = .66) between FNA and FNB cohorts, respectively. Limitations: Only pancreatic masses were evaluated. Conclusion: Diagnostic sufficiency, technical performance, and safety profiles of FNA and FNB needles are comparable. There was no significant difference in yield or quality of the histologic core between the 2 needle types. (Clinical trial registration number: AQ:NCT01394159.) (Gastrointest Endosc 2012;76:321-7.) PMID:22658389

  19. Diagnostic value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for breast mass: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the breast is a minimally invasive yet maximally diagnostic method. However, the clinical use of FNAB has been questioned. The purpose of our study was to establish the overall value of FNAC in the diagnosis of breast lesions. Methods After a review and quality assessment of 46 studies, sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of FNAB for evaluating breast lesions were pooled using random-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall accuracy. The sensitivity and specificity for the studies data (included unsatisfactory samples) and underestimation rate of unsatisfactory samples were also calculated. Results The summary estimates for FNAB in diagnosis of breast carcinoma were as follows (unsatisfactory samples was temporarily exluded): sensitivity, 0.927 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.921 to 0.933); specificity, 0.948 (95% CI, 0.943 to 0.952); positive likelihood ratio, 25.72 (95% CI, 17.35 to 28.13); negative likelihood ratio, 0.08 (95% CI, 0.06 to 0.11); diagnostic odds ratio, 429.73 (95% CI, 241.75 to 763.87); The pooled sensitivity and specificity for 11 studies, which reported unsatisfactory samples (unsatisfactory samples was considered to be positive in this classification) were 0.920 (95% CI, 0.906 to 0.933) and 0.768 (95% CI, 0.751 to 0.784) respectively. The pooled proportion of unsatisfactory samples that were subsequently upgraded to various grade cancers was 27.5% (95% CI, 0.221 to 0.296). Conclusions FNAB is an accurate biopsy for evaluating breast malignancy if rigorous criteria are used. With regard to unsatisfactory samples, futher invasive procedures are required in order to minimize the chance of a missed diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:22277164

  20. [Treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia with neuromuscular electrostimulaiton].

    PubMed

    Terré, Rosa; Martinell, Montse; González, Beatriz; Ejarque, Judith; Mearin, Fermín

    2013-02-16

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is highly prevalent in stroke patients, with a high mortality and morbidity. Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) is a new and potentially useful therapy. We assessed the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of NMES in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with stroke. Prospective study of stroke patients, with tracheal aspiration revealed by videofluoroscopy (VDF), who underwent conventional therapy of oropharyngeal dysphagia as well as NMES. We did a follow-up at the end of the treatment and 3 months later. Patients underwent 18 courses of treatment (15-20) with a mean stimulation intensity of 12.45mA (range: 6.6-16.7mA). Before starting therapy, 8 patients were fed exclusively by means of a gastrostomy tube; after the treatment, only one patient needed it. No patient had complications. VDF parameters before treatment: oral transition time, swallowing reflex shooting (SRS) and pharyngeal transition time were longer and the hyoid elevation was reduced. After the treatment, the number of patients with tracheal aspiration decreased to 6, but only in 6 it persisted for the three analyzed viscosities (liquid, nectar and pudding), with an overall improvement of the VDF parameters. The only predictive factor of therapeutic effectiveness was the delay in the SRS. NMES is an effective and safe treatment for stroke patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound-guided chest biopsies.

    PubMed

    Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Dahiya, Nirvikar

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary nodules that are surrounded by aerated lung cannot be visualized with sonography. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy must be guided with computed tomography or fluoroscopy. Although this restriction only applies to central lung nodules, it has permeated referral patterns for other thoracic lesions and has retarded the growth of ultrasound-guided interventions. Nevertheless, sonography is an extremely flexible modality that can expeditiously guide many biopsy procedures in the thorax. Peripheral pulmonary nodules can be successfully biopsied with success rates exceeding 90% and complications rates of less than 5%. Orienting the probe parallel to the intercostal space facilitates biopsies of peripheral pulmonary nodules. Anterior mediastinal masses that extend to the parasternal region are often easily approachable provided the internal mammary vessels, costal cartilage, and deep great vessels are identified and avoided. Superior mediastinal masses can be sampled from a suprasternal or supraclavicular approach. Phased array probes or tightly curved arrays may provide improved access for biopsies in this location. Posterior mediastinal masses are more difficult to biopsy with ultrasound guidance because of the overlying paraspinal muscles. However, when posterior mediastinal masses extend into the posterior medial pleural region, they can be biopsied with ultrasound guidance. Because many lung cancers metastasize to the supraclavicular nodes, it is important to evaluate the supraclavicular region when determining the best approach to obtain a tissue diagnosis. When abnormal supraclavicular nodes are present, they often are the easiest and safest lesions to biopsy.

  2. Core biopsy needle versus standard aspiration needle for endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of solid pancreatic masses: a randomized parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Nah; Moon, Jong Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Choi, Hyun Jong; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Dong Choon; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum

    2014-12-01

    An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) device using a core biopsy needle was developed to improve diagnostic accuracy by simultaneously obtaining cytological aspirates and histological core samples. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB with standard EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in patients with solid pancreatic masses. Between January 2012 and May 2013, consecutive patients with solid pancreatic masses were prospectively enrolled and randomized to undergo EUS-FNB using a core biopsy needle or EUS-FNA using a standard aspiration needle at a single tertiary center. The specimen was analyzed by onsite cytology, Papanicolaou-stain cytology, and histology. The main outcome measure was diagnostic accuracy for malignancy. The secondary outcome measures were: the median number of passes required to establish a diagnosis, the proportion of patients in whom the diagnosis was established with each pass, and complication rates. The overall accuracy of combining onsite cytology with Papanicolaou-stain cytology and histology was not significantly different for the FNB (n = 58) and FNA (n = 58) groups (98.3 % [95 %CI 94.9 % - 100 %] vs. 94.8 % [95 %CI 91.9 % - 100 %]; P = 0.671). Compared with FNA, FNB required a significantly lower median number of needle passes to establish a diagnosis (1.0 vs. 2.0; P < 0.001). On subgroup analysis of 111 patients with malignant lesions, the proportion of patients in whom malignancy was diagnosed on the first pass was significantly greater in the FNB group (72.7 % vs. 37.5 %; P < 0.001). The overall accuracy of FNB and FNA in patients with solid pancreatic masses was comparable; however, fewer passes were required to establish the diagnosis of malignancy using FNB.This study was registered on the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000014057). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Waist-hip Ratio (WHR), a Better Predictor for Prostate Cancer than Body Mass Index (BMI): Results from a Chinese Hospital-based Biopsy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bo; Han, Cheng-Tao; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Cui-Zhu; Yang, Wei-Yi; Shen, Ying; Vidal, Adriana C.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a better predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence than body mass index (BMI) in Chinese men. Of consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsies in one tertiary center between 2013 and 2015, we examined data on 1018 with PSA ≤20 ng/ml. Clinical data and biopsy outcomes were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between BMI, WHR and PCa incidence. Area under the ROC (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of different prognostic models. A total of 255 men and 103 men were diagnosed with PCa and high grade PCa (HGPCa, Gleason score ≥8). WHR was an independent risk factor for both PCa (OR = 1.07 95%Cl 1.03–1.11) and HGPCa (OR = 1.14 95%Cl 1.09–1.19) detection, while BMI had no relationship with either PCa or HGPCa detection. Adding WHR to a multivariable model increased the AUC for detecting HGPCa from 0.66 (95%Cl 0.60–0.72) to 0.71 (95%Cl 0.65–0.76). In this Chinese cohort, WHR was significantly predictive of PCa and HGPCa. Adding WHR to a multivariable model increased the diagnostic accuracy for detecting HGPCa. If confirmed, including WHR measurement may improve PCa and HGPCa detection. PMID:28272469

  4. Geographic variation in human papillomavirus–related oropharyngeal cancer: Data from 4 multinational randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Natalie; Compton, Natalie; Robinson, Max; Powell, Ned; Biswas–Baldwin, Nigel; Paleri, Vindh; Hartley, Andrew; Fresco, Lydia; Al‐Booz, Hoda; Junor, Elizabeth; El‐Hariry, Iman; Roberts, Sally; Harrington, Kevin; Ang, K. Kian; Dunn, Janet; Woodman, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There are variations in the proportions of head and neck cancers caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) between countries and regions. It is unclear if these are true variations or due to different study designs and assays. Methods We tested formalin‐fixed paraffin‐embedded diagnostic biopsies for p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV‐DNA (by polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and in situ hybridization [ISH]) using validated protocols on samples from 801 patients with head and neck cancer recruited prospectively between 2006 and 2011 in 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results Twenty‐one percent of patients (170 of 801) showed both HPV‐DNA and p16‐positivity, detected almost exclusively in oropharyngeal cancer (55%; 15 of 302); and only 1% of the patients (5 of 499) with nonoropharyngeal cancer were HPV positive. HPV‐positive oropharyngeal cancer differed between Western and Eastern Europe (37%, 155 of 422 vs 6%, 8 of 144; p < .0001) and between Western Europe and Asia (37% vs 2%; 4 of 217; p < .0001). Other independent determinants of HPV positivity were tumor site and smoking. Conclusion This is the first study to establish geographic variability as an independent risk factor in HPV‐positive oropharyngeal cancer prevalence, with higher prevalence in Western Europe. © 2016 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1863–E1869, 2016 PMID:26749143

  5. Age, Gender and R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score do not Improve the Accuracy of a Risk Stratification Algorithm Based on Biopsy and Mass Size for Assigning Surveillance versus Treatment of Renal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takahiro; Hafez, Khaled S; Miller, David C; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Todd M; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Weizer, Alon Z; Caoili, Elaine M; Ellis, James H; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Wolf, J Stuart

    2016-03-01

    A previously published risk stratification algorithm based on renal mass biopsy and radiographic mass size was useful to designate surveillance vs the need for immediate treatment of small renal masses. Nonetheless, there were some incorrect assignments, most notably when renal mass biopsy indicated low risk malignancy but final pathology revealed high risk malignancy. We studied other factors that might improve the accuracy of this algorithm. For 202 clinically localized small renal masses in a total of 200 patients with available R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, hilar tumor touching main renal artery or vein and location relative to polar lines) nephrometry score, preoperative renal mass biopsy and final pathology we assessed the accuracy of management assignment (surveillance vs treatment) based on the previously published risk stratification algorithm as confirmed by final pathology. Logistic regression was used to determine whether other factors (age, gender, R.E.N.A.L. score, R.E.N.A.L. score components and nomograms based on R.E.N.A.L. score) could improve assignment. Of the 202 small renal masses 53 (26%) were assigned to surveillance and 149 (74%) were assigned to treatment by the risk stratification algorithm. Of the 53 lesions assigned to surveillance 25 (47%) had benign/favorable renal mass biopsy histology while in 28 (53%) intermediate renal mass biopsy histology showed a mass size less than 2 cm. Nine of these 53 masses (17%) were incorrectly assigned to surveillance in that final pathology indicated the need for treatment (ie intermediate histology and a mass greater than 2 cm or unfavorable histology). Final pathology confirmed a correct assignment in all 149 masses assigned to treatment. None of the additional parameters assessed improved assignment with statistical significance. Age, gender, R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score, R.E.N.A.L. score components and nomograms

  6. 22G versus 25G biopsy needles for EUS-guided tissue sampling of solid pancreatic masses: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Young Sik; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Noh, Dong Hyo; Park, Joo Kyung; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Jong Kyun; Jang, Kee-Taek

    2017-09-12

    No comparative study of 22-gauge biopsy needles (PC22) and 25-gauge biopsy needles (PC25) has been conducted. We prospectively compared the diagnostic accuracy of PC22 and PC25 in patients with pancreatic and peripancreatic solid masses. We conducted a randomized noninferiority clinical study from January 2013 to May 2014 at Samsung Medical Center. A cytological and histological specimen of each pass was analyzed separately by an experienced pathologist. The primary outcome was to assess the diagnostic accuracy using the PC22 or PC25. Secondary outcomes included the optimal number of passes for adequate diagnosis, core specimen yield, sample adequacy, and complication rates. Diagnostic accuracy of combining cytology with histology in three cumulative passes was 97.1% (100/103) for the PC22 and 91.3% (94/103) for the PC25 group. Thus, noninferiority of PC25 to PC22 was not shown with a 10% noninferiority margin (difference, -5.8%; 95% CI, -12.1 to -0.5%). In a pairwise comparison with each needle type, two passes was non-inferior to three passes in the PC22 (96.1% vs. 97.1%; difference, -0.97%; 95% CI -6.63 to 4.69%) but noninferiority of two passes to three passes was not shown in the PC25 group (87.4% vs. 91.3%; difference, -3.88%; 95% CI, -13.5 to 5.7%). Non-inferiority of PC25 to PC22 diagnostic accuracy was not observed for solid pancreatic or peripancreatic masses without on-site cytology. PC22 may be a more ideal device because only two PC22 needle passes was sufficient to establish an adequate diagnosis, whereas PC25 required three or more needle passes.

  7. Comparison of molecular methods for detection of HPV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Douglas W; Allen, Richard A; Caughron, Samuel K; Melby, Melissa; Moore, William E; Gillies, Elizabeth M; Marlar, Richard A; Dunn, Terence S

    2010-12-01

    Substantial molecular evidence exists to implicate human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of a subset of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Several studies have shown that HPV-associated oral/oropharyngeal tumors differ etiologically, biologically, and clinically from those that lack the virus. HPV infection confers a significant survival benefit; therefore, HPV detection in tumors could be used to risk-stratify patients and drive optimum treatment strategies. We explored the clinical utility of 6 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based or signal amplification-based methods in the detection of HPV in 68 invasive oral/oropharyngeal SSCs and 10 reactive tonsil specimens. Agreement for HPV16 results among the 5 different assays capable of detecting this genotype was substantial (multirater κ=0.72). Only moderate agreement was noted for the 3 assays capable of detecting HPV18 (multirater κ=0.43). HPV results for each assay were evaluated relative to a "majority" HPV result derived from the results of all the detection methods. An HPV16 E6 PCR assay showed the highest concordance with adjudicated consensus HPV16 results (98.7%; κ=0.97), followed by the TaqMan (93.4%; κ=0.87), Linear Array (92.1%; κ=0.84), and E7 PCR (92.1%; κ=0.84) assays, all of which had agreements exceeding 90%, whereas the HPV16/18 Invader assay was lower (85.5%; κ=0.71). The presence of high-risk HPV in a minority of "normal" tonsillar tissues may confound assessment of the virus in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma biopsies using in vitro amplification methods.

  8. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels.

  9. Complications of oropharyngeal dysphagia: aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Clavé, Pere

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of aspiration pneumonia (AP) are poorly defined. They increase in direct relation with age and underlying diseases. The pathogenesis of AP presumes the contribution of risk factors that alter swallowing function and predispose to the oropharyngeal bacterial colonization. The microbial etiology of AP involves Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae for community-acquired AP and Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in nosocomial pneumonia. It is worth bearing in mind the relative unimportance of anaerobic bacteria in AP. When we choose the empirical antibiotic treatment, we have to consider some pathogens identified in oropharyngeal flora. Empirical treatment with antianaerobics should only be used in certain patients. According to some known risks factors, the prevention of AP should include measures in order to avoid it.

  10. Management of dysphagia in advanced oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Jamie L; McClement, Susan E; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2007-05-01

    Individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer often experience dysphagia as a result of their illness and its treatment. Research consistently demonstrates that dysphagia and difficulty with oral intake have many implications, including a negative impact on quality of life. Nurses are in a key position to provide support and initiate appropriate interventions for individuals with dysphagia. Using the Human Response to Illness model (Mitchell et al, 1991) as an organising framework, this paper presents a critical review of the empirical literature regarding dysphagia in individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer that will: i) provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of dysphagia; ii) identify current gaps in our knowledge; and iii) establish the foundation for appropriate evidence-based interventions to optimise functioning and quality of life in this patient population.

  11. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway for difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahito, Shinji; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Eguchi, Satoru; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with airway management are often caused by anatomic abnormalities due to previous oral surgery. We performed general anesthesia for a patient who had undergone several operations such as hemisection of the mandible and reconstructive surgery with a deltopectoralis flap, resulting in severe maxillofacial deformation. This made it impossible to ventilate with a face mask and to intubate in the normal way. An attempt at oral awake intubation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unsuccessful because of severe anatomical abnormality of the neck. We therefore decided to perform retrograde intubation and selected the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) for airway management. We inserted the COPA, not through the patient's mouth but through the abnormal oropharyngeal space. Retrograde nasal intubation was accomplished with controlled ventilation through the COPA, which proved to be very useful for this difficult airway management during tracheal intubation even though the method was unusual.

  12. Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer in Women.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Rose M; Gerhardt, Jill; Eisele, Cheryle

    2016-05-01

    The number of women diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) is increasing in the United States. Educating health care providers and women about the link between HPV and oropharyngeal cancers can aid in earlier diagnosis and treatment. This article discusses the etiology and clinical presentation of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer, noting distinctions between the 2 types. Recommendations for screening and prevention are provided. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Confirmation of Sentinel Lymph Node Identity by Analysis of Fine-Needle Biopsy Samples Using Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Alison; Dawson, Michael; Doble, Philip; Scolyer, Richard A.; Bourne, Roger; Li, Ling-Xi L.; Murali, Rajmohan; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Lean, Cynthia L.; Uren, Roger F.

    2008-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique is a reliable means of determining the tumor-harboring status of regional lymph nodes in melanoma patients. When technetium 99 m-labeled antimony trisulfide colloid (99 mTc-Sb2S3) particles are used to perform preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for SLN identification, they are retained in the SLN but are absent or present in only tiny amounts in non-SLNs. The present study investigated the potential for a novel means of assessing the accuracy of surgical identification of SLNs. This involved the use of inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze antimony concentrations in fine-needle biopsy (FNB) samples from surgically procured lymph nodes. Methods A total of 47 FNB samples from surgically excised lymph nodes (32 SLNs and 15 non-SLNs) were collected. The SLNs were localized by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy that used 99 mTc-Sb2S3, blue dye, and gamma probe techniques. The concentrations of antimony were measured in the FNB samples by ICP-MS. Results The mean and median antimony concentrations (in parts per billion) were .898 and .451 in the SLNs, and .015 and .068 in the non-SLNs, the differences being highly statistically significant (P < .00005). Conclusions Our results show that ICP-MS analysis of antimony concentrations in FNB specimens from lymph nodes can accurately confirm the identity of SLNs. Used in conjunction with techniques such as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the nonsurgical evaluation of SLNs, ICP-MS analysis of antimony concentrations in FNB samples could potentially serve as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery and histopathologic evaluation to objectively classify a given node as sentinel or nonsentinel and determine its tumor-harboring status. PMID:18172734

  14. Screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ found on stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy of suspicious microcalcifications without mass: radiological-histological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Piotr; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Halon, Agnieszka; Matkowski, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Commonly identified on screening mammography breast microcalcifications are the predominant manifestation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinico-radiological features and histological findings in patients with screen-detected DCIS. Patients and methods Consecutive 127 patients with pure DCIS found on stereotactic vacuum-assisted biopsy of screen-detected suspicious microcalcifications without mass entered the study. Patient age, type and distribution of microcalcifications, DCIS nuclear grade (NG) and the presence of comedonecrosis were investigated. Association between parameters was statistically analysed with P < 0.05 as a significance level. Results. Powdery microcalcifications were most often clustered while regional were most common of casting-type (P < 0.001). High, intermediate and low NG of DCIS was significantly related to casting-type, crushed stone-like and powdery microcalcifications, respectively (P < 0.01). Low and intermediate NG DCIS were the most common in clustered and grouped microcalcifications while high NG DCIS was the most often when regional distribution was observed (P < 0.05). Comedonecrosis was significantly more common in high NG DCIS (P < 0.01). The association between comedonecrosis and type of microcalcifications was not significant, but with their distribution was close to the significance level (P = 0.07). Patient age was not significantly related to imaging or histological findings. Conclusions The association between pattern of mammographic microcalcifications and histological findings related to more aggressive disease can be helpful in optimal surgery planning in patients with screen-detected DCIS, regarding the extent of breast intervention and consideration of synchronous sentinel node biopsy. PMID:27247546

  15. Determination of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol in human fat biopsies from marihuana users by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Norén, K; Sjövall, J; Halldin, M M

    1989-01-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for analysis of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) in human fat samples is described. The fat sample, obtained from heavy marihuana users 1 week before and 4 weeks after smoking, is homogenized in hexane + 2-propanol, centrifuged, and the supernatant mixed with Lipidex 5000. The solvent is evaporated and the dried gel is packed in a glass column. delta 1-THC is eluted from the column with methanol + water + acetic acid, diluted with water and the eluent is passed through a bed of Octadecylsilane-bonded silica. After washing and drying, the retained delta 1-THC is eluted with hexane, derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyl-dimethysilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and finally purified by HPLC on an Octadecyl Sl 100 column in methanol. The amount of delta 1-THC is determined by GC/MS, using selected ion monitoring, and a deuterated internal standard. The recovery of delta 1-THC is about 80%, and the concentration of delta 1-THC in the fat samples analysed ranged between 0.4 and 193 ng/g wet tissue.

  16. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alters quality of life.

    PubMed

    Paris, G; Martinaud, O; Petit, A; Cuvelier, A; Hannequin, D; Roppeneck, P; Verin, E

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most important complications encountered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our aim was to determine whether oropharyngeal dysphagia impacted the quality of life (QoL) of patients with ALS. Thirty consecutive patients were recruited (31-82 years, 18 men). Swallowing function was evaluated using a standardised videofluoroscopic barium swallow. All the patients completed a specific questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL) immediately after the videofluoroscopy. The results of dysphagia outcome severity scale separated 14 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 16 with normal swallowing function. There was no difference in the average age, weight and body mass index of the two groups (dysphagic patients: 68 ± 11 kg versus non-dysphagic patients: 69 ± 14 kg). Most of the dysphagic patients had a bulbar affection based on their Norris scores which determine the importance of cranial nerves illness (20 ± 8), significantly lower than those of the non-dysphagic patients (35 ± 5) (P < 0·0001). There was no difference in the neurological peripheral symptoms evaluated by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale scores (dysphagic patients: 26 ± 7 versus non-dysphagic patients: 27 ± 8) (ns). The swallowing quality of life questionnaire revealed that the dysphagic patients had significant burden (P < 0·001). They were affected by the necessity to applied a food selection (P < 0·01), by the increase in eating duration (P < 0·05) and described a decrease in eating desire (P < 0·05). They complained of fear regarding the risk of dysphagia (P < 0·05). They also described difficulties with oral communication (P < 0·001). All of those complained about dysphagia which impacted directly mental health (P < 0·05) and social life (P < 0·05). In conclusion, oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common symptom accompanying ALS, which alters the patient's QoL, especially social health. © 2012

  17. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of Histologic Core Portions Acquired from a Core Biopsy Needle and a Conventional Needle in Solid Mass Lesions: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ban Seok; Cho, Chang-Min; Jung, Min Kyu; Jang, Jung Sik; Bae, Han Ik

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The superiority of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) over EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) remains controversial. Given the lack of studies analyzing histologic specimens acquired from EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA, we compared the proportion of the histologic core obtained from both techniques. Methods A total of 58 consecutive patients with solid mass lesions were enrolled and randomly assigned to the EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB groups. The opposite needle was used after the failure of core tissue acquisition using the initial needle with up to three passes. Using computerized analyses of the scanned histologic slide, the overall area and the area of the histologic core portion in specimens obtained by the two techniques were compared. Results No significant differences were identified between the two groups with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. Fewer needle passes were required to obtain core specimens in the FNB group (p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of histologic core (11.8%±19.5% vs 8.0%±11.1%, p=0.376) or in the diagnostic accuracy (80.6% vs 81.5%, p=0.935) between two groups. Conclusions The proportion of histologic core and the diagnostic accuracy were comparable between the FNB and FNA groups. However, fewer needle passes were required to establish an accurate diagnosis in EUS-FNB. PMID:28208006

  19. Comparison of Histologic Core Portions Acquired from a Core Biopsy Needle and a Conventional Needle in Solid Mass Lesions: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ban Seok; Cho, Chang-Min; Jung, Min Kyu; Jang, Jung Sik; Bae, Han Ik

    2017-07-15

    The superiority of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) over EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) remains controversial. Given the lack of studies analyzing histologic specimens acquired from EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA, we compared the proportion of the histologic core obtained from both techniques. A total of 58 consecutive patients with solid mass lesions were enrolled and randomly assigned to the EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB groups. The opposite needle was used after the failure of core tissue acquisition using the initial needle with up to three passes. Using computerized analyses of the scanned histologic slide, the overall area and the area of the histologic core portion in specimens obtained by the two techniques were compared. No significant differences were identified between the two groups with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics. Fewer needle passes were required to obtain core specimens in the FNB group (p<0.001). There were no differences in the proportion of histologic core (11.8%±19.5% vs 8.0%±11.1%, p=0.376) or in the diagnostic accuracy (80.6% vs 81.5%, p=0.935) between two groups. The proportion of histologic core and the diagnostic accuracy were comparable between the FNB and FNA groups. However, fewer needle passes were required to establish an accurate diagnosis in EUS-FNB.

  20. Direct Identification of an HPV-16 Tumor Antigen from Cervical Cancer Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Derin B.; Reinhold, Bruce; Lee, Sun Young; Zhang, Guanglan; Lank, Simon; O’Connor, David H.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Brusic, Vladimir; Kim, Seung Jo; Reinherz, Ellis L.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) is the worldwide cause of many cancers, including cervical, anal, vulval, vaginal, penile, and oropharyngeal. Since T cells naturally eliminate the majority of chronic HPV infections by recognizing epitopes displayed on virally altered epithelium, we exploited Poisson detection mass spectrometry (MS3) to identify those epitopes and inform future T cell-based vaccine design. Nine cervical cancer biopsies from HPV-16 positive HLA-A*02 patients were obtained, histopathology determined, and E7 oncogene PCR-amplified from tumor DNA and sequenced. Conservation of E7 oncogene coding segments was found in all tumors. MS3 analysis of HLA-A*02 immunoprecipitates detected E711–19 peptide (YMLDLQPET) in seven of the nine tumor biopsies. The remaining two samples were E711–19 negative and lacked the HLA-A*02 binding GILT thioreductase peptide despite possessing binding-competent HLA-A*02 alleles. Thus, the conserved E711–19 peptide is a dominant HLA-A*02 binding tumor antigen in HPV-16 transformed cervical squamous and adenocarcinomas. Findings that a minority of HLA-A*02:01 tumors lack expression of both E711–19 and a peptide from a thioreductase important in processing of cysteine-rich proteins like E7 underscore the value of physical detection, define a potential additional tumor escape mechanism and have implications for therapeutic cancer vaccine development. PMID:22566864

  1. Assessment of the contamination problems resulting from the use of stainless steel needles in liver biopsies by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Imre

    2006-11-01

    Percutaneous human liver biopsies taken from living patients could not be repeated; therefore considerable contamination was indirectly disproved. In the present study, the possible contamination of biopsy samples during sample collection was determined using a porcine liver model. Portions of porcine liver were cut by a quartz blade and treated the same as the steel needle biopsy samples. Concentrations determined in samples taken by a quartz device represented the non-contaminated values and were used to determine reproducibility of measurement and intra-individual variations. Additionally, multiple samples taken from a human liver of a patient suffering steatosis during autopsy were used to determine intra-individual variation of element concentrations. Concentration data of non-contaminated samples were compared to data of steel needle biopsy samples. To investigate the possible release of elements from the steel needles the samples were allowed to contact with the needle for different time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for simultaneous determination of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo and Pb because of the very low sample demand of the two selected techniques. Although the steel needles in the present study could not be substituted by polypropylene or Teflon utensils, it was demonstrated that the application of needle biopsy sampling in the reported analysis does not involve measurable contamination if contact time is kept to several minutes as usual in the clinical practice.

  2. Oropharyngeal perinatal colonization by human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Torices, María Soledad; Corrales-Millan, Rocío; Hijona-Elosegui, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common human sexually transmitted disease. It is clinically relevant because this condition is necessary for the development of epithelial cervical cancer, and it is also a factor closely associated with the occurrence of diverse tumours and various benign and malignant lesions of the head and neck area. The infective mechanism in most of these cases is associated with sexual intercourse, but there is recent scientific evidence suggesting that HPV infection may also be acquired by other routes of infection not necessarily linked to sexual contact. One of them is vertical transmission from mother to child, either during pregnancy or at the time of delivery. The aim of our research was to study maternal-foetal HPV transmission during childbirth in detail, establishing the rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV in vaginal deliveries. The presence and type of HPV viral DNA at the time of delivery in samples of maternal cervical secretions, amniotic fluid, venous cord blood samples and neonatal oropharynx in pregnant women (and their babies) were determined. The rate of oropharyngeal neonatal HPV colonization in vaginal deliveries was 58.24%. The maternal and neonatal HPV colonization mechanism is essentially, but not exclusively, transvaginal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  3. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: neurogenic etiology and manifestation.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Swapna; Nair, Prem G; Thomas, Philip; Tyagi, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    To determine the type, severity and manifestation of dysphagia in patients with neurogenic etiology. Clinical documentation was done on the different etiologies, its manifestation, assessment findings and management strategies taken for patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia who were referred for assessment and management of dysphagia over a period of three months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Flexible endoscopic examination was done in all the patients. The severity of dysphagia in these patients were graded based on Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). A total of 53 patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia were evaluated by an otolaryngologist and a speech language pathologist over a period of three months. The grading of severity based on GUSS for these patients were done. There were 30 patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury due to various etiologies, one patient with Neurofibroma-vestibular schwanoma who underwent surgical excision, 16 patients with stroke, two patients with traumatic brain injury, two patients with Parkinsonism and two patients with myasthenia gravis. The manifestation of dysphagia was mainly in the form of prolonged masticatory time, oral transit time, and increased number of swallows required for each bolus, cricopharyngeal spasms and aspiration. Among the dysphagia patients with neurogenic etiology, dysphagia is manifested with a gradual onset and is found to have a progressive course in degenerative disorders. Morbidity and mortality may be reduced with early identification and management of neurogenic dysphagia.

  4. Racial Survival Disparity in Head and Neck Cancer Results from Low Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Black Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Settle, Kathleen; Posner, Marshall R.; Schumaker, Lisa M.; Tan, Ming; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Goloubeva, Olga; Strome, Scott E.; Haddad, Robert I.; Patel, Shital S.; Cambell, Earl V.; Sarlis, Nicholas; Lorch, Jochen; Cullen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is greater for blacks than for whites, especially in oropharyngeal cases. We previously showed retrospectively that disease-free survival was significantly greater in white than in black SCCHN patients treated with chemoradiation, the greatest difference occurring in the oropharyngeal subgroup. Oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in incidence and in its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients have significantly better outcomes (versus HPV-negative). These collective data led to the present analyses of overall survival (OS) in our retrospective cohort and of OS and HPV status (tested prospectively in pretreatment biopsy specimens) in the phase 3, multicenter TAX 324 trial of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in SCCHN patients. Median OS in the retrospective cohort of 106 white and 95 black SCCHN patients was 52.1 months (white) versus only 23.7 months (black; P = 0.009), due entirely to OS in the subgroup of patients with oropharyngeal cancer—69.4 months (whites) versus 25.2 months (blacks; P = 0.0006); no significant difference by race occurred in survival of non-oropharyngeal SCCHN (P = 0.58). In TAX 324, 196 white patients and 28 black patients could be assessed for HPV status. Median OS was significantly worse for black patients (20.9 months) than for white patients (70.6 months; P = 0.03) and dramatically improved in HPV-positive (not reached) versus HPV-negative (26.6 months, 5.1 hazard ratio) oropharyngeal patients (P < 0.0001), 49% of whom were HPV-16 positive. Overall, HPV positivity was 34% in white versus 4% in black patients (P = 0.0004). Survival was similar for black and white HPV-negative patients (P = 0.56). This is the first prospective assessment of confirmed HPV status in black versus white SCCHN patients. Worse OS for black SCCHN patients was driven by oropharyngeal cancer outcomes, and that for

  5. Racial survival disparity in head and neck cancer results from low prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in black oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Settle, Kathleen; Posner, Marshall R; Schumaker, Lisa M; Tan, Ming; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Goloubeva, Olga; Strome, Scott E; Haddad, Robert I; Patel, Shital S; Cambell, Earl V; Sarlis, Nicholas; Lorch, Jochen; Cullen, Kevin J

    2009-09-01

    The burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is greater for blacks than for whites, especially in oropharyngeal cases. We previously showed retrospectively that disease-free survival was significantly greater in white than in black SCCHN patients treated with chemoradiation, the greatest difference occurring in the oropharyngeal subgroup. Oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in incidence and in its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients have significantly better outcomes (versus HPV-negative). These collective data led to the present analyses of overall survival (OS) in our retrospective cohort and of OS and HPV status (tested prospectively in pretreatment biopsy specimens) in the phase 3, multicenter TAX 324 trial of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in SCCHN patients. Median OS in the retrospective cohort of 106 white and 95 black SCCHN patients was 52.1 months (white) versus only 23.7 months (black; P = 0.009), due entirely to OS in the subgroup of patients with oropharyngeal cancer--69.4 months (whites) versus 25.2 months (blacks; P = 0.0006); no significant difference by race occurred in survival of non-oropharyngeal SCCHN (P = 0.58). In TAX 324, 196 white patients and 28 black patients could be assessed for HPV status. Median OS was significantly worse for black patients (20.9 months) than for white patients (70.6 months; P = 0.03) and dramatically improved in HPV-positive (not reached) versus HPV-negative (26.6 months, 5.1 hazard ratio) oropharyngeal patients (P < 0.0001), 49% of whom were HPV-16 positive. Overall, HPV positivity was 34% in white versus 4% in black patients (P = 0.0004). Survival was similar for black and white HPV-negative patients (P = 0.56). This is the first prospective assessment of confirmed HPV status in black versus white SCCHN patients. Worse OS for black SCCHN patients was driven by oropharyngeal cancer outcomes, and that for

  6. Bone biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  7. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  8. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the pleural membrane. Pleural biopsy can diagnose tuberculosis , cancer, and other diseases. If this type of pleural biopsy is not enough to make a diagnosis, you may need a surgical biopsy of the ...

  9. Multi-quadrant biopsy technique improves diagnostic ability in large heterogeneous renal masses. Abel EJ, Heckman JE, Hinshaw L, Best S, Lubner M, Jarrard DF, Downs TM, Nakada SY, Lee FT Jr, Huang W, Ziemlewicz T.J Urol. 2015 Oct;194(4):886-91. [Epub 2015 Mar 30]. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.03.106.

    PubMed

    Jay, Raman; Heckman, J E; Hinshaw, L; Best, S; Lubner, M; Jarrard, D F; Downs, T M; Nakada, S Y; Lee, F T; Huang, W; Ziemlewicz, T

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous biopsy obtained from a single location is prone to sampling error in large heterogeneous renal masses, leading to nondiagnostic results or failure to detect poor prognostic features. We evaluated the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for large renal masses using a modified multi-quadrant technique vs. a standard biopsy technique. Clinical and pathological data for all patients with cT2 or greater renal masses who underwent percutaneous biopsy from 2009 to 2014 were reviewed. The multi-quadrant technique was defined as multiple core biopsies from at least 4 separate solid enhancing areas in the tumor. The incidence of nondiagnostic findings, sarcomatoid features and procedural complications was recorded, and concordance between biopsy specimens and nephrectomy pathology was compared. A total of 122 biopsies were performed for 117 tumors in 116 patients (46 using the standard biopsy technique and 76 using the multi-quadrant technique). Median tumor size was 10cm (IQR: 8-12). Biopsy was nondiagnostic in 5 of 46 (10.9%) standard and 0 of 76 (0%) multi-quadrant biopsies (P = 0.007). Renal cell carcinoma was identified in 96 of 115 (82.0%) tumors and nonrenal cell carcinoma tumors were identified in 21 (18.0%). One complication occurred using the standard biopsy technique and no complications were reported using the multi-quadrant technique. Sarcomatoid features were present in 23 of 96 (23.9%) large renal cell carcinomas studied. Sensitivity for identifying sarcomatoid features was higher using the multi-quadrant technique compared to the standard biopsy technique at 13 of 15 (86.7%) vs. 2 of 8 (25.0%) (P = 0.0062). The multi-quadrant percutaneous biopsy technique increases the ability to identify aggressive pathological features in large renal tumors and decreases nondiagnostic biopsy rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Pediatric transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal malignancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wine, Todd M; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Maurer, Scott H; Mehta, Deepak K

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of oropharyngeal malignancy is associated with numerous functional morbidities. Transoral robotic surgery has been used with increased frequency in adult oropharyngeal malignancy. The benefits include decreased surgical morbidity and improved functional outcomes. Use of transoral robotic has been limited in children. This case represents our experience with a 17-month old child who was diagnosed with a high-grade undifferentiated sarcoma of the soft palate. She was able to be successfully treated with transoral robotic surgery as a part of her multimodal therapy, representing the first case of transoral robotic surgery for an oropharyngeal malignancy in a young child. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between oral HPV16 infection and cytopathology: evaluation of an oropharyngeal “Pap-test equivalent” in high-risk populations

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Carole; Rosenthal, Barbara T.; Clark, Douglas P.; Gillison, Maura L.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for the rising incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC) in the United States (U.S.), and yet, no screening strategies have been evaluated. Secondary prevention by means of HPV detection and cervical cytology has led to a decline in cervical cancer incidence in the U.S. Here, we explored an analogous strategy by evaluating associations between HPV16 infection, cytopathology and histopathology in two populations at elevated risk for OSCC. In the first, a cross-sectional study population (PAP1), cytology specimens were collected by means of brush biopsy from patients presenting with oropharyngeal abnormalities. In the second (PAP2), a nested case-control study, bilateral tonsillar cytology samples were collected at 12-month intervals from HIV-infected individuals. The presence of cytopathological abnormality in HPV16-positive tonsil brush biopsies (cases) was compared to HPV16-negative samples (controls) matched on age and gender. HPV16 was detected in samples by consensus primer PCR and/or type-specific PCR. Univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate associations. In PAP1, HPV16 alone (OR 6.1, 95%CI 1.6–22.7) or in combination with abnormal cytology (OR 20, 95%CI 4.2–95.4) was associated with OSCC. In PAP2, 4.7% (72 of 1524) of tonsillar cytology specimens from HIV-infected individuals without oropharyngeal abnormalities were HPV16-positive. Tonsillar HPV16 infection was not associated with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), the only cytological abnormality identified. Therefore, HPV16 was associated with OSCC among individuals with accessible oropharyngeal lesions, but not with cytological evidence of dysplasia among high-risk individuals without such lesions. An oropharyngeal Pap-test equivalent may not be feasible, likely due to limitations in sampling the relevant tonsillar crypt epithelium. PMID:21836021

  12. Fetal Oropharyngeal and Neck Tumors: Determination of the Need for Ex-Utero Intrapartum Treatment Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Özgünen, Fatma Tuncay; Güleç, Ümran Küçükgöz; Evrüke, İsmail Cüneyt; Demir, Süleyman Cansun; Büyükkurt, Selim; Yapıcıoğlu, Hacer; İskit, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the ex-utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) applied to 3 of the 7 cases with oropharyngeal or neck masses and review the indicators of the need for an EXIT procedure. Case Report: Prenatal presentation, size and localization of the masses, existence of fetal hydrops and associated findings such as polyhydramnios, intraoperative managements, complications, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated through a retrospective analysis. Four cases had neck masses and three cases had oropharyngeal masses. Prenatal sonography was used as the main diagnostic tool for all patients. The median gestational age was 34.5 weeks at the time of diagnosis and 36 weeks at delivery. Polyhydramnios was observed in three of the seven cases and they were delivered prematurely. Interventions such as endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy were performed to provide patency of the airway during delivery by the EXIT procedure in three cases. Hemangioma was found in two cases, teratoma in two cases, lymphangioma in two cases and hamartoma in one case following pathological examination of the masses. Conclusion: The localization of mass, its characteristics, invasion (if it exists), and relation to the airway are the main factors used to determine the need for EXIT. The presence of polyhydramnios may be an important indicator to predict both the need for EXIT and fetal outcomes. PMID:26167350

  13. Management of oropharyngeal neurogenic dysphagia in adults.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Allen, Jacqui E

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews recent literature in the management of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) including assessment processes and treatments, with a specific focus on OPD as a result of stroke and Parkinson's disease. A large number of high-quality systematic reviews were published that provide an excellent summary of current evidence across assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders. There is building interest and knowledge in technology in both the understanding and treatment of OPD including functional MRI, manometry, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Neurologic disorders demonstrate a high prevalence of OPD resulting in significant decrement to health and healthcare costs. Novel technologies were reported in assessment and tracking of dysphagia as well as emerging innovative therapeutic options.

  14. Image-Guided Adrenal and Renal Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Karun V.; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Swerdlow, Daniel; DaSilva, Daniel; Beck, Avi; Jain, Nidhi; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Image-guided biopsy is a safe and well-established technique that is familiar to most interventional radiologists (IRs). Improvements in image-guidance, biopsy tools and biopsy techniques now routinely allow for safe biopsy of renal and adrenal lesions which traditionally were considered difficult to reach or technically challenging. Image-guided biopsy is used to establish the definitive tissue diagnosis in adrenal mass lesions that can not be fully characterized with imaging or laboratory tests alone. It is also used to establish definitive diagnosis in some cases of renal parenchymal disease and has an expanding role in diagnosis and characterization of renal masses prior to treatment. Although basic principles and techniques for image-guided needle biopsy are similar regardless of organ, this paper will highlight some technical considerations, indications and complications which are unique to the adrenal gland and kidney because of their anatomic location and physiologic features. PMID:20540919

  15. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ...

  16. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  17. Functional outcome assessment of adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Rosenbek, J C

    1998-01-01

    Neurologic and mechanical abnormalities of the oropharynx often result in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Assessment of dysphagia and its treatment has been limited largely to measurement of the biomechanical aspects of bolus flow. This article reviews the measurement tools in current use and in development for assessing oropharyngeal dysphagia in terms of the "value compass" for health services. A number of measurement needs for this clinical population are identified and discussed.

  18. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, George R.; Patel, Payal K.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Westbrook, Steven D.; Berg, Deborah; Erlandsen, Josh; Redding, Spencer W.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common problem in the HIV-infected population despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although Candida albicans is the most frequently implicated pathogen, other Candida spp. may also cause infection. The emergence of antifungal resistance within these causative yeasts, especially in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal infection or with long-term use of antifungal therapies, requires a working knowledge of alternative antifungal agents. Identification of the infecting organism and antifungal susceptibility testing enhances the ability of clinicians to prescribe appropriate antifungal therapy. Characterization of the responsible mechanisms has improved our understanding of the development of antifungal resistance and could enhance the management of these infections. Immune reconstitution has been shown to reduce rates of oropharyngeal candidiasis but few studies have evaluated the current impact of ART on the epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis and antifungal resistance in these patients. Preliminary results from an ongoing clinical study showed that in patients with advanced AIDS oral yeast colonization was extensive, occurring in 81.1% of the 122 patients studied and symptomatic infection occurred in a third. In addition, resistant yeasts were still common occurring in 25.3% of patients colonized with yeasts or with symptomatic infection. Thus, oropharyngeal candidasis remains a significant infection in advanced AIDS even with ART. Current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment, and mechanisms of antifungal resistance observed in oropharyngeal candidiasis are important in managing patients with this infection and are the focus of this review. PMID:20156694

  19. Serum trace elements in elderly frail patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Leibovitz, Arthur; Lubart, Emilia; Wainstein, Julio; Dror, Yosef; Segal, Refael

    2009-01-01

    Microelements have an important role in many vital enzymatic functions. Their optimal intake and serum concentration are not properly defined. For nursing home residents, this issue is further complicated by the high prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to measure microelement concentrations in 3 groups of elderly subjects that differ in their feeding methods and functional state. Forty-six frail elderly patients, in stable clinical condition, 15 on naso-gastric tube (NGT) feeding, 15 orally fed (OF), from skilled nursing departments were recruited to this study. As controls, we studied a group of 16 elderly independent ambulatory patients. A battery of 16 microelements was examined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The OF frail elderly patients had significantly lower levels of chromium as compared to the NGT fed and the control group. Both frail elderly groups had lower levels of zinc and copper as compared to the controls. In contrast, in the nursing groups, we found higher levels of aluminum, boron, barium, bromine and nickel. Elderly, in particular frail and disabled subjects, are vulnerable to insufficiency or overload of microelements. There is a need to evaluate the actual requirements for each microelement for this population.

  20. Bone lymphoma with multiple negative bone biopsies.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Mazursky, Konstantin; Husnain, Muhammad; Anwer, Faiz

    2017-09-01

    This article describes a 71-year-old man with right knee pain, prerenal azotemia, hypercalcemia, and a mass in the distal femur. Although testing, including bone marrow biopsy, initially ruled out myeloma, an open surgical biopsy eventually confirmed the diagnosis as lymphoma involving the bone with classic histologic findings of mature B-cell neoplasm of germinal cell origin.

  1. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  2. Photodynamic inactivation of oropharyngeal Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Postigo, Agustina; Bulacio, Lucía; Sortino, Maximiliano

    2014-09-25

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an infection frequent in immunocompromised patients. Photodynamic therapy is an alternative to conventional treatments, based on the utilization of compounds that inhibit or kill microorganisms only under the effect of light, process known as Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI). In the present study, PDI of Candida spp. by the natural product α-terthienyl (α-T) was investigated following the guidelines of CLSI M27-A3, under UV-A light irradiation. The optimal values of two variables, exposure irradiation time (ET) and distance to the irradiation source (DIS) were established by employing Design Expert Software (DES). For this purpose, a panel of Candida strains isolated from OPC (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei) was employed and optimal values were 5 min (ET) and between 6.06 and 6.43 cm (DIS) with a desirability factor of 0.989. α-T plus UV-A light in the optimal conditions caused a complete reduction in viable cells in 5 min which was demonstrated by viable cells reduction assays and confocal microscopy after vital staining (propidium iodide/fluorescein diacetate). The germ tube formation of C. albicans was inhibited by α-T at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Results showed that α-T plus UV-A light could constitute an alternative for OPC treatments at the optimal conditions determined here. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Oropharyngeal leprosy in art, history, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Scollard, D M; Skinsnes, O K

    1999-04-01

    Advanced lesions of the face, nasopharynx, and oropharynx have played an important role in the medical and social history of Hansen's disease. Renaissance artists included detailed portrayals of these lesions in some of their paintings, a testimony not only to their artistic skill and powers of observation but also to the common presence of these patients in European cities and towns of the period. The disease is now understood as a broad immunologic spectrum of host responses to Mycobacterium leprae, with a variety of clinical and pathologic manifestations in nerve, soft tissues, and bone. This review incorporates the findings of 2 extraordinary studies (one from Europe and the other from Japan) of pharyngeal and facial lesions. In the 1950s, studies of skeletal remains from the churchyard of a Danish leprosarium revealed a triad of maxillofacial lesions unique to leprosy and designated facies leprosa. In pre-World War II Japan, before effective treatment had been discovered, a prominent otorhinolaryngologist studying oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal lesions prepared watercolor illustrations of the natural progression of untreated Hansen's disease. As a result of effective antimicrobial therapy, such advanced lesions are now rarely seen, but the presenting signs and symptoms of leprosy still occasionally arise in the nasal and oral mucosa. The nasopharynx and oropharynx may be important early sites of inoculation and infection by M leprae, and they require additional emphasis in worldwide efforts toward early diagnosis and treatment of Hansen's disease.

  4. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  5. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  6. Oropharyngeal dermoid cyst in an infant with intermittent airway obstruction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias W; Haileselassie, Bereketeab; Kannan, Sujatha; Chen, Cynthia; Poretti, Andrea; Tunkel, David E; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2014-10-01

    Dermoid cysts are benign epithelial inclusions and cystic lesions that may occur in several locations including the oropharynx. We describe the case of a two-month-old baby girl who presented with progressive respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and feeding difficulties because of an oropharyngeal dermoid cyst. The child had an airway work-up that included laryngoscopy. However, the mass remained undetected. This is most likely explained by the mobile nature of the lesion, prolapsing into the high nasopharynx in supine position. In our patient, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), initially performed to rule out brainstem pathology, revealed an oropharyngeal dermoid cyst. This case shows the potential role of neuroimaging in the diagnostic work-up of a young child presenting with respiratory distress by excluding a central nervous system lesion and diagnosing an "unexpected" nasopharyngeal mass lesion. In addition, MRI allowed exclusion of skull base lesions of neural origin such as an anterior meningoencephalocele or heterotopic neuroglial tissue which would be managed differently from pharyngeal masses.

  7. What Are the Key Statistics about Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? The American ... increase the risk for these second cancers. For statistics related to survival, see the section Survival Rates ...

  8. Cryostimulation improves recovery from oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zart, Patrícia; Levy, Deborah Salle; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Mancopes, Renata; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo

    2013-01-01

     Stroke is considered one of the most frequent neurological causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia.  To determine the effect of cryostimulation on oropharyngeal sensitivity and, subsequently, on the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke.  Clinical and experimental study. The study enrolled 7 adult subjects, 6 men and 1 woman ranging from 28 to 64 years of age, with a diagnosis of stroke and current oropharyngeal dysphagia without any other underlying disease. The selected subjects underwent speech-language pathology evaluation and videofluoroscopic assessment of the dysphagia. The subjects were then treated with cryostimulation consisting of 10 applications to each structure (anterior faucial pillar, posterior oropharyngeal wall, soft palate, and back tongue) 3 times a day (for a total of 30 daily applications per structure) for 4 consecutive days. The patients were then re-evaluated based on the same criteria. The pre- and post-cryostimulation results of the clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluations were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test.  Cryostimulation had beneficial effects on oropharyngeal sensitivity in 6 of the 7 subjects. There was also a significant improvement in swallowing and in the premature escape in six subjects.  Cryostimulation increased sensitivity and subsequently improved the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. These effects were evident by both speech-language pathology and videofluoroscopic evaluation.

  9. Cryostimulation improves recovery from oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zart, Patrícia; Levy, Deborah Salle; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Mancopes, Renata; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Stroke is considered one of the most frequent neurological causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Aim: To determine the effect of cryostimulation on oropharyngeal sensitivity and, subsequently, on the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. Methods: Clinical and experimental study. The study enrolled 7 adult subjects, 6 men and 1 woman ranging from 28 to 64 years of age, with a diagnosis of stroke and current oropharyngeal dysphagia without any other underlying disease. The selected subjects underwent speech-language pathology evaluation and videofluoroscopic assessment of the dysphagia. The subjects were then treated with cryostimulation consisting of 10 applications to each structure (anterior faucial pillar, posterior oropharyngeal wall, soft palate, and back tongue) 3 times a day (for a total of 30 daily applications per structure) for 4 consecutive days. The patients were then re-evaluated based on the same criteria. The pre- and post-cryostimulation results of the clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluations were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Cryostimulation had beneficial effects on oropharyngeal sensitivity in 6 of the 7 subjects. There was also a significant improvement in swallowing and in the premature escape in six subjects. Conclusion: Cryostimulation increased sensitivity and subsequently improved the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. These effects were evident by both speech-language pathology and videofluoroscopic evaluation. PMID:25991991

  10. Standards for prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Taneja, Samir S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review A variety techniques have emerged for optimization of prostate biopsy. In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the most recent developments regarding the optimal systematic biopsy and sampling labeling along with multiparametric MRI and MR targeted biopsies. Recent findings The use of 10–12-core extended-sampling protocols increases cancer detection rates compared to traditional sextant sampling and reduces the likelihood that patients will require a repeat biopsy, ultimately allowing more accurate risk stratification without increasing the likelihood of detecting insignificant cancers. As the number of cores increases above 12 cores, the increase in diagnostic yield becomes marginal. However, limitations of this technique include undersampling, over-sampling, and the need for repetitive biopsy. MRI and MR-targeted biopsies have demonstrated superiority over systematic biopsies for the detection of clinically significant disease and representation of disease burden, while deploying fewer cores and may have applications in men undergoing initial or repeat biopsy and those with low risk cancer on or considering active surveillance. Summary A 12-core systematic biopsy that incorporates apical and far-lateral cores in the template distribution allows maximal cancer detection, avoidance of a repeat biopsy, while minimizing the detection of insignificant prostate cancers. MRI guided prostate biopsy has an evolving role in both initial and repeat prostate biopsy strategies, as well as active surveillance, potentially improving sampling efficiency, increasing detection of clinically significant cancers, and reducing detection of insignificant cancers. PMID:24451092

  11. Electrophysiological evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, C; Yuceyar, N; Aydogdu, I; Karasoy, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common feature of patients with myotonic dystrophy and is not usually perceived due to their emotional deficits and lack of interest. The aim was to show the existence and frequency of subclinical electrophysiological abnormalities in oropharyngeal swallowing and to clarify the mechanisms of dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy.
METHODS—Eighteen patients with myotonic dystrophy were examined for oropharyngeal phase of swallowing by clinical and electrophysiological methods. Ten patients had dysphagia whereas 11 patients had signs and symptoms reflecting CNS involvement. Four patients with myotonia congenita and 30 healthy volunteers served as controls. Laryngeal movements were detected by means of a piezoelectric sensor. EMG activities of the submental muscle (SM-EMG) and needle EMG of the cricopharyngeal muscle of the upper eosophageal sphincter (CP-EMG) were also recorded during swallowing.
RESULTS—In about 70% of the patients with myotonic dystrophy, the existence of oropharyngeal dysphagia was indicated objectively by means of the technique of "dysphagia limit" and by clinical evaluation. Duration of the swallowing reflex as defined by the laryngeal relocation time (0-2 time interval) and submental muscle excitation as a part of the swallowing reflex (A-C interval) were significantly prolonged in patients with myotonic dystrophy, especially in dysphagic patients. Triggering time of the swallowing reflex (A-0 interval) also showed significant prolongation, especially in the patients having both dysphagia and CNS involvement. During swallowing, CP muscle activity was abnormal in 40% of the patients with myotonic dystrophy.
CONCLUSION—Both myopathic weakness and myotonia encountered in oropharyngeal muscles play an important part in the oral and the pharyngeal phases of swallowing dysfunction in myotonic dystrophy. It was also suggested that CNS involvement might contribute to the delay of the triggering of the

  12. Focus Issue: Neck Dissection for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Moore, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The staging and prognosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is intimately tied to the status of the cervical lymph nodes. Due to the high risk for occult nodal disease, most clinicians recommend treating the neck for these primary tumors. While there are many modalities available, surgical resection of nodal disease offers both a therapeutic and a diagnostic intervention. We review the relevant anatomy, nodal drainage patterns, clinical workup, surgical management and common complications associated with neck dissection for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22586518

  13. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  14. Current and future techniques for human papilloma virus (HPV) testing in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qureishi, Ali; Mawby, Thomas; Fraser, Lisa; Shah, Ketan A; Møller, Henrik; Winter, Stuart

    2017-03-11

    Despite a reduction in smoking and alcohol consumption, the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is rising. This is attributed to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and screening for HPV is now recommended in all cases of OPSCC. Despite a variety of clinically available tests and new non-invasive test strategies there is no consensus on which technique is best. This review reports on current techniques for HPV detection in OPSCC and the clinical applicability of emerging techniques. Literature searches of Medline, Embase and clinicaltrials.gov using the search terms 'head and neck neoplasms', 'squamous cell carcinoma' and 'HPV testing' were performed. 45 studies were identified and included. p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC), HPV DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the commonest tests to determine HPV status. p16 IHC and HPV DNA PCR are highly sensitive whilst HPV DNA ISH is more specific, these techniques conventionally utilize surgical biopsies. New tests using PCR to screen fine needle aspirates, saliva, brush cytology and serum for HPV are promising but have variable sensitivity and specificity. These non-invasive samples avoid the morbidity of surgical biopsies and need for tissue blocks; their clinical role in screening and surveillance remains largely untested. Further work is needed to validate these tests and define their role.

  15. Nutritional status of older patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia in a chronic versus an acute clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Silvia; Roca, Maria; Costa, Alicia; Arreola, Viridiana; Ortega, Omar; Palomera, Elisabet; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Cabré, Mateu; Clavé, Pere

    2017-08-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent risk factor for malnutrition (MN) in older patients and both conditions are related to poor outcome. To explore the nutritional status in older patients with OD in a chronic and an acute clinical situation. We examined 95 older (≥70 years) patients with OD associated to chronic neurological diseases or aging, and 23 older patients with OD and acute community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with videofluoroscopy; and 15 older people without OD. We collected nutritional status, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)), anthropometric measurements, and biochemistry and bioimpedance for body composition. Functional status was assessed with the Barthel index. 1) Taking into consideration patients with OD with chronic conditions, 51.1% presented a MNA(®) ≤23.5; 16.7%, sarcopenia and a) reduced visceral and muscular protein compartments and fat compartment; b) muscular weakness c) intracellular water depletion, and d) reduced body weight. Patients with OD and MNA(®) ≤23 needed higher levels of nectar viscosity for a safe swallow and had increased oropharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosity. 2) Patients with OD and CAP, 69.5%, presented an MNA(®) ≤23.5 and 29.4% sarcopenia, the inflammatory response of the pneumonia adding to the more severe depletion in visceral protein and muscular mass. Prevalence of impaired nutritional status (malnutrition risk, and sarcopenia) among older patients with OD associated with either chronic or acute conditions is very high. In patients with OD and chronic diseases, poor nutritional status further impairs OD with an increase in oropharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosity. In the acute setting there is inflammation and an additional protein deficiency. These findings will help develop specific products both for OD and nutritional status in each specific clinical situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  16. Geometric systematic prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Doyoung; Chong, Xue; Kim, Chunwoo; Jun, Changhan; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The common sextant prostate biopsy schema lacks a three-dimensional (3D) geometric definition. The study objective was to determine the influence of the geometric distribution of the cores on the detection probability of prostate cancer (PCa). The detection probability of significant (>0.5 cm(3)) and insignificant (<0.2 cm(3)) tumors was quantified based on a novel 3D capsule model of the biopsy sample. The geometric distribution of the cores was optimized to maximize the probability of detecting significant cancer for various prostate sizes (20-100cm(3)), number of biopsy cores (6-40 cores) and biopsy core lengths (14-40 mm) for transrectal and transperineal biopsies. The detection of significant cancer can be improved by geometric optimization. With the current sextant biopsy, up to 20% of tumors may be missed at biopsy in a 20 cm(3) prostate due to the schema. Higher number and longer biopsy cores are required to sample with an equal detection probability in larger prostates. Higher number of cores increases both significant and insignificant tumor detection probability, but predominantly increases the detection of insignificant tumors. The study demonstrates mathematically that the geometric biopsy schema plays an important clinical role, and that increasing the number of biopsy cores is not necessarily helpful.

  17. Complications of prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Zapała, Lukasz; Cordeiro, Ernesto; Antoniewicz, Artur; Dimitriadis, Georgios; De Reijke, Theo

    2013-07-01

    Biopsy of the prostate is a common procedure with minor complications that are usually self-limited. However, if one considers that millions of men undergo biopsy worldwide, one realizes that although complication rate is low, the number of patients suffering from biopsy complications should not be underestimated and can be a clinically relevant problem for healthcare professionals. In this review, the authors present diagnosis and management of postbiopsy of prostate complications. Bleeding is the most common complication observed after prostate biopsy, but the use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not an absolute contraindication to prostate biopsy. Emerging resistance to ciprofloxacin is the most probable cause of the increasing risk of infectious complications after prostate biopsy. Even though extremely rare, fatal complications are possible and were described in case reports.

  18. Analysis of bone biopsies.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, J A; Difiore, R J; Tippens, J K

    1983-11-01

    The orthopedic surgeon is frequently confronted with the decision of when to perform a bone biopsy and whether to do a needle biopsy or an open biopsy. Frequently consultations are received from other services requesting bone biopsies with questionable indications. The indications and contraindications for performing bone biopsies are discussed as well as advantages and disadvantages of either closed or open technique. Four selective cases are discussed with illustrations. The challenge of undiagnosed osseous lesions is best met by rational evaluation of each individual case and coordinated with the team effort of the primary care physician, surgeon, pathologist, and radiologist. The decision for either an open or closed biopsy technique must be based on the experience and skills of the surgeon and pathologist.

  19. Utility of synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Synovial biopsies, gained either by blind needle biopsy or minimally invasive arthroscopy, offer additional information in certain clinical situations where routine assessment has not permitted a certain diagnosis. In research settings, synovial histology and modern applications of molecular biology increase our insight into pathogenesis and enable responses to treatment with new therapeutic agents to be assessed directly at the pathophysiological level. This review focuses on the diagnostic usefulness of synovial biopsies in the light of actual developments. PMID:19951395

  20. Biopsies in oncology.

    PubMed

    de Bazelaire, C; Coffin, A; Cohen, S; Scemama, A; de Kerviler, E

    2014-01-01

    Imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies in patients in oncology provide an accurate diagnosis of malignant tumors. Percutaneous biopsy results are improved by correct use of sampling procedures. The risks of percutaneous biopsy are low and its complications are generally moderate. These risks can be reduced using aids such as blund tip introducers, hydrodissection and correct patient positioning. The multidisciplinary team meetings dialogue between oncologist, surgeon and radiologist correctly defines the indications in order to improve the treatment strategies.

  1. Temporal Sequence of Swallow Events during the Oropharyngeal Swallow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendell, Dorie A.; Logemann, Jeri A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To (a) identify and characterize the temporal relation of selected structural movements during the oropharyngeal swallow across participants, (b) determine whether patterns of movement could be identified, and (c) determine whether the temporal relations were affected by aging and bolus characteristics. Method: Retrospective analysis of…

  2. [Health-related Quality of Life After Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Willers, J; Noack, V; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

    2015-08-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a diagnosis which means a change in life and even after successful treatment a tremendous reduction in the quality of life. Aim of this study is to analyse the health-related quality of life in patients with oropharyngeal cancer dependent on different treatment options. Charts of 256 patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer between 1997 and 2007 were analysed in a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria for this study has been fulfilled by 98 patients, 82 of these completed the study. Therefore, standardised questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 und EORTC QLQ-H&N35) have been used and 2 groups were compared: patients with primary radiochemotherapy (pRCT) vs. patients treated by an operation and adjuvant radiation. Most of the health-related quality of life domains in our patients were significantly reduced compared to the general population. There have been just very few significant differences in the quality of life domains in between the 2 groups. Health-related quality of life after treatment of oropharyngeal cancer is significantly compromised for these patients compared to the general population, but there have been no obvious differences depending on the compared treatment options. Only regarding the items "physical and cognitive functioning" patients after primary radiochemotherapy showed significantly better results and thus a better quality of life, despite the fact, that this group has a significantly advanced cancer stadium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy Images Female reproductive anatomy Colposcopy-directed biopsy Uterus References American College of ...

  4. [The development and clinical applications of automatic negative pressure gun for biopsy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Xin-min; Xie, Fu-an; Gao, Xinxiang; Zhuang, Yongze; Yu, Yinghao; Yu, Zihua; Zheng, Zhiyong; Ma, Jimin

    2002-01-01

    Using the new negative pressure biopsy technology, the automatic negative pressure gun and the specific puncture needle for the biopsy have been developed. Renal biopsies were conducted in 1136 cases, with the success rate being 99.9%, and 29 cases gross hematuria while the hepatic biopsies were conducted in 16 cases, mass biopsies in 3 cases with the success rates being 100% respectively. The biopsy gun has the advantages of easy manipulation, higher success rate and lower incidence of complications.

  5. Oropharyngeal carcinoma in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a role for HPV.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Elizabeth; Seaman, William T; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2009-06-01

    Incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) increased 3% annually from 1973 to 2001. OSCC's can be attributed to tobacco and alcohol, but 25% are unlinked to typical risks. Case-control studies on HPV detection in non-smoking/non-drinking (NS/ND) OSCC patients have not previously been performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether high-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with development of oral squamous malignancy in non-smokers/non-drinkers. A chart review of 802 OSCC patients from the UNC Pathology Archives (1995-2006) yielded 40 non-smoker/non-drinker subjects. Utilizing a case-control design, 18 cancer cases and 22 benign biopsy controls were consecutively identified. Biopsy tissue was subjected to (i) HPV-L1 consensus PCR and sequencing (ii) real-time PCR. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis was employed. Logistic regression analysis determined that cases were 6.1 (OR 95% CI, 1.3-28) times more likely to have HPV infection in their tumors than controls. High-risk HPV-DNA was readily detected in the tonsils and base of tongue (oropharynx) of 14/18 cases and 6/22 controls by both consensus and real-time PCR. Of high-risk HPV containing lesions, 85% (17/20) originated in the oropharynx (chi-square, p=0.03). High risk HPV was also detected in benign biopsies of the oropharynx in 30% (3/10) of individuals who had a previous oral cancer (chi-square, p=0.006). The infectious nature of OSCC in NS/ND was revealed by consistent detection of HPV, suggesting HPV's potential role in transforming oral epithelium, providing further evidence of the need to screen the oropharynx for HPV in NS/ND.

  6. Prospective evaluation of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate clinical, videofluoroscopic findings and clinical evolution of neurogenic dysphagia and to establish the prognostic factors. Prospective cohort study. Forty-eight patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and clinically-suspected oro-pharyngeal dysphagia were studied. Clinical evaluation of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia and videofluoroscopic examination were performed. Clinical evolution was based on feeding mode at discharge, the presence of respiratory complications and body mass index (BMI) at admission and at discharge. Sixty-five per cent of patients had impaired gag reflex and 44% cough during oral feeding. Videofluoroscopy revealed some type of disorder in 90% of cases: 65% in the oral phase and 73% in the pharyngeal phase (aspiration in 62.5%, being silent in 41%). At discharge, 45% were on normal diet, 27% on a modified oral diet, 14% combined oral intake and gastrostomy feeding and 14% were fed exclusively by gastrostomy. Feeding mode at discharge substantially correlated with RLCF score at admission (p=0.04) and with RLCF (p=0.009) and DRS (p=0.02) scores at discharge. Aspiration is very frequent in patients with severe TBI, being silent in almost half. Cognitive function evaluated with the RLCF is the best prognostic factor. At discharge, 72% of the patients were on oral food intake despite having severe TBI.

  7. The usefulness of toluidine staining as a diagnostic tool for precancerous and cancerous oropharyngeal and oral cavity lesions

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, E; Lombardo, N; L. Puzzo; Garozzo, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Toluidine blue stain is used as a marker to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression in order to improve early diagnosis of oropharyngeal carcinomas. This study focused on 45 oral mucosal lesions in 32 patients (13 female, 19 male). In 9 cases, multiple biopsies were collected. Of the 45 lesions examined, 26 (57.0%) were defined clinically benign, while 19 (42.3%) were defined as suspected lesions (premalignant or malignant). According to the clinical examination, the sensitivity was 53% (16/30) and for toluidine blue staining 96.2% (26/27) (p = 0.0007). The specificity was 80% (12/15) for clinical examination and 77.7% (14/15) for toluidine blue staining (p = 0.79). In conclusion toluidine blue stain has been shown to be a reliable aid when clinical examination is unable to differentiate lesions at high risk of progression and then it improves early diagnosis for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:20161875

  8. Biopsy of the right adrenal gland by the transhepatic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.; Bernardino, M.E.; Berkman, W.A.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Torres, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    A transhepatic computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of a right adrenal mass is described. This method is simpler to perform than the usual posterior biopsy carried out with the patient prone and is less likely to cause a complicating pneumothorax. In seven of eight patients with right adrenal masses, adrenal tissue was obtained and an accurate diagnosis was possible. No complications resulted.

  9. Cost minimization study of image-guided core biopsy versus surgical excisional biopsy for women with abnormal mammograms.

    PubMed

    Golub, Robert M; Bennett, Charles L; Stinson, Tammy; Venta, Luz; Morrow, Monica

    2004-06-15

    To describe the clinical and economic consequences of image-guided core biopsy versus surgical excisional biopsy of mammographically identified breast lesions. Clinical and economic data were collected for 1121 patients undergoing core biopsies and 501 patients undergoing surgical biopsies between 1996 and 1998. Lesions were classified according to mammographic degree of suspicion and type of radiographic abnormality. Costs were measured from the societal perspective. A decision analytic model was constructed, with probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Lesions diagnosed via core versus surgical biopsy were less likely to be masses (39% v 55%), less likely to be classified as high cancer suspicion (17% v 26%), and less likely to be treated with a single procedure (74% v 81%; P <.001 for each). Cancers diagnosed by a surgical biopsy were less likely to have had a single operative procedure (33% v 84%) and were associated with higher total costs whether mastectomy (US dollars 2775 v US dollars 1849) or lumpectomy (US dollars 2112 v US dollars 1365) was used. Sensitivity analysis showed core biopsy optimal in 95.4% of trials. Core biopsy was favored for low-suspicion lesions, calcifications, and masses, and overall for patients who underwent lumpectomy alone. Image-guided core biopsy can be cost-saving compared with surgical biopsy, particularly when the mammographic abnormality is classified as low suspicion or consists of calcifications or masses. Moving to a policy in which core biopsy is the preferred approach in these settings has the potential to result in significant cost savings.

  10. Dietary counselling and nutritional support in oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: persistent weight loss during 1-year follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Vlooswijk, C P; van Rooij, P H E; Kruize, J C; Schuring, H A; Al-Mamgani, A; de Roos, N M

    2016-01-01

    The need for dietary counselling and nutritional support in oropharyngeal cancer patients is generally accepted. However, evidence for the effectiveness is sparse. The aim of this study was to describe dietary counselling, nutritional support, body weight and toxicity during and after treatment, and investigate the effect of pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) on survival in oropharyngeal cancer patients. A retrospective chart review was made in 276 oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). End points were dietary consultations, weight loss, toxicity, overall survival and disease-free survival. Almost all oropharyngeal cancer patients received dietary counselling (94%) and nutritional support (99%). Dietary counselling decreased sharply shortly after treatment to 38% at 1 year after treatment. Overall weight loss increased during the first year of follow-up and ranged from 3% at start of RT, until 11% at 1 year after RT. Overall survival was significantly longer for patients with a BMI above average (P=0.01). Acute dysphagia (P=0.001), mucositis (P=0.000) and toxicity grade 3 (P=0.002) were significantly more prevalent in patients who had lost 10% or more of their body weight. This study showed that patients continue to lose body weight during and until 1 year after treatment, despite nutrition support and frequent dietetic consultation. A BMI above average appears to increase survival time. Future studies, preferably randomized trials, are needed to compare standard dietary counselling with more intensive dietary counselling that consists of earlier and/or prolonged treatment.

  11. Histopathological mapping of metastatic tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Denoth, Seraina; Broglie, Martina A; Haerle, Stephan K; Huber, Gerhard F; Haile, Sarah R; Soltermann, Alex; Jochum, Wolfram; Stoeckli, Sandro J

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a reliable technique for accurate determination of the cervical lymph node status in patients with early oral and oropharyngeal cancer but analyses on the distribution pattern of metastatic spread within sentinel lymph nodes are lacking. The localizations of carcinoma deposits were analyzed with a virtual microscope by creating digital images from the microscopic glass slides. Metastatic deposits were not randomly distributed within sentinel lymph nodes but were predominant in the central planes closer to the lymphatic inlet. Initial evaluation of the 4 most central slices achieved a high rate of 90% for the detection of micrometastases and of 80% for the detection of isolated tumor cells (ITCs). Based on the distribution we recommend an initial cut through the hilus and to proceed with the 4 most central 150-µm slices. Complete step sectioning is only required in case of a so far negative result. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  13. Nasal mucosal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tissue in the nose is normal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different ... Avoid blowing your nose after the biopsy. Do ...

  14. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition that causes the right side ...

  15. Open pleural biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... due to a virus, fungus, or parasite Mesothelioma Tuberculosis Risks There is a slight chance of: Air ... More Metastatic pleural tumor Pleural needle biopsy Pulmonary tuberculosis Tumor Review Date 11/4/2014 Updated by: ...

  16. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  17. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . Normal Results Biopsies of lymph ... Hodgkin disease Lung cancer Lymphoma or other tumors Sarcoidosis The spread of disease from one body part ...

  18. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  19. [Update oropharyngeal dysphagia part 1: Physiology, pathology and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S

    2012-04-01

    Swallowing is a complex mechanism with many muscles and nerves needed. If this is disturbed, oropharyngeal dysphagia may be caused, especially in the elderly. There is a wide range of causes. Where oral feeding is sufficiently impaired then this route may have to be bypassed by percutaneous enteral gastostomy. Evaluation of swallowing is usually done with a fiberoptic or 90-degree optic. Individual needs must be addressed, usually, and best, by a multidisciplinary team. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  1. A new apparatus for standardized rat kidney biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schirutschke, Holger; Gladrow, Lars; Norkus, Christian; Parmentier, Simon Paul; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian P M

    2014-01-01

    Survival biopsies are frequently applied in rat kidney disease models, but several drawbacks such as surgical kidney trauma, bleeding risk and variable loss of kidney tissue are still unsolved. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-use core biopsy instrument and evaluated whether two consecutive kidney biopsies within the same kidney can be carried out in a standardized manner. On day 0, 18 Lewis rats underwent a right nephrectomy and 9 of these rats a subsequent first biopsy of the left kidney (Bx group). 9 control rats had a sham biopsy of the left kidney (Ctrl group). On day 7, a second kidney biopsy/sham biopsy was performed. On day 42, all animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histology. Biopsy cylinders contained 57±28 glomeruli per transversal section, representing an adequate sample size. PAS staining showed that the biopsy depth was limited to the renal cortex whereas surgical tissue damage was limited to the area immediately adjacent to the taken biopsy cylinder. On day 42, the reduction of functional renal mass after two biopsies was only 5.2% and no differences of body weight, blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis or number of ED-1 positive macrophages were found between both groups. In summary, our apparatus offers a safe method to perform repetitive kidney biopsies with minimal trauma and sufficient sample size and quality even in experimental disease models restricted to one single kidney.

  2. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in dermatomyosites: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Elza Maria; Santoro, Patricia Paula; Tavares, Raquel Aguiar; Garcia, Roberta Ismael Dias; Furia, Cristina Lemos Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    We present a rare case of dermatomyosites associated with severe oropharyngeal dysphagia. A 13 year old female patient, being followed at the Rheumatologic Department, was referred to the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital. She complained of swallowing problems, especially with solids. Following our dysphagia study protocol, we employed a speech pathologist and otolaryngology evaluation, mainly for clinical history, examination of anatomical structures involved with swallowing events, cranium nerves integrity and videoendoscopic swallowing study. We diagnosed severe oropharyngeal dysphagia, with aspiration of saliva and food of all consistencies. We advised against oral feeding and recommended a diet through a gastric tube. She started with therapy and xerostomia medication, together with the treatment of the base disease. The patient showed a significant improvement, noticed by the clinical evaluation and the control videoendoscopic swallowing study, with the possibility of returning to oral feeding. The authors stress the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in dermatomyosites and suggest the videoendoscopic swallowing study as a good exam for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  3. Clinical evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Sabrina Mello Alves; Felix, Valter Nilton; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Sallum, Rubens A A; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    In Machado-Joseph disease, poor posture, dystonia and peripheral neuropathy are extremely predisposing to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which is more commonly associated with muscular dystrophy. To evaluate the clinical characteristics of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Machado-Joseph disease patients. Forty individuals participated in this study, including 20 with no clinical complaints and 20 dysphagic patients with Machado-Joseph disease of clinical type 1, who were all similar in terms of gender distribution, average age, and cognitive function. The medical history of each patient was reviewed and each subject underwent a clinical evaluation of deglutition. At the end, the profile of dysphagia in patients with Machado-Joseph disease was classified according to the Severity Scale of Dysphagia, as described by O'Neil and collaborators. Comparison between dysphagic patients and controls did not reveal many significant differences with respect to the clinical evaluation of the oral phase of deglutition, since afflicted patients only demonstrated deficits related to the protrusion, retraction and tonus of the tongue. However, several significant differences were observed with respect to the pharyngeal phase. Dysphagic patients presented pharyngeal stasis during deglutition of liquids and solids, accompanied by coughing and/or choking as well as penetration and/or aspiration; these signs were absent in the controls. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is part of the Machado-Joseph disease since the first neurological manifestations. There is greater involvement of the pharyngeal phase, in relation to oral phase of the deglutition. The dysphagia of these patients is classified between mild and moderate.

  4. [Oropharyngeal reconstruction with radial forearm free flap: functional results].

    PubMed

    Bozec, A; Poissonnet, G; Converset, S; Lattes, L; Chamorey, E; Vallicionni, J; Demard, F; Dassonville, O

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate functional results of oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions with radial forearm free flap. We present our experience with radial forearm free flap for reconstructing oral and oropharyngeal defect between 2000 and 2004. A total of 96 patients were included in this study. We analysed functional results (alimentation, elocution, mouth opening and cosmetic appearance) and researched the potentialy predictive factors of these results (age, comorbidity, preoperative irradiation...; Chi 2 test). The rate of free flap success was 97.9%. Good functional results (normal or quasi normal function) were obtained for alimentation, elocution, mouth opening and cosmetic appearance in respectively 92.6%, 64.9%, 81.9% and 84.1% of cases. Age (p = 0.05), preoperative irradiation (p = 0.005) and T stage (p = 0,02) had a negative effect on elocution, free flap failure on mouth opening (p = 0.03), preoperative irradiation (p = 0.05) and free flap failure (p = 0,02) on cosmetic appearance. Radial forearm free flap is considered as the flap of choice for oral and oropharyngeal reconstructions and allows excellent functional results.

  5. Diagnostic Value of Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies and Pathologic Methods for Benign and Malignant Breast Masses and Axillary Node Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Hajimaghsoudi, Leila; Pouryaghobi, Seyyed Mohsen; Ahmadinejad, Izadmehr; Ahmadi, Koorosh

    2017-01-01

    Bacground: The goal of this study was to evaluate the fine needle aspiration (FNA) preoperatively together with Touch Print, Crush Print, frozen section and pathologic methods to reach a diagnosis for patients with breast and axillary masses. Methods: This study was conducted on 107 patients, and included 111 samples of breast and 43 of axillary masses taken at surgery. Data on epidemiological and clinical features of the patients were collected using a questionnaire. The results of the methods of FNA, Touch Print, and Crush Print were compared with the results of pathology after operations. Results: Comparison between the diagnosis values of FNA with pathology for breast cancer showed sensitivity, sensitivity, positive predictive values, negative predictive values, positive mendacious percentages, and negative mendacious percentages of 80.4%, 98%, 97.3%, 87.6%, 2%, and 19.6%, respectively, and for metastatic axillary lymph nodes, 80%, 95.6%, 94.1%, 84.6%, 4.4%, and 20%. Comparison of diagnosis values of FNA with Touch Print and Crush Print for breast cancer gave values of 82.2%, 89%, 97.3%, 89%, 1.6%, and 17.8%, respectively, and for metastatic axillary lymph nodes 84.2%, 95.8%, 94.1%, 88.4%, 14.2%, and 15.8%. Conclusion: Use of these methods, compared with pathology, can decrease cost, time, and a need for a second surgery and related complications. PMID:28345843

  6. Racial disparities in incidence of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Ilana; Varier, Indu; Zhang, David; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Posner, Marshall R; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof; Genden, Eric M; Miles, Brett A; Teng, Marita S; Sikora, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that rates of human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) in the US are higher in Caucasians than minorities. We hypothesized that this disparity would be less marked in a racially and ethnically diverse population from New York City. This is a retrospective chart review of 210 patients with biopsied or surgically treated OPC at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) between 1999 and 2013. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of HPV-DNA in paraffin-embedded tumor blocks. Incidence of HPV-positive cancers was compared between Caucasians and minorities (defined as African Americans, Asians, and Hispanics) using Fisher's exact test. We found a higher incidence of HPV-positive OPC in Caucasians than racial minorities within the ISMMS population (p=0.002). HPV incidence detected by PCR was 139/165 [84.2%] for Caucasians and 28/45 [62.2%] for minorities. Specifically, there was a higher rate in Caucasians compared to African Americans (p=0.017), but no significant difference between Caucasians and Hispanics (p=0.087). We documented a disparity in incidence of HPVOPC amongst racial groups, consistent with previously reported trends from study populations in less urbanized areas. Thus we conclude that the factors underlying racial/ethnic disparities in HPVOPC incidence are likely to be similar across communities with different levels of urbanization and population diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Patients' information in percutaneous core breast biopsy].

    PubMed

    Barreau, Béatrice; Tastet, Sandrine; Lakdja, Fabrice; Henriquès, Corinne; Valentin, Fabienne; Labat, Marie-Joëlle; Dilhuydy, Marie-Hélène

    2005-03-01

    Information takes a large part of patient's perceptions of the procedure. If the information is adapted, patients tolerate the procedure well. We point out indications and explain the different types of procedure. For infraclinical masses, sonographically guided automated core needle biopsy removes samples. Sonographically guided vacuum-assisted large-core biopsy is only used for diagnosis generally on second purpose for masses. Stereotaxic vacuum-assisted large-core biopsy is used for microcalcifications (needle 8 or 11 gauge). Haematoma and bleeding are rare (< 4%), but care is necessary to avoid complications. Information is executed before the procedure and a booklet is giving to the women. This information has to be adapted because lot of informations could increase patient's anxiety if they don't want more informations and "not enough information" could also increase anxiety if they want more informations. The practitioner, by hearing, his formation and his experience, is able to adapt informations.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Vacuum Assisted and Core Needle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Tunç, Necmettin; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydoğan, Fatih; Çelik, Varol; Gazioğlu, Ertuğrul; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study to present the results of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided cutting needle biopsy procedures of suspicious breast lesions that can be solely detected on Magnetic resonance (MR) examination. The study included 48 patients with 48 lesions which were solely be observed in breast MRI, indistinguishable in ultrasonography and mammography, for MR guided vacuum-assisted cutting needle biopsy and 42 patients with 42 lesions for MR guided cutting needle biopsy for the lesions of the same nature. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-Tesla MRI device. Acquired MR images were determined and biopsy protocol was performed using computer-aided diagnosis system on the workstation. Vacuum biopsies were performed using 10 G or 12 G automatic biopsy systems, cutting needle biopsy procedures were performed using fully automated 12 G biopsy needle. All biopsy procedures were finalized successfully without major complications. The lesions were 54 mass (60%), 28 were non-mass contrast enhancement (31%) and 8 were foci (9%) in the MR examination. Histopathological evaluation revealed 18 malignant (invasive, in-situ ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma), 66 benign (apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, fibroadenomatoid lesion, sclerosing adenosis, fibrocystic disease and mild-to-severe epithelial proliferation) and 6 high-risk (atypical ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, radial scar) lesions. Magnetic resonance guided vacuum and cutting needle biopsy methods are successful methods fort he evaluation of solely MRI detected suspicious breast lesions. There are several advantages relative to each other in both methods.

  9. Histology-driven data mining of lipid signatures from multiple imaging mass spectrometry analyses: application to human colorectal cancer liver metastasis biopsies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aurélien; Patterson, Nathan Heath; Marcinkiewicz, Martin M; Lazaris, Anthoula; Metrakos, Peter; Chaurand, Pierre

    2013-03-05

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) represents an innovative tool in the cancer research pipeline, which is increasingly being used in clinical and pharmaceutical applications. The unique properties of the technique, especially the amount of data generated, make the handling of data from multiple IMS acquisitions challenging. This work presents a histology-driven IMS approach aiming to identify discriminant lipid signatures from the simultaneous mining of IMS data sets from multiple samples. The feasibility of the developed workflow is evaluated on a set of three human colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) tissue sections. Lipid IMS on tissue sections was performed using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS in both negative and positive ionization modes after 1,5-diaminonaphthalene matrix deposition by sublimation. The combination of both positive and negative acquisition results was performed during data mining to simplify the process and interrogate a larger lipidome into a single analysis. To reduce the complexity of the IMS data sets, a sub data set was generated by randomly selecting a fixed number of spectra from a histologically defined region of interest, resulting in a 10-fold data reduction. Principal component analysis confirmed that the molecular selectivity of the regions of interest is maintained after data reduction. Partial least-squares and heat map analyses demonstrated a selective signature of the CRCLM, revealing lipids that are significantly up- and down-regulated in the tumor region. This comprehensive approach is thus of interest for defining disease signatures directly from IMS data sets by the use of combinatory data mining, opening novel routes of investigation for addressing the demands of the clinical setting.

  10. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  11. Abnormal movements associated with oropharyngeal dysfunction in a child with Chiari I malformation.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Stéphanie; Crevier, Louis; Deslandres, Colette

    2014-12-10

    Chiari I malformations (CM I) are rare hindbrain herniations. Dysphagia and other oropharyngeal dysfunctions may be associated with CM I, but to our knowledge, no clinical presentation similar to ours has ever been reported. The purpose of this communication is to draw attention to a unique and atypical clinical presentation of a child with CM I. A 7-year-old boy was evaluated for a two month history of atypical movements which would occur in the evening, and last for an hour after eating. These stereotypical movements with the head and chest bending forward and to the left side, accompanied by a grimace, were associated with sensation of breath locking without cyanosis. Pain and dysphagia were absent. The neurological examination was normal. The possibility of Sandifer syndrome posturing occurring with gastroesophageal reflux disease was considered but neither pain nor back hyperextension were associated with the atypical movements. Neither proton pump inhibitors (PPI) nor prokinetic agents improved his symptoms. Upper endoscopy and esophageal biopsy did not reveal eosinophilic esophagitis nor reflux esophagitis. Ear, throat and nose (ENT) exam was normal. A severe gastroparesis was demonstrated on milk scan study. Two 24 hour oesophageal pH probe studies pointed out severe gastroesophageal reflux (GER). High resolution manometric evaluation of the oesophagus revealed normal sphincter pressures and relaxations with no dysmotility of the esophageal body. Electroencephalography and polysomnography were normal. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and revealed a CM I: cerebellar tonsils extending to 12 mm, with syringomyelia (D4-D5). For a long period of time, the child's abnormal movements were considered to be nothing but tics and the CM I a fortuitous finding. Since the child remained symptomatic despite medical treatment, it was decided to proceed with surgery. One year after the onset of his symptoms, he underwent posterior fossa decompression

  12. Radiomics biomarkers for accurate tumor progression prediction of oropharyngeal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cha, Kenny H.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Prince, Mark; Papagerakis, Silvana

    2017-03-01

    Accurate tumor progression prediction for oropharyngeal cancers is crucial for identifying patients who would best be treated with optimized treatment and therefore minimize the risk of under- or over-treatment. An objective decision support system that can merge the available radiomics, histopathologic and molecular biomarkers in a predictive model based on statistical outcomes of previous cases and machine learning may assist clinicians in making more accurate assessment of oropharyngeal tumor progression. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of developing individual and combined predictive models based on quantitative image analysis from radiomics, histopathology and molecular biomarkers for oropharyngeal tumor progression prediction. With IRB approval, 31, 84, and 127 patients with head and neck CT (CT-HN), tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) and molecular biomarker expressions, respectively, were collected. For 8 of the patients all 3 types of biomarkers were available and they were sequestered in a test set. The CT-HN lesions were automatically segmented using our level sets based method. Morphological, texture and molecular based features were extracted from CT-HN and TMA images, and selected features were merged by a neural network. The classification accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Test AUCs of 0.87, 0.74, and 0.71 were obtained with the individual predictive models based on radiomics, histopathologic, and molecular features, respectively. Combining the radiomics and molecular models increased the test AUC to 0.90. Combining all 3 models increased the test AUC further to 0.94. This preliminary study demonstrates that the individual domains of biomarkers are useful and the integrated multi-domain approach is most promising for tumor progression prediction.

  13. Recent trends in oropharyngeal cancer funding and public interest.

    PubMed

    Blasco, Michael A; Svider, Peter F; Tenbrunsel, Troy; Vellaichamy, Gautham; Yoo, George H; Fribley, Andrew M; Raza, S Naweed

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has increased in the United States. This has been driven by an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive OPC. Our objective is to determine trends in National Institutes (NIH)-supported research funding and public interest in OPC. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools database was evaluated for projects related to OPC between 2004 and 2015. Projects were evaluated for total funding, relation to HPV, principal investigator departmental affiliation and degree, and NIH agency or center responsible for grant. The Google Trends database was evaluated for relative Internet search popularity of oropharyngeal cancer and related search terms between 2004 and 2015. In terms of NIH funding, 100 OPC-related projects representing 242 grant years and $108.5 million were funded between 2004 and 2015. Total NIH funding for OPC projects increased from $167,406 in 2004 to $16.2 million in 2015. Funding for HPV-related OPC increased from less than $2 million yearly between 2004 and 2010 up to $12.7 million in 2015. Principal investigators related to radiation oncology ($41.8 million) and with doctor of medicine degrees ($52.8 million) received the largest share of total funding. Relative Internet search popularity for oropharyngeal cancer has increased from 2004 to 2015 compared to control cancer search terms. Increased public interest and NIH funding has paralleled the rising incidence of OPC. NIH funding has been driven by projects related to the role of HPV in OPC. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:1345-1350, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. [Outcomes following transoral resection of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    López, Fernando; Llorente, José L; Álvarez-Marcos, César; Morato, Marta; Suárez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate outcomes of a minimally invasive approach, using transoral surgery (TOS) as the primary treatment for oropharyngeal carcinoma. We reviewed 43 previously untreated patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, who were treated with TOS. Distribution of the primary tumor site was: tonsil (52%), soft palate (23%), base of the tongue (21%) and posterior wall (4%). Eight patients had a stage I disease, 9 had a stage II disease, 7 had a stage III disease, 16 had a stage IVA, and 3 had stage IVB disease. Eighteen patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Records of these patients were reviewed to obtain measures such as local and regional control, overall and disease-specific survival, and speech and swallowing function. The overall recurrence rate was 44%, and the local recurrence rate was 18%. The 5-year overall survival and disease-specific survival rates were 55% and 66%, respectively. Five-year disease-specific survival rates by site were as follows: 100%, 85%, 44%, and 30% for posterior wall, tonsil, soft palate and base of the tongue, respectively. Five-year estimates for local control were 100%, 90%, and 0% for palate, tonsil and for base of the tongue tumors, respectively. All of the patients preserved the larynx and live without tracheotomy and oral alimentation was successfully without feeding tube. TOS as the primary treatment approach offers a surgical alternative for treatment of the primary oropharyngeal tumor, in the era of chemoradiation therapy. This approach confers a good local control and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer: The role of the primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam P; Nguyen, Ly M; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex.

  16. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  17. Biopsy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you understand the procedure and its risks and alternatives and give your permission for it to be performed. The person doing the biopsy will know your child's medical history, but might ask additional questions, such as what medicines your child is taking or whether your child ...

  18. Role of posaconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ianas, Voichita; Matthias, Kathryn R; Klotz, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Posaconazole is the newest azole antifungal approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and possesses a broad spectrum of activity against numerous yeasts and filamentous fungi. It is available as an oral suspension and is generally well tolerated by patients, but gastrointestinal absorption is sometimes inadequate and remains a clinical concern in treating deep-seated infections. It is used routinely and effectively for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed hosts and is an effective treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including azole-resistant disease. PMID:21694893

  19. Bilateral Blindness Following Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, K. Liang; Kuruvilla, Sara; Sanatani, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a life-threatening neurologic complication of thiamine deficiency. Though the presentation of symptoms can vary widely, the classical triad is founded on ophthalmoplegia, alteration of mental status, and gait disturbance. We describe a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in an oncology patient shortly after concurrent 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, and radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer, presenting as complete bilateral blindness, ataxia, nystagmus, and confusion. Thiamine was given based on clinical suspicion and rapid improvement of clinical findings occurred. An MRI performed later supported the diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. A multifactorial etiology of thiamine deficiency from nutritional deficits and neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy are hypothesized. PMID:26623207

  20. [Results of palliative treatment of advanced regional oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Laskus, Z; Szutkowski, Z

    1998-01-01

    We present results of palliative radiotherapy in 76 oropharyngeal advanced cancer patients. We recommend, according to appreciated results of palliative treatment, the two high fractionation dose courses (so called split course) if the first application of high fractionation dose had resulted in partial remission. Conventional fractionation dose in the second part of split course of radiotherapy did not result in better effect in regression, better subjective feeling after radiotherapy and longer survival time in our material. Patients with poor presentation status (Zubrod 3) should be excluded from palliative radiotherapy.

  1. Use of core biopsy in diagnosing cervical lymphadenopathy: a viable alternative to surgical excisional biopsy of lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Allin, D; David, S; Jacob, A; Mir, N; Giles, A; Gibbins, N

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVES Lymphoma often presents with a neck mass and while fine-needle aspiration cytology may be suggestive, tissue biopsy is required for reliable diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma that is sufficient to deliver the correct treatment for the patient. Traditionally, excisional biopsy of a lymph node has been the standard method of tissue sampling, providing ample tissue for assessment. However, this requires theatre time, and preceding fine-needle aspiration cytology, which may incur a delay. With careful use of tissue, coupled with advances in immunohistochemical and molecular investigative techniques, core biopsy provides a possible alternative to traditional fine-needle aspiration and excisional biopsy. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of diagnosing neck masses. METHOD A retrospective analysis was performed of patients being investigated for a neck mass who were undergoing ultrasound-guided core biopsies of cervical lymph nodes over a 17-month period. The final histology report was scrutinised to assess whether adequate tissue was obtained to allow for full tissue diagnosis. RESULTS Over the 17-month period analysed, 70 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy underwent core biopsy. Of these, 63 (90%) were diagnostic for either lymphoma or other pathology and did not require further tissue sampling. Overall, 19 patients were diagnosed with lymphoma, of which only 1 required further biopsy due to inconclusive initial core biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Current guidelines for investigating lymphomas require that excisional biopsy be performed to obtain ample tissue to allow full nodal architecture assessment and ancillary investigation to reach an accurate histological classification. Within our head and neck multidisciplinary team, however, it is considered that results from core biopsies can be obtained in a more timely fashion and with histological accuracy equal to those of open biopsy. The results obtained demonstrate that core biopsy is an

  2. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  3. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  4. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angela T; Dodrill, Pamela; Ward, Elizabeth C

    2012-10-17

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia encompasses problems with the oral preparatory phase of swallowing (chewing and preparing the food), oral phase (moving the food or fluid posteriorly through the oral cavity with the tongue into the back of the throat) and pharyngeal phase (swallowing the food or fluid and moving it through the pharynx to the oesophagus). Populations of children with neurological impairment who commonly experience dysphagia include, but are not limited to, those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy). To examine the effectiveness of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2011: CENTRAL 2011(3), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week 4 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 40)
, CINAHL (1937 to current)
, ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to October Week 1 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(3), DARE 2011(3), Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN Register) (15 October 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov (15 October 2011) and WHO ICTRP (15 October 2011). We searched for dissertations and theses using Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Australasian Digital Theses Program and DART-Europe E-theses Portal (11 October 2011). Finally, additional references were also obtained from reference lists from articles. The review included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials for children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and neurological impairment. All three review authors (AM, PD and EW) independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion and discussed results. In cases of uncertainty over whether an abstract met inclusion criterion, review

  6. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Lefton-Greif, M A; Crawford, T O; Winkelstein, J A; Loughlin, G M; Koerner, C B; Zahurak, M; Lederman, H M

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether patients with ataxia-telangiectasia exhibit oropharyngeal dysphagia with concomitant aspiration and to examine the relationships among swallowing function, age, and nutritional status. Seventy patients (mean age, 10.7 years; range, 1.8 to 30 years) had feeding/swallowing and nutritional evaluations. Fifty-one patients, in whom there were concerns about swallowing safety, were examined with a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study. Fourteen of the 51 patients (27%) with histories suggestive of dysphagia demonstrated aspiration. Of these, silent aspiration (aspiration without a cough) occurred in 10 (71%) patients. Aspirators were significantly older than non-aspirators (mean age, 16.9 vs 10.8 years; P =.002). Advancing age was the strongest factor associated with aspiration during continuous drinking (P =.01). In patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, weight and weight/height were abnormally low at all ages and most compromised in older patients. Patients who aspirated had significantly lower mean weight (P <.002) and weight/height z scores (P <.001) than did patients who did not aspirate. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common and appears to be progressive in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia. Older patients also have a higher incidence of poorer nutritional status. The relationship between dysphagia and nutritional status deserves further investigation.

  7. Acoustic analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing using Sonar Doppler.

    PubMed

    Soria, Franciele Savaris; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da; Furkim, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the aging process, one of the functions that changes is swallowing. These alterations in oropharyngeal swallowing may be diagnosed by methods that allow both the diagnosis and biofeedback monitoring by the patient. One of the methods recently described in the literature for the evaluation of swallowing is the Sonar Doppler. To compare the acoustic parameters of oropharyngeal swallowing between different age groups. This was a field, quantitative, study. Examination with Sonar Doppler was performed in 75 elderly and 72 non-elderly adult subjects. The following acoustic parameters were established: initial frequency, first peak frequency, second peak frequency; initial intensity, final intensity; and time for the swallowing of saliva, liquid, nectar, honey, and pudding, with 5- and 10-mL free drinks. Objective, measurable data were obtained; most acoustic parameters studied between adult and elderly groups with respect to consistency and volume were significant. When comparing elderly with non-elderly adult subjects, there is a modification of the acoustic pattern of swallowing, regarding both consistency and food bolus volume. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge Assessment of the Dental Community in Texas on the Role of Human Papilloma Virus in Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Stephanie D; Hu, Shirley L; Brotzman, Jacob S; Redding, Spencer W; Rankin, K Vendrell; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-08-01

    The epidemiology of oral cancer is changing. From 1988 to 2004, there has been a dramatic increase in Human Papilloma virus (HPV) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC) in the U.S. At the same time there have been decreasing rates of OPC associated with the traditional risk factors of smoking and alcohol consumption. The epidemiology of oral cancer is changing. As the epidemiology changes, it is important that the dental community recognize these factors. The goal of this study was to assess the baseline level of knowledge about HPV and OPC within the Texas dental community. Practicing dentists and dental hygienists from Texas dental professional networks and dental students from the three Texas schools of dentistry were recruited to participate in the study. Participants were requested to access and complete a 7-item online survey. To ensure anonymity, a third party practice facilitator or department administrator disseminated the survey link to participants. Of the 457 surveys completed, 100% of respondents reported conducting oral soft tissue examinations at least annually. However, only 73% included the oropharynx in their exam. Less than 50% of dental professionals selected the correct location of the greatest increase in oral cancer incidence during the last 10 years. Less than 30% of each of the groups answered correctly in indicating the age group with the most rapidly increasing incidence of oral cancer. Approximately 40% of all groups indicated that a biopsy from the posterior oropharynx should be tested for HPV. Survey results across Texas dentists, dental hygienists, and Texas dental students demonstrated a lack of knowledge of the changing profile of oral cancer regarding HPV-associated OPC. This aim of this initial phase was to determine the baseline level of knowledge surrounding the risks associated with oropharyngeal cancer in the survey population. Our goal is to utilize these findings to develop educational interventions that will

  9. The clinical significance of lobular neoplasia on breast core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Johnson, Ronald; Sumkin, Jules; Dabbs, David J

    2007-05-01

    A core biopsy diagnosis of atypical ductal epithelial hyperplasia is upstaged on follow-up excisional biopsy (FUEB) to in situ or invasive carcinoma in about 20% of cases, thus prompting a FUEB. In contrast, upstaging information for a core biopsy diagnosis of pure lobular neoplasia (LN), without mass lesions or other risk-associated lesions is less clear. In this retrospective study, we report the largest consecutive series of patients who had a breast core biopsy diagnosis of LN and a FUEB. Core needle breast biopsies with a diagnosis of LN were retrieved from our files for the period 1999 to 2005, yielding 110 patients. One hundred and one patients had a follow-up surgical excision. Cases of LN with coexisting high-risk lesions (n=9, 10%) were excluded from the study. Patients with associated mass lesions all had benign findings (n=15, 16%) and had no impact on the study results. The remaining 77 core biopsies had no masses or risk lesions and were mammographically Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 (BIRADS) for microcalcifications. Overall, 8/77 (10%) of patients with a radiographic BIRADS 4 image with calcifications and a core biopsy diagnosis of LN on core biopsy were upstaged on FUEB to ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. The numbers upstaged from core biopsies were as follows: atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) 4/52 (8%), mixed ALH/lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) 1/9 (10%), and pure LCIS 3/16 (19%). A core biopsy of LCIS with neoplastic epithelial calcifications was nearly 3 times more likely to be upstaged on FUEB compared with ALH. We conclude that a finding of LN on breast core biopsy in a patient with a BIRADS 4 image and calcifications is associated with a risk of 8% to 19% of upstaging to a treatable disease on FUEB.

  10. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet ...

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses sound waves to help locate a lump or abnormality ... exam. The transducer sends out inaudible, high—frequency sound waves into the body and then listens for ...

  12. Safety and Outcomes of Percutaneous Biopsy of 61 Hepatic Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Derrick A; Atwell, Thomas D; Sanchez, William; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hough, David M; Schmit, Grant D; Kurup, A Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Given the recent classification of hepatic adenoma (HA) into subtypes and recognition of imperfect specificity of MRI to differentiate HA from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), there is a resurgent interest in the role of biopsy to diagnose HA. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and outcomes of biopsy of HAs. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all patients who underwent hepatic mass biopsy revealing HA from 2000 through 2013 was performed. The biopsy procedure parameters were evaluated. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Pathology-specific outcomes related to the diagnosis of HA were assessed. Sixty patients (52 women and eight men) were identified with a mean age of 42 ± 13 (SD) years and a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 3.0 years after biopsy. One patient had two HAs biopsied during the same procedure, resulting in a total of 61 biopsy-proven HAs. Of the 60 patients, one patient (2%) had a single major complication, which involved bleeding that resulted in a blood transfusion, and six patients (10%) had a minor complication. A total of six (10%) discordant biopsy results were found: Four biopsy-proven HAs (7%) revealed FNH on surgical resection or repeat biopsy, one HA (2%) showed well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at subsequent biopsy, and one HA (2%) showed findings suggestive of HCC on follow-up imaging. Complications after biopsy of HAs are uncommon. Although uncommon, discordant pathology results between biopsy and surgical resection may occur.

  13. Liver biopsy in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M

    1993-01-01

    Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using an apparatus with a fibre optic continuous light source and a telescope. The sheep were placed in a sternal position on a special table constructed of metal pipes (3.8 cm diameter) and 4.5 cm spacing. Approximately 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be analyzed for copper or vitamin E.

  14. CE: Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Review of Nursing Considerations.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Janet; Thom, Bridgette

    2016-08-01

    : The overall incidence of head and neck cancer-which includes laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, nasopharyngeal, oral, oropharyngeal, and salivary gland cancers-has declined in the United States over the past 30 years with the concomitant reduction in tobacco use. Over that same period, however, the worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has escalated significantly, most notably among men and women under age 60 who live in developed countries. This epidemic rise in oropharyngeal cancer is largely attributed to certain genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the United States, HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal tumors increased dramatically, from roughly 16% between 1984 and 1989 to nearly 73% between 2000 and 2004, and the annual incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is expected to surpass that of HPV-related cervical cancer by 2020.This article provides an overview of head and neck cancer-its incidence, risk factors, treatment, and posttreatment sequelae-with a focus on HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Unlike other forms of head and neck cancer, HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer tends to affect younger patients with few or none of the traditional risk factors and has a distinctive presentation, histology, and natural course. In order to provide appropriate patient education and to help these patients monitor and manage late and long-term treatment effects, it is important for nurses to be aware of this disease and its treatment, and of the unique survivorship issues that arise for affected patients.

  15. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Parents > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Print A A A What's in this article? ... Aspiraciones y biopsias: médula ósea What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone ...

  16. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Parents > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow A A A What's in this ... ósea What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

  17. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow KidsHealth > For Teens > Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow A A A What's in this ... Questions What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy ...

  18. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    PubMed

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p < 0.05). Although 86% had heard about oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, only 18% had heard of oral mouth examination, and 7% of these reported ever having an oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer exam. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge and risk perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of two breast biopsy procedures: surgical biopsy versus vacuum-assisted biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pistolese, C A; Ciarrapico, A; Perretta, T; Cossu, E; della Gatta, F; Giura, S; Caramanica, C; Simonetti, G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of two breast biopsy procedures: surgical biopsy and vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB). Between November 2008 and September 2009, 200 patients with suspicious breast lesions underwent biopsy procedures at our radiology department: 100 underwent VAB and 100 underwent surgical biopsy. 66 lesions were sampled under sonographic guidance, 109 under mammographic guidance and 25 under magnetic resonance guidance. All procedures were successfully completed. No significant differences in diagnostic efficacy were found between the biopsy procedures. Surgical biopsy has a higher unit cost compared with VAB. Our analysis emphasises the benefits of VAB compared with surgical biopsy in terms of both cost-effectiveness, and less invasiveness from a psychological and aesthetic point of view.

  20. Candida-host interactions in HIV disease: implications for oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Fidel, P L

    2011-04-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), caused primarily by Candida albicans, is the most common oral infection in HIV(+) persons. Although Th1-type CD4(+) T cells are the predominant host defense mechanism against OPC, CD8(+) T cells and epithelial cells become important when blood CD4(+) T cells are reduced below a protective threshold during progression to AIDS. In an early cross-sectional study, OPC(+) tissue biopsied from HIV(+) persons had an accumulation of activated memory CD8(+) T cells at the oral epithelial-lamina propria interface, with reduced expression of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, suggesting a protective role for CD8(+) T cells but a dysfunction in the mucosal migration of the cells. In a subsequent 1-year longitudinal study, OPC(-) patients with high oral Candida colonization (indicative of a preclinical OPC condition), had higher numbers of CD8(+) T cells distributed throughout the tissue, with normal E-cadherin expression. In OPC(+) patients, where lack of CD8(+) T cell migration was associated with reduced E-cadherin, subsequent evaluations following successful treatment of infection revealed normal E-cadherin expression and cellular distribution. Regarding epithelial cell responses, intact oral epithelial cells exhibit fungistatic activity via an acid-labile protein moiety. A proteomic analysis revealed that annexin A1 is a strong candidate for the effector moiety. The current hypothesis is that under reduced CD4(+) T cells, HIV(+) persons protected from OPC have CD8(+) T cells that migrate to the site of a preclinical infection under normal expression of E-cadherin, whereas those with OPC have a transient reduction in E-cadherin that prohibits CD8(+) T cells from migrating for effector function. Oral epithelial cells concomitantly function through annexin A1 to keep Candida in a commensal state but can easily be overwhelmed, thereby contributing to susceptibility to OPC.

  1. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, Liviu; Wood, Neil H; Khammissa, Razia A G; Lemmer, Johan

    2010-07-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx.

  2. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

  3. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Walmari; Baijens, Laura W J; Kremer, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of and diagnostic procedures for oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy (MD). The electronic databases Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library were used. The search was limited to English, Dutch, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese publications. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the included articles. Swallowing assessment tools, the corresponding protocols, the studies' outcome measurements, and main findings are summarized and presented. The body of literature on pathophysiology of swallowing in dysphagic patients with MD type 1 remains scant. The included studies are heterogeneous with respect to design and outcome measures and hence are not directly comparable. More importantly, most studies had methodological problems. These are discussed in detail and recommendations for further research on diagnostic examinations for swallowing disorders in patients with MD type 1 are provided.

  4. A case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented as oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Noh, Eun Ji; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Jung, Hyun Joo

    2010-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare disease. It is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons which leads to muscle weakness and muscle wasting. Respiratory failure limits survival to 2-5 years after disease onset. Several clinical manifestations including dysphagia can result in reductions in both the quality of life and life expectancy. Dysphagia occurs at onset in about one third of case, although generally it occurs in later stage of the disease. Evaluation of dysphagia includes video-fluoroscopic swallow study, radiological esophagogram, flexible endoscopic examination, ultrasound examination, conventional manometry and electromyography. We report a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a 54-year-old man presenting oropharyngeal dysphagia which was diagnosed by high resolution esophageal manometry presenting abnormality of the upper esophageal sphincter.

  5. Oropharyngeal trauma mimicking a first branchial cleft anomaly.

    PubMed

    Larem, Aisha; Sheikh, Rashid; Al Qahtani, Abdulsalam; Khais, Frat; Ganesan, Shanmugam; Haidar, Hassan

    2016-06-01

    We present a unique and challenging case of a remnant foreign body that presented to us in a child disguised as a strongly suspected congenital branchial cleft anomaly. This case entailed oropharyngeal trauma, with a delayed presentation as a retroauricular cyst accompanied by otorrhea that mimicked the classic presentation of an infected first branchial cleft anomaly. During surgical excision of the presumed branchial anomaly, a large wooden stick was found in the tract. The diagnostic and therapeutic obstacles in the management of such cases are highlighted. In addition to exploring the existing literature, we retrospectively analyzed a plausible explanation of the findings of this case. Laryngoscope, 126:E224-E226, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel in oral and oropharyngeal cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Del Piero, Giulia Carolina; Perrino, Fiorella

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the benefits and risks when using an Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel in the surgical treatment of oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Prospective non-randomized. Clinica Otorinolaringoiatrica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria. Trieste, Italy. In this study, conducted from April 2008 to August 2010, 36 consecutive patients underwent resection of oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma and lateral lymphadenectomy using the Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel. Evaluation criteria included length of the surgical procedure, intraoperative blood loss, quantity of neck drainage on the first, second and third postoperative days, postoperative complications, and a subjective assessment of postoperative pain and lymphatic oedema of the neck. Results were compared with previous surgical procedures carried out between May 2006 and March 2008 using cold knife and bipolar haemostasis (n = 36) when the Harmonic Scalpel was not available. In patients treated with the Harmonic Scalpel, operating time was significantly reduced, both for resection of the carcinoma and the lateral lymphadenectomy. Intraoperative blood loss and neck drainage on the first and second postoperative days were significantly less and pain scores were significantly lower than in the cold knife group. No postoperative complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. The only disadvantage noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group was the high incidence of lymphatic oedema of the neck. Use of the Harmonic Scalpel during resection of oral cancer and lateral lymphadenectomy is safe and confers some advantages over conventional methods. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of Locoregional Failure After Exclusive IMRT for Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe Gunn, G. Brandon; Endres, Eugene J.; Chaljub, Gregory; Cheruvu, Praveena; Parker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: We analyzed patients treated at the University of Texas Medical Branch between May 2002 and February 2006 who met the following criteria: (1) definitive IMRT without chemotherapy for oropharyngeal SCC; (2) no pretreatment radical surgery; (3) minimal follow-up of 1 year. The location of each nodal/primary failure was co-registered to the pretreatment planning computed tomography scan and then expanded by 5 mm to a planning target volume (PTV) of the failure (PTV-f). We then investigated whether the prescription dose to the PTV-f had been appropriate for the amount of disease present before treatment and whether the PTV-f had been adequately covered. Results: A total of 50 patients were eligible. With a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range, 12.1-58.6), three local and six regional failures were observed in 8 patients. All but one failure, that had been neglected, were recorded within 14 months of the treatment end. Of the nine failures, four developed in the neck treated electively to the lowest dose level; in all of them, we could retrospectively identify initial positive lymph nodes that might have justified the subsequent failure. The remaining five failures developed in proximity of the high-dose volume. In all but one, the volume of region of interest receiving {>=}95% of the dose of the PTV-f was >95%, suggesting adequate coverage. In 1 patient, about 20% of PTV-f was outside the 95% isodose, so that marginal underdosing could not be ruled out. Conclusions: A potential cause could be identified in all the failures in the lowest dose level. The implications and possible remedies are discussed. Most failures around the high-dose region were 'true failures' with no apparent technical caus000.

  8. Use of Oropharyngeal Washes to Diagnose and Genotype Pneumocystis jirovecii

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Jonathan J.; Barnett, Eric; Parobek, Christian M.; Taylor, Steve M.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Stone, Stephen; Chang, Emily; Fong, Serena; Huang, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii is a symbiotic respiratory fungus that presents in 2 clinical forms: pneumonia in immunocompromised patients or colonization, defined by the presence of the organism without associated clinical symptoms. Currently, diagnosis requires invasive bronchoscopy, which may not be available in some settings and is inappropriate for detecting colonization in healthy individuals. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques and molecular strain typing tools that can be used on these samples are critical for conducting studies to better understand transmission. We evaluated 2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting dihydropteroate synthase and the major surface glycoprotein for detection in 77 oropharyngeal washes (OPWs) from 43 symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who underwent bronchoscopy. We also evaluated the ability of a new microsatellite (MS) genotyping panel to strain type infections from these samples. Each PCR used individually provided a high sensitivity (>80%) for detection of pneumonia but a modest specificity (<70%). When used in combination, specificity was increased to 100% with a drop in sensitivity (74%). Concentration of organisms by PCR in the OPW tended to be lower in colonized individuals compared with those with pneumonia, but differences in concentration could not clearly define colonization in symptomatic individuals. Oropharyngeal wash samples were genotyped using 6 MSs with ≥4 alleles successfully genotyped in the majority of colonized patients and ≥5 alleles in patients with pneumonia. The MS profile was consistent over time within patients with serial OPWs analyzed. Microsatellite genotyping on noninvasive samples may aid in studying the molecular epidemiology of this pathogen without requiring invasive diagnostic techniques. PMID:26180832

  9. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  10. Percutaneous transbiliary biopsy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gustavo Vieira; Santos, Miguel Arcanjo; Meira, Marconi Roberto; Meira, Mateus Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous drainage of the bile ducts is an established procedure for malignant obstructions, in which a histological diagnosis is often not obtained. We describe the biopsy technique of obstructive lesions through biliary drainage access, using a 7F endoscopic biopsy forceps, widely available; some are even reusable. This technique applies to lesions of the hepatic ducts, of the common hepatic duct and of all extension of the common bile duct. RESUMO A drenagem percutânea das vias biliares é um procedimento estabelecido para obstruções malignas, nos quais, muitas vezes, não se consegue um diagnóstico histológico. Descrevemos a técnica de biópsia da lesão obstrutiva através do acesso de drenagem biliar, utilizando um fórcipe de biópsia endoscópica 7F, amplamente disponível e alguns reutilizáveis. Esta técnica aplica-se a lesões dos ductos hepáticos, do hepático comum e de toda extensão do colédoco.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  12. FLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF ORO-PHARYNGEAL DYSPHAGIA: ANATOMY, TECHNIQUE, AND COMMON ETIOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Edmund, Dr; Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Target Audience Radiologists and other professionals involved in imaging of oropharyngeal swallowing Objectives To review anatomy of the upper GI tract To review techniques and contrast agents used in the fluoroscopic examination of the oropharynx and hypopharynx To provide a pictorial review of some important causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia, and to link these to key findings in the clinical history to assist in establishing a clinical diagnosis To provide self-assessment questions to reinforce key learning points PMID:25539237

  13. Oropharyngeal airway appliance for infant with upper airway obstruction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, T; Kato, T; Horie, Norio; Nasu, D; Kaneko, T

    2002-01-01

    A palatal appliance with oropharyngeal tube that reduces the upper airway obstructions of an eleven-month-old male infant with severe cerebral palsy is presented. The palatal appliance was composed of the base plate, the outer guide tube that held the oropharyngeal tube inside it, and the extra outer guide tube for the suction catheter. After the setting of the appliance, respiratory distress was improved without side effects.

  14. Oropharyngeal oxygen and volatile anesthetic agent concentration during the use of laryngeal mask airway in children.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Mumin; Krishna, Senthil G; Syed, Ahsan; Lind, Meredith; Elmaraghy, Charles; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The laryngeal mask airway is increasingly used as an airway adjunct during general anesthesia. Although placement is generally simpler than an endotracheal tube, complete sealing of the airway may not occur, resulting in contamination of the oropharynx with anesthetic gases. Oropharyngeal oxygen enrichment may be one of the contributing factors predisposing to an airway fire during adenotonsillectomy. The current study prospectively assesses the oropharyngeal oxygen and volatile anesthetic agent concentration during laryngeal mask airway use in infants and children. Following the induction of general anesthesia and placement of a laryngeal mask airway, the oropharyngeal gas sample was obtained by placing a 14-gauge catheter attached to the gas sampling tube into the oropharynx above the laryngeal mask airway. The oropharyngeal concentration of the oxygen and the anesthetic agent were recorded for five breaths during both spontaneous ventilation (SV) and positive pressure ventilation (PPV). The study included 238 patients. The oropharyngeal concentration of sevoflurane was >50% of the inspired sevoflurane concentration during SV in 10 of 238 (4.2%) patients and during PPV in 135 of 238 (56.7%) patients. Similarly, during SV and PPV, the oropharyngeal oxygen concentration was >21% in 30 of 238 (12.6%) patients and in 188 of 238 (79%) patients, respectively. Significantly, we also noticed that the oropharyngeal oxygen concentration exceeded 50% in 5 of 238 (2.1%) patients during SV and in 139 of 238 patients (58.4%) patients during PPV. With the use of a laryngeal mask airway and the administration of 100% oxygen, there was significant contamination of the oropharynx during both PPV and SV. The oropharyngeal concentration of oxygen was high enough to support combustion in a significant number of patients. The use of a laryngeal mask airway does not ensure sealing of the airway and may be one risk factor for an airway fire during adenotonsillectomy. © 2015 John Wiley

  15. High-risk human papillomavirus and cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Sun, Dong-Il; Park, Jun-Ook; Cho, Kwang-Jae; Kim, Min-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion in oropharyngeal cancer. The study included patients with 90 oral carcinomas and 66 oropharyngeal carcinomas. High-risk HPV in situ hybridization was performed to detect HPV infection. The positive rate of high-risk HPV in situ hybridization was 15.4% (24 of 156). There was a significant difference in the fraction of positive high-risk HPV between oral (6.7%) and oropharyngeal (27.3%) cancers (p < .000). Significant correlations were found between positive high-risk HPV and cervical lymph node metastasis, tumor depth of invasion in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (p = .002, p = .016, respectively). There was a statistically significant association between high-risk HPV positivity and the disease-specific survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (p = .035). High-risk HPV infection was significantly related to cervical lymph node metastasis and depth of invasion in patients with oropharyngeal cancer. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genotype-oropharyngeal phenotype correlation in Mexican patients with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, G; Pollio, A; Aria, M; Moreno-Trevino, M G; Marasca, F; Salas-Alanís, J C

    2014-04-01

    Previous investigations have attempted to correlate the genotype with the cutaneous phenotype in patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB), but never with the oropharyngeal phenotype. Seventeen dystrophic EB (DEB) patients were genotyped for COL7A1 gene mutations and divided into five distinct groups. Oropharyngeal disease severity was assessed with the Epidermolysis Bullosa Oropharyngeal Severity (EBOS) score by an oral medicine specialist. The genotype-phenotype correlation was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance using the Mann-Whitney test, applying the Bonferroni correction. The most severe oropharyngeal phenotype was found in the group with the 2470insG/3948insT mutation, with a mean disease severity score of 18.50 ± 2.12; the mildest was found in the 6862del16 mutation group, with a mean disease severity score of 0.57 ± 1.13. The most significant difference in median score was found in the total score (P = 0.009), followed by tongue (P = 0.02) and upper lip (P = 0.021), but no correlation was found between disease severity and the groups (P>0.005, after Bonferroni correction). Multiple comparisons among the five different genotypic groups revealed no statistically significant genotype-oropharyngeal phenotype correlation; it was not possible to establish which group was more severe, or to associate a specific mutation to a specific oropharyngeal phenotype.

  17. Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea: rate of co-infection with sexually transmitted infection, antibiotic susceptibility and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Manavi, K; Zafar, F; Shahid, H

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the rate of co-infections with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), antibiotic susceptibility and management of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea diagnosed in a busy genitourinary medicine clinic. The method involved a retrospective study on consecutive patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. A total of 131 patients were diagnosed with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea over the study period. The median age of the infected patients was 28 (interquartile range: 22 to 35) years. Forty-one (31%) of patients were younger than 24 years. High rates of co-infection with urethral gonorrhoea (37%), rectal gonorrhoea (37%) or chlamydial infection (16%) were identified. Thirty patients (23%) had only oropharyngeal infection. Twenty-two (17%) patients' isolates showed resistance to at least one antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance among oropharyngeal gonococcal isolates was above 5% between 2000 and 2009. Test-of-cure (TOC) was carried out for only 63 (48%) of patients; none had positive culture. Among 46 isolates treated with cefixime 400 mg/stat, 27 (59%) had TOC; all were negative. Repeat TOC was not carried out for any of the patients. In conclusion, successful management of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should comprise of counselling, partner notification and TOC after treatment with appropriate antibiotic regimen.

  18. Screening of active lyssavirus infection in wild bat populations by viral RNA detection on oropharyngeal swabs.

    PubMed

    Echevarría, J E; Avellón, A; Juste, J; Vera, M; Ibáñez, C

    2001-10-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Vacuum Assisted and Core Needle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Tunç, Necmettin; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydoğan, Fatih; Çelik, Varol; Gazioğlu, Ertuğrul; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study to present the results of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided cutting needle biopsy procedures of suspicious breast lesions that can be solely detected on Magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Materials and Methods The study included 48 patients with 48 lesions which were solely be observed in breast MRI, indistinguishable in ultrasonography and mammography, for MR guided vacuum-assisted cutting needle biopsy and 42 patients with 42 lesions for MR guided cutting needle biopsy for the lesions of the same nature. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-Tesla MRI device. Acquired MR images were determined and biopsy protocol was performed using computer-aided diagnosis system on the workstation. Vacuum biopsies were performed using 10 G or 12 G automatic biopsy systems, cutting needle biopsy procedures were performed using fully automated 12 G biopsy needle. Results All biopsy procedures were finalized successfully without major complications. The lesions were 54 mass (60%), 28 were non-mass contrast enhancement (31%) and 8 were foci (9%) in the MR examination. Histopathological evaluation revealed 18 malignant (invasive, in-situ ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma), 66 benign (apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, fibroadenomatoid lesion, sclerosing adenosis, fibrocystic disease and mild-to-severe epithelial proliferation) and 6 high-risk (atypical ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, radial scar) lesions. Conclusion Magnetic resonance guided vacuum and cutting needle biopsy methods are successful methods fort he evaluation of solely MRI detected suspicious breast lesions. There are several advantages relative to each other in both methods. PMID:28331727

  20. LIVER BIOPSY IN HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LEPTOSPIRA, DISEASES), (*LIVER, BIOPSY), LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE, HUMANS, PATHOLOGY, CELL STRUCTURE, MITOCHONDRIA, NECROSIS, ENZYMES, TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS, KIDNEYS, PARASITES, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, BRAZIL

  1. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  2. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Helen; Nikitakis, Nikolaos G; Correnti, María; Maissi, Sara; Ponce, José G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze diagnosed cases of Oral Cancer (OC) and Oropharyngeal Cancer (OPC) in a Venezuelan population. We clinically evaluated 130 patients with OC and OPC and a histopathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. The patients were analyzed according to gender age, and use of alcohol and tobacco and the tumors were classIfied based on anatomic location, staging parameters, and degree of difFerentiation. Ninety one patients (70%) were male and 39 (30%) were female. Patients' age ranged from 26 to 86 years old. Use of smoking tobacco, alcohol or both was reported by 84.3%, 49.1% and 45.4% of patients, respectively, and was more frequent in males. The most common oropharyngeal anatomic location was the base of the tongue (22.3%), followed by the tonsils (13.9%), while the most frequently affected oral location was the oral tongue (19.2%) followed by the gingiva and alveolar mucosa (10.8%), and the floor of mouth (7.7%). The majority of tumors (77.7%) were diagnosed at an advanced stage (Stage III or IV); metastasis to the regional lymph nodes occurred in 53.1% of cases. According to degree of diferentiation, well, moderately and poorly difFerentiated tumors accounted for 45.4%, 46.1% and 8.5% of cases, respectively. Well differentiated tumors accounted for 56.7% of OC cases, while the majority of OPC cases were classified as moderately or poorly differentiated (72.3%) (p < or = 0.002). Also, non-metastatic cases (NO) showed a predominance of well-diferentiated tumors (61.2%), while metastatic tumors (N+) were classified as moderately or poorly differentiated in 89.8% of cases (p < or = 0.0001). Our study population was characterized by a predominance of smokers and/or drinkers and a predilection for male patients. Most tumors were diagnosed at an advanced stage with a high incidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, indicating possible delays in diagnosis. Less differentiated tumors were more frequently encountered among

  3. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  4. Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of synovium is an increasingly performed procedure with a high diagnostic yield. In this review, we discuss the normal synovium, as well as the indications, technique, tissue handling and clinical applications of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. PMID:26581578

  5. Initial Experience with a Cone-beam Breast Computed Tomography-guided Biopsy System

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Posy J; Morgan, Renee C; Conover, David L; Arieno, Andrea L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate our initial experience with a cone-beam breast computed tomography (BCT)-guided breast biopsy system for lesion retrieval in phantom studies for use with a cone-beam BCT imaging system. Materials and Methods: Under the Institutional Review Board approval, a phantom biopsy study was performed using a dedicated BCT-guided biopsy system. Fifteen biopsies were performed on each of the small, medium, and large anthropomorphic breast phantoms with both BCT and stereotactic guidance for comparison. Each set of the 45 phantoms contained masses and calcification clusters of varying sizes. Data included mass/calcium retrieval rate and dose and length of procedure time for phantom studies. Results: Phantom mass and calcium retrieval rate were 100% for BCT and stereotactic biopsy. BCT dose for small and medium breast phantoms was found to be equivalent to or less than the corresponding stereotactic approach. Stereotactic-guided biopsy dose was 34.2 and 62.5 mGy for small and medium breast phantoms, respectively. BCT-guided biopsy dose was 15.4 and 30.0 mGy for small and medium breast phantoms, respectively. Both computed tomography biopsy and stereotactic biopsy study time ranged from 10 to 20 min. Conclusion: Initial experience with a BCT-guided biopsy system has shown to be comparable to stereotactic biopsy in phantom studies with equivalent or decreased dose. PMID:28217404

  6. Prognostic value of p16 expression irrespective of human papillomavirus status in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Yoshida, Masafumi; Omura, Go; Kobayashi, Kenya; Fujimoto, Chisato; Ando, Mizuo; Sakamoto, Takashi; Asakage, Takahiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study, we reported the value of p16 expression and alcohol consumption in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japan. We now report the clinical significance of human papillomavirus status and p16 expression in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japan. Over a 9-year period, a retrospective case comparison study of the pathology database was conducted at the University of Tokyo to identify tumor samples of oropharyngeal carcinoma. We performed immunohistochemistry for the p16 protein, in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid and polymerase chain reaction for the human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid oncogene E6 in oropharyngeal carcinoma in Japanese patients. We evaluated the human papillomavirus status in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma to determine its prevalence and association with prognosis. We defined human papillomavirus(+) and human papillomavirus(-) oropharyngeal carcinoma cohorts as those with and without polymerase chain reaction for the human papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic acid oncogene E6 or in situ hybridization-human papillomavirus. In oropharyngeal carcinoma, the prevalences of p16(+)human papillomavirus(+), p16(+)human papillomavirus(-), p16(-)human papillomavirus(+) and p16(-)human papillomavirus(-) were 32% (48/150), 7% (10/150), 2% (3/150) and 59% (89/150), respectively. Low tobacco and alcohol consumption, tonsil or base of tongue localization, but not age, were associated with p16(+)human papillomavirus(+). Low alcohol consumption was associated with p16(+)human papillomavirus(-). There was a significant difference in overall survival between p16(+)human papillomavirus(-) and p16(-)human papillomavirus(-) (P = 0.03). In multivariate Cox regression models, p16 was the independent prognostic factor, regardless of human papillomavirus status. p16 expression was a reliable prognostic biomarker regardless of human papillomavirus status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  7. Human papillomavirus-induced oropharyngeal cancer in Hispanics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Giovana R; Lo, Kaming; Nwojo, Raphael

    2017-05-01

    Determine disparities in survival outcome and clinical presentation between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients with human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Retrospective clinical research. Clinical data on Hispanics and non-Hispanic white patients with diagnosis of human papillomavirus/p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were drawn from a tumor registry from the University of Miami Hospitals and Clinics from 2008 to 2014. Of 436 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 237 patents met inclusion criteria. Patient's age, gender, smoking history, alcohol history, race/ethnicity, tumor T stage, nodal N stage, and composite TNM stage were included in the analysis. Associations between race and other categorical variables were explored with χ(2) test or Fisher exact test where appropriate. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significant differences in clinical presentation was detected between Hispanic (N = 70) and non-Hispanic white (N = 167) patients. Hispanic human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients showed a higher proportion of women with disease, a higher proportion of patients presenting with tonsil rather than tongue base primary subsite cancer, and a higher proportion of patients who do not consume alcohol compared to non-Hispanic white human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. A statistically significant survival difference between these two ethnic groups was not detected in the current dataset. Unique differences in clinical presentations between Hispanic patients and non-Hispanic whites with human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were detected. This may be the first study to report novel clinical presentation in Hispanic human papillomavirus-positive patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma living in the United States. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1097-1101, 2017.

  8. Past sexual behaviors and risks of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-case comparison.

    PubMed

    Schnelle, Christoph; Whiteman, David C; Porceddu, Sandro V; Panizza, Benedict J; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) is increasing and is believed to reflect changing sexual practices in recent decades. For this case-case comparative study, we collected medical and life-style information and data on sexual behavior from 478 patients treated at the head and neck clinic of a tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients were grouped as (i) oropharyngeal SCC (n = 96), (ii) oral cavity, larynx and hypopharynx SCC ("other HNSCCs," n = 96), (iii) other SCCs (n = 141), and (iv) other diagnoses (n = 145). We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with lifestyle factors and sexual behaviors. Compared to the other three patient groups, the oropharyngeal SCC patients had overall more sexual lifetime partners (kissing, oral sex and sexual intercourse). Oropharyngeal SCC patients were significantly more likely to have ever given oral sex compared to the other three patient groups-93% of oropharyngeal SCC patients, 64% of other HNSCC patients, and 58% of patients with other SCC or other diagnoses. Oropharyngeal SCC patients were significantly more likely to have given oral sex to four or more partners when compared to patients with other HNSCC (odds ratio [OR] 11.9; 95% CI 3.5-40.1), other SCC (OR 16.6; 95% CI 5.3-52.0) or patients with other diagnoses (OR 25.2; 95% CI 7.8-81.7). The very strong associations reported here between oral sex practices and risks of oropharyngeal SCC support the hypothesis that sexually transmitted HPV infections cause some of these cancers.

  9. Oral biopsy in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ramírez, Amparo; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Simó, Juan Manuel

    2007-11-01

    The conclusions drawn from the study of an oral biopsy are considered essential for the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa, and for the subsequent planning of appropriate treatment. Although the obtainment of biopsies is widely used in all medical fields, the practice is not so widespread in dental practice--fundamentally because of a lack of awareness of the procedure among dental professionals. In this context, it must be taken into account that the early diagnosis of invasive oral malignancy may be critical for improving the patient prognosis. However, in some cases the results are adversely affected by incorrect manipulation of the biopsy material. The present study provides an update on the different biopsy sampling techniques and their application. Such familiarization in turn will contribute to knowledge of the material and instruments required for correct biopsy performance in dentistry, as well as of the material required for correct sample storage and transport.

  10. The current role of percutaneous needle biopsies of renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Scarpa, Roberto M

    2009-06-01

    The role of percutaneous biopsy of renal masses has been traditionally limited by concerns about its safety, accuracy and sampling errors. The increasing incidence in the diagnosis of incidental small renal masses (SRMs), the development of conservative and minimally invasive treatments for low risk renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and the discovery of novel targeted treatments for metastatic disease are now leading to wider indications for renal tumor biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy of renal tumors can be performed in an outpatient setting under ultrasound and/or CT guidance. 18 gauge needles loaded in an automatic biopsy gun are used to retrieve cores and 21 gauge needles to obtain FNA specimens through a 17 gauge coaxial cannula placed close to the tumor. A careful check of the quality of biopsies and aspirates is paramount to maximize the diagnostic yield of the procedure. With the development of new biopsy techniques the risk of tumor seeding appears negligible and significant bleeding is unusual and very rarely clinically significant. In centres with expertise, needle core biopsy with or without FNA can provide adequate specimens for an accurate diagnosis in over 90% of cases. Incidental SRMs are frequently detected in elderly patients and have a very heterogeneous biological behaviour At surgery up to one third have benign histologies and most of those that are malignant are low grade RCCs. Pretreatment percutaneous biopsy can significantly decrease the number of unnecessary surgeries for benign disease and assist the urologist in clinical decision making, especially for elderly and unfit patients who are possible candidates for active surveillance and/or minimally invasive ablative therapies. Finally, there is potential for stratifying initial therapy of metastatic RCC by histological subtype on needle biopsies.

  11. [Surgical pleural biopsy].

    PubMed

    Bracco, A N; Bouteiller, J M; Della Torre, H A; Golonbek, M

    1965-10-01

    The authors emphasize on the importance of histologic study of the sick pleura to obtain a diagnosis and to decide the treatment, operative or not, which must be specific. They choose the surgical biopsy and analyze the results obtained in 104 operations performed on 100 patients. Four groups of lesions are established: 1) malignant tumors (primary and secondary), 2) Non specific pleuritis consecutive to carcinoma of the lung or other organs, usually metastatic from the breast or the digestive tract, 3) Non specific pleuritis, and 4) Tuberculosis. Cancer or tuberculosis are found in pleurisies of different types. Cancer was found in a 43,7% of the serous pleurisies, in a 64% of the seroushemorrhagic, and in a 46% of the hemorrhagic pleurisies. Tuberculosis was found in a 15,6 % of the serous, in a 7,14 % of the seroushemorrhagic and in a 15,7 % of the purulent. In one case of hemorrhagic pleurisy in which the diagnosis of tuberculosis was not made, further studies confirmed it. The authors point to the existence of non specific pleuritis without neoplastic infiltration in some pleurisies consecutive to lung tumors or from other organs and to its therapeutic consequences. They also inform having found tuberculosis in patients over 50 years of age (8 in 11 cases). In this series the youngest pleural cancer case was a 27 years old man.

  12. Tumor Staging and HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    The current TNM staging for oropharyngeal cancer (OSCC) was designed empirically for non-HPV-related disease. Emerging evidence suggests it is unsuited for Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OSCC. Patients with HPV-positive tumors have improved prognosis, despite presenting at advanced stages. These shortcomings of the current staging system have been identified in single- and multi-institutional trials. Patients with HPV related OSCC typically present with advanced N-stages leading to higher stage groupings. A rarity of stages I and II therefore represents the nature of HPV-related OSCC. Concerning prognosis of the patients, N-category and extracapsular spread seem to be of minor importance, whereas advanced T-stages result in unfavourable outcome. Anatomical staging therefore has been implied into different proposals to prognostic risk classifications in HPV-related disease as an additive compound. Prognostic risk groupings are further enhanced by incorporating non-anatomical factors. To summarize, it can be suggested that the current TNM system alone has little prognostic value in HPV-related OSCC.

  13. Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Jose; Garrido, Laura; Millas, Teresa; Gutierrez-Fonseca, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    On considering a function-preserving treatment for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, swallowing is a capital issue. For most of the patients, achieving an effective and safe deglutition will mark the difference between a functional and a dysfunctional outcome. We present an overview of the management of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients. A brief review on the normal physiology of swallowing is mandatory to analyze next the impact of head and neck cancer and its treatment on the anatomic and functional foundations of deglutition. The approach proposed underlines two leading principles: a transversal one, that is, the multidisciplinary approach, as clinical aspects to be managed in the oncologic patient with oropharyngeal dysphagia are diverse, and a longitudinal one; that is, the concern for preserving a functional swallow permeates the whole process of the diagnosis and treatment, with interventions required at multiple levels. We further discuss the clinical reports of two patients who underwent a supracricoid laryngectomy, a function-preserving surgical technique that particularly disturbs the laryngeal mechanics, and in which swallowing rehabilitation dramatically conditions the functional results. PMID:23346112

  14. Immunopathogenesis of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical immunological defects which are responsible for the onset and maintenance of mucosal candidiasis in patients with HIV infection have not been elucidated. The devastating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhans' cell and CD4+ cell populations is most probably central to the pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. However, these defects may be partly compensated by preserved host defense mechanisms (calprotectin, keratinocytes, CD8+ T cells, and phagocytes) which, individually or together, may limit Candida albicans proliferation to the superficial mucosa. The availability of CD4C/HIV transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 in immune cells has provided the opportunity to devise a novel model of mucosal candidiasis that closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of candidal infection in human HIV infection. These transgenic mice allow, for the first time, a precise cause-and-effect analysis of the immunopathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV infection under controlled conditions in a small laboratory animal. PMID:15489345

  15. Th17 Inflammation Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Weinberg, Aaron; Pandiyan, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) disease is caused not only due to the lack of host immune resistance, but also the absence of appropriate regulation of infection-induced immunopathology. Although Th17 cells are implicated in antifungal defense, their role in immunopathology is unclear. This study presents a method for establishing oral Th17 immunopathology associated with oral candidal infection in immunodeficient mice. The method is based on reconstituting lymphopenic mice with in vitro cultured Th17 cells, followed by oral infection with Candida albicans (C. albicans). Results show that unrestrained Th17 cells result in inflammation and pathology, and is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, tongue histopathology and mortality, showing that this model may be valuable in studying OPC immunopathology. Adoptive transfer of regulatory cells (Tregs) controls and reduces the inflammatory response, showing that this model can be used to test new strategies to counteract oral inflammation. This model may also be applicable in studying oral Th17 immunopathology in general in the context of other oral diseases. PMID:25742163

  16. Th17 inflammation model of oropharyngeal candidiasis in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Weinberg, Aaron; Pandiyan, Pushpa

    2015-02-18

    Oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC) disease is caused not only due to the lack of host immune resistance, but also the absence of appropriate regulation of infection-induced immunopathology. Although Th17 cells are implicated in antifungal defense, their role in immunopathology is unclear. This study presents a method for establishing oral Th17 immunopathology associated with oral candidal infection in immunodeficient mice. The method is based on reconstituting lymphopenic mice with in vitro cultured Th17 cells, followed by oral infection with Candida albicans (C. albicans). Results show that unrestrained Th17 cells result in inflammation and pathology, and is associated with several measurable read-outs including weight loss, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, tongue histopathology and mortality, showing that this model may be valuable in studying OPC immunopathology. Adoptive transfer of regulatory cells (Tregs) controls and reduces the inflammatory response, showing that this model can be used to test new strategies to counteract oral inflammation. This model may also be applicable in studying oral Th17 immunopathology in general in the context of other oral diseases.

  17. Laparoscopic Biopsies in Pancreas Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uva, P D; Odorico, J S; Giunippero, A; Cabrera, I C; Gallo, A; Leon, L R; Minue, E; Toniolo, F; Gonzalez, I; Chuluyan, E; Casadei, D H

    2017-08-01

    As there is no precise laboratory test or imaging study for detection of pancreas allograft rejection, there is increasing interest in obtaining pancreas tissue for diagnosis. Pancreas allograft biopsies are most commonly performed percutaneously, transcystoscopically, or endoscopically, yet pancreas transplant surgeons often lack the skills to perform these types of biopsies. We have performed 160 laparoscopic pancreas biopsies in 95 patients. There were 146 simultaneous kidney-pancreas biopsies and 14 pancreas-only biopsies due to pancreas alone, kidney loss, or extraperitoneal kidney. Biopsies were performed for graft dysfunction (89) or per protocol (71). In 13 cases, an additional laparoscopic procedure was performed at the same operation. The pancreas diagnostic tissue yield was 91.2%; however, the pancreas could not be visualized in eight cases (5%) and in 6 cases the tissue sample was nondiagnostic (3.8%). The kidney tissue yield was 98.6%. There were four patients with intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (2.5%) with two additional postoperative complications. Half of all these complications were kidney related. There were no episodes of pancreatic enzyme leak and there were no graft losses related to the procedure. We conclude that laparoscopic kidney and pancreas allograft biopsies can be safely performed with very high tissue yields. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Determining optimal follow-up in the management of human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Frakes, Jessica M; Naghavi, Arash O; Demetriou, Stephanie K; Strom, Tobin J; Russell, Jeffery S; Kish, Julie A; McCaffrey, Judith C; Otto, Kristen J; Padhya, Tapan A; Harrison, Louis B; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J

    2016-02-15

    Determining the optimal follow-up for patients can help maximize the use of health care resources. This is particularly true in a growing epidemic such as human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+OPSCC). The objective of the current study was to evaluate time to disease recurrence or late toxicity in this cohort of patients to optimize patient management. An institutional database identified 232 patients with biopsy-proven, nonmetastatic HPV+OPSCC who were treated with radiotherapy. A retrospective review was conducted in patients who were followed every 3 months for the first year, every 4 months in year 2, and every 6 months in years 3 to 5. Late toxicity (grade ≥ 3; toxicity was scored based on National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4]), locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival were assessed. The median follow-up was 33 months. Based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0129 study risk groupings, patients were either considered to be at low (162 patients; 70%) or intermediate (70 patients; 30%) risk. Concurrent systemic therapy was used in 85% of patients (196 patients). The 3-year locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 94%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. Late toxicity occurred in 9% of patients (21 patients). Overall, 64% of toxicity and failure events occurred within the first 6 months of follow-up, with a < 2% event incidence noted at each subsequent follow-up. Only 4 patients experienced their first event after 2 years. HPV+OPSCC has a low risk of disease recurrence and late toxicity after treatment; approximately two-thirds of events occur within the first 6 months of follow-up. These data suggest that it may be reasonable to reduce follow-up in patients with HPV+OPSCC to every 3 months for the first 6 months, every 6 months for the first 2 years, and annually thereafter. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Current trends in initial management of oropharyngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery.

    PubMed

    Haigentz, Missak; Silver, Carl E; Corry, June; Genden, Eric M; Takes, Robert P; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2009-12-01

    The widespread availability of novel primary treatment approaches against oropharyngeal cancers has provided several potentially curative surgical and nonsurgical treatment options for patients, generating both hope and controversy. As treatment is usually curative in intent, management considerations must include consideration of primary tumor and nodal disease control as well as long-term toxicities and functional outcomes. Anatomical and functional organ preservation (speech and deglutition) remains of paramount importance to patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the physicians involved in their care, accounting for the growing popularity of chemoradiotherapy and transoral surgical techniques for this indication. These novel approaches have greatly diminished the role of open surgery as initial therapy for oropharyngeal cancers. Open surgery which is often reserved for salvage on relapse, may still be an appropriate therapy for certain early stage primary lesions. The growing treatment armamentarium requires careful consideration for optimal individualized care. The identification of oncogenic human papillomavirus as a predictive and prognostic marker in patients with oropharyngeal cancer has great potential to further optimize the choice of treatment. In this review, novel primary therapies against oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma are presented in the context of anatomical, quality of life, and emerging biological considerations.

  20. Role of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A review

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Robbie SR; O’Regan, Esther M; Kennedy, Susan; Martin, Cara; O’Leary, John J; Timon, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. As a result, traditional paradigms in relation to the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been changing. Research into HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rapidly expanding, however many molecular pathological and clinical aspects of the role of HPV remain uncertain and are the subject of ongoing investigation. A detailed search of the literature pertaining to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was performed and information on the topic was gathered. In this article, we present an extensive review of the current literature on the role of HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, particularly in relation to epidemiology, risk factors, carcinogenesis, biomarkers and clinical implications. HPV has been established as a causative agent in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and biologically active HPV can act as a prognosticator with better overall survival than HPV-negative tumours. A distinct group of younger patients with limited tobacco and alcohol exposure have emerged as characteristic of this HPV-related subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not completely understood and further studies are needed to assist development of optimal prevention and treatment modalities. PMID:24945004

  1. Biopsy: Types of Biopsy Procedures Used to Diagnose Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... A biopsy also helps your doctor determine how aggressive your cancer is — the cancer's grade. The grade ... grade (grade 1) cancers are generally the least aggressive and high-grade (grade 4) cancers are generally ...

  2. Renal biopsy with 16G needle: a safety study.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ramos, F; Villacampa-Aubá, F; Jiménez-Alcaide, E; García-González, L; Ospina-Galeano, I A; de la Rosa-Kehrmann, F; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; Passas-Martínez, J; Díaz-González, R

    2014-11-01

    The development of percutaneous renal biopsy as a routinary diagnostic procedure for renal masses is topic of discussion for the last few years. However, this technique has been associated with some complications, although infrequent, and morbidity. Our objective is to carry out a descriptive study about complications and outcomes of orthotopic kidney biopsies with 16 G needle. A retrospective review of 180 orthotopic ultrasound-guided renal biopsies performed in our service among January 2008 to May 2010 was carried out. The procedure was developed using an automated biopsy gun (16G needle). Multiple clinical variables, early post-procedure complications and its management were collected. Complication rates as well as the relationship between risk factors and occurrence of complications were studied. Mean age was 55.8 years. The average number of biopsy cylinders per intervention was 2.49. The overall complication rate was 5.6%. An interventionist attitude derived from complication of the procedure was necessary in only 3 patients (1.67%). No surgical interventions were required and no death as consequence of procedure was registered. No relationship between hypertension (P=.09) previous anticoagulation (P=.099) or previous antiaggregation (P=.603) and complications were demonstrated. In 2.8% of biopsies the material obtained was insufficient for diagnosing. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy with 16G needle is a safe technique with high diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. [Pulmonary needle biopsy in children].

    PubMed

    Gerbeaux, J

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary biopsy done with a needle of circular bore, can be performed on very young children. A sample of tissue, big enough to establish a precise diagnosis in 2/3 of cases, can be obtained. The main complication is pneumothorax occuring about once in five. Hemoptysia or hemorrhage has never been observed. A proposed indication of premortem biopsy accelerated the death of a child with congenital pulmonary fibrosis. The search of a diagnosis in diffuse pulmonary diseases is the major indication for pulmonary biopsy in the child.

  4. Oropharyngeal flora in patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit: clinical factors and acid suppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Frandah, Wesam; Colmer-Hamood, Jane; Mojazi Amiri, Hoda; Raj, Rishi; Nugent, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    Acid suppression therapy in critically ill patients significantly reduces the incidence of stress ulceration and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding; however, recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the risk of pneumonia. We wanted to test the hypothesis that acid suppressive therapy promotes alteration in the bacterial flora in the GI tract and leads to colonization of the upper airway tract with pathogenic species, potentially forming the biological basis for the observed increased incidence of pneumonia in these patients. This was a prospective observational study on patients (adults 18 years or older) admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) at a tertiary care centre. Exclusion criteria included all patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia at admission, with infection in the upper airway, or with a history of significant dysphagia. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained on day 1 and days 3 or 4 of admission. We collected data on demographics, clinical information, and severity of the underlying disease using APACHE II scores. There were 110 patients enrolled in the study. The mean age was 49±16 years, 50 were women, and the mean APACHE II score was 9.8 ± 6.5. Twenty per cent of the patients had used a PPI in the month preceding admission. The first oropharyngeal specimen was available in 110 cases; a second specimen at 72-96 h was available in 68 cases. Seventy-five per cent of the patients admitted to the MICU had abnormal flora. In multivariate logistic regression, diabetes mellitus and PPI use were associated with abnormal oral flora on admission. Chronic renal failure and a higher body mass index reduced the frequency of abnormal oral flora on admission. Most critically ill patients admitted to our MICU have abnormal oral flora. Patients with diabetes and a history of recent PPI use are more likely to have abnormal oral flora on admission.

  5. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... than surgical biopsy and may not require general anesthesia. Tell your doctor about any recent illnesses or ... and whether you have any allergies, especially to anesthesia. Discuss any medications you’re taking, including herbal ...

  6. [Optimized standards for prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Wullich, B; Füssel, S; Grobholz, R

    2007-06-01

    As individual risk assessment mainly depends on the correct prediction of the tumor's biological behavior, primary diagnosis plays a key role in the clinical management of prostate cancer patients. Prostate core needle biopsy, as a primary diagnostic tool, should not only confirm clinical suspicion but also supply the urologist with information which is necessary for risk-adapted therapy. The experience and competence of both the urologist and the pathologist are crucial for the quality of prostate core needle biopsy diagnosis. Optimized handling and submission of prostate core needle biopsy specimens by the urologist to the pathologist are of outstanding importance for improving the number of cancer cases detected. Increasing availability of molecular markers leads to the necessity of developing new tissue sampling procedures which allow prostate core needle biopsy specimens to be simultaneously studied histologically and by molecular approaches.

  7. Bedside screening to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kertscher, Berit; Speyer, Renée; Palmieri, Maria; Plant, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent comorbidity in neurological patients and presents a serious health threat, which may le to outcomes of aspiration pneumonia ranging from hospitalization to death. Therefore, an early identification of risk followed by an accurate diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia is fundamental. This systematic review provides an update of currently available bedside screenings to identify oropharyngeal dysphagia in neurological patients. An electronic search was carried out in the databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychInfo (formerly PsychLit), and all hits from 2008 up to December 2012 were included in the review. Only studies with sufficient methodological quality were considered, after which the psychometric characteristics of the screening tools were determined. Two relevant bedside screenings were identified, with a minimum sensitivity and specificity of ≥70 and ≥60 %, respectively.

  8. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona; Goodman, Marc T.; Peters, Edward S.; Watson, Meg; Cleveland, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Charles F.; Wilkinson, Edward J.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Copeland, Glen; Saber, Maria S.; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Huang, Youjie; Cozen, Wendy; Lyu, Christopher; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine prevalence of HPV types in oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and establish a prevaccine baseline for monitoring the impact of vaccination. HPV DNA was extracted from tumor tissue samples from patients in whom cancer was diagnosed during 1995–2005. The samples were obtained from cancer registries and Residual Tissue Repository Program sites in the United States. HPV was detected and typed by using PCR reverse line blot assays. Among 557 invasive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, 72% were positive for HPV and 62% for vaccine types HPV16 or 18. Prevalence of HPV-16/18 was lower in women (53%) than in men (66%), and lower in non-Hispanic Black patients (31%) than in other racial/ethnic groups (68%–80%). Results indicate that vaccines could prevent most oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, but their effect may vary by demographic variables. PMID:24751181

  9. Human papillomavirus prevalence in oropharyngeal cancer before vaccine introduction, United States.

    PubMed

    Steinau, Martin; Saraiya, Mona; Goodman, Marc T; Peters, Edward S; Watson, Meg; Cleveland, Jennifer L; Lynch, Charles F; Wilkinson, Edward J; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Copeland, Glen; Saber, Maria S; Hopenhayn, Claudia; Huang, Youjie; Cozen, Wendy; Lyu, Christopher; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2014-05-01

    We conducted a study to determine prevalence of HPV types in oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and establish a prevaccine baseline for monitoring the impact of vaccination. HPV DNA was extracted from tumor tissue samples from patients in whom cancer was diagnosed during 1995-2005. The samples were obtained from cancer registries and Residual Tissue Repository Program sites in the United States. HPV was detected and typed by using PCR reverse line blot assays. Among 557 invasive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, 72% were positive for HPV and 62% for vaccine types HPV16 or 18. Prevalence of HPV-16/18 was lower in women (53%) than in men (66%), and lower in non-Hispanic Black patients (31%) than in other racial/ethnic groups (68%-80%). Results indicate that vaccines could prevent most oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, but their effect may vary by demographic variables.

  10. Confronting human papilloma virus/oropharyngeal cancer: a model for interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Fried, Jacquelyn L

    2014-06-01

    A collaborative practice model related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancer highlights the role of the dental hygienist in addressing this condition. The incidence of HPV associated head and neck cancer is rising. Multiple professionals including the dental hygienist can work collaboratively to confront this growing public health concern. A critical review applies the growth and utilization of interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) to multi-disciplinary models addressing the human papilloma virus and oropharyngeal cancers. A model related to HPV associated oropharyngeal cancer addresses an oral systemic condition that supports the inclusion of a dental hygienist on collaborative teams addressing prevention, detection, treatment and cure of OPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Sonzini, Giulia; Plebani, Daniela; Urbani, Emanuele; Pecis, Marica; Montano, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may present subclinical manifestations of dysphagia, in not one were different textures and volumes systematically studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with boluses of different textures and volumes in a large cohort of patients with OSAS. A total of 72 OSAS patients without symptoms of dysphagia were enrolled. The cohort was divided in two groups: 30 patients with moderate OSAS and 42 patients with severe OSAS. Each patient underwent a FEES examination using 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquids and semisolids, and solids. Spillage, penetration, aspiration, retention, and piecemeal deglutition were considered. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), pooling score (PS), and dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were used for quantitative analysis. Each patient completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. Forty-six patients (64 %) presented spillage, 20 (28 %) piecemeal deglutition, 26 (36 %) penetration, and 30 (44 %) retention. No differences were found in the PAS, PS, and DOSS scores between patients with moderate and severe OSAS. Patients with severe OSAS scored higher General Burden and Food selection subscales of the SWAL-QOL. Depending on the DOSS score, the cohort of patients was divided into those with and those without signs of dysphagia. Patients with signs of dysphagia scored lower in the General Burden and Symptoms subscales of the SWAL-QOL. OSAS patients show signs of swallowing impairment in about half of the population; clinicians involved in the management of these patients should include questions on swallowing when taking the medical history.

  12. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas differentially express granzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Swartz, Justin E; Bovenschen, Niels; Braunius, Weibel W; Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Van Cann, Ellen M; Grolman, Wilko; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-05-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have an improved prognosis compared to HPV-negative OPSCCs. Several theories have been proposed to explain this relatively good prognosis. One hypothesis is a difference in immune response. In this study, we compared tumor-infiltrating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-cells, and granzyme inhibitors (SERPINB1, SERPINB4, and SERPINB9) between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors and the relation with survival. Protein expression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (CD3, CD4, and CD8) and granzyme inhibitors was analyzed in 262 OPSCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Most patients (67%) received primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Cox regression analysis was carried out to compare overall survival (OS) of patients with low and high TIL infiltration and expression of granzyme inhibitors. HPV-positive OPSCCs were significantly more heavily infiltrated by TILs (p < 0.001) compared to HPV-negative OPSCCs. A high level of CD3+ TILs was correlated with a favorable outcome in the total cohort and in HPV-positive OPSCCs, while it reached no significance in HPV-negative OPSCCs. There was expression of all three granzyme inhibitors in OPSCCs. No differences in expression were found between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCCs. Within the group of HPV-positive tumors, a high expression of SERPINB1 was associated with a significantly worse overall survival. HPV-positive OPSCCs with a low count of CD3+ TILs or high expression of SERPINB1 have a worse OS, comparable with HPV-negative OPSCCs. This suggests that the immune system plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of the virally induced oropharynx tumors.

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Andrew P.; Saha, Sandeep; Kraninger, Jennifer L.; Swick, Adam D.; Yu, Menggang; Lambertg, Paul F.; Kimple, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The global incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been increasing, and it has been proposed that a rising rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cancers is driving the observed changes in OPSCC incidence. We carried out this systematic review to further examine the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC over time worldwide. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify all articles through January 31, 2014 that reported on the prevalence of HPV in OPSCC. Articles that met inclusion criteria were divided into four time frames (pre-1995, 1995—1999, 2000—2004, and 2005—present) based on the median year of the study's sample collection period. Employing a weighted analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, we examined the trends of HPV-positivity over time worldwide, in North America, and in Europe. Results Our literature search identified 699 unique articles. 175 underwent review of the entire study and 105 met inclusion criteria. These 105 articles reported on the HPV prevalence in 9541 OPSCC specimens across 23 nations. We demonstrated significant increases in the percentage change of HPV-positive OPSCCs from pre-1995 to present: 20.6% worldwide (p-value for trend: p<0.001), 21.6% in North America (p=0.013) and 21.5% in Europe (p=0.033). Discussion Interestingly, while in Europe there was a steady increase in HPV prevalence across all time frames, reaching nearly 50% most recently, in North America HPV prevalence appears to have plateaued over the past decade at about 65%. These findings may have important implications regarding predictions for the future incidence of OPSCC. PMID:26049691

  14. Randomized trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oropharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Domenge, C; Hill, C; Lefebvre, J L; De Raucourt, D; Rhein, B; Wibault, P; Marandas, P; Coche-Dequeant, B; Stromboni-Luboinski, M; Sancho-Garnier, H; Luboinski, B

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Patients with a squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx for whom curative radiotherapy or surgery was considered feasible were entered in a multicentric randomized trial comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by loco-regional treatment to the same loco-regional treatment without chemotherapy. The loco-regional treatment consisted either of surgery plus radiotherapy or of radiotherapy alone. Three cycles of chemotherapy consisting of Cisplatin (100 mg/m2) on day 1 followed by a 24-hour i.v. infusion of fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2/day) for 5 days were delivered every 21 days. 2–3 weeks after the end of chemotherapy, local treatment was performed. The trial was conducted by the Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs de la Tête Et du Cou (GETTEC). A total of 318 patients were enrolled in the study between 1986 and 1992. Overall survival was significantly better (P = 0.03) in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group than in the control group, with a median survival of 5.1 years versus 3.3 years in the no chemotherapy group. The effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on event-free survival was smaller and of borderline significance (P = 0.11). Stratification of the results on the type of local treatment, surgery plus radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone, did not reveal any heterogeneity in the effect of chemotherapy. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11189100

  15. The Impact of Radiographic Retropharyngeal Adenopathy in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, G. Brandon; Debnam, J. Matthew; Fuller, Clifton D.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Phan, Jack; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background We carried out this study to define the incidence of radiographic retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) involvement in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and its impact on clinical outcomes, which have not been well established to date. Methods Our departmental database was queried for patients irradiated for OPC from 2001–2007. Analyzable patients were those with imaging data available for review to determine radiographic RPLN status. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were retrieved and analyzed. Results The cohort consisted of 981 patients. Median follow up was 69 months. The base of tongue (47%) and tonsil (46%) were the most common primary sites. The majority of patients had T1-2 primaries (64%) and 94% stage 3-4B disease. IMRT was used in 77%, and systemic therapy was delivered to 58%. The incidence of radiographic RPLN involvement was 10% and highest for pharyngeal wall (23%) and lowest for base of tongue tumors (6%). RPLN adenopathy correlated with a number of patient and tumor factors. RPLN involvement was associated with poorer 5-year outcomes on univariate analysis (p <.001 for all): local control (79% vs. 92%), nodal control (80% vs. 93%), recurrence-free (51% vs. 81%), distant metastases-free (66% vs. 89%), and overall survival (52% vs. 82%), and maintained significance for local control (p=.023), recurrence-free (p=.001), distant metastases-free (p=.003), and overall survival (p=.001) on multivariate analysis. Conclusions In this cohort of nearly 1000 patients investigating radiographic RPLN adenopathy in OPC, RPLN involvement was observed in 10% of patients and portends a negative influence on disease recurrence, distant relapse, and survival. PMID:23733178

  16. Oropharyngeal acid reflux and motility abnormalities of the proximal esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Sandro; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Vailati, Cristian; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between pathological oropharyngeal (OP) acid exposure and esophageal motility in patients with extra-esophageal syndromes. METHODS In this prospective study we enrolled consecutive outpatients with extra-esophageal symptoms suspected to be related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We enrolled only patients with a reflux symptom index (RSI) score-higher than 13 and with previous lung, allergy and ear, nose and throat evaluations excluding other specific diagnoses. All patients underwent 24-h OP pH-metry with the Dx probe and esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of a normal or pathological pH-metric finding (Ryan Score) and all manometric characteristics of the two groups were compared. RESULTS We examined 135 patients with chronic extra-esophageal syndromes. Fifty-one were considered eligible for the study. Of these, 42 decided to participate in the protocol. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of normal or pathological OP acid exposure. All the HRM parameters were compared for the two groups. Significant differences were found in the median upper esophageal sphincter resting pressure (median 71 mmHg vs 126 mmHg, P = 0.004) and the median proximal contractile integral (median 215.5 cm•mmHg•s vs 313.5 cm•mmHg•s, P = 0.039), both being lower in the group with pathological OP acid exposure, and the number of contractions with small or large breaks, which were more frequent in the same group. This group also had a larger number of peristaltic contractions with breaks in the 20 mmHg isobaric contour (38.7% vs 15.38%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION In patients with suspected GERD-related extra-esophageal syndromes pathological OP acid exposure was associated with weaker proximal esophageal motility. PMID:27833390

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dalianis, Tina

    2014-12-01

    Numerous reports in recent decades have shown that, in addition to smoking and alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV) is also associated with the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), predominantly in the tonsils and base of the tongue. In 2007, the International Agency on Research against Cancer (IARC) therefore declared HPV to be a risk factor for OPSCC and noted that 80% of those affected are men. In addition, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC, in particular never-smokers, have a much better clinical response to therapy than patients with HPV-negative OPSCC and other head and neck cancers. Most patients with HPV-positive OPSCC may thus not need the increasingly intensive chemo-radiotherapy currently administered today to most patients with head neck cancers and associated with many adverse effects. Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of OPSCC has been observed in many western countries, accompanied by a rise in the proportion of HPV-positive tumors. Patients with HPV-positive OPSCC, like those with cervical cancer, more often have an earlier sexual debut and have more sexual partners. It has therefore been proposed that the increased incidence of OPSCC observed might be due to an epidemic of sexually transmitted HPV. The important issues today regarding this growing cohort of patients with HPV-positive OPSCC are therefore individualized treatment and prevention. More specifically, selected HPV-positive OPSCC patients with biomarkers of good prognosis might be included in randomized trials with less intensive treatment. HPV vaccination should also be considered for boys, in addition to the current recommendations for immunization of girls.

  18. Transoral oropharyngeal resection classification: Proposal of the SCORL working group.

    PubMed

    Virós Porcuna, David; Avilés Jurado, Francisco; Pollán Guisasola, Carlos; Ramírez Ruiz, Rosa Delia; García Lorenzo, Jacinto; Tobed Secall, Marc; Vilaseca González, Isabel; Costa González, José Miguel; Soteras Olle, Josep; Casamitjana Claramunt, Francesc; Sumarroca Trouboul, Anna; Hijano Esqué, Rafael; Viscasillas Pallàs, Guillem; Mañós Pujol, Manel; Quer Agustí, Miquel

    There has been a very significant increase in the use of minimally invasive surgery has in the last decade. In order to provide a common language after transoral surgery of the oropharynx, a system for classifying resections has been created in this area, regardless of the instrumentation used. From the Oncology Working Group of the Catalan Society of Otorhinolaryngology, a proposal for classification based on a topographical division of the different areas of the oropharynx is presented, as also based on the invasion of the related structures according to the anatomical routes of extension of these tumours. The classification starts using the letter D or I according to laterality either right (D) or left (I). The number of the resected area is then placed. This numbering defines the zones beginning at the cranial level where area I would be the soft palate, lateral area II in the tonsillar area, area III in the tongue base, area IV in the glossoepiglottic folds, epiglottis and pharyngoepiglottic folds, area V posterior oropharyngeal wall and VI the retromolar trigone. The suffix p is added if the resection deeply affects the submucosal plane of the compromised area. The different proposed areas would, in theory, have different functional implications. Proposal for a system of classification by area to definedifferent types of transoral surgery of the oropharynx, and enable as sharing of results and helps in teaching this type of technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment failure of gentamicin in pediatric patients with oropharyngeal tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ali; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Güven, Ahmet Sami; Engin, Aynur; Gültürk, Abdulaziz; İçağasıoğlu, Füsun Dilara; Cevit, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Tularemia is a zoonotic infection, and the causative agent is Francisella tularensis. A first-line therapy for treating tularemia is aminoglycosides (streptomycin or, more commonly, gentamicin), and treatment duration is typically 7 to 10 days, with longer courses for more severe cases. Material/Methods We evaluated 11 patients retrospectively. Failure of the therapy was defined by persistent or recurrent fever, increased size or appearance of new lymphadenopathies and persistence of the constitutional syndrome with elevation of the levels of the proteins associated with the acute phase of infection. Results We observed fluctuating size of lymph nodes of 4 patients who were on the 7th day of empirical therapy. The therapy was switched to streptomycin alone and continued for 14 days. The other 7 patients, who had no complications, were on cefazolin and gentamycin therapy until the serologic diagnosis. Then we evaluated them again and observed that none of their lymph nodes regressed. We also switched their therapy to 14 days of streptomycin. After the 14 days on streptomycin therapy, we observed all the lymph nodes had recovered or regressed. During a follow-up 3 weeks later, we observed that all their lymph nodes had regressed to the clinically non-significant dimensions (<1 cm). Conclusions All patients were first treated with gentamicin, but were than given streptomycin after failure of gentamicin. This treatment was successful in all patients. The results of our study suggest that streptomycin is an effective choice of first-line treatment for pediatric oropharyngeal tularemia patients. PMID:21709631

  20. Getting the Most Out of Liver Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lidbury, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens yields information that is not otherwise obtainable and is frequently essential for diagnosing hepatic disease. Percutaneous needle biopsy, laparoscopic biopsy, and surgical biopsy each have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Care should be taken to ensure an adequate amount of tissue is collected for meaningful histologic evaluation. Because sampling error is a limitation of hepatic biopsy, multiple liver lobes should be biopsied. This article discusses the indications for liver biopsy, associated risks, advantages and disadvantages of different biopsy techniques, and strategies to get the most useful information possible out of this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of marijuana smoking with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers: pooled analysis from the INHANCE consortium.

    PubMed

    Marks, Morgan A; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Kelsey, Karl; Straif, Kurt; Berthiller, Julien; Schwartz, Stephen M; Smith, Elaine; Wyss, Annah; Brennan, Paul; Olshan, Andrew F; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Lazarus, Philip; McClean, Michael; Chen, Chu; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W; Fernandez, Leticia; Posner, Marshall; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancers has increased over the last 20 years which parallels increased use of marijuana among individuals born after 1950. A pooled analysis was conducted comprising individual-level data from nine case-control studies from the United States and Latin America in the INHANCE consortium. Self-reported information on marijuana smoking, demographic, and behavioral factors was obtained from 1,921 oropharyngeal cases, 356 oral tongue cases, and 7,639 controls. Compared with never marijuana smokers, ever marijuana smokers had an elevated risk of oropharyngeal [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.47] and a reduced risk of oral tongue cancer (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29, 0.75). The risk of oropharyngeal cancer remained elevated among never tobacco and alcohol users. The risk of oral tongue cancer was reduced among never users of tobacco and alcohol. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for potential confounding by HPV exposure attenuated the association of marijuana use with oropharyngeal cancer (aOR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.25), but had no effect on the oral tongue cancer association. These results suggest that the association of marijuana use with head and neck carcinoma may differ by tumor site. The associations of marijuana use with oropharyngeal and oral tongue cancer are consistent with both possible pro- and anticarcinogenic effects of cannabinoids. Additional work is needed to rule out various sources of bias, including residual confounding by HPV infection and misclassification of marijuana exposure.

  2. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and language delay in partial trisomy 9p: case report.

    PubMed

    Rossi, N F; Gatto, A R; Cola, P C; Souza, D H; Moretti-Ferreira, D; Giacheti, C M

    2009-09-22

    The phenotype of partial trisomy 9p includes global developmental delay, microcephaly, bulbous nose, downturned oral commissures, malformed ears, hypotonia, and severe cognitive and language disorders. We present a case report and a comparative review of clinical findings on this condition, focusing on speech-language development, cognitive abilities and swallowing evaluation. We suggest that oropharyngeal dysphagia should be further investigated, considering that pulmonary and nutritional disorders affect the survival and quality of life of the patient. As far as we know, this is the first study of a patient with partial trisomy 9p described with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  3. Prevalence and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with severe anorexia nervosa: A large retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Samantha R M; Sabel, Allison L; Gaudiani, Jennifer L; Gudridge, Tricia; Brinton, John T; Mehler, Philip S

    2016-02-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) refers to difficulty swallowing food or a liquid bolus from the oral and pharyngeal cavities into the esophagus and increases the risk of possibly life-threatening pneumonia. Little has been reported on OPD in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study includes a description of OPD in severe AN and discusses potentially effective clinical management. Two hundred and six adults with severe AN, admitted over a five-year period to a national referral center specializing in the multidisciplinary medical stabilization of this population, were retrospectively evaluated by electronic database query and manual chart review. All patients whose initial medical assessment triggered a speech-language pathology (SLP) consultation, due to concerns for OPD, were reviewed in detail. Of the 206 total patients, 42 presented with symptoms of OPD and received SLP consultation. In the OPD cohort, 37 (88%) were women, with median age 32 years old, and mean admission weights of 57% ideal body weight (IBW) and body mass index (BMI) of 12 kg/m(2). Compared with those who did not have OPD, OPD patients had significantly lower BMI on admission (12 kg/m(2) vs. 13.1 kg/m(2), p < 0.001), longer stay (21 days vs. 14 days, p < 0.001), and were more medically compromised, including a greater incidence of refeeding hypophosphatemia (60.9% vs. 29.7%, p < 0.004). Clinical awareness of OPD may reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia and promote life-saving oral nutrition in patients with severe AN. Proper, timely evaluation and intervention may improve clinical outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lateral Oropharyngeal Wall and Supraglottic Airway Collapse Associated With Failure in Sleep Apnea Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Danny; Sinawe, Hadeer; Folbe, Adam J.; Yoo, George; Badr, Safwan; Rowley, James A.; Lin, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To identify patterns of airway collapse during preoperative drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) as predictors of surgical failure following multilevel airway surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Study Design Retrospective clinical chart review. Methods Medical records of patients who underwent site-specific surgical modification of the upper airway for treatment of OSHAS were reviewed. Patients were included in this study if they had a preoperative airway evaluation with DISE as well as preoperative and postoperative polysomnography. Airway obstruction on DISE was described according to airway level, severity, and axis of collapse. Severe airway obstruction was defined as >75% collapse on endoscopy. Surgical success was described as a postoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of <20 and a >50% decrease in preoperative AHI. Results A total of 34 patients were included in this study. The overall surgical success rate was 56%. Surgical success (n = 19) and surgical failure (n = 15) patients were similar with regard to age, gender, body mass index, preoperative AHI, Friedman stage, adenotonsillar grades, and surgical management. DISE findings in the surgical failure group demonstrated greater incidence of severe lateral oropharyngeal wall collapse (73.3% vs. 36.8%, P = .037) and severe supraglottic collapse (93.3% vs. 63.2%, P = .046) as compared to the surgical success group. Conclusions The presence of severe lateral pharyngeal wall and/or supraglottic collapse on preoperative DISE is associated with OSAHS surgical failure. The identification of this failure-prone collapse pattern may be useful in preoperative patient counseling as well as in directing an individualized and customized approach to the treatment of OSHAS. PMID:22253047

  5. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  6. Giant Undifferentiated Oropharyngeal Sarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Ilson; Frelinghuysen, Michael; García, Cesar; Platin, Enrique; Spencer, M. Loreto; Ortega, Pablo; Ulloa, David

    2014-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented to the Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) clinic with swelling of the neck, dysphagia, headache, dyspnea and stridor. Imaging studies revealed an expansive heterogeneous process to the left retropharyngeal region. The mass was ovoid in shape, displaying moderate enhancement after intravenous contrast administration. Subsequently, a biopsy revealed the presence of undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, but follow-up exams at 6 months posttreatment revealed that while the tumor was stable, it persisted. Consequently, the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program and is currently being followed. PMID:25493085

  7. [Liquid Biopsy and Laboratory Medicine].

    PubMed

    Furuta, Koh

    2015-09-01

    Recent progress in cancer biology has revealed the fact that molecular profiles of primary and metastatic cancer are not necessarily the same. Furthermore, evidence of intra-tumor heterogeneity has been disclosed repeatedly. In addition to these, acquiring resistances to chemoradiation therapy is far more rapid than typical predictions. Under these circumstances, physicians are realizing that one biopsy is not enough to predict the direction of cancer progression or extension. Repeated biopsy was proposed in this context. For "re-biopsy", acquiring blood is much easier compared to regular biopsies of acquiring body tissues. Therefore, CTC or Cell-free DNA is one of the hot topics in clinical and molecular diagnostic fields. The term "liquid biopsy" is used to include these two materials. We utilized a CTC isolation device based on microfluidic principles. Procedures for the extraction of DNA from plasma (Cell-free DNA) is also available. Based on this background, we performed a feasibility study of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) by analyzing materials from advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have successfully acquired NGS results using these liquid biopsies. We have also investigated the possibility of storing CTCs by evaluating procedures after cytospin using H1975 cells with various fixation conditions under a DIC microscope examination. Because of the paucity of the number of isolated CTCs, H1975 cells were used for this purpose. After cytospin, 95% ETOH and then -80 degrees C storage provided the best results. Attempts at not only NGS but also storage in this sequence of studies have opened new fields of liquid biopsy in clinical laboratories.

  8. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  9. Videofluoroscopic assessment of the pathophysiology of chronic poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Vilardell, N; Rofes, L; Arreola, V; Martin, A; Muriana, D; Palomeras, E; Ortega, O; Clavé, P

    2017-10-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major complaint following stroke, associated with poor clinical outcome and high mortality rates. We aimed at characterizing the kinematics of swallow response associated with unsafe swallowing in chronic poststroke patients with OD. Consecutive poststroke patients with a positive volume-viscosity swallow test for OD 3 months following stroke were studied by videofluoroscopy (VFS). Demographical and clinical factors and kinematics of swallow response were compared between those poststroke patients with safe swallow (penetration-aspiration scale, PAS≤2) and those with unsafe swallow (PAS≥3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC) time which predicts unsafe swallow. We studied 73 poststroke patients (76.7±9.3 years, 53.4% male) by VFS (60.4% with impaired safety, PAS=4.47±1.44, and 95.9% with impaired efficacy of swallow). Poststroke patients with unsafe swallow presented a poorer functional (Rankin 2.2±1.6 vs 1.2±1.0, P<.012) and nutritional status (MNA-sf≤11, 34.2% vs 7.4%, P<.05) than poststroke patients with safe swallow. Poststroke patients with unsafe swallow presented a significant delay in LVC time (406.4±99.5 ms vs 318.9±80.4 ms; P<.05) and weaker tongue bolus propulsion forces (0.771±0.450 mJ vs 1.638±3.212 mJ; P=.043). LVC time ≥340 ms predicts unsafe swallow in chronic poststroke patients with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.78. Impaired safety of swallow in chronic poststroke patients is caused by specific impairments in swallow response including delayed timing of airway protection mechanisms and weak tongue propulsion forces. Treatments aiming to restore swallowing function in poststroke patients with OD should be targeted to improve these critical biomechanical events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The value of scintigraphy in the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Argon, Murat; Secil, Yaprak; Duygun, Ulkem; Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ozkilic, Hayal; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2004-01-01

    scintigraphic evaluations of piecemeal deglutition and dysphagia limit could be of value especially in centres which do not have electrophysiological test facilities. The technique should be added to the list of standard scintigraphic methods for the evaluation of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  11. Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in diagnosis of abdominal and pelvic neoplasm in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailing; Li, Fangxuan; Liu, Juntian; Zhang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy of abdominal and pelvic masses in adults has gained tremendous popularity. However, the application of the same treatment in children is not as popular because of apprehensions regarding inadequate tissues for the biopsy and accidental puncture of vital organs. Data of the application of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 105 pediatric patients with clinically or ultrasound-diagnosed abdominopelvic masses were reviewed. Diagnostic procedures were conducted in our institution from May 2011 to May 2013. The biopsies were conducted on 86 malignant lesions and 19 benign lesions. 86 malignant tumors comprised neuroblastomas (30 cases), hepatoblastomas (15 cases), nephroblastomas (11 cases), and primitive neuroectodermal tumors/malignant small round cells (6 cases). Among malignant tumor cases, only a pelvic primitive neuroectodermal tumor did not receive a pathological diagnosis. Therefore, the biopsy accuracy was 98.8 % in malignant tumor. However, the biopsies for one neuroblastomas and one malignant small round cell tumor were inadequate for cytogenetic analysis. Therefore, 96.5 % of the malignant tumor patients received complete diagnosis via biopsy. 19 benign tumors comprised mature teratoma (10 cases), hemangioendothelioma (3 cases), paraganglioma (2 cases), and infection (2 cases). The diagnostic accuracy for benign neoplasm was 100 %. Five patients experienced postoperative complications, including pain (2 patients), bleeding from the biopsy site (2 patients), and wound infection (1 patient). Ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy is an efficient, minimally invasive, accurate, and safe diagnostic method that can be applied in the management of abdominal or pelvic mass of pediatric patients.

  12. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  13. [Aspiration biopsy of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Pérez Catzín, F; Gutiérrez Samperio, C; Valenzuela Tamariz, J

    1979-01-01

    Biopsy of the pancreas frequently is followed by complications, this is why the transoperative aspiration biopsy has been recomended. During the last 2 years we used this procedure in 46 patients; in each case, one or several aspirations were done in the more-representative area of the pancreatic pathology. With the aspirated material a smear was fixed and treated with H-E stain. Biopsy was negative for carcinoma in 30 patients (65.2%), positive in 12 (26.0%), insuficient material results in other 4 (8.6%) we consider that the procedure was useful in the 82.6% of the cases and help to elect more adecuate surgical tecnic. There were no complications and we concluded that this is not a harmful procedure. The correct interpretation of the citology depends on the experience of the pathologyst with this method, to increase the percentage of correct diagnosis.

  14. Prevalence and predictive role of p16 and epidermal growth factor receptor in surgically treated oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Shamir P; Lee, Julia S; Chanowski, Eric J P; Sacco, Assuntina G; Bradford, Carol R; Wolf, Gregory T; Prince, Mark E; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Eisbruch, Avraham; Worden, Francis P; Giordano, Thomas J; Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Katrina G; Carey, Thomas E; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship of p16 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression with survival in surgically treated patients who had oropharyngeal or oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tissue from 36 patients with oropharyngeal SCC and 49 patients with oral cavity SCC treated between 1997 and 2001 was imbedded and immunostained using a tissue microarray. The p16 was positive in 57% and 13% of patients with oropharyngeal SCC and oral cavity SCC, respectively. EGFR was positive in 60% and 63% of patients with oropharyngeal SCC and oral cavity SCC, respectively. In patients with oropharyngeal SCC, p16 expression was associated with improved disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and time to recurrence (TTR) (p < .01, < .01, and <.01, respectively). EGFR expression was associated with poorer DSS, OS, and TTR (p < .01, = .01, and < .01, respectively). For oropharyngeal SCC, when examining both p16 and EGFR expression as combined biomarkers, high p16 expression coupled with low EGFR expression was associated with improved DSS (p p16 = .01; p EGFR = .01). Patients with oral cavity SCC showed no association between biomarker and outcome. For patients with oropharyngeal SCC, high p16 and low EGFR were associated with improved outcome, suggesting a predictive role in surgically treated patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Cancer Via p16 Immunohistochemistry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Toman, Julia; Von Larson, Scott; Umeno, Hirohito; Kurita, Takashi; Furusaka, Tohru; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Prasad, Manju L; Sasaki, Clarence T

    2017-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has emerged as a driving cause of head and neck cancer, but investigations outside the West are limited. A p16 immunohistochemistry is a commonly used biomarker for HPV cancers. We sought to investigate the pathology and rates of HPV head and neck oropharyngeal cancer in Japan via p16 immunohistochemistry at 2 institutions in Japan. Fifty-nine oropharyngeal specimens from 2 university hospitals in Japan were examined for morphology and p16 immunohistochemistry. The rate of p16 positivity was then determined, and the 2 groups were compared for differences in age, smoking history, gender, and stage of presentation and mortality. The rate of p16 positivity among the oropharyngeal specimens was 29.5%. There were important differences in the pathology compared to morphology usually seen in the US. The patients with p16+ cancer tended to be younger. There was no significant difference in smoking status. Patients with p16+ cancers trended toward better survival. There appears to be a geographical difference in HPV rates of oropharyngeal cancers with persistently lower rates in Asian countries when compared to Western Europe and the US. Conclusions about HPV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Western countries may not be generalizable across the globe at this time.

  16. Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July–September 2013

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Bekir; Isik, Mehmet Emirhan; Tutus, Celal; Ozturk, Huseyin; Temel, Fehminaz; Kizilaslan, Mecit; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non–tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned. PMID:26584074

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Carotid Artery Blowout Syndrome Caused by Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Onur; Celtikci, Pinar; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Birgi, Erdem; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 64-year-old man was admitted with massive hemoptysis caused by oropharyngeal carcinoma. Angiography revealed active extravasation from the left carotid bulb. Covered stent-graft placement resolved the bleeding, but the patient presented with recurrent hemorrhage two hours later and was treated with another stent-graft. PMID:25207916

  18. Changes in the oropharyngeal airway of Class II patients treated with the mandibular anterior repositioning appliance.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Susan; Kulbersh, Valmy Pangrazio; Al-Qawasmi, Riyad

    2016-11-01

     To evaluate the effects of functional appliance treatment on the oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position of growing Class II patients.  Twenty Class II white patients (mean age, 11.7 ± 1.75 years) treated with the MARA followed by fixed appliances were matched to an untreated control sample by cervical vertebrae maturation stage at pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) time points. Cone beam computed tomography scans were taken at T1 and T2. Dolphin3D imaging software was used to determine oropharyngeal airway volume, dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position.  Multivariate ANOVA was used to evaluate changes between T1 and T2. Oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and A-P position of the hyoid bone increased significantly with functional appliance treatment. SNA and ANB decreased significantly in the experimental group (P ≤ .05). Changes in SNB and Sn-GoGn failed to reach statistical significance.  Functional appliance therapy increases oropharyngeal airway volume, airway dimensions, and anteroposterior hyoid bone position in growing patients.

  19. Leptin receptor expression and Gln223Arg polymorphism as prognostic markers in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P R S; Maia, L L; Santos, M; Peterle, G T; Alves, L U; Takamori, J T; Souza, R P; Barbosa, W M; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-11-25

    The leptin gene product is released into the blood stream, passes through the blood-brain barrier, and finds the leptin receptor (LEPR) in the central nervous system. This hormone regulates food intake, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, differentiation, and cell proliferation. The LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism has been reported to alter receptor function and expression, both of which have been related with prognostics in several tumor types. Furthermore, several studies have shown a relationship between the Gln223Arg polymorphism and tumor development, and its role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is now well understood. In this study, 315 DNA samples were used for LEPR Gln223Arg genotyping and 87 primary oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas were used for immunohistochemical expression analysis, such that a relationship between these and tumor development and prognosis could be established. Homozygous LEPR Arg223 was found to be associated with a 2-fold reduction in oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk. In contrast, the presence of the Arg223 allele in tumors was associated with worse disease-free and disease-specific survival. Low LEPR expression was found to be an independent risk factor, increasing the risk for lymph node metastasis 4-fold. In conclusion, the Gln223Arg polymorphism and LEPR expression might be valuable markers for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, suggesting that LEPR might serve as a potential target for future therapies.

  20. Chronic Inflammation-Related HPV: A Driving Force Speeds Oropharyngeal Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Ma, Xiangrui; Lei, Zhengge; Feng, Hao; Wang, Shasha; Cen, Xiao; Gao, Shiyu; Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Qianming; Tang, Yajie; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been known to be a highly aggressive disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. To investigate the relationship between HPV and chronic inflammation in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, we collected 140 oral mucous fresh specimens including 50 OPSCC patients, 50 cancer in situ, 30 precancerous lesions, and 10 normal oral mucous. Our data demonstrated that there was a significantly higher proportion of severe chronic inflammation in dysplastic epithelia in comparison with that in normal tissues (P<0.001). The positive rate of HPV 16 was parallel with the chronic inflammation degrees from mild to severe inflammation (P<0.05). The positive rate of HPV 16 was progressively improved with the malignant progression of oral mucous (P<0.05). In addition, CD11b+ LIN- HLA-DR-CD33+ MDSCs were a critical cell population that mediates inflammation response and immune suppression in HPV-positive OPSCC. These indicated that persistent chronic inflammation-related HPV infection might drive oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and MDSCs might pay an important role during this process. Thus, a combination of HPV infection and inflammation expression might become a helpful biomedical marker to predict oropharyngeal carcinogenesis.

  1. Neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: from compensation to the recovery of swallowing function.

    PubMed

    Cabib, Christopher; Ortega, Omar; Kumru, Hatice; Palomeras, Ernest; Vilardell, Natalia; Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Muriana, Desirée; Rofes, Laia; Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is very prevalent among poststroke patients, causing severe complications but lacking specific neurorehabilitation treatment. This review covers advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and physiologically based neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke OD. The pathophysiology of oropharyngeal biomechanics can be assessed by videofluoroscopy, as delayed laryngeal vestibule closure is closely associated with aspiration. Stroke may affect afferent or efferent neuronal circuits participating in deglutition. The integrity of oropharyngeal-cortical afferent pathways can be assessed by electroencephalography through sensory-evoked potentials by pharyngeal electrical stimulation, while corticopharyngeal efferent pathways can be characterized by electromyography through motor-evoked potentials by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Dysfunction in both cortico-mediated evoked responses is associated with delayed swallow response and aspiration. Studies have reported hemispherical asymmetry on motor control of swallowing and the relevance of impaired oropharyngeal sensitivity on aspiration. Advances in treatment include improvements in compensatory strategies but are mainly focused on (1) peripheral stimulation strategies and (2) central, noninvasive stimulation strategies with evidence of their clinical benefits. Characterization of poststroke OD is evolving from the assessment of impaired biomechanics to the sensorimotor integration processes involved in deglutition. Treatment is also changing from compensatory strategies to promoting brain plasticity, both to recover swallow function and to improve brain-related swallowing dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Chronic Inflammation-Related HPV: A Driving Force Speeds Oropharyngeal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Ma, Xiangrui; Lei, Zhengge; Feng, Hao; Wang, Shasha; Cen, Xiao; Gao, Shiyu; Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Jian; Chen, Qianming; Tang, Yajie; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been known to be a highly aggressive disease associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. To investigate the relationship between HPV and chronic inflammation in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, we collected 140 oral mucous fresh specimens including 50 OPSCC patients, 50 cancer in situ, 30 precancerous lesions, and 10 normal oral mucous. Our data demonstrated that there was a significantly higher proportion of severe chronic inflammation in dysplastic epithelia in comparison with that in normal tissues (P<0.001). The positive rate of HPV 16 was parallel with the chronic inflammation degrees from mild to severe inflammation (P<0.05). The positive rate of HPV 16 was progressively improved with the malignant progression of oral mucous (P<0.05). In addition, CD11b+ LIN- HLA-DR-CD33+ MDSCs were a critical cell population that mediates inflammation response and immune suppression in HPV-positive OPSCC. These indicated that persistent chronic inflammation-related HPV infection might drive oropharyngeal carcinogenesis and MDSCs might pay an important role during this process. Thus, a combination of HPV infection and inflammation expression might become a helpful biomedical marker to predict oropharyngeal carcinogenesis. PMID:26193368

  3. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  4. Modeling of oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation to compensate for the acoustic effects of nasalization.

    PubMed

    Rong, Panying; Kuehn, David P; Shosted, Ryan K

    2016-09-01

    Hypernasality is one of the most detrimental speech disturbances that lead to declines of speech intelligibility. Velopharyngeal inadequacy, which is associated with anatomic defects such as cleft palate or neuromuscular disorders that affect velopharygneal function, is the primary cause of hypernasality. A simulation study by Rong and Kuehn [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55(5), 1438-1448 (2012)] demonstrated that properly adjusted oropharyngeal articulation can reduce nasality for vowels synthesized with an articulatory model [Mermelstein, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53(4), 1070-1082 (1973)]. In this study, a speaker-adaptive articulatory model was developed to simulate speaker-customized oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation to compensate for the acoustic effects of nasalization on /a/, /i/, and /u/. The results demonstrated that (1) the oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation effectively counteracted the effects of nasalization on the second lowest formant frequency (F2) and partially compensated for the effects of nasalization on vowel space (e.g., shifting and constriction of vowel space) and (2) the articulatory adaptation strategies generated by the speaker-adaptive model might be more efficacious for counteracting the acoustic effects of nasalization compared to the adaptation strategies generated by the standard articulatory model in Rong and Kuehn. The findings of this study indicated the potential of using oropharyngeal articulatory adaptation as a means to correct maladaptive articulatory behaviors and to reduce nasality.

  5. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  6. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  7. Evaluation of speech outcomes following treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Raghav C; Kazi, Rehan A; Agrawal, Nishant; Nutting, Christopher M; Clarke, Peter M; Kerawala, Cyrus J; Rhys-Evans, Peter H; Harrington, Kevin J

    2009-08-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancers are amongst the commonest cancers worldwide and present a major health problem. Owing to their critical anatomical location and complex physiologic functions, the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers often affects important functions, including speech. The importance of speech in a patient's life can not be overemphasized, as its loss is often associated with severe functional and psychosocial problems and a poor quality of life. A thorough understanding of the speech problems that are faced by these patients and their timely management is the key to providing a better functional quality of life, which must be one of the major goals of modern oncologic practice. This review summarises key methods of evaluation and outcome of speech functions in the literature on oral and oropharyngeal cancer published between January 2000 and December 2008. Speech has been generally overlooked and poorly investigated in this group of patients. This review is an attempt to fill this gap by conducting the first speech-specific review for oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. We have proposed guidelines for better understanding and management of speech problems faced by these patients in their day-to-day life.

  8. Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas by means of CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Renedo, Pedro M; Monje Gil, Florencio; Junquera Gutiérrez, Luis M; De Vicente Rodríguez, Juan C; Morillo Sánchez, Antonio J

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the wide long-wave CO2 laser is the thermal vaporization of the tissues, getting a maximum energy concentration with a minimum of tissue penetration. In oral surgery, it is generally used for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal small mucous tumors, due to the scarce morbidity that takes place and the absence of reconstructive necessity. To analyze the postoperative evolution, in the patients treated by oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas, after CO2 laser resection. To compare it with that of the patients treated by means of conventional surgical methods, achieving the reconstruction through direct suture or the employment of local, regional or distance flaps. A prospective study was designed including 70 patients treated by oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas. Thirty-five patients were treated by means of CO2 laser, in 10 cases direct wound-closure was realized, and in the remaining 25 patients some local, regional or distance flap were used. There were analysed the presence of postoperative pain, the degree of cicatricial retraction, and the speech and swallowing functional results. We obtained a smaller painful degree and postoperative cicatricial retraction by the employment of CO2 laser. It permits minimizing the functional speech sequels (better words articulation) and swallowing (effective and precocious functional recovery). CO2 laser resection has become the elective treatment for small oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas. The reasons are the absence of reconstructive surgery necessity, the scarce cicatricial retraction, and the excellent postoperative evolution.

  9. Oral and oropharyngeal impalement injury in pediatric patients--focus on rural environment.

    PubMed

    Syebele, Kabunda; Van Straten, Cornelia; Chidinyane, Lebaka

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a case series of oral and oropharyngeal impalement injuries in pediatric patients and highlights the peculiar etiological role of the rural environment. The records of nine pediatric patients who presented with oropharyngeal impalement injuries were reviewed. The patients were all from various rural areas of South Africa. The article focuses on the challenges and risk of post-impalement injury infection in the context of a rural environment. There were eight boys and one girl. The ages of the study participants ranged from 2 to 10 years. Object-to-head injury was the predominant etiopathogenic mechanism (six cases) compared with head-to-object injury (three cases). Six out of nine lesions were shallow. The hard palate was the single most commonly affected site. Two cases (2/9) of post-impalement injury infection were recorded. Although the risk of infection post-oropharyngeal impalement injury is reported to be low, it remains, however, a legitimate concern in cases occurring in the rural environment. The specific challenges in terms of health infrastructures in the rural environment, especially in developing countries, may have an impact on the ways oropharyngeal impalement injuries are managed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July-September 2013.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Dilber; Celebi, Bekir; Isik, Mehmet Emirhan; Tutus, Celal; Ozturk, Huseyin; Temel, Fehminaz; Kizilaslan, Mecit; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned.

  11. An Outbreak of Oropharyngeal Tularemia with Cervical Adenopathy Predominantly in the Left Side

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Idris; Kaya, Demet; Oksuz, Sukru; Ozdemir, Davut; Karabay, Oguz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and the efficacy of a delayed initiation to therapy in an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Duzce, Turkey. Materials and Methods Between March and June 2000, 22 patients with tularemia were diagnosed by microagglutination tests. Results Oropharyngeal and ulceroglandular forms of the disease were discovered. Most of the cases were oropharyngeal (19 cases). The most common symptoms were sore throat (95.4%) and fever (90.9%). Lymphadenopathy (95.4%) and pharyngeal hyperemia (81.8%) were usually observed signs. The lymphadenopathies were localized especially in the left cervical region (66.7%), a finding that has not been previously reported in the literature. The time between the onset of the symptoms and diagnosis was 40.7 ± 22.8 (10 - 90) days. The patients were treated with streptomycin plus doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. The patients' recoveries took up to 120 days. Conclusion This report describes the first outbreak of tularemia in northwest Turkey. Tularemia may occur in any region where appropriate epidemiological conditions are found and should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis in oropharyngeal symptoms. Late initiation of therapy may delay complete recovery. In this outbreak, cervical lymph nodes predominantly localized on the 1eft side were found, which had not been previously reported. PMID:19259348

  12. Oropharyngeal tularemia in father and son after consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic-Spasic, Marina; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kostic, Velimir; Lako, Branislav; Spasic, Zivojin

    2011-12-01

    Tularemia has been recognized for more than 10 y in Serbia, since the first epidemic of tularemia occurred in Sokobanja region in 1999. We report 2 cases of oropharyngeal tularemia in a father and son after the consumption of under-cooked rabbit meat. Both presented with fever, unilateral tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis.

  13. Human Papillomavirus and Rising Oropharyngeal Cancer Incidence in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Xiao, Weihong; Kim, Esther; Jiang, Bo; Goodman, Marc T.; Sibug-Saber, Maria; Cozen, Wendy; Liu, Lihua; Lynch, Charles F.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Jordan, Richard C.; Altekruse, Sean; Anderson, William F.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Gillison, Maura L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recent increases in incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but empirical evidence is lacking. Patients and Methods HPV status was determined for all 271 oropharyngeal cancers (1984-2004) collected by the three population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Residual Tissue Repositories Program by using polymerase chain reaction and genotyping (Inno-LiPA), HPV16 viral load, and HPV16 mRNA expression. Trends in HPV prevalence across four calendar periods were estimated by using logistic regression. Observed HPV prevalence was reweighted to all oropharyngeal cancers within the cancer registries to account for nonrandom selection and to calculate incidence trends. Survival of HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients was compared by using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Results HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal cancers significantly increased over calendar time regardless of HPV detection assay (P trend < .05). For example, HPV prevalence by Inno-LiPA increased from 16.3% during 1984 to 1989 to 71.7% during 2000 to 2004. Median survival was significantly longer for HPV-positive than for HPV-negative patients (131 v 20 months; log-rank P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46). Survival significantly increased across calendar periods for HPV-positive (P = .003) but not for HPV-negative patients (P = .18). Population-level incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers increased by 225% (95% CI, 208% to 242%) from 1988 to 2004 (from 0.8 per 100,000 to 2.6 per 100,000), and incidence for HPV-negative cancers declined by 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%; from 2.0 per 100,000 to 1.0 per 100,000). If recent incidence trends continue, the annual number of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers is expected to surpass the annual number of cervical cancers by the year 2020. Conclusion Increases in the

  14. Novel biomarker panel predicts prognosis in HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer: An analysis of the TAX 324 trial (WU)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yin; Posner, Marshall R.; Schumaker, Lisa M.; Nikitakis, Nikolaos; Goloubeva, Olga; Tan, Ming; Lu, Changwan; Iqbal, Sana; Lorch, Jochen; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Haddad, Robert I.; Cullen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose New treatment strategies for locally-advanced HNSCC combine induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation. Identifying predictors of outcome for sequentially-treated patients is critical for focusing therapeutic research. In this analysis, we evaluated HPV-16 status as well as expression of a defined set of biomarkers to identify predictors of response to this treatment modality. Experimental Design 114 oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients treated on the TAX 324 trial had pretreatment biopsy specimens that were evaluable for HPV-16 DNA and immunohistochemical expression of the following biomarkers: beta-tubulin II (βT-II), glutathione S-transferase (GST-π), p53, and Bcl-2. Patients were categorized into risk groups based on their HPV status and biomarkers’ expression level. Results High risk OPC patients were defined by HPV (−) status and elevated expression of βT-II or at least 2 out of 3 of the other adverse markers (GST-π, p53, and low Bcl-2). All other HPV (−) patients were considered moderate risk. 55 patients were HPV (+); 59 patients were HPV (−). Of these, 34 were high risk and 25 were moderate risk. Median survival for HPV (+) patients was not reached. Median survival time for moderate risk patients was 44.2 (the 95% CI: 20.9-NR) months and was 12.1 (the 95% CI: 7.5–19.7) months for high risk patients. The 24-month survival rate was 89% for HPV (+) patients, 67% for moderate risk patients, and 29% for high risk patients (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Our molecular data set readily differentiates between 2 distinct groups of patients with locally-advanced, HPV (−) OPC. This risk stratification strategy may serve as a guide for treatment selection. PMID:22009819

  15. Will targeting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea delay the further emergence of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains?

    PubMed

    Lewis, D A

    2015-06-01

    Gonorrhoea is an important sexually transmitted infection associated with serious complications and enhanced HIV transmission. Oropharyngeal infections are often asymptomatic and will only be detected by screening. Gonococcal culture has low sensitivity (<50%) for detecting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, and, although not yet approved commercially, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are the assay of choice. Screening for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should be performed in high-risk populations, such as men-who-have-sex-with-men(MSM). NAATs have a poor positive predictive value when used in low-prevalence populations. Gonococci have repeatedly thwarted gonorrhoea control efforts since the first antimicrobial agents were introduced. The oropharyngeal niche provides an enabling environment for horizontal transfer of genetic material from commensal Neisseria and other bacterial species to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This has been the mechanism responsible for the generation of mosaic penA genes, which are responsible for most of the observed cases of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). As antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhoea is now an urgent public health threat, requiring improved antibiotic stewardship, laboratory-guided recycling of older antibiotics may help reduce ESC use. Future trials of antimicrobial agents for gonorrhoea should be powered to test their efficacy at the oropharynx as this is the anatomical site where treatment failure is most likely to occur. It remains to be determined whether a combination of frequent screening of high-risk individuals and/or laboratory-directed fluoroquinolone therapy of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea will delay the further emergence of drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  17. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  18. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  19. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation.

  20. Use and abuse of lung biopsy.

    PubMed

    Gal, Anthony A

    2005-07-01

    The lung biopsy is widely recognized as a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of diverse pulmonary disorders. The transbronchial lung biopsy, open lung biopsy, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy are the principal tools that have been developed for obtaining lung tissue for histopathological examination. Whereas these various types of lung biopsies are highly sensitive and specific tests available for diagnosis, they may be fraught with potential problems. This review hopes to inform the reader of the indications and limitations of the lung biopsy.

  1. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs: Comparison of cup forceps and core needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jeong, Seong Mok

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of laparoscopic kidney biopsy with cup biopsy forceps in dogs (CupBF), and to compare to the use of a core biopsy needle (CoreBN). Experimental; randomized, controlled design. Eight healthy, adult Beagle dogs. Dogs were randomized to undergo laparoscopic biopsy of the right kidney using either 5 mm CupBF or a 16 gauge CoreBN. Intraoperative hemorrhage of the biopsy site was monitored. Biopsy quality was evaluated for tissue fragmentation and crushing, presence of renal cortex with or without medulla, and number of glomeruli. Postoperative packed cell volume, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic appearance of the biopsy site were evaluated. Biopsy specimens were obtained by both techniques and reliable hemostasis was achieved with direct compression in all dogs. The histologic score for CupBF biopsies was not significantly different from CoreBN biopsies. One CoreBN biopsy contained both renal cortex and medullar, while all CupBF biopsies contained cortex only. The mean (SD) number of glomeruli was significantly higher in CupBF biopsies [60 (9.1)] than CoreBN biopsies [26 (4.3)]. There was no gross hematuria, perirenal hematoma, or hydronephrosis in any dog postoperative. Laparoscopic kidney biopsy in dogs using 5 mm cup biopsy forceps is feasible with minimal risk and more glomeruli obtained compared to laparoscopic kidney biopsy using 16 gauge core biopsy needles. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. One 10-core prostate biopsy is superior to two sets of sextant prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Fink, K G; Hutarew, G; Pytel, A; Esterbauer, B; Jungwirth, A; Dietze, O; Schmeller, N T

    2003-09-01

    To compare the efficiency of different transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy techniques for detecting prostate cancer. In all, 81 prostates from radical prostatectomy were used and two consecutive sets of sextant biopsies and one 10-core biopsy taken in each specimen. The 10-core biopsy consisted of a sextant biopsy and four cores from the far lateral areas of the prostate. To simulate a transrectal biopsy procedure, all biopsies were taken under TRUS guidance. In the first set of sextant biopsies 44 prostate cancers (54%) were detected and in the second set 51 (63%). Combining both sets of sextant biopsies 57 (70%) of the carcinomas were detected. One set of 10-core biopsies detected 66 (82%) of all prostate cancers. Overall, with the 10-core biopsies 16% more prostate tumours were diagnosed than with two consecutive sets of sextant biopsies. To find the same number of prostate cancers as with the 10-core technique, 14% of patients undergoing sextant biopsy would require a second set and 11% at least a third set of biopsies. The 10-core prostate biopsy technique is superior to the commonly used sextant technique and could spare patients unnecessary repeated biopsy. Even after including a second set of sextant biopsies, the total detection rate with these 12 biopsies was inferior to the 10-core technique.

  3. Oxidative stress in kidney transplant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Hammad, Abdul; Sharma, Ajay K; Mc-Cardle, Frank; Rustom, Rana; Christmas, Steve E

    2015-04-01

    Kidney allograft biopsies are performed after kidney transplant to determine graft dysfunction. We aimed to define and measure the oxidative stress occurring in these biopsies and compared these biopsies with donor pretransplant biopsies. The biopsy procedure was done according to the unit protocol. A core of tissue was taken for research purposes only when it was safe enough to proceed for an extra core. Common indications for biopsy were acute or chronic graft dysfunction, delayed graft function, acute cellular rejection, and calcineurin toxicity. There were 17 pretransplant biopsies taken from deceased-donor kidneys. Biopsy specimens were snap frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 °C. Samples were processed for Western blot and tested for markers of oxidative stress. There were 61 biopsies analyzed. Oxidative stress enzymes were evaluated by Western blot including catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, copper zinc superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. Upregulation of most antioxidant enzymes was observed in pretransplant biopsies. Increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase was observed in donor kidneys and kidneys with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. Copper zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in donor and acute cellular rejection biopsies. Thioredoxin was elevated in donor biopsies and thioredoxin reductases were elevated in donor biopsies and biopsies with acute cellular rejection and calcineurin toxicity. The kidney allograft biopsies showed that oxidative stress levels were elevated during allograft dysfunction in all biopsies regardless of diagnosis, but not significantly. The levels also were elevated in pretransplant biopsies. The study showed that oxidative stress is involved in various acute injuries occurring within the allograft.

  4. Functional Outcomes and Complications of Robot-Assisted Free Flap Oropharyngeal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yueh-Chi; Liu, Shih-An; Lai, Chih-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Wei; Lu, Chen-Te; Yen, Jung-Hsing; Chen, I-Chen

    2017-03-01

    Robotic surgical systems provide a clear, magnified 3-dimensional visualization as well as precise, stable instrumental movement, thereby minimizing technical difficulties that may be encountered in the surgical treatment of oropharyngeal tumors. This study assessed the outcomes of robotic-assisted free flap oropharyngeal reconstruction compared with those of conventional free flap reconstruction. A retrospective review of 47 patients who underwent reconstructive operations using a free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap for oropharyngeal defects was conducted over a 20-month period (May 2013-December 2014). Complications were evaluated for a robot-assisted reconstruction group and a conventional reconstruction group; postoperative complication rates and revision rates were further evaluated. The Functional Intraoral Glasgow Scale (FIGS) was adopted for functional outcome assessment. This study recruited 47 people who underwent reconstructive operations using a free radial forearm fasciocutaneous flap for oropharyngeal defects (14 robot-assisted and 33 conventional reconstructions). The mean postoperative FIGS score was 10.29 ± 2.02 in the robot-assisted group (P = 0.010) and 8.42 ± 2.29 in the conventional group at 1 month postoperatively. The mean postoperative FIGS score was 12.57 ± 1.91 in the robot-assisted group (P = 0.005) and 9.91 ± 3.09 in the conventional group at 3 months postoperatively. Complication rates between the robot-assisted and conventional groups were similar for flap failure (P = 0.531), partial necrosis, wound infection, hematoma or seroma formation (P = 0.893), wound dehiscence, and fistula formation (P = 0.515). The number of flap revision operations requiring additional surgery (P = 0.627) was comparable between the cohorts. There is no significant difference in complications or revision rates between the robot-assisted and conventional oropharyngeal reconstructions. The functional postoperative outcomes of robot

  5. Origin of Tumor Recurrence After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Raktoe, Sawan A.S.; Dehnad, Homan; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Braunius, Weibel; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To model locoregional recurrences of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) treated with primary intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in order to find the origins from which recurrences grow and relate their location to original target volume borders. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of OSCC treated with primary IMRT between January 2002 and December 2009. Locoregional recurrence volumes were delineated on diagnostic scans and coregistered rigidly with treatment planning computed tomography scans. Each recurrence was analyzed with two methods. First, overlapping volumes of a recurrence and original target were measured ('volumetric approach') and assessed as 'in-field', 'marginal', or 'out-field'. Then, the center of mass (COM) of a recurrence volume was assumed as the origin from where a recurrence expanded, the COM location was compared with original target volume borders and assessed as 'in-field', 'marginal', or 'out-field'. Results: One hundred thirty-one OSCC were assessed. For all patients alive at the end of follow-up, the mean follow-up time was 40 months (range, 12-83 months); 2 patients were lost to follow-up. The locoregional recurrence rate was 27%. Of all recurrences, 51% were local, 23% were regional, and 26% had both local and regional recurrences. Of all recurrences, 74% had imaging available for assessment. Regarding volumetric analysis of local recurrences, 15% were in-field gross tumor volume (GTV), and 65% were in-field clinical tumor volume (CTV). Using the COM approach, we found that 70% of local recurrences were in-field GTV and 90% were in-field CTV. Of the regional recurrences, 25% were volumetrically in-field GTV, and using the COM approach, we found 54% were in-field GTV. The COM of local out-field CTV recurrences were maximally 16 mm outside CTV borders, whereas for regional recurrences, this was 17 mm. Conclusions: The COM model is practical and specific for recurrence assessment. Most

  6. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear test results ... biopsies used to look for cancer Types of cytology tests used to look for cancer What happens ...

  7. Melanoma Biopsy Results Can Differ, Worrying Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166955.html Melanoma Biopsy Results Can Differ, Worrying Patients Doctor discovers ... her dermatologist said her skin biopsy indicated possible melanoma, she knew just what to do -- get a ...

  8. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  9. Proof-of-principle pilot study of oropharyngeal air-pulse application in individuals with dysphagia after hemispheric stroke.

    PubMed

    Theurer, Julie A; Johnston, Jennifer L; Fisher, James; Darling, Sherry; Stevens, Rebecca C; Taves, Donald; Teasell, Robert; Hachinski, Vladimir; Martin, Ruth E

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that oropharyngeal air-pulse application is associated with increased swallowing rates in individuals with dysphagia secondary to stroke. Case control. Stroke rehabilitation hospital or home setting. Convenience sample of individuals (N=8) with new-onset dysphagia after stroke. Air-pulse trains were applied to the oropharynx of 8 subjects who presented with dysphagia after hemispheric stroke. Resting swallowing rates were determined for 5 experimental conditions: baseline without air-pulse mouthpiece, baseline with mouthpiece in situ, unilateral right oropharyngeal air-pulse, unilateral left oropharyngeal air-pulse, and bilateral oropharyngeal air-pulse application. Individual swallowing responses were analyzed using a 2-SD band method. Swallowing rate (swallows/min). Swallowing rates associated with bilateral air-pulse application were greater than baseline in 4 of the 8 subjects. The 4 subjects who demonstrated this response to air-pulse application had greater baseline swallowing rates than did subjects whose swallowing rates were not altered in association with air-pulse application. Oropharyngeal air-pulse trains can be applied in individuals with swallowing impairment. Air-pulse application is associated with increased resting swallowing rates in some individuals with dysphagia secondary to hemispheric stroke. Further research should extend this proof-of-principle study by examining the efficacy of oropharyngeal air-pulse application in terms of improved swallowing and related outcomes in dysphagic stroke through a large randomized trial. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer: HPV and p16 status in the recurrent versus parent tumor.

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey; McHugh, Jonathan B; Spector, Matthew E; Walline, Heather M; Komarck, Christine M; Stenmark, Matthew H; Prince, Mark E; Worden, Francis P; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Chepeha, Douglas B; Carey, Thomas; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Although typically associated with a favorable prognosis, a minority of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (+) oropharyngeal cancers recur after chemoradiation. We postulated that a minor HPV-negative tumor subfraction may be responsible for recurrences of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer. Paired untreated primary and recurrent tumor specimens were identified for 37 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who received definitive chemoradiotherapy at our institution. Concordance in HPV/p16 expression between primary and recurrent tumors was assessed. Among 31 patients with HPV+/p16+ primary tumors, 30 (97%) retained evidence of both HPV and p16 expression at recurrence (27 HPV+/p16+; 3 HPV+/p16-partial). One (3%) initially HPV+/p16+ patient developed an HPV-negative/p16-negative lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), representing either a discordant oropharyngeal cancer metastasis or second primary tumor. HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers retain HPV+/p16+ expression at recurrence. Our results fail to provide evidence that a minor HPV-negative tumor subfraction is responsible for biologically aggressive behavior of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer that recurs after chemoradiation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Medicine Disease Database Contributors Doctor Derm App Skin Facts Aging and Sun Damage Beauty Myths Preventing Sun Damage Skin Cancer Detection Skin Disease Links Sun Safety Document ...

  12. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking, including blood thinners such as aspirin and herbal supplements, and whether you have any allergies – especially to ... doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially to ...

  13. Evaluation of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for prostate cancer detection after initial sextant biopsy.

    PubMed

    Fink, Klaus G; Hutarew, Georg; Esterbauer, Brigitte; Pytel, Akos; Jungwirth, Andreas; Dietze, Otto; Schmeller, Nikolaus T

    2003-04-01

    To assess the value of transition zone and lateral sextant biopsies for the detection of prostate cancer after a previous sextant biopsy was negative. A total of 74 prostates after radical prostatectomy were used to perform biopsies ex vivo. First, a sextant biopsy was taken, then two different rebiopsy techniques were performed. Rebiopsy technique A consisted of a laterally placed sextant biopsy and two cores per side of the transition zones only. Rebiopsy technique B included a standard sextant biopsy and two cores per side from the lateral areas of the prostate. The biopsies were taken using ultrasound guidance to sample the areas of interest precisely. The initial sextant biopsy found 39 prostate cancers. Rebiopsy technique A found 12 cancers (34%). In this group, a laterally placed sextant biopsy found 12 cancers; transition zone biopsies revealed cancer in 5 cases, but no additional tumor was found. Rebiopsy technique B detected 23 prostate cancers (66%). Fourteen tumors were found after a second standard sextant biopsy, and nine additional tumors were found in the lateral areas. Sextant biopsy has a low sensitivity of only 53%. A biopsy including the transition zones is not the ideal technique for detecting the remaining tumors. Therefore, transition zone biopsies should be reserved for patients with multiple previous negative biopsies of the peripheral zone. A subsequent sextant biopsy with additional cores from the lateral areas of the prostate is favorable if rebiopsy is necessary after a negative sextant biopsy.

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus detection in oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and, oral cavity cancers: Comparison of multiple methods

    PubMed Central

    Walline, Heather M; Komarck, Chris; McHugh, Jonathan B; Byrd, Serena A; Spector, Matthew E; Hauff, Samantha J.; Graham, Martin P; Bellile, Emily; Moyer, Jeffrey S; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Chepeha, Douglas B; Worden, Francis P; Stenmark, Matthew H; Eisbruch, Avraham; Bradford, Carol R; Carey, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Importance Human papillomaviruses are now recognized as an etiologic factor in a growing subset of head and neck cancers and have critical prognostic importance that affects therapeutic decision making. There is no universally accepted gold standard for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) assessment in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, nor is there a clear understanding of the frequency or role of hrHPV in sites other than oropharynx. Objective To determine the optimal assessment of hrHPV in FFPE head and neck tumors. Design Assessment of hrHPV by p16 immunohistochemical staining, in situ hybridization (ISH), and PCR-MassArray (PCR-MA), with L1 PGMY-PCR (PGMY-PCR) and sequencing to resolve method discordance, was applied to 338 FFPE oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and oral cavity tumors. Relative sensitivity and specificity were compared to develop a standard optimal test protocol. Setting Large Midwestern referral center. Participants Tissue specimens from 338 head and neck cancer patients treated during the period 2001-2011 in the departments of Otolaryngology, Radiation Oncology and Medical Oncology. Patients with oropharyngeal and oral cancer were consented for IRB approved study through the Head and Neck SPORE. Tissue blocks from nasopharyngeal cancer patients were retrieved from pathology archives under IRB approval for existing tissue and data. Intervention Patients received standard therapy. Main outcomes and measurements Optimal hrHPV identification, detection, and activity in head and neck cancers. Results Using combined PCR-MA with PGMY-PCR and sequencing for conclusive results, we found PCR-MA to have 99.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, p16 to have 94.2% sensitivity and 85.5% specificity, and ISH to have 82.9% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Among HPV-positive tumors, HPV16 was most frequently detected, but 10 non-HPV16 types accounted for 6-50% of tumors, depending on site. Overall, 86% of oropharynx, 50% of nasopharynx and 26% of oral

  15. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross...

  16. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... DUE TO PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross...

  17. Pharyngeal Residue and Aspiration and the Relationship with Clinical/Nutritional Status of Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Submitted to Videofluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D L; Moreira, E A M; de Freitas, M B; Gonçalves, J de A; Furkim, A M; Clavé, P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the videofluoroscopic (VFS) signs of impaired efficacy (pharyngeal residue) and safety (aspiration) swallowing and the clinical/nutritional status of patients with suspect of dysphagia. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients submitted to videofluoroscopy. Data of 76 patients were analyzed between March 2011 and December 2014. The clinical history and VFS exams of patients ≥ 38 years were retrospectively analyzed. 88% patients presented Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (OD), 44.7% presented laryngeal penetration and 32% presented aspiration. 78% patients presented pharyngeal residue. Aspiration was associated with Head Neck Cancer (HNC) [Prevalence Ratio (PR): 2.27, p = 0.028] and cardiovascular disease (PR 1.96, p = 0.027). Underweight [Body Mass Index < 18.5 kg/m2] was not associated with the presence of aspiration. Underweight patients with OD had a higher prevalence rate of pharyngeal residue than those normally nourished (100% vs. 78%) (PR 1.34, p = 0.011). Pharyngeal residue was associated with male sex (PR 1.32, p = 0.040), neurodegenerative disease (PR 1.57, p = 0.021), stroke (PR 1.62, p = 0.009), cerebral palsy (PR 1.76, p = 0.006) and HNC (PR 1.73, p = 0.002). In the present study, neurologic diseases, HNC, male sex and underweight were associated to impaired swallowing efficacy. Underweight, independently of the other variables, was not associated with impaired swallowing safety.

  18. Oropharyngeal airway changes after rapid maxillary expansion: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Ortu, Eleonora; Giannoni, Mario; Ortu, Maurizio; Gatto, Roberto; Monaco, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to elucidate the state of the art about how rapid maxillary expansion (RME) produces changes in the oropharyngeal airways in terms of CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) data during the growth period, according to the available literature. Electronic search was done from January 2009 to April 2014 on PubMed and Scopus databases; in addition manual search was conducted as well. According to keywords, seven papers were eligible for our purpose, but definitely five papers were selected in agreement with the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The current literature suggests that the potential relationship between RME and oropharyngeal airway changes is still unclear. In fact, although the pharyngeal airway changes after the rapid palatal expansion are evident clinically, current orthodontic literature does not provide conclusive evidence about the nature of this relationship. PMID:25126159

  19. Influence of the oropharyngeal microflora on the measurement of exhaled breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; O'Brien, J D; Hardie, J M

    1986-10-01

    We investigated the possible contribution made by oropharyngeal microfloral fermentation of ingested carbohydrate to the generation of the early, transient exhaled breath hydrogen rise seen after carbohydrate ingestion. Ten subjects ate or were sham fed carbohydrate-containing meals with and without prior chlorhexidine mouthwash during serial collection of exhaled breath and mouth hydrogen samples. Meal ingestion and sham feeding both induced significant (p less than 0.01) elevations of breath and mouth hydrogen that were virtually abolished by prior chlorhexidine mouthwash. In 7 subjects, delivery of the meal directly into the stomach via an orogastric tube did not cause a breath or mouth hydrogen rise. Oral contents incubated anaerobically in vitro with carbohydrate generated hydrogen that was again inhibited by chlorhexidine. These studies indicate that fermentation of ingested carbohydrate by oropharyngeal bacteria can contribute significantly to measured breath hydrogen values soon after meal ingestion, and may introduce avoidable error into the interpretation of serial breath hydrogen data.

  20. From HPV-positive towards HPV-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Pawlita, Michael; Holzinger, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), which is both biologically and clinically distinct from tobacco- and alcohol-related OPSCC, is dramatically increasing. The finding that individuals with HPV-positive local/regionally advanced OPSCC have a significantly better prognosis than their negative counterparts have led to efforts to de-escalate treatment in those patients to avoid serious side effects and to improve their long-term quality of life, while maintaining treatment efficacy. Identifying diagnostic tests that are able to distinguish cancers etiologically associated with HPV is thus becoming a pressing challenge for researchers. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the diagnostic tools presently available to evaluate HPV status in patients with OPSCC and, in particular, to discuss their strengths and weaknesses in identifying those infections that are the real driving force in the oropharyngeal carcinogenesis process.

  1. Oropharyngeal cancers: relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor alterations and human papillomavirus status.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2014-04-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), particularly type 16, is now recognised as a causative agent in a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs). These tumours are on the increase and generally have a better prognosis than their HPV negative counterparts. This raises the question of de escalation therapy to reduce long term consequences in a younger cohort of patients with a long life expectancy. Several clinical trials with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies, particularly cetuximab, are ongoing. Few data exist on the relationship between EGFR and HPV induced oropharyngeal cancers. We summarise the main studies in relation to EGFR alterations (gene copy number, protein expression and mutations) and the impact on prognosis of HPV positive tumours that express high levels of EGFR. We also discuss the opportunity of targeting this pathway in light of recent studies.

  2. Use of Lugol's iodine in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeremy; Devine, John C; McCaul, James A; McLellan, Douglas R; Farrow, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in achieving surgical margins free from dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma by an observational study of two series of 50 consecutive patients having resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) between November 2004 and March 2007. The standard group had resection of the primary tumour with a macroscopic 1cm margin and removal of adjacent visibly abnormal mucosa. The Lugol's iodine group had identical treatment with resection of any adjacent mucosa that did not stain after the application of Lugol's iodine (where this was feasible). In the standard group 16 patients (32%) had dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive SCC at a surgical margin. In the Lugol's iodine group two patients (4%) had dysplasia or carcinoma in situ; none had invasive SCC. Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of reducing the likelihood of unsatisfactory surgical margins in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal SCC.

  3. When to biopsy seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Panach-Navarrete, J; García-Morata, F; Hernández-Medina, J A; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2015-05-01

    The involvement of seminal vesicles in prostate cancer can affect the prognosis and determine the treatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether we could predict its infiltration at the time of the prostate biopsy to know when to indicate the biopsy of the seminal vesicles. observational retrospective study of 466 patients who underwent seminal vesicle biopsy. The indication for this biopsy was a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level greater than 10 ng/ml or an asymmetric or obliterated prostatoseminal angle. The following variables were included in the analysis: PSA level, PSA density, prostate volume, number of cores biopsied, suspicious rectal examination, and preservation of the prostatoseminal angle, studying its relationship with the involvement of the seminal vesicles. Forty-one patients (8.8%) had infiltrated seminal vesicles and 425 (91.2%) had no involvement. In the univariate analysis, the cases with infiltration had a higher mean PSA level (P < .01) and PSA density (P < .01), as well as a lower mean prostate volume (P < .01). A suspicious rectal examination (20.7% of the infiltrated vesicles) and the obliteration or asymmetry of the prostatoseminal angle (33.3% of the infiltrated vesicles) were significantly related to the involvement (P < .01). In the multivariate analysis, we concluded that the probability of having infiltrated seminal vesicles is 5.19 times higher if the prostatoseminal angle is not preserved (P < .01), 4.65 times higher for PSA levels >19.60 ng/dL (P < .01) and 2.95 times higher if there is a suspicious rectal examination (P = .014). Furthermore, this probability increases by 1.04 times for each unit of prostate volume lower (P < .01). The ROC curves showed maximum sensitivity and specificity at 19.6 ng/mL for PSA and 0.39 for PSA density. In this series, greater involvement of seminal vesicles was associated with a PSA level ≥20 ng/ml, a suspicious rectal examination and a lack of prostatoseminal angle

  4. The Oropharyngeal Morphology in the Semiaquatic Giant Asian Pond Turtle, Heosemys grandis, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)–independently from other amniotes–and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct–but compared to testudinids rather small–anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles. PMID:23029486

  5. [Consumption of animal-derived foods and mouth and oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Rotundo, Lígia Drovandi Braga; de Andrade, Fabiana Paula; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Brasileiro, Rosana Sarmento; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira

    2012-09-01

    Evaluate the relationship between animal-derived foods and mouth and oropharyngeal cancer. Hospital-based case-control study matched by sex and age (± 5 years) with data collected between July of 2006 and June of 2008. The sample contained 296 patients with mouth and oropharyngeal cancer and 296 patients without a cancer history who were treated in four hospitals in the City of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A semistructured questionnaire was administered to collect data regarding socioeconomic condition and harmful habits (tobacco and alcoholic beverage consumption). To assess eating habits, a qualitative questionnaire that asked about the frequency of food consumption was used. The analysis was rendered by means of multivariate logistic regression models that considered the existing hierarchy among the characteristics studied. Among foods of animal origin, frequent consumption of beef (OR = 2.73; CI95% = 1.27-5.87; P < 0.001), bacon (OR = 2.48; CI95% = 1.30-4.74; P < 0.001) and eggs (OR = 3.04; CI95% = 1.51-6.15; P < 0.001) was linked to an increased risk of mouth and oropharyngeal cancer, in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Among dairy products, milk showed a protective effect against the disease (OR = 0.41; CI95% = 0.21-0.82; P < 0.001). This study affirms the hypothesis that animal-derived foods can be etiologically linked to mouth and oropharyngeal cancer. This information can guide policies to prevent these diseases, generating public health benefits.

  6. Randomized trial of itraconazole oral solution for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Graybill, J R; Vazquez, J; Darouiche, R O; Morhart, R; Greenspan, D; Tuazon, C; Wheat, L J; Carey, J; Leviton, I; Hewitt, R G; MacGregor, R R; Valenti, W; Restrepo, M; Moskovitz, B L

    1998-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidasis (thrush) is the most common opportunistic infection in individuals who are positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and those who have progressed to AIDS. Itraconazole has a broad in vitro spectrum of activity, including a wide variety of Candida species. Our study determined the relative efficacy of a new oral solution formulation of itraconazole and fluconazole tablets in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. This was a prospective randomized, third-party-blind, multicenter trial conducted at 12 centers in the United States. One hundred seventy-nine HIV-positive patients with mycologically documented oropharyngeal candidiasis were treated with itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/ day for 7 or 14 days, or fluconazole tablets 100 mg/day for 14 days. Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at clinical evaluations on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 42. Semi-quantitative cultures of mouth washings were also obtained on these days. Both 14-day and 7-day regimens of itraconazole oral solution were equivalent to fluconazole for most efficacy parameters. The clinical response rate was 97% after 14 days of itraconazole and 87% after 14 days of fluconazole. Itraconazole oral solution given for 7 days was also equivalent to fluconazole treatment for 14 days. Approximately one half of patients in all three groups relapsed by 1 month after completion of treatment. There were few adverse reactions to either drug. Itraconazole oral solution is well tolerated and offers an alternative at least as effective as fluconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis.

  7. Rhinological, laryngological, oropharyngeal and other head and neck side effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lee, C A; Mistry, D; Sharma, R; Coatesworth, A P

    2006-02-01

    Following a previous paper in which we documented the otological side effects of drug therapy, we here review other drug side effects that ENT surgeons may encounter when dealing with patients. Although otological drug side effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus are well recognized there are many rhinological, laryngeal, oropharyngeal and other head and neck drug side effects. Our data were sourced from the British National Formulary and Electronic Medical Compendium websites.

  8. The oropharyngeal morphology in the semiaquatic giant Asian pond turtle, Heosemys grandis, and its evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Lintner, Monika; Weissenbacher, Anton; Heiss, Egon

    2012-01-01

    The oropharynx as a functional entity plays a fundamental role in feeding. Transitions from aquatic to terrestrial lifestyles in vertebrates demanded major changes of the oropharynx for the required adaptations to a different feeding environment. Extant turtles evolved terrestrial feeding modes in three families (testudinids, emydids, geoemydids)-independently from other amniotes-and are therefore important model organisms to reconstruct morpho-functional changes behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions. In this study we hypothesized that the oropharyngeal morphology in semiaquatic turtles of the geoemydid family shows parallels to testudinids, the only purely terrestrial extant lineage. We provide an in-depth description of the oropharynx in the semiaquatic geoemydid Heosemys grandis by using a combination of micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and subsequent digital in situ 3-D reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. We show that H. grandis has a large tongue with rough papillose surface and well-developed lingual muscles. The attachment sites of the lingual muscles on the hyolingual skeleton and their courses within the tongue are nearly identical with testudinids. The hyolingual skeleton itself is mainly cartilaginous and shows distinct-but compared to testudinids rather small-anterior extensions of the hyoid body and hypoglossum. Oral glands are well developed in H. grandis but are smaller and simpler than in testudinids. Similarly, oropharyngeal keratinization was minimal and found only in the anterior palate, regions close to the beak, and tongue tip. We conclude that H. grandis shows distinct oropharyngeal morpho-functional adaptations for a terrestrial lifestyle but still retains characters typical for aquatic forms. This makes this species an important example showing the oropharyngeal adaptations behind aquatic-terrestrial transitions in turtles.

  9. Maté: a risk factor for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David

    2002-10-01

    Maté is a tea-like beverage consumed mainly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Brazil and to a lesser degree in other areas of the world such as Germany, Syria, Lebanon and Northern Israel. It is brewed from the dried leaves and stemlets of the perennial tree Ilex paraguarensis ("yerba mate") a species that belongs to the Aquifoliaceae family. Maté consumption has been associated with an increased rate of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and discuss the role of Maté consumption in the development of oral and oropharyngeal cancer and the potential carcinogenic mechanisms. A review of the relevant literature linking Maté consumption with oral and oropharyngeal cancer and the carcinogenicity of Maté was performed. The search was performed using Medline, library catalogues, OCLC first search and ISI web of science databases. Case control studies on Maté drinking populations and, in vivo and in vitro studies on the carcinogenicity of Maté were reviewed. The populations reviewed in many of these studies also used alcohol and tobacco products confounding the influence of Maté as an independent risk factor. There is evidence in the literature that Maté consumption is in itself carcinogenic and plays a role in the development of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Although the exact mechanism of carcinogenesis is still unknown, available information suggests that Maté drinking should be considered one of the risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  10. Effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia by speech and language therapists: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Baijens, Laura; Heijnen, Mariëlle; Zwijnenberg, Iris

    2010-03-01

    Medical and paramedical treatments should be evaluated according to current standards of evidence-based medicine. Evaluation of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia fits into this growing interest. A systematic review is given of the literature on the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia carried out by speech therapists. Thus, the review excludes reports of surgical or pharmacological treatments. The literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. All available inclusion dates up to November 2008 were used. The search was limited to English, German, French, Spanish, and Dutch publications. MESH terms were supplemented by using free-text words (for the period after January 2005). Fifty-nine studies were included. In general, statistically significant positive therapy effects were found. However, the number of papers was rather small. Moreover, diverse methodological problems were found in many of these studies. For most studies, the conclusions could not be generalized; comparison was hindered by the range of diagnoses, types of therapies, and evaluation techniques. Many questions remain about the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia as performed by speech and language therapists. Although some positive significant outcome studies have been published, further research based on randomized controlled trials is needed.

  11. Feasibility and relevance of level I substation node counts in oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rassekh, Christopher H; O'Malley, Bert W; Bewley, Arnaud F; Montone, Kathleen T; Livolsi, Virginia A; Weinstein, Gregory S

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of level I in neck dissections for oropharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial. Our objectives were to evaluate the feasibility and relevance of substation node counts in level I of the neck dissection and to determine the specific substation location of metastases in level I in oropharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty specimens were retrospectively analyzed after an orientation using a new paradigm of demarcating level I specimens into 8 substations. Three of the specimens (5%) in this study showed nodal metastasis in level I, one each in 3 different substations. All positive nodes in level I were associated with N+ disease in level II with 2 being radiographically occult (3.3%). Average total node count for level I was 8.1 (range, 2-19). In oropharyngeal carcinoma, substation level I node quantification is feasible and relevant. This study shows a 5% risk to level I with metastasis in 3 different substations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38:1194-1200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, José F; Carrillo, Liliana C; Cano, Ana; Ramirez-Ortega, Margarita C; Chanona, Jorge G; Avilés, Alejandro; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Corona-Rivera, Jaime; Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco J; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F

    2016-04-01

    Prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of prognostic factors with oncologic outcomes. Patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC treated from 1997 to 2012 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Associations of prognostic factors with locoregional recurrence (LRR) or overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the logistic regression and the Cox models. Six hundred thirty-four patients were included in this study; tumor size, surgical margins, and N classification were associated with LRR (p < .0001); considering histopathology: perineural invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, infiltrative borders, and N classification were significant determinants of LRR. Tumor size, N classification, alcoholism, and surgical margins were associated with OS (p < .0001); considering pathologic prognostic factors, perivascular invasion, islands borders, and surgical margins were independently associated with OS (p < .0001). Surgical margins, perineural and perivascular invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, and infiltrative patterns of tumor invasion are significant prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison between bioluminescence imaging technique and CFU count for the study of oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Elena; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Mosci, Paolo; Pericolini, Eva

    2015-05-01

    We recently described a bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique, representing a powerful tool to test the real-time progression of oropharyngeal candidiasis, hence potentially useful to evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapies. In this study, the in vivo imaging technique was compared with CFU measurement of target organs (tongue, esophagus and stomach) for monitoring and quantifying oropharyngeal candidiasis. We have correlated these two analytical methods at different times post-infection using engineered, luminescent Candida albicans in mice rendered susceptible to oral candidiasis by cortisone-acetate. Scatter plots, Pearson correlation and Student's t test were used to compare the methods. We observed that the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique was more reliable than CFU counts in detecting early infection of, and its extent in, the oral cavity of the mouse. This was also evident following the introduction of a variable such as treatment with fluconazole. The results described in this study could validate the bioluminescence in vivo imaging technique as a method to monitor and quantify oropharyngeal candidiasis and to assess early discovery of active compounds in vivo.

  14. Malnutrition and quality of life in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Vissink, Arjan; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; van Oort, Rob P; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed whether malnourished patients score lower on quality of life after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Malnutrition (weight loss ≥ 10% in 6 months/ ≥ 5% in 1 month) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 questionnaire) were assessed cross-sectionally in patients treated for oral/oropharyngeal cancer. The interval after treatment varied from 1 day to 3 years. The relationship between malnutrition and quality of life was analyzed univariately (Mann-Whitney U test) and multivariately (linear regression analyses). Statistical significance was set at p < .05. Prevalence of posttreatment malnutrition was 16% (18/115, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9% to 23%). Analyzed univariately, malnourished patients scored significantly worse on physical functioning (p = .007) and fatigue (p = .034) than well-nourished patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that malnutrition was significantly related to physical functioning (p = .015). Malnourished patients treated for oral/oropharyngeal cancer score lower on quality of life scales related to physical fitness. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of wearing and removing dentures on oropharyngeal motility during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Onodera, S; Furuya, J; Yamamoto, H; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2016-11-01

    Wearing dentures and dysphagia are common in older individuals; however, it is still unknown how dentures affect oral and pharyngeal swallowing. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of wearing and removing dentures on oropharyngeal movements during pharyngeal swallowing in the feeding sequence of solid food. Participants were 25 edentulous volunteers (nine men, 16 women; mean age 76·2 years) who wore complete dentures. The test food was minced agar jelly containing barium sulphate. Subjects were instructed to feed and swallow the test food with or without dentures during observation using videofluorography. We quantitatively evaluated the range, distance and duration of oropharyngeal movements during pharyngeal swallowing. When dentures were absent, the range of mandible and hyoid movements were significantly expanded in the anterosuperior direction, and the range of laryngeal movement was significantly expanded in the anterior direction. Additionally, the posterior pharyngeal wall contraction and upper oesophageal sphincter opening significantly increased. In addition, the distances of the mandible, hyoid and laryngeal movements and the mandibular duration were significantly extended when dentures were absent. No significant differences were observed in the duration of movements of other organs between wearing and removing dentures. The hyoid bone, larynx, posterior pharyngeal wall and upper oesophageal sphincter do not change their duration of movements when dentures were removed but, rather, expand their range of movement. This might be a spatial change of oropharyngeal movement to avoid temporal changes in pharyngeal swallowing when dentures were absent in edentulous older individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Submental sensitive transcutaneous electrical stimulation (SSTES) at home in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Verin, E; Maltete, D; Ouahchi, Y; Marie, J-P; Hannequin, D; Massardier, E Guegan; Leroi, A-M

    2011-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is frequent in chronic neurological disorders and increases mortality, mainly due to pulmonary complications. Our aim was to show that submental sensitive transcutaneous electrical stimulation (SSTES) applied during swallowing at home can improve swallowing function in patients with chronic neurological disorders. Thirteen patients were recruited for the study (4 f, 68 ± 12 years). They all suffered from neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. We first compared the swallowing of paste and liquid with and without SSTES. Thereafter, the patients were asked to perform SSTES at home with each meal. Swallowing was evaluated before and after six weeks of SSTES using the SWAL-QoL questionnaire. With the stimulator switch turned on, swallowing coordination improved, with a decrease in swallow reaction time for the liquid (P<0.05) and paste boluses (P<0.01). Aspiration scores also decreased significantly with the electrical stimulations (P<0.05), with no change in stasis. At-home compliance was excellent and most patients tolerated the electrical stimulations with no discomfort. A comparison of the SWAL-QoL questionnaires after 6 weeks revealed an improvement in the burden (P=0.001), fatigue (P<0.05), and pharyngeal symptom (P<0.001) scales. The present study demonstrated that SSTES is easy to use at home and improves oropharyngeal dysphagia quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of positive margins on outcomes of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma according to p16 status.

    PubMed

    Molony, Peter; Kharytaniuk, Natallia; Boyle, Seamus; Woods, Robbie S R; O'Leary, Gerard; Werner, Reiltin; Heffron, Cynthia; Feeley, Linda; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Currently, positive surgical margins in head and neck cancer are considered to be an indicator for postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) over radiotherapy (RT) alone. However, there are less data regarding the impact of margin status on human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We performed a retrospective review of 55 patients with oropharyngeal SCC undergoing primary surgical treatment. The impact of margin status on disease-specific survival (DSS) was studied according to p16 status. Twenty-one patients had positive margins. Adjuvant treatment in these cases was CRT (n = 6), RT alone (n = 14), and none (n = 1). Among p16-negative patients, positive margins and dysplasia at margins predicted significantly worse DSS. Among patients with p16-positive disease, margin status had no impact on DSS. Patients with p16-positive oropharyngeal SCC and positive margins after excision maintain a low risk of recurrence despite most receiving RT alone as adjuvant treatment. These findings raise questions regarding the additional benefit of postoperative CRT in this group. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  19. Participation of Canadian Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons in Oral, Lip, and Oropharyngeal Cancer Care.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Karl K; Mascarenhas, Wendall; Cobb, Graham

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the participation of Canadian oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the various phases of oral, lip, and oropharyngeal cancer care. A survey was conducted to quantify participation in oral, lip, and oropharyngeal cancer care and assess participation ranging from screening for malignancy to active treatment and rehabilitation of those with late-stage disease. Three hundred ninety-one surgeons were contacted and 206 (52.7%) responded to the online survey. The survey showed 98.1% of respondents were involved with cancer screening and 97.1% were involved in prevention and early intervention (monitoring and treatment) of premalignant lesions. In addition, 95.1% of respondents participated in diagnosis and staging of tumors. Early-stage cancer was managed surgically by 49.5% of respondents, whereas 11.2% of respondents managed late-stage disease. Management of oral rehabilitation was performed by 79.0% of respondents. OMSs are an integral part of all phases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer care, including primary surgical oncology, in Canada. Although OMSs in Canada participate widely in integral prevention and survivor rehabilitation programs, few members participate in late-stage disease management and regional multidisciplinary care teams. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic significance of NDRG1 expression in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Cunha Mercante, Ana Maria; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Leopoldino, Andréia Machado; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Gazito, Diana; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Chiappini, Paula Blandina Olga; de Carvalho Neto, Paulo Bentes; Fukuyama, Erica Erina; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-12-01

    Human N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a metastasis suppressor gene with several potential functions, including cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation and response to hormones, nickel and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoexpression of NDRG1 in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas searching for its role in the clinical course of these tumors. We investigated immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 protein in 412 tissue microarray cores of tumor samples from 103 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and in 110 paraffin-embedded surgical margin sections. The results showed NDRG1 up-regulation in 101/103 (98.1 %) tumor samples, but no expression in any normal tissue sample. Western blot assays confirmed the immunohistochemical findings, suggesting that lower levels of NDRG1 are associated with a high mortality rate. NDRG1 overexpression was related to long-term specific survival (HR = 0.38; p = 0.009), whereas the presence of lymph-node metastasis showed the opposite association with survival (HR = 2.45; p = 0.013). Our findings reinforce the idea that NDRG1 plays a metastasis suppressor role in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and may be a useful marker for these tumors.

  1. Virology and Molecular Pathogenesis of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Daniel L.; Puricelli, Michael D.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Current literature fully supports HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) as a unique clinical entity. It affects an unambiguous patient population with defined risk factors, has a genetic expression pattern more similar to cervical squamous cell carcinoma than non-HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and may warrant divergent clinical management compared to HNSCC associated with traditional risk factors. However, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving these differences and the ability to exploit this knowledge to improve clinical management of OPSCC has not yet come to fruition. This review summarizes the etiology of HPV positive (HPV+) OPSCC and provides a detailed overview of HPV virology and molecular pathogenesis relevant to infection of oropharyngeal tissues. Methods of detection and differential gene expression analyses are also summarized. Future research into mechanisms that mediate tropism of HPV to oropharyngeal tissues, improved detection strategies, and the pathophysiologic significance of altered gene and microRNA expression profiles is warranted. PMID:22452816

  2. Virology and molecular pathogenesis of HPV (human papillomavirus)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel L; Puricelli, Michael D; Stack, M Sharon

    2012-04-15

    The current literature fully supports HPV (human papillomavirus)-associated OPSCC (oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) as a unique clinical entity. It affects an unambiguous patient population with defined risk factors, has a genetic expression pattern more similar to cervical squamous cell carcinoma than non-HPV-associated HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma), and may warrant divergent clinical management compared with HNSCC associated with traditional risk factors. However, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving these differences and the ability to exploit this knowledge to improve clinical management of OPSCC has not yet come to fruition. The present review summarizes the aetiology of HPV-positive (HPV+) OPSCC and provides a detailed overview of HPV virology and molecular pathogenesis relevant to infection of oropharyngeal tissues. Methods of detection and differential gene expression analyses are also summarized. Future research into mechanisms that mediate tropism of HPV to oropharyngeal tissues, improved detection strategies and the pathophysiological significance of altered gene and microRNA expression profiles is warranted.

  3. The importance of the reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. An electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, G; Alfonsi, E; Mainardi, L; Alvisi, E; Brighina, F; Valentino, F; Fierro, B; Sandrini, G; Bertino, G; Berlangieri, M; De Icco, R; Fresia, M; Moglia, A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate electrophysiologically the reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing in patients with ALS. We enrolled 26 ALS patients, both with and without clinical signs of dysphagia, and 30 age-matched controls. The reproducibility of the electrophysiological signals related to the oral phase (electromyographic activity of the submental/suprahyoid muscles) and the pharyngeal phase (laryngeal-pharyngeal mechanogram) of swallowing across repeated swallows was assessed. To do this we computed two similarity indexes (SI) by using previously described mathematical algorithms. The reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing was significantly reduced both in patients with and in those without clinical signs of dysphagia, with more marked alterations being detected in the dysphagic group. The SI of both phases of swallowing, oral and pharyngeal, correlated significantly with dysphagia severity and disease severity. In ALS different pathophysiological mechanisms can alter the stereotyped motor behaviors underlying normal swallowing, thus reducing the reproducibility of the swallowing act. A decrease in swallowing reproducibility could be a preclinical sign of dysphagia and, beyond a certain threshold, a pathological hallmark of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Electrophysiological assessment is a simple and useful tool for the early detection of swallowing abnormalities, and for the management of overt dysphagia in ALS. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Correa-Flores, Melissa; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Villeda-Miranda, Alicia; Rocha-Cacho, Karina Elizabeth; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Hernández-López, Xochiquetzal

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a high incidence in Mexico and is estimated at approximately 500,000 patients. One of the main clinical manifestations of PD is dysphagia, which is the difficult passage of food from the mouth to the stomach. The aim of this study was to assess oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with PD. We conducted a census sample of patients with PD: 17 males and 10 females, aged >49 years. Clinical history, physical examination and neurological evaluation of swallowing fibroendoscopy were carried out. Of the symptomatic patients, 16 patients (59.25%) reported dysphagia. Fibroendoscopic evaluation demonstrated swallowing disorders in 25 patients (92.59%). The main findings were poor bolus control in 19 patients (70.37%), deficits in bolus propulsion in 25 patients (92.59%), impaired swallowing in 14 patients (51.85%), fractional swallowing in 11 patients (40.74%), reduced epiglottic tilting in 11 patients (48.14%), food residue in vallecula in 24 patients (88.88%) and piriform sinus in 19 patients (70.37%). There was no correlation between duration of PD and degree of involvement of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with PD is a common symptom and can range from the oral cavity to the upper esophageal sphincter. Early onset of severe dysphagia is exceptional in this disease and should alert the clinician to the diagnostic possibility of parkinsonism.

  5. Sensory outcomes of the anterior tongue after lingual nerve repair in oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Elfring, T T; Boliek, C A; Seikaly, H; Harris, J; Rieger, J M

    2012-03-01

    Primary treatment of oropharyngeal cancer often involves surgical resection and reconstruction of the affected area. However, during base of tongue reconstruction the lingual nerve is often severed on one or both sides, affecting sensation in the preserved tissue of the anterior tongue. The loss of specific tongue sensations could negatively affect a person's oral function and quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different types of lingual nerve intervention on sensory function for patients with base of tongue cancer as compared to healthy, age-matched adults. Subjects included 30 patients who had undergone primary oropharyngeal reconstruction with a radial forearm free-flap and 30 matched controls. Sensations tested were temperature, two-point discrimination, light touch, taste, oral stereognosis and texture on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. Results indicated that type of surgical nerve repair may not have a significant impact on overall sensory outcomes, providing mixed results for either nerve repair technique. Sensations for the nonoperated tongue side and operated side with lingual nerve intact were comparable to matched controls, with mixed outcomes for nerve repair. The poorest sensory outcomes were observed in patients with the lingual nerve severed, while all patients with lingual nerve intervention exhibited deteriorated taste sensation on the affected tongue side. Overall, patients in this study who had undergone oropharyngeal reconstruction with lingual nerve intervention exhibited decreased levels of sensation on the operated tongue side, with minimal differences between types of lingual nerve repair. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Validation in French of the SWAL-QOL scale in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Khaldoun, E; Woisard, V; Verin, E

    2009-03-01

    A quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire specifically designed for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (SWAL-QOL) has been elaborated and validated by Colleen McHorney. The aim of the present study was to validate the French translation of the SWAL-QOL in 73 patients with either post-stroke or post-surgical oropharyngeal dysphagia. The French version was considered understandable and acceptable by the study patients, who completed the questionnaire in approximately 20 minutes. However, 32 patients needed help in filling out the questionnaire-mostly in reading the questions and writing the answers. Completion was excellent, although seven patients missed one item. Analysis of convergent validity of the French version showed good correlation between items and the corresponding scale. Validity convergence was excellent for all the different items, with a correlation between each item and its own scale that was always greater than 0.40. Internal coherence was also excellent, with Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia have a poor QOL, as reflected by their very low scores. The lowest scores were related to the impact of swallowing disorders on the QOL (47+/-30) and on mental health (51+/-31). This study also demonstrated the linguistic and psychometric validity of the French version of the SWAL-QOL questionnaire.

  7. Pathophysiology, relevance and natural history of oropharyngeal dysphagia among older people.

    PubMed

    Clavé, Pere; Rofes, Laia; Carrión, Silvia; Ortega, Omar; Cabré, Mateu; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Arreola, Viridiana

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a very frequent condition among older people with a prevalence ranging from mild symptoms in 25% of the independently living to severe symptoms in more than 50% living in nursing homes. There are several validated methods of screening, and clinical assessment and videofluoroscopy are the gold standard for the study of the mechanisms of OD in the elderly. Oropharyngeal residue is mainly caused by weak bolus propulsion forces due to tongue sarcopenia. The neural elements of swallow response are also impaired in older persons, with prolonged and delayed laryngeal vestibule closure and slow hyoid movement causing oropharyngeal aspirations. OD causes malnutrition, dehydration, impaired quality of life, lower respiratory tract infections, aspiration pneumonia, and poor prognosis including prolonged hospital stay and enhanced morbidity and mortality in several phenotypes of older patients ranging from independently living older people, hospitalized older patients and nursing home residents. Enhancing bolus viscosity of fluids greatly improves safety of swallow in all these patients. We believe OD should be recognized as a major geriatric syndrome, and we recommend a policy of systematic and universal screening and assessment of OD among older people to prevent its severe complications.

  8. An evaluation of the University of Washington Quality of Life swallowing domain following oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L; Jones, T M; Tandon, S; Katre, C; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2008-07-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer and its treatment have debilitating effect on swallowing function which can impact on quality of life. The aims of this study were to assess swallowing dysfunction in patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer by both patient and observer assessed tools and to assess the suitability of University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) swallowing domain as a potential screening tool in routine clinic practice. This was a cross-sectional study of disease free survivors following radical treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma at a tertiary care centre between 1999 and May 2005. Evaluation included three questionnaires--the M. D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), the SWALQOL, the University of Washington Quality of Life (UWQOL) and Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). Of 117 patients 77 (66%) participated. On the UW-QOL, 18% could only swallow liquids whilst 11% could not swallow at all. There is a clear demarcation between UW-QOL levels and food consistency and texture as measured by the SWALQOL (r= -0.86, P<0.001). There was a graduation in respect to function with correlations of r=0.61 with overall MDADI and SWALQOL and r= -0.45 for FEES. Patients scoring 70 or better in the UW-QOL were notably better in MDADI and the SWALQOL hence a cut off of below 70 could be regarded as a quick screening tool for swallowing dysfunction.

  9. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Alone for HPV Related Oropharyngeal Cancers with High Risk Features

    PubMed Central

    Su, William; Liu, Jerry; Miles, Brett A.; Genden, Eric M.; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof J.; Posner, Marshall; Gupta, Vishal; Bakst, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current standard of care for oropharyngeal cancers with positive surgical margins and/or extracapsular extension is adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. It is unknown whether HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer benefits from this treatment intensification. Objective To investigate the outcomes of HPV+ patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy alone when chemoradiotherapy was indicated based on high risk pathological features. They were compared with high risk HPV+ patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods All high risk HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer patients (9) who received radiotherapy alone were identified. We also identified 17 patients who received chemoradiotherapy as a comparison group. Median follow up time was 37.3 months. Results No local failures developed in adjuvant radiotherapy group. There was 1 distant recurrence in this cohort and 3 in CRT cohort. Regarding toxicity, 8 (47.1%) chemoradiotherapy patients had >10 lb. weight loss (p = 0.013), despite 75% of them having a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed. No individuals in radiotherapy group experienced a >10 lb. weight loss and none required a gastrostomy tube. Conclusions This series provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the omission of concurrent chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy may offer comparative local control rates with a lower toxicity profile in the setting of HPV+ patients with traditional high risk features. PMID:27930732

  10. Complications in the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma in patients with systemic sclerosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Coček, Ales; Hahn, Ales; Ambruš, Miloslav; Valešová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a chronic, progressive disease with an extremely poor prognosis. The incidence of malignant tumors in patients with systemic sclerosis is increased when compared with that of the general population. In certain malignancies, systemic sclerosis presents as a paraneoplastic process. The symptoms of sclerosis in the organs of the head and neck often overlap with symptoms of malignant diseases, which may increase the difficulty of a differential diagnosis. Additionally, the presence of sclerosis may complicate standard examination procedures, due to poor access to the oral cavity and oropharynx. When considering treatment options, it is important to evaluate the surgical and oncological risks to soft tissues of the head and neck with regard to both diseases, as well as the relatively poor prognosis for systemic sclerosis and oropharyngeal cancer. The low incidence of patients with systemic sclerosis and oropharyngeal carcinoma together presents a clear case for a casuistic approach. Based upon our own experience, we can attest to the difficulty of treating such patients. However, we have no evidence to indicate that these patients have reduced tolerance to surgical treatments. The current study presents the case of a 47-year-old female with systemic sclerosis, who was diagnosed with oropharyngeal carcinoma. The patient initially tolerated radiotherapy treatment well, however post-radiotherapy complications occurred. Despite many enigmatic indications to the contrary, it appears that the complications in this instance may be due to late toxicity from radiotherapy.

  11. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Jose A

    2010-01-01

    Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the first signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole) have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin) in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE) is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin). PMID:22096388

  12. Micrognathia and Oropharyngeal Space in Patients With Robin Sequence: Prenatal MRI Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kooiman, Tessa D; Calabrese, Carly E; Didier, Ryne; Estroff, Judy A; Padwa, Bonnie L; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Resnick, Cory M

    2017-07-26

    Micrognathia is the initiating feature of Robin sequence (RS) and leads to airway obstruction. Prenatal identification of micrognathia is currently qualitative and has not correlated with postnatal findings in previous studies. Oropharyngeal airway space has not been evaluated prenatally. The purposes of this study were to 1) quantitate mandibular characteristics and oropharyngeal size at prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2) identify differences in fetuses with postnatal RS compared with those with micrognathia (without RS) and normal controls. This is a retrospective case-control study of fetuses with prenatal MRIs performed from 2002 through 2017 who were live born and evaluated postnatally for craniofacial findings. Postnatal findings were used to divide patients into 3 groups: 1) RS (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction), 2) micrognathia without RS ("micrognathia"), and 3) a gestational-age matched control group with normal craniofacial morphology ("control"). Inferior facial angle (IFA), jaw index, and oropharyngeal space (OPS) were calculated and compared among groups. Of 116 patients in this study, 27 had RS (23%), 35 had micrognathia (30%), and 54 were control subjects (47%). IFA, jaw index, and OPS were statistically significantly smaller in the RS group compared with the comparison groups (P < .0001). Prenatal MRI measurements of micrognathia and OPS are considerably different in patients with RS compared with other groups, including those with micrognathia alone. These measurements might serve as reliable prenatal predictors of RS. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of computer-assisted brush biopsy results with follow up scalpel biopsy and histology.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, John A; Burns, James C; Carpenter, William M; Cohen, Donald M; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Fantasia, John E; Lederman, David A; Lynch, Denis P; Sciubba, James J; Zunt, Susan L

    2002-01-01

    Oral brush biopsy results were compared with scalpel biopsy and histology to determine the positive predictive value of an abnormal brush biopsy finding. Of 243 patients with abnormal brush biopsies, 93 proved positive for dysplasia (79) or carcinoma (14) and 150 were negative for either dysplasia or carcinoma. Therefore, the positive predictive value of an abnormal brush biopsy was 38% (93/243). By using the oral brush biopsy, dentists can inform their patients that abnormal findings have a strong positive predictive value for dysplasia or carcinoma and therefore require follow-up confirmation by scalpel biopsy.

  14. Prostate Biopsy for the Interventional Radiologist

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheng William; Amalou, Hayet; Xu, Sheng; Turkbey, Baris; Yan, Pingkun; Kruecker, Jochen; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J

    2015-01-01

    Prostate biopsies are usually performed by urologists in the office setting using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance. The current standard of care involves obtaining 10–14 cores from different anatomical sections. These biopsies are usually not directed into a specific lesion as most prostate cancers are not visible on TRUS. Color-Doppler, ultrasound contrast agents, elastography, MRI, and MRI/ultrasound fusion are proposed as imaging methods to guide prostate biopsies. Prostate MRI and fusion biopsy create opportunities for diagnostic and interventional radiologists to play an increasingly important role in the screening, evaluation, diagnosis, targeted biopsy, surveillance and focal therapy of the prostate cancer patient. PMID:24581731

  15. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and management of oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Mustafa Önder; Yanik, Keramettin; Erdem, Müge; Kostakoglu, Ugur; Yilmaz, Gürdal; Tanriverdi Çayci, Yeliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with tularemia and the effectiveness of the administered treatments. Patients treated in our hospital between January 2009 and March 2011 and diagnosed with tularemia were evaluated retrospectively. Patients' epidemiological and clinical characteristics, administered treatments, and posttreatment findings were recorded on patient monitoring forms. At anamnesis, 29% of patients used water from wells and 71% used water from the network supply; moreover, 48.4% had a history of contact with animals and 87.1% a history of lethargy. At physical examination, 96.8% had a mass in the neck and 90.3% had fever. Gentamycin + doxycycline therapy was administered to 45.2% of patients, while levofloxacin, gentamycin, and streptomycin were used for the other patients. After treatment, neck masses persisted in 48.4% of patients and complaints of lethargy and fever in 6.5%. Treatment of these patients was initiated once tularemia had been diagnosed, as test results were announced about 3 weeks later. Lymphadenopathy excision was performed on 19.4% of patients in whom neck mass persisted. Appropriate empiric antibiotherapy should be commenced in patients presenting with neck mass, fever, and lethargy in regions with tularemia epidemics.

  16. Cervical biopsy sampling variability in ALTS.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daron G; Litaker, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    To determine histologic sampling variability among clinical center colposcopists and quality control reviewers in the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. Clinical center colposcopists and quality control reviewers independently indicated need for biopsy, number of biopsies needed, and optimal biopsy location on customized computer software and digitized colposcopic images while examining subjects or monitoring colposcopists in the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. Results were compared using percentages of agreement, κ statistics, McNemar, and paired t tests. Colposcopists and reviewers agreed whether a cervical biopsy was indicated for 2,631 (72.9%) of 3,610 evaluable subjects and 415 (91.6%) of 453 subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse by histologic diagnosis. Only 3 of 41 colposcopists indicated 20% or greater of their biopsy sites to be more than 10 mm from reviewers' recommended sites. The mean of the greatest colposcopist-to-reviewer biopsy site distance was significantly greater than the mean maximum distance between reviewers' biopsy sites (14.9 vs 12.2 mm, p < .0001, respectively). Colposcopists indicated a significantly greater number of biopsy sites compared with consensus of reviewers (p < .0001). When cervical cancer precursors are present in women with minor cytologic abnormalities, most colposcopists obtain a biopsy. However, biopsy site placement can vary considerably. Only a minority of colposcopists sample significantly beyond recommended areas and less biopsy site variability occurs among experts.

  17. Integrated omic analysis of oropharyngeal carcinomas reveals human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent regulation of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) pathway.

    PubMed

    Sepiashvili, Lusia; Waggott, Daryl; Hui, Angela; Shi, Wei; Su, Susie; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Laureano, Marissa; Huang, Shao Hui; Xu, Wei; Weinreb, Ilan; Waldron, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Irish, Jonathan C; Boutros, Paul C; Liu, Fei-Fei; Kislinger, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) patients have superior outcomes relative to HPV-negative patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We conducted a proteomic investigation of HPV-positive (n = 27) and HPV-negative (n = 26) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OPC biopsies to acquire insights into the biological pathways that correlate with clinical behavior. Among the 2,633 proteins identified, 174 were differentially abundant. These were enriched for proteins related to cell cycle, DNA replication, apoptosis, and immune response. The differential abundances of cortactin and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase were validated by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 29 OPC samples (p = 0.023 and p = 0.009, respectively). An additional 1,124 proteins were independently corroborated through comparison to a published proteomic dataset of OPC. Furthermore, utilizing the Cancer Genome Atlas, we conducted an integrated investigation of OPC, attributing mechanisms underlying differential protein abundances to alterations in mutation, copy number, methylation, and mRNA profiles. A key finding of this integration was the identification of elevated cortactin oncoprotein levels in HPV-negative OPCs. These proteins might contribute to reduced survival in these patients via their established role in radiation resistance. Through interrogation of Cancer Genome Atlas data, we demonstrated that activation of the β1-integrin/FAK/cortactin/JNK1 signaling axis and associated differential regulation of activator protein 1 transcription factor target genes are plausible consequences of elevated cortactin protein levels.

  18. Integrated Omic Analysis of Oropharyngeal Carcinomas Reveals Human Papillomavirus (HPV)–dependent Regulation of the Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Sepiashvili, Lusia; Waggott, Daryl; Hui, Angela; Shi, Wei; Su, Susie; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Laureano, Marissa; Huang, Shao Hui; Xu, Wei; Weinreb, Ilan; Waldron, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Irish, Jonathan C.; Boutros, Paul C.; Liu, Fei-Fei; Kislinger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) patients have superior outcomes relative to HPV-negative patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We conducted a proteomic investigation of HPV-positive (n = 27) and HPV-negative (n = 26) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded OPC biopsies to acquire insights into the biological pathways that correlate with clinical behavior. Among the 2,633 proteins identified, 174 were differentially abundant. These were enriched for proteins related to cell cycle, DNA replication, apoptosis, and immune response. The differential abundances of cortactin and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase were validated by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 29 OPC samples (p = 0.023 and p = 0.009, respectively). An additional 1,124 proteins were independently corroborated through comparison to a published proteomic dataset of OPC. Furthermore, utilizing the Cancer Genome Atlas, we conducted an integrated investigation of OPC, attributing mechanisms underlying differential protein abundances to alterations in mutation, copy number, methylation, and mRNA profiles. A key finding of this integration was the identification of elevated cortactin oncoprotein levels in HPV-negative OPCs. These proteins might contribute to reduced survival in these patients via their established role in radiation resistance. Through interrogation of Cancer Genome Atlas data, we demonstrated that activation of the β1-integrin/FAK/cortactin/JNK1 signaling axis and associated differential regulation of activator protein 1 transcription factor target genes are plausible consequences of elevated cortactin protein levels. PMID:25271301

  19. Prostate biopsy volume predicts final tumor volume.

    PubMed

    Zavaski, Michael E; Korus, Adam; Staff, Ilene; Champagne, Alison; Fish-Furhman, Jamie; Tortora, Joseph; Meraney, Anoop; Kesler, Stuart; Wagner, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    To assess the ability of prostate biopsy volume to effectively predict actual tumor volume, and whether increasing the number of prostate biopsy cores improves the ability to forecast actual tumor volume. 765 patients who underwent robotic radical prostatectomy (2009-2010) were identified. Of these, 663 had complete demographics, biopsy, and final pathology data available. The number ofbiopsy samples, biopsy tumor volume, and actual tumor volume were calculated from pathology reports. Data from 663 radical prostatectomy specimens indicated a positive linearrelationship between biopsy tumor volume and actual tumor volume (R=0.524, P< 0.0001). The number ofbiopsy samples collected (i.e., < or =6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, or > or =15) did not affect the ability of biopsy tumor volume to predict final tumor volume. The routine collection of biopsy tumor volume may prove useful in predicting actual tumor volume and the construction of more effective preoperative nomograms.

  20. Semiautomatic core biopsy. A modified biopsy technique in breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdsaleh, S; Azavedo, E; Lindgren, P G

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate a semiautomatic gun to retrieve diagnostic core specimens of lesions in the breast and the axillary region. In a series of 180 consecutive core biopsies (2.1 mm), 145 (142 breasts and 3 axillae) were performed with a semiautomatic gun (18 stereotaxic and 127 US-guided) from lesions presenting mammographically as microcalcifications (n = 15) and opacities (n = 130). The gun did not work satisfactorily in 34 lesions, which were tumors with a very hard consistency. One additional patient was excluded because of technical failure. Biopsy diagnoses in the 145 patients were correlated to surgical histopathology, follow-up mammograms and/or clinical findings. Histologic examination of the specimens resulted in correct diagnoses in 89% (129/145) of the total material and in 87% (108/124) of cancers. In 107 cases, in which only 1 specimen was obtained, 83 of 89 cancers (87%) were detected. Length of specimens ranged from 3 mm (n = 2) to 17 mm (n = 31). Among patients with a 17-mm-long specimen, there was only 1 false-negative diagnosis. The semiautomatic gun provided diagnostic specimens in a majority of cases and could be used as an alternative to the automatic guns when size or location of the lesions necessitates a high precision. It was not suitable for use in very hard tumors.

  1. Methylation analyses in liquid biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lissa, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent implementation of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening is predicted to lead to diagnosis of lung cancer at an earlier stage, with survival benefit. However, there is still a pressing need for biomarkers that will identify individuals eligible for screening, as well as improve the diagnostic accuracy of LDCT. In addition, biomarkers for prognostic stratification of patients with early stage disease, and those that can be used as surrogates to monitor tumor evolution, will greatly improve clinical management. Molecular alterations found in the DNA of tumor cells, such as mutations, translocations and methylation, are reflected in DNA that is released from the tumor into the bloodstream. Thus, in recent years, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as a noninvasive alternative to tissue biopsies and potential surrogate for the entire tumor genome. Activating gene mutations found in ctDNA have been proven effective in predicting response to targeted therapy. Analysis of ctDNA is also a valuable tool for longitudinal follow-up of cancer patients that does not require serial biopsies and may anticipate the acquisition of resistance. DNA methylation has also emerged as a promising marker for early detection, prognosis and real-time follow-up of tumor dynamics that is independent of the genomic composition of the primary tumor. This review summarizes the various investigational applications of methylated ctDNA in lung cancer reported to date. It also provides a brief overview of the technologies for analysis of DNA methylation in liquid biopsies, and the challenges that befall the implementation of methylated ctDNA into routine clinical practice. PMID:27826530

  2. Nondiagnostic conjunctival map biopsies for sebaceous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koreen, Irina V; Flint, Andrew; Nelson, Christine C; Frueh, Bartley R; Elner, Victor M

    2009-08-01

    To compare the prevalence of nondiagnostic conjunctival map biopsies in patients with extensive pagetoid sebaceous carcinoma (defined as involvement of 3 or 4 quadrants of the ocular surface) and in patients without extensive pagetoid tumor (defined as involvement of 1 or 2 quadrants of the ocular surface). Retrospective medical record and pathologic specimen review of 20 patients treated for sebaceous carcinoma at a tertiary care center. Biopsies with artifactual loss of or damage to the epithelium were categorized as nondiagnostic. One hundred forty-four map biopsies were reviewed, an average of 7.2 (standard deviation [SD], 4.4) biopsies per patient. Sixteen patients had extensive pagetoid tumor, 4 did not. Fifteen percent of biopsies were nondiagnostic. The frequency of nondiagnostic biopsies in patients with and without extensive pagetoid tumor was 37% and 10%, respectively. The odds ratio of nondiagnostic biopsy in the setting of extensive pagetoid tumor was 5.9 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-15.6; P = .004). Six of the sixteen patients (38%) without extensive pagetoid tumor had at least 1 nondiagnostic biopsy, with an average of 1.8 (SD, 1.6) nondiagnostic biopsies per patient (22% of biopsies). Two of the 4 patients (50%) with extensive pagetoid tumor had at least 1 nondiagnostic biopsy, with an average of 5.5 (SD, 3.5) nondiagnostic biopsies per patient (57% of biopsies). Nondiagnostic, de-epithelialized conjunctival map biopsies are more common in patients with extensive pagetoid tumor than in those with limited or no pagetoid tumor. Artifactual epithelial loss may result from disruption of epithelial adhesion to the basement membrane by infiltrating tumor cells.

  3. Comparison of sonoelastography guided biopsy with systematic biopsy: impact on prostate cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Pallwein, Leo; Mitterberger, Michael; Struve, Peter; Horninger, Wolfgang; Aigner, Friedrich; Bartsch, Georg; Gradl, Johann; Schurich, Matthias; Pedross, Florian; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2007-09-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the value of sonoelastography (SE) targeted biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. A series of 230 male screening volunteers was examined. Two independent examiners evaluated each subject. One single investigator performed < or =5 SE targeted biopsies into suspicious regions in the peripheral zone only. The stiffness of the lesion was displayed by SE and color-coded from red (soft) to blue (hard). Hard lesions were considered as malignant and targeted by biopsy. Subsequently, another examiner performed ten systematic biopsies. Cancer detection rates of the two techniques were compared. Cancer was detected in 81 of the 230 patients (35%), including 68 (30%) by SE targeted biopsy and in 58 (25%) by systematic biopsy. Cancer was detected by targeted biopsy alone in 23 patients (10%) and by systematic biopsy alone in 13 patients (6%). The detection rate for SE targeted biopsy cores (12.7% or 135 of 1,109 cores) was significantly better than for systematic biopsy cores (5.6% or 130 of 2,300 cores, P < 0.001). SE targeted biopsy in a patient with cancer was 2.9-fold more likely to detect PCa than systematic biopsy. SE targeted biopsy detected more cases of PCa than systematic biopsy, with fewer than half the number of biopsy cores in this prostate-specific antigen screening population.

  4. Limitations of preoperative biopsy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: comparison to surgical pathology in 405 cases.

    PubMed

    Abel, E Jason; Carrasco, Alonso; Culp, Stephen H; Matin, Surena F; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tannir, Nizar M; Wood, Christopher G

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Diagnostic (cohort) Level of Evidence: 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Although there have been many investigations of biopsy for small renal masses, there are scant data on the accuracy of biopsy in the setting of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We report a large series of biopsies and compare with nephrectomy pathology in patients with mRCC. The present study highlights the inaccuracy of biopsy in the setting of metastatic disease, which is related to sampling error because of heterogeneity within the tumour and among metastases. These limitations are important to realize when designing trials that depend on pathological findings from biopsy and not nephrectomy. In addition, we found that biopsy of primary tumours were more likely than biopsy of metastatic sites to be diagnostic of RCC. Future studies with multiquadrant biopsies of primary tumours could yield the most accurate pathological results for future studies. • To evaluate the ability of preoperative biopsy to identify high-risk pathological features by comparing pathology from preoperative metastatic site and primary tumour biopsies with nephrectomy pathology in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). •  We reviewed clinical and pathological data from patients who underwent biopsy before cytoreductive nephrectomy for mRCC at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) from 1991 to 2007. • Percutaneous biopsy techniques included fine-needle aspiration, core needle biopsy or a combination of both techniques. • The pathology of 405 preoperative biopsies (239 metastatic site, 166 primary tumour) from 378 patients was reviewed at MDACC before cytoreductive nephrectomy. • The biopsy and nephrectomy specimens had the same histological subtype in 96.0% of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) and 72.7% of non-clear-cell RCCs. • Of 76 nephrectomy specimens where sarcomatoid de-differentiation was identified, only seven (9.2%) were able to be

  5. Three-dimensional ultrasound-guided breast biopsy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wendy L.; Surry, Kathleen J. M.; Campbell, Laura; Mills, Greg; Downey, Donal B.; Fenster, Aaron

    2001-05-01

    We introduce a mechanically constrained, 3D ultrasound- guided core-needle breast biopsy device. With modest breast compression, 3D ultrasound scans localize suspicious masses. A biopsy needle is mechanically guided into position for firing into the sampling region. Th needle is parallel to the transducer, allowing real-time guidance during needle insertion. Lesion sampling is verified by another ultrasound image after firing. Two procedures quantified targeting accuracy of this apparatus. First, we biopsied eleven breast phantoms containing 123 embedded, cylindrical lesions constructed from PVA-C (poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel) with diameters ranging from 1.6 to 15.9mm. Identification of the colored lesion in the biopsy sample and analysis of the post-biopsy US images provided a model for the success rates. Using this, we predict that our apparatus will require six passes to biopsy a 3.0 mm lesion with 99% confidence. For the second experiment, agar phantoms were embedded with four rows of 0.8mm stainless steel beads. A 14-gauge needle was inserted to each bead position seen in a 3D ultrasound scan and the tip position was compared to the pre-insertion bead position. The inter-observer standard errors of measurement were less than 0.15 and 0.28mm for the bead and needle tip positions, respectively. The off-axis 3D 95% confidence intervals were determined to have widths between 0.43 and 1.71mm, depending on direction and bead position.

  6. MBL, P2X7, and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia.

    PubMed

    Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Koc, Sema; Ates, Omer; Göktas, Göksel; Soyalic, Harun; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Gurbuzler, Levent; Sapmaz, Emrah; Sezer, Saime; Eyibilen, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    A significant association was found of oropharyngeal tularemia with SLC11A1 allele polymorphism (INT4 G/C) and MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q). These results indicate C allele and Q allele might be a risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal tularemia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of SLC11A1, MBL, and P2X7 gene polymorphism with oropharyngeal tularemia. The study included totally 120 patients who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia. Frequencies of polymorphisms in the following genes were analyzed both in the patient and control groups in the study: SLC11A1 (5'(GT)n Allele 2/3, Int4 G/C, 3' UTR, D543N G/A), MBL (MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q), and P2X7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C). Among all polymorphisms that were investigated in this study, SLC11A1 gene showed a significance in the distriburtion of polymorphism allelle frequency at the INT4 region. Frequency of C allele was 54 (28%) in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, and 31 (13%) in the control group (p = 0.006 and OR = 1.96 (1.21-3.20)). An association was detected between MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia (p < 0.005 and OR = 0.30 (0.19-0.48)). No significant relation was found between P2X7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia in this study (p > 0.05).

  7. Gastric ulcer penetrating to liver diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Kayacetin, Serra

    2004-01-01

    Liver penetration is a rare but serious complication of peptic ulcer disease. Usually the diagnosis is made by operation or autopsy. Clinical and laboratory data were no specific. A 64-year-old man was admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Hepatic penetration was diagnosed as the cause of bleeding. Endoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with a pseudotumoral mass protruding from the ulcer bed. Definitive diagnosis was established by endoscopic biopsies of the ulcer base. PMID:15188520

  8. Relationship of Pre-biopsy Multiparametric MRI and Biopsy Indication with MRI-US Fusion-Targeted Prostate Biopsy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiaosong; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Fenstermaker, Michael; Huang, Richard; Wysock, James S.; Bjurlin, Marc; Marshall, Susan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Huang, William C.; Lepor, Herbert; Taneja, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increasing evidence supports the use of MRI-ultrasound fusion-targeted prostate biopsy (MRF-TB) to improve the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa) while limiting detection of indolent disease compared to systematic 12-core biopsy (SB). OBJECTIVE We report results of MRF-TB and SB and the relationship between biopsy outcomes and pre-biopsy MRI in 601 men presenting to our center. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired cohort of men presenting for prostate biopsy over a 26-month period. A total of 601 of 803 consecutively eligible men were included. INTERVENTIONS All men were offered pre-biopsy MRI and assigned a maximum MRI suspicion score (mSS). Men with an MRI abnormality underwent combined MRF-TB and SB. OUTCOMES Detection rate of all PCa and high-grade PCa (Gleason score (GS)≥7) were compared by McNemar's test. RESULTS MRF-TB detected fewer GS6 PCa (75 vs 121, p<0.001) and more GS≥7 PCa (158 vs 117, p<0.001) than SB. Increasing mSS was associated with increasing detection of GS≥7 PCa (p<0.001), but had no relationship to the detection of GS6 PCa. The prediction of GS≥7 disease by mSS varied according to biopsy history. Compared to SB, MRF-TB identified more GS≥7 cancer in men with no prior biopsy (88 vs 72, p=0.012), with prior negative biopsy (28 vs 16, p=0.010), and with prior cancer diagnosis (42 vs 29, p=0.043). MRF-TB detected fewer GS6 cancers in men with no prior biopsy (32 vs 60, p<.001) and prior cancer (30 vs 46, p=0.034). Limitations include retrospective design and potential for selection bias given a referral population. CONCLUSIONS MRI-US fusion-targeted biopsy detects more high-grade cancer than systematic biopsy while limiting detection of GS6 cancer in men presenting for prostate biopsy. These findings suggest that pre-biopsy mpMRI and MRF-TB should be considered in all men undergoing prostate biopsy and, in conjunction with biopsy indication, mSS may ultimately

  9. Fluorescence guidance during stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert; Beyer, Wolfgang; Brucker, David; Ehrhardt, Andre; Fischer, Stefan; Goebel, Werner; Goetz, Marcus; Guenther, Bettina; Hennig, Georg; Herms, Jochen; Irion, Klaus-Martin; Johansson, Ann; Kienast, Yvonne; Kniebuehler, Gesa; Li, Pan; Ruehm, Adrian; Sandner, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    Objective: When a stereotactic biopsy is taken to enable histopathological diagnosis of a suspected brain tumor, it is essential to i) do this safely, that is not injure a major blood vessel and ii) to obtain relevant vital material from the tumor. We are investigating the suitability of Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescence for blood vessel recognition and 5- Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence for identification of proliferative brain tumor tissue. Methods: A fiber-optic endoscopic approach was studied to generate and detect both fluorescence signals. PpIX concentrations in brain tumors have been measured by chemical extraction. Preliminary equipment was studied in a mouse model. Results: PpIX-concentrations in glioblastoma tissue showed high inner- and inter-patient variability, but each patient out of 15 with interpretable data showed at least one sample with a PpIX-concentration exceeding 2.4 μmol/l, which is easily detectable by state-of-the-art fiberoptic fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging. The imaging fluoroscope with 30,000 pixels resolution could be introduced through a position controlled stereotactic needle. ICG-fluorescence from vessels with diameters >= 0.1 mm can be detected with a contrast of 2-2.5 against surrounding tissue. Conclusion: Fluorescence detection during stereotactic biopsy might increase safety and precision of the procedure significantly.

  10. Correlation between MRI and biopsies under second look ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Neuville, M; de Rocquancourt, A; Cohen-Zarade, S; Chapellier-Canaud, M; Albiter, M; Hamy, A-S; Giachetti, S; Cuvier, C; Espié, M; de Kerviler, É; de Bazelaire, C

    2014-02-01

    The term "second look" lesions in MRI refers to lesions detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. The objectives of our study were to analyse the displacement of targets between MRI and ultrasound; to define discriminating BIRADS morphological criteria to predict benign or malignant character and better establish the indications of second look ultrasound and biopsy; and to analyse the agreement between ultrasound and MRI in terms of morphological criteria. A retrospective and monocentric review was performed of the records of consecutive patients with breast abnormalities (mass or non-mass) initially detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. All patients with abnormalities found during the performance of second look ultrasound and biopsied were included in the study. All lesions were documented using the BIRADS lexicon for MRI and ultrasound. Of 100 included patients, 108 lesions were detected by MRI, found via second look ultrasound and biopsied between January 2008 and 2010. All of the included patients were followed-up for a variable period, from 2 to 5 years. Eighty-two upon 108 biopsied lesions (76%) were benign and 26/108 lesions (24%) were malignant. This study confirmed the switch from procubitus to decubitus essentially displaces the tumour in the antero-posterior direction. It showed that the risk factors were not reliable criteria for establishing an indication for second look ultrasound. This study also showed that circumscribed contours and a progressive enhancement curve (type I) for masses on MRI had the strongest negative predictive value of greater than 0.85. In ultrasound, the round or oval shape, circumscribed contours and the parallel orientation to the skin favoured benignity with a NPV of greater than 0.85. For masses, the study showed that the agreement in interpretation of the benign versus suspicious morphological criteria between the MRI and the ultrasound was very weak for

  11. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S K; Sethi, S; Dinda, A K

    2013-07-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim-Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations.

  12. Kidney Biopsy: An Experience from Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Madhav; Pahari, Bishnu; Paudel, Navaraj; Das, Gayatri; Das, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Kidney Biopsy is an important diagnostic tool in Nephrology. It is useful in Nephrology in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and management. There is little information on renal biopsy data from central Nepal. We describe our center`s experience in kidney biopsy in term of histological patterns, complications and outcomes. We prospectively analyzed the biopsies data of patients over a period of one and half year. All kinds of kidney disease patients were included for kidney biopsy, irrespective of their clinical syndromes and underlying diagnosis. A total of 75 biopsies were analyzed. Majority of them were females; 42 (56%). Most of the biopsies; 63 (84%) were from younger subjects ≤ 45 years and majority of them fell in the age group 11-20 years. Most common clinical renal syndrome to undergo biopsy was Sub Nephrotic range Proteinuria in 40 (53.3%). Among comorbid conditions, 40 (53.3%) had Hypertension. The most common histological pattern seen was Mesangial proliferative Glomerulonephritis seen in 18 (24%). Among complications associated with the procedure, macroscopic hematuria was seen in 5 (6.7%) cases and clinically significant perinephric hematoma causing pain was seen in 4 (5.3%). There was no mortality associated with biopsy procedure. Sub Nephrotic range Proteinuria was the commonest clinical renal Syndrome observed. In terms of renal histology, Mesangial Proliferative Glomerulonephritis (MesPGN) was the commonest histological pattern observed. Kidney biopsy is a safe procedure without any significant adverse events.

  13. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  14. The role of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy in the diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, M; Pollastri, P; Ferraro, A; Betoni, F; Bacci, G; Galletti, S

    2007-06-01

    Soft-tissue tumors are not very common, but their diagnosis can be very difficult. In the final analysis, their diagnosis requires a biopsy, which must furnish a sufficient amount of material to allow a reliable histological diagnosis. The authors evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy in the diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of the study was to optimize the biopsy procedure, with particular emphasis on the choice of the biopsy needle (large-gauge manual versus semiautomatic) based on the characteristics of the neoplastic mass (consistency, depth, size, location). The results of the study showed that appropriate needle selection significantly reduced the frequency of biopsies that were insufficient for histological diagnosis. The method proved to be highly reliable for diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors but strongly related to the proper selection of the needle to be used.

  15. Oropharyngeal morphology in the basal tortoise Manouria emys emys with comments on form and function of the testudinid tongue.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Egon; Natchev, Nikolay; Schwaha, Thomas; Salaberger, Dietmar; Lemell, Patrick; Beisser, Christian; Weisgram, Josef

    2011-10-01

    In tetrapods, the ability to ingest food on land is based on certain morphological features of the oropharynx in general and the feeding apparatus in particular. Recent paleoecological studies imply that terrestrial feeding has evolved secondarily in turtles, so they had to meet the morphological oropharyngeal requirements independently to other amniotes. This study is designed to improve our limited knowledge about the oropharyngeal morphology of tortoises by analyzing in detail the oropharynx in Manouria emys emys. Special emphasis is placed on the form and function of the tongue. Even if Manouria is considered a basal member of the only terrestrial turtle clade and was hypothesized to have retained some features reflecting an aquatic ancestry, Manouria shows oropharyngeal characteristics found in more derived testudinids. Accordingly, the oropharyngeal cavity in Manouria is richly structured and the glands are large and complexly organized. The tongue is large and fleshy and bears numerous slender papillae lacking lingual muscles. The hyolingual skeleton is mainly cartilaginous, and the enlarged anterior elements support the tongue and provide insertion sides for the well-developed lingual muscles, which show striking differences to other reptiles. We conclude that the oropharyngeal design in Manouria differs clearly from semiaquatic and aquatic turtles, as well as from other reptilian sauropsids.

  16. Biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Pee, S; Thevarajah, B; Yap, Y C; Chin, C K

    2004-06-01

    There has been no published study of biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Malaysia. To determine the pattern of childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor, Malaysia from a histopathological perspective and the various indications used for renal biopsy in children. Retrospective study was done of all renal biopsies from children under 16 years of age, received in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor between 1994 and 2001. The histopathological findings were reviewed to determine the pattern of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis. The indications for biopsy, mode of therapy given after biopsy and the clinical outcome were studied. 122 adequate biopsies were received, 9 children had repeat biopsies. Of the 113 biopsies, minimal change disease formed the most common histopathological diagnosis (40.7%) while lupus nephritis formed the most common secondary glomerulonephritis (23.0%). The main indications for biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (50.8%), lupus nephritis (25.4%) and renal impairment (13.1%). The mode of therapy was changed in 59.8% of the children. Of 106 patients followed-up, 84 children were found to have normal renal function in remission or on treatment. 4 patients developed chronic renal impairment and 16 reached end stage renal disease. Five of the 16 children with end stage disease had since died while 11 were on renal replacement therapy. Another 2 patients died of other complications. The pattern of childhood GN in our study tended to reflect the more severe renal parenchymal diseases in children and those requiring more aggressive treatment. This was because of our criteria of selection (indication) for renal biopsy. Renal biopsy where performed appropriately in selected children may not only be a useful investigative tool for histological diagnosis and prognosis but may help clinicians plan the optimal therapy for these children.

  17. Conjunctival biopsy in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R C; Mierau, G W; Bateman, J B

    1997-02-01

    To describe a case of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy with optic nerve atrophy and to discuss the diagnostic role of conjunctival biopsy. We performed a complete ophthalmologic examination and a diagnostic conjunctival biopsy on a girl with a neurodegenerative disease. On the basis of "spheroid" inclusions in the unmyelinated axons, we diagnosed infantile neuoroaxonal dystrophy. Optic atrophy is an important finding in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, and conjunctival biopsy is a reliable and very convenient diagnostic test.

  18. [Phenotype B primitive adrenal lymphoma, diagnosed by percutaneous aspiration biopsy].

    PubMed

    Dahami, Z; Debbagh, A; Dakir, M; Hafiani, M; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary adrenal lymphoma in a 30-year old-female who complained of lumbar pain and was in poor general condition. Ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass with necrosis in the left adrenal gland. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin was determined by ultrasound-guided aspiration biopsy of the adrenal mass. Taking this case and the findings in the literature into consideration, the features of this disease have been reviewed and the problem of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis have been examined.

  19. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  20. Prostate Biopsy: Current Status and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Presti, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    The technique of prostate biopsy has evolved over the past 10 years to improve our ability to detect prostate cancer. Extended biopsy schemes can be performed in the office under local anesthesia and are well tolerated. In addition to detection, the role of extended biopsy schemes in refining tumor grading and risk assessment has become better defined. This review discusses the evolution of prostate biopsy techniques from the sextant scheme to the extended scheme and demonstrates the latter’s utility in clinical decision making. PMID:17934565

  1. A videofluoroscopic study comparing severe swallowing disorders in patients treated surgically or with radiation for oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Robert, D; Lagier, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Fakhry, N

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the causal mechanisms of severe swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-six patients with severe swallowing disorders at ≥12 months after treatment for oropharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively using videofluoroscopy. Fourteen patients (54%) had been treated with surgery (±postoperative radiotherapy), while 12 patients (46%) had been treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy analysis showed a localized alteration in the surgical excision area resulting in impaired tongue root retraction in the surgical group (P=0.012), while general impairment of the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and upper oesophagus sphincter was found in the non-surgical group. Aspirations in the surgical group most often occurred after swallowing, while in the non-surgical group, they occurred during and after swallowing (P=0.039). This analysis by videofluoroscopy provides important insights into the mechanisms giving rise to swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.

  2. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  3. Dose Uncertainties in IMPT for Oropharyngeal Cancer in the Presence of Anatomical, Range, and Setup Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Kraan, Aafke C.; Water, Steven van de; Teguh, David N.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Setup, range, and anatomical uncertainties influence the dose delivered with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), but clinical quantification of these errors for oropharyngeal cancer is lacking. We quantified these factors and investigated treatment fidelity, that is, robustness, as influenced by adaptive planning and by applying more beam directions. Methods and Materials: We used an in-house treatment planning system with multicriteria optimization of pencil beam energies, directions, and weights to create treatment plans for 3-, 5-, and 7-beam directions for 10 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The dose prescription was a simultaneously integrated boost scheme, prescribing 66 Gy to primary tumor and positive neck levels (clinical target volume-66 Gy; CTV-66 Gy) and 54 Gy to elective neck levels (CTV-54 Gy). Doses were recalculated in 3700 simulations of setup, range, and anatomical uncertainties. Repeat computed tomography (CT) scans were used to evaluate an adaptive planning strategy using nonrigid registration for dose accumulation. Results: For the recalculated 3-beam plans including all treatment uncertainty sources, only 69% (CTV-66 Gy) and 88% (CTV-54 Gy) of the simulations had a dose received by 98% of the target volume (D98%) >95% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed considerable spread around planned values. Causes for major deviations were mixed. Adaptive planning based on repeat imaging positively affected dose delivery accuracy: in the presence of the other errors, percentages of treatments with D98% >95% increased to 96% (CTV-66 Gy) and 100% (CTV-54 Gy). Plans with more beam directions were not more robust. Conclusions: For oropharyngeal cancer patients, treatment uncertainties can result in significant differences between planned and delivered IMPT doses. Given the mixed causes for major deviations, we advise repeat diagnostic CT scans during treatment, recalculation of the dose, and if required, adaptive

  4. Evaluation of nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne vulgaris according to treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ozuguz, Pınar; Callioglu, Elif E; Tulaci, Kamil G; Kacar, Seval D; Balta, Ilknur; Asik, Gulsah; Karatas, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal and oropharyngeal flora in patients with acne during treatments with tetracycline and isotretinoin. Swab specimens were taken from the right and left nasal cavities and oropharynx of 55 patients with acne and 20 healthy volunteers who were admitted to the dermatology department (Etlik Educational and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey) before the administration of treatment and in the third month of treatment. Study participants were divided into four groups as follows: patients with acne on topical treatment only, systemic isotretinoin, and systemic tetracycline, and the control group. Of 55 patients with acne, 18 were male and 37 were female. The mean age of the patients and the control group was 22.21 ± 4.22 and 21.95 ± 7.64, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the nasal flora of five patients, normal flora was suppressed in the oropharyngeal cultures of seven patients, and normal flora grew in the cultures of the other 20 patients who were on tetracycline treatment. On the other hand, normal flora grew in the nasal and oropharyngeal cultures of all the patients who were on isotretinoin treatment. Treatment options and follow-up procedures for acne vulgaris may lead to the development of bacterial resistance and damage to flora. In particular, systemic tetracycline treatment leads to changes in flora of the nose and throat in patients with acne with an increased carriage of S. aureus. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to the duration of tetracycline treatment in order to not increase the risk of disturbance of microbial flora. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: radiation dosage constraint at the anterior mandible.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, Henk W D; de Jong, Jos M A; Granzier, Marlies E P G; Nieman, Fred H; de Baat, Cees; Stoelinga, Paul J W

    2009-06-01

    Because the survival of endosseous implants in irradiated bone is lower than in non-irradiated bone, particularly if the irradiation dose exceeds 50Gy, a study was carried out to assess the irradiation dose in the anterior mandible, when intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is used. The hypothesis was that adequate IMRT planning in oropharyngeal cancer patients is allowing sufficiently low anterior mandibular bone radiation dosages to safely insert endosseous implants. Ten randomly selected patients with oropharyngeal cancer, primarily treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), were included in this study. First, at five determined positions distributed over the anterior mandible, the appropriate radiation dosages were calculated according to the originally arranged fractionated radiation schedule. Second, for each patient an adjusted fractionated radiation schedule was established with an extra dose constraint which allowed a lower dose in the mandible taking into account that the anterior mandible needs protection against radiation-induced osteoradionecrosis. The goal for the adjusted fractionated radiation schedule was similar as that of the original fractionated radiation schedule, including a desired tumour target dosage of 70Gy and maximum mean local dosages for organs at risk. The data revealed a considerable and statistically significant, irradiation dose reduction in the anterior mandible without compromising the other constraints. As a result of this study it is strongly advised to maximize dose constraint to the anterior mandible when planning irradiation for oropharyngeal cancer patients, using IMRT. This would greatly facilitate successful implant treatment for this group of patients. The fractionated radiation schedules used, should also be used for the planning of the best implant positions by integrating them in the implant planning software.

  6. Risk Factors and Dose-Effect Relationship for Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ik Jae; Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Yong Bae; Yoo, Sei Whan; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon; Choi, Eun Chang; Cha, In Ho

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze risk factors and the dose-effect relationship for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible after radiotherapy of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Materials and Methods: One-hundred ninety-eight patients with oral (45%) and oropharyngeal cancer (55%) who had received external radiotherapy between 1990 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had a dental evaluation before radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 16-75 Gy), and the median biologically effective dose for late effects (BED{sub late}) in bone was 114 Gy{sub 2} (range, 30-167 Gy{sub 2}). Results: The frequency of ORN was 13 patients (6.6%). Among patients with mandibular surgery, eight had ORN at the surgical site. Among patients without mandibular surgery, five patients had ORN on the molar area of the mandible. The median time to ORN was 22 months (range, 1-69 months). Univariate analysis revealed that mandibular surgery and Co-60 were significant risk factors for ORN (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). In multivariate analysis, mandibular surgery was the most important factor (p = 0.001). High radiation doses over BED 102.6 Gy{sub 2} (conventional dose of 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction) were also a significant factor for ORN (p = 0.008) and showed a positive dose-effect relationship in logistic regression (p = 0.04) for patients who had undergone mandibular surgery. Conclusions: Mandibular surgery was the most significant risk factor for ORN of mandible in oral and oropharyngeal cancers patients. A BED of 102.6 Gy{sub 2} or higher to the mandible also significantly increases the risk of ORN.

  7. Persistence, Discordance and Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Nasal and Oropharyngeal Colonization in School-aged Children.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Deborah A; Ritchie, Stephen; Keren, Benjamin; Harrington, Michael; Thomas, Mark G; Upton, Arlo; Lennon, Diana; Leversha, Alison

    2016-07-01

    The anterior nares are regarded as the primary site for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, although studies have highlighted the potential importance of colonization at extra-nasal sites, including the oropharynx. Accordingly, the aims of this study were to assess the prevalence, persistence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus colonization in the nares and oropharynx of Māori and Pacific children, a population with strikingly high rates of S. aureus infection. A cross-sectional study of predominantly Māori and Pacific school-aged children in Auckland, New Zealand was performed in October 2013, and swabs were taken from the nares and oropharynx. Sampling was repeated from the same schools in October 2014. All S. aureus isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and spa typing. Overall, 506/893 (56.7%) children were colonized with S. aureus, and the colonization prevalence was significantly higher in the oropharynx than nares (41.1% vs. 31.5%; P < 0.001). Longitudinal colonization was significantly higher in the oropharynx than the nares, and children with longitudinal oropharyngeal colonization were more likely to be colonized with the same spa type than those colonized in the nares (67.6% vs. 37.0%; P = 0.01). Approximately 40% of children had discordant spa types at the nares and oropharynx. Oropharyngeal S. aureus colonization represents a significant reservoir of S. aureus and it is possible that the oropharynx may represent a protected anatomical niche, enabling persistent colonization with the same S. aureus strain. Future study should attempt to better understand the determinants of oropharyngeal carriage.

  8. Human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer in Canada: analysis of 5 comprehensive cancer centres using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Habbous, Steven; Chu, Karen P; Lau, Harold; Schorr, Melissa; Belayneh, Mathieos; Ha, Michael N; Murray, Scott; O'Sullivan, Brian; Huang, Shao Hui; Snow, Stephanie; Parliament, Matthew; Hao, Desiree; Cheung, Winson Y; Xu, Wei; Liu, Geoffrey

    2017-08-14

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has risen over the past 2 decades. This rise has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV), but information on temporal trends in incidence of HPV-associated cancers across Canada is limited. We collected social, clinical and demographic characteristics and p16 protein status (p16-positive or p16-negative, using this immunohistochemistry variable as a surrogate marker of HPV status) for 3643 patients with oropharyngeal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 at comprehensive cancer centres in British Columbia (6 centres), Edmonton, Calgary, Toronto and Halifax. We used receiver operating characteristic curves and multiple imputation to estimate the p16 status for missing values. We chose a best-imputation probability cut point on the basis of accuracy in samples with known p16 status and through an independent relation between p16 status and overall survival. We used logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression. We found no temporal changes in p16-positive status initially, but there was significant selection bias, with p16 testing significantly more likely to be performed in males, lifetime never-smokers, patients with tonsillar or base-of-tongue tumours and those with nodal involvement (p < 0.05 for each variable). We used the following variables associated with p16-positive status for multiple imputation: male sex, tonsillar or base-of-tongue tumours, smaller tumours, nodal involvement, less smoking and lower alcohol consumption (p < 0.05 for each variable). Using sensitivity analyses, we showed that different imputation probability cut points for p16-positive status each identified a rise from 2000 to 2012, with the best-probability cut point identifying an increase from 47.3% in 2000 to 73.7% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Across multiple centres in Canada, there was a steady rise in the proportion of oropharyngeal cancers attributable to HPV from 2000 to 2012. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  9. Human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal cancer in Canada: analysis of 5 comprehensive cancer centres using multiple imputation

    PubMed Central

    Habbous, Steven; Chu, Karen P.; Lau, Harold; Schorr, Melissa; Belayneh, Mathieos; Ha, Michael N.; Murray, Scott; O’Sullivan, Brian; Huang, Shao Hui; Snow, Stephanie; Parliament, Matthew; Hao, Desiree; Cheung, Winson Y.; Xu, Wei; Liu, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has risen over the past 2 decades. This rise has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV), but information on temporal trends in incidence of HPV-associated cancers across Canada is limited. METHODS: We collected social, clinical and demographic characteristics and p16 protein status (p16-positive or p16-negative, using this immunohistochemistry variable as a surrogate marker of HPV status) for 3643 patients with oropharyngeal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 at comprehensive cancer centres in British Columbia (6 centres), Edmonton, Calgary, Toronto and Halifax. We used receiver operating characteristic curves and multiple imputation to estimate the p16 status for missing values. We chose a best-imputation probability cut point on the basis of accuracy in samples with known p16 status and through an independent relation between p16 status and overall survival. We used logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: We found no temporal changes in p16-positive status initially, but there was significant selection bias, with p16 testing significantly more likely to be performed in males, lifetime never-smokers, patients with tonsillar or base-of-tongue tumours and those with nodal involvement (p < 0.05 for each variable). We used the following variables associated with p16-positive status for multiple imputation: male sex, tonsillar or base-of-tongue tumours, smaller tumours, nodal involvement, less smoking and lower alcohol consumption (p < 0.05 for each variable). Using sensitivity analyses, we showed that different imputation probability cut points for p16-positive status each identified a rise from 2000 to 2012, with the best-probability cut point identifying an increase from 47.3% in 2000 to 73.7% in 2012 (p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Across multiple centres in Canada, there was a steady rise in the proportion of oropharyngeal cancers attributable to HPV from 2000 to 2012. PMID:28808115

  10. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

    PubMed

    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  11. HPV Status and second primary tumours in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introductions The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCCs) is rising in developed nations. Studies have shown that these virally mediated tumours are epidemiologically, clinically, and biologically different than other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and traditional concepts of field cancerization may not apply to HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of second primary tumors and the diagnostic yield of field cancerization work up in the upper aerodigestive tract in patients with HPV-related and HPV-unrelated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary cancer care centers in Alberta. Methods Retrospective review of 406 patients diagnosed with OPSCC in Alberta between 2005 and 2009. HPV-status of tumours was determined by tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry staining for p16. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: incidence of upper aerodigestive tract second primary tumours in p16-positive versus p16-negative OPSCC. Secondary outcomes: diagnostic yield of traditional field cancerization work-up in p16-positive versus negative patients. Results The overall rate of SPTs was 7.4% (30/406). The incidence rate of SPTs was significantly lower in p16-positive patients (0.7 per 100 patient-yrs vs. 8.5 in p16-negative, p < 0.0001). Field cancerization work-up for synchronous lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, including panendoscopy and whole-body PET-CT, had decreased diagnostic yield in p16-positive patients (2.8% vs. 10.2% in HPV-negative patients, p=0.02). Conclusions Patients with HPV-related OPSCC, who are non-smokers have decreased risk of developing second primary tumours in the upper aerodigestive tract and have low yield on field cancerization work-up. This study provides further evidence that virally mediated OPSCC are distinct and may benefit from alternate diagnostic pathways. PMID:23718873

  12. Functional outcomes after primary oropharyngeal cancer resection and reconstruction with the radial forearm free flap.

    PubMed

    Seikaly, Hadi; Rieger, Jana; Wolfaardt, John; Moysa, Gerald; Harris, Jeffery; Jha, Naresh

    2003-05-01

    To report prospectively collected aeromechanical, acoustical, and perceptual speech outcomes, as well as preliminary swallowing data, in patients having reconstruction with radial forearm free flaps after primary resection for oropharyngeal cancer. Prospective cohort study. Acoustical, aeromechanical, and perceptual speech data and swallowing data were gathered at three evaluation times (preoperatively and before and after radiation therapy) for patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer by means of primary resection and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. Degree of involvement of the soft palate and base of tongue, along with reconstructive techniques, were entered as between-group factors in the analysis. There were no significant differences in speech intelligibility between the patient groups based on the degree of palate and tongue resected. However, patients with resections of half or more than half of the soft palate had significantly higher nasalance values and larger velopharyngeal orifice areas than individuals who had less than half of the soft palate resected. Significant within-subject differences were revealed across evaluation times for the dependent variables nasalance, velopharyngeal orifice area, and word intelligibility. Ninety-four percent of the patients were able to resume a normal or soft diet. There was a 6% incidence of aspiration in 128 swallows that were analyzed. The amount of base of tongue resected did not significantly affect any of the speech or swallowing parameters. Radial forearm free flaps are a good reconstructive option after oropharyngeal cancer extirpation. Our acoustic and aeromechanical results indicated that issues related to quality of the speech signal require further study for resections of half or more than half of the soft palate.

  13. Genetic Classification of Oral and Oropharyngeal Carcinomas Identifies Subgroups with a Different Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Serge J.; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.; Ylstrab, Bauke; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Leemans, C. René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The common risk factors for oral and oropharyngeal cancer are tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and recently the human papillomavirus (HPV) was shown to be involved in a subgroup. HPV-positive and -negative carcinomas can be distinguished on basis of their genetic profiles. Aim of this study was to investigate patterns of chromosomal aberrations of HPV-negative oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OOSCC) in order to improve stratification of patients regarding outcome. Thirty-nine OOSCCs were classified on basis of their genetic pattern determined by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Resulting groups were related to patient and tumor characteristics using the Fisher’s exact test and in addition to survival with the Kaplan–Meier and log rank tests. Classification distinguished three groups, one characterized by hardly any chromosomal aberration (N = 8) and another by a relatively high level (N = 26), and one with a very high level (N = 5) of chromosomal aberrations. This classification was significantly (p = 0.003) associated with survival, with the best survival in the genetically ‘silent’ group and the worst survival in the most aberrant group. The silent profile was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with wild-type TP53, an absence of alcohol consumption and a female gender. These carcinomas were negative for microsatellite instability. This classification of OOSCC was confirmed in an independent set of 89 oral carcinomas. In conclusion, the discovery of these new classes of oral and oropharyngeal cancer with unique genetic and clinical characteristics has important consequences for future basic and clinical studies. PMID:19633365

  14. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Helical Tomotherapy for Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Preliminary Result

    SciTech Connect

    Shueng, Pei-Wei; Wu, Le-Jung; Chen, Shiou-Yi

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To review the experience with and evaluate the treatment plan for helical tomotherapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between November 1, 2006 and January 31, 2009, 10 histologically confirmed oropharyngeal cancer patients were enrolled. All patients received definitive concurrent chemoradiation with helical tomotherapy. The prescription dose to the gross tumor planning target volume, the high-risk subclinical area, and the low-risk subclinical area was 70Gy, 63Gy, and 56Gy, respectively. During radiotherapy, all patients were treated with cisplatin, 30mg/m{sup 2}, plus 5-fluorouracil (425mg/m{sup 2})/leucovorin (30mg/m{sup 2}) intravenously weekly. Toxicity of treatment was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Several parameters, including maximal or median dose to critical organs, uniformity index, and conformal index, were evaluated from dose-volume histograms. Results: The mean survival was 18 months (range, 7-22 months). The actuarial overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free rates at 18 months were 67%, 70%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. The average for uniformity index and conformal index was 1.05 and 1.26, respectively. The mean of median dose for right side and left side parotid glands was 23.5 and 23.9Gy, respectively. No Grade 3 toxicity for dermatitis and body weight loss and only one instance of Grade 3 mucositis were noted. Conclusion: Helical tomotherapy achieved encouraging clinical outcomes in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment toxicity was acceptable, even in the setting of concurrent chemotherapy. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  15. [Low rate of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection among women with cervical lesion. Preliminary results from the South-Eastern Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Jakó, Mária; Terhes, Gabriella; Szakács, László; Kaiser, László; Deák, Judit; Bártfai, György

    2016-01-10

    Although the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus infection has been intensively investigated in the past years, the ability of this virus to infect oral and genital mucosae in the same individual and its potential to co-infect both cervical and oral mucosa are still unclear. The aim of the authors was to assess the presence of oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions in the South-Eastern Hungarian population. The total of 103 women have been included in the study between March 1, 2013 and January 1, 2015. Brushing was used to collect cells from the oropharyngeal mucosa. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction, and Amplicor line blot test was used for genotyping. Oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection was detected in 2 cases (3%). The detected genotypes were 31, 40/61 and 73 in the oropharyngeal region. The results indicate that in women with cervical lesions oropharyngeal human papillomavirus infection rarely occurs.

  16. Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis: Is it an oropharyngeal or a lung cancer complication?

    PubMed Central

    MOYANO, MARÍA SERENO; GUTIÉRREZ-GUTIÉRREZ, GERARDO; GÓMEZ-RAPOSO, CÉSAR; GÓMEZ, MIRIAM LÓPEZ; OJEDA, JOAQUÍN; MIRALLES, AMBROSIO; CASADO-SÁENZ, ENRIQUE

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with a locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer with a simultaneous paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. To the best of our knowledge, a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome is a rare complication in head and neck cancer, and has previously not been reported in the literature. One year later, following initial treatment, a small cell lung cancer developed, a tumor frequently associated with this type of paraneoplastic syndrome. The dilemma, therefore, is whether this paraneoplastic symdrome was a secondary complication of the tonsilar concurrent cancer or a metachronous paraneoplastic syndrome prior to small cell lung cancer. PMID:22870148

  17. A new tongue plate for use in oropharyngeal KTP laser surgery.

    PubMed

    Ayshford, C A; Kabbani, M; Reddy, T N

    2000-01-01

    The KTP laser is used in both uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tonsillectomy. However the need to use laser guarded endotracheal tubes represents a sizeable expense to the procedure. The authors describe a modified tongue plate to the oropharyngeal gag that covers all of the endo-tracheal tube, thus enabling the safe use of a non-laser guarded, PVC endotracheal tube. In over a hundred such procedures there has been no laser-related complications. The authors consider that the one off cost of this tongue plate and gag allows a more cost-effective method for performing laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and tonsillectomy.

  18. [Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia is a frequent condition in patients admitted to the ICU].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anette Barbre; Kjærsgaard, Annette; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann

    2015-03-02

    Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD) is a frequent condition in neurological patients admitted to the ICU, particularly in patients with brainstem lesions. The CNS damage itself can predispose to dysphagia, but also the treatment and preventive measures may predispose to and exacerbate the condition. Frequent pneumonia in a neurological patient is a warning signal that should cause screening for dysphagia. Complications are serious and can be fatal. Neurological patients should be examined for NOD before decannulation. Treatment is difficult, so prevention and multidisciplinary neurological rehabilitation is important.

  19. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2) To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients. Methods Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG) and retropalatal (RP) compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom. Results The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3) compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3). The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP) length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency. PMID:26901313

  20. [Oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing--comparison of tactile-kinesthetic and auditory perception with objective endoscopic findings].

    PubMed

    Schade, G; Adelmann, W; Müller, F; Mantay, C; Fleischer, S; Leuwer, R; Bubenheim, M; Berger, J; Hess, M

    2003-08-01

    In this study we compared the perceived diameter of the vocal tract's oropharyngeal part with the diameter that was determined endoscopically. 28 singers (13 male, 15 female) were examined with transnasal fiberscopic pharyngoscopy while singing the vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ in 4 different timbres (normal, opened, covered, dumpled) and 3 different pitches (chest/modal register, subjective comfortable pitch for singing, head/falsetto register). The tactile-kinesthetic and auditive rating of the singers, the auditive rating of a singing teacher and the visual-endoscopic analysis of three laryngologists were compared. The tactile-kinesthetic and auditory self-perception of the singers was quite different from the auditive perception of a singing teacher and visual endoscopic findings of the laryngologists. The singers had the impression that the different singing timbres (normal, opened, covered, dumpled) influence oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing. They judged the vowel itself and the pitch as having very little influence. Based on his auditory perception, the singing teacher also rated that the timbre plays an important role for the oropharyngeal vocal tract space but he found vowels to be the parameter with the greatest impact. Via visual endoscopic examination we found that, among the three parameters (vowel, timbre, pitch), the different vowels are most influential on the oropharyngeal vocal tract space. Analysis of video sequences revealed that pitch and timbre are less important. Subjective tactile-kinesthetic and auditory perception of the singers differs from auditory perception of the singing teacher as well as from endoscopic findings. The endoscopically determined oropharyngeal vocal tract space during singing the vowels /i/ or /u/ tends to be larger compared to the oropharyngeal vocal tract space while singing the vowel /a/.

  1. Maté drinking and oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Silverman, Amanda J; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2010-02-01

    In Latin America, maté is consumed as a beverage regularly. Among the cancers that are associated with maté drinking is oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, incidence of which is high in the region. In order to further understand this association between maté drinking and the risk of oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of related studies. All relevant studies published in English as original articles up to June 2009 were identified through a literature search using PubMed and Medline and by reviewing the references from the retrieved articles. Four case-control studies done in Latin America were identified. There were 879 maté users and 1128 non- or low-maté users in those studies with a total of 566 oral and oro-pharyngeal cancers. The adjusted association between maté drinking and oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer was significant within 3 of those studies. Meta-analysis yielded a significant summary odds ratio (OR) of 2.11 (95% confidence interval=1.39-3.19). Population Attributable Risk for maté drinking was 16%. While the epidemiological data indicate that maté users have an increased risk of oral and oro-pharyngeal cancer, little is known about whether this increased risk is due to the high temperature of the beverage when it is consumed or due to certain carcinogenic constituents that are present in maté. More human and animal studies are needed before a conclusion can be made on the oral and oro-pharyngeal carcinogenic risk of maté to humans.

  2. Cellular fibroadenoma on Core needle biopsy: management recommendations for the radiologist.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Teresa; Jaffer, Shabnam; Szabo, Janet R; Sonnenblick, Emily B; Margolies, Laurie R

    2016-01-01

    Cellular fibroadenomas (CFA) are difficult to distinguish from phyllodes tumor (PT) at biopsy. This study's purpose was to determine what CFA characteristics were associated with recommendations to follow-up or excise and if the current algorithm was correct. Databases from 2002 to 2014 were reviewed. Mass characteristics and post biopsy recommendations were recorded. 81 CFAs were diagnosed; 19 cellular and 62 with slightly cellular stroma. 21 masses were surgically excised with 2 PTs diagnosed. Larger mass size and increased histologic cellularity were associated with excision recommendation, but only clinical growth was associated with PT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Core needle biopsy guidance based on EMOCT imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel method, based on encoder mapping OCT imaging, for real-time guidance of core biopsy procedures. This method provides real-time feedback to the interventional radiologist, such that he/she can reorient the needle during the biopsy and sample the most representative area of the suspicious mass that is being investigated. This aspect is very important for tailoring therapy to the specific cancer based on biomarker analysis, which will become one of the next big advances in our search for the optimal cancer therapy. To enable individualized treatment, the genetic constitution and the DNA repair status in the affected areas is needed for each patient. Thus, representative sampling of the tumor is needed for analyzing various biomarkers, which are used as a tool to personalize cancer therapy. The encoder-based OCT enables samping of large size masses and provides full control on the imaging probe, which is passed through the bore of the biopsy guidance needle. The OCT image is built gradually, based on the feedback of an optical encoder which senses the incremental movement of the needle with a few microns resolution. Tissue mapping is independent of the needle speed, while it is advanced through the tissue. The OCT frame is analyzed in real-time and tissue cellularity is reported in a very simple manner (pie chart). Our preliminary study on a rabbit model of cancer has demonstrated the capability of this technology for accurately differentiating between viable cancer and heterogeneous or necrotic tissue.

  4. JOINT DISEASE MAPPING OF CERVICAL AND MALE OROPHARYNGEAL CANCER INCIDENCE IN BLACKS AND WHITES IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    PubMed Central

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Korte, Jeffrey E.; Gillespie, M. Boyd

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established causal agent for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. It is hypothesized that orogenital transmission results in oral cavity infection. In this paper we explore the geographical association between cervical and male oropharyngeal cancer incidence in blacks and whites in South Carolina using Bayesian joint disease mapping models fit to publicly available data. Our results suggest weak evidence for county-level association between the diseases, and different patterns of joint disease behavior for blacks and whites. PMID:20563237

  5. Rectourethral fistula after repeat transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Loran, Oleg B; Veliev, Evgeny I; Sokolov, Egor A; Dadashev, Elmar O; Guspanov, Renat I

    2013-09-01

    Transrectal prostate biopsy is considered a relatively safe procedure, with a quite small number of complications. We report a patient with a rectourethral fistula after a repeat transrectal prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first incident in the published literature.

  6. [Experimental quality control of biopsy cannulas].

    PubMed

    Schild, H H; Michel, S G

    1993-09-01

    To examine the quality and comparability of biopsy needles. 310 biopsy needles of 40 types were examined microscopically and their suitability for penetrating tissues were studied. For this purpose the pressure required to penetrate a phantom was evaluated. The results were correlated with the diameter, design and construction. 50 of the 310 needles (16%) showed faults on microscopic examination. Measurements of identical needle types within a single production run showed variations in penetration pressures up to 330% (measured as force required for penetration), the average variation was 88%. The results show that the quality of biopsy needles is not constant and leaves something to be desired. To what extent variations in quality affect the biopsy material cannot be estimated. Nevertheless, the present results indicate that stricter quality control of biopsy needles is desirable.

  7. Clinical usefulness of temporal artery biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, J; González, A; Cid, M C; Lopez-Vivancos, J; Ortega, A

    1987-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic usefulness of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis (TA) and establish clinical features capable of predicting its positivity we have retrospectively studied the biopsy specimens and the clinical features of 103 patients who had undergone temporal artery biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy reached a positive predictive value of 90.2% with respect to the final diagnosis based on the criteria proposed by Ellis and Ralston and the clinical course. The simultaneous presence of recent onset headache, jaw claudication, and abnormalities of the temporal arteries on physical examination had a specificity of 94.8% with respect to the histological diagnosis and of 100% with respect to final diagnosis. The presence of any of these clinical features, though of little specificity (34.4%), had a sensitivity of 100% with respect to histological diagnosis, selecting a group of patients in whom temporal artery biopsy has more discriminative value. PMID:3592783

  8. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W; Kompelli, Anvesh R; Moufarrej, Youmna E; Alexander, Jonathan S; Herrera, Guillermo A; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

  9. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W.; Kompelli, Anvesh R.; Moufarrej, Youmna E.; Alexander, Jonathan S.; Herrera, Guillermo A.; Shackelford, Rodney E.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:28191282

  10. Transplant biopsy beyond light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adam, Benjamin; Mengel, Michael

    2015-08-07

    Despite its long-standing status as the diagnostic "gold standard", the renal transplant biopsy is limited by a fundamental dependence on descriptive, empirically-derived consensus classification. The recent shift towards personalized medicine has resulted in an increased demand for precise, mechanism-based diagnoses, which is not fully met by the contemporary transplantation pathology standard of care. The expectation is that molecular techniques will provide novel pathogenetic insights that will allow for the identification of more accurate diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets. Here we review the current state of molecular renal transplantation pathology. Despite significant research activity and progress within the field, routine adoption of clinical molecular testing has not yet been achieved. The recent development of novel molecular platforms suitable for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue will offer potential solution for the major barriers to implementation. The recent incorporation of molecular diagnostic criteria into the 2013 Banff classification is a reflection of progress made and future directions in the area of molecular transplantation pathology. Transcripts related to endothelial injury and NK cell activation have consistently been shown to be associated with antibody-mediated rejection. Prospective multicenter validation and implementation of molecular diagnostics for major entities remains an unmet clinical need in transplantation. It is expected that an integrated system of transplantation pathology diagnosis comprising molecular, morphological, serological, and clinical variables will ultimately provide the greatest diagnostic precision.

  11. Automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control for renal transplant biopsy.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M W; Sosnowski, J T; Mahin, E J; Willard, D A; Lamm, D L

    1993-11-01

    The automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with 18-gauge needle was used to perform 20 renal transplant biopsies. A total of 35 needle passes were used during the 20 biopsies to obtain 31 cores of renal tissue (ratio of successful cores to passes 0.88). Nineteen of 20 biopsies (95%) resulted in renal tissue sufficient for diagnosis. One patient experienced gross hematuria that required blood transfusion and resulted in temporary ureteral clot obstruction. We believe the automatic spring-loaded biopsy gun with ultrasonic control allows rapid, accurate, and safe histologic assessment of the renal allograft, and we recommend this system for routine use.

  12. Safety and Diagnostic Accuracy of Tumor Biopsies in Children with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Interiano, Rodrigo B.; Loh, Amos H.P.; Hinkle, Nathan; Wahid, Fazal N.; Malkan, Alpin; Bahrami, Armita; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Mao, Shenghua; Wu, Jianrong; Proctor, Kimberly; Santana, Victor M.; Pappo, Alberto S.; Gold, Robert E.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tumor biopsies are central to the diagnosis and management of cancer and are critical to efforts in personalized medicine and targeted therapeutics. We sought to evaluate the safety and accuracy of biopsies in children with cancer. Patients and Methods All biopsies performed in children at our institution with a suspected or established diagnosis of cancer from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, and disease- and procedure-related factors were correlated with procedure-related complications and diagnostic accuracy, using logistic regression analysis. Results One thousand seventy-three biopsies were performed in 808 patients. Of 1025 biopsies with adequate follow-up, 79 (7.7%) were associated with an adverse event, 35 (3.4%) of which were minor (Grade 1–2) and 32 (3.1%) were major (Grade 3–4). The most common major adverse events were blood transfusion (>10cc/kg, 24 cases) and infection requiring intravenous antibiotics (6 cases). Eleven deaths (1.4%) occurred within 30 post-procedure days but the procedure may have contributed to the outcome in only two. Nine hundred twenty-six (90.3%) biopsies provided definitive histologic diagnoses. Using multivariable analysis, biopsy site, pre-procedure hematocrit, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with risk of post-procedural complications (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.0029, respectively). Excisional biopsy and biopsy site were independently associated with obtaining a diagnostic result (P=0.0002 and P=0.0008, respectively). Conclusion Tumor biopsies in children with cancer are associated with a low incidence of complications and a high rate of diagnostic accuracy. The predictive factors identified for adverse outcomes may aid risk assessment and pre-procedural counseling. PMID:25524504

  13. Genomic Integration of High-Risk HPV Alters Gene Expression in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Walline, Heather M; Komarck, Christine M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Bellile, Emily L; Brenner, J Chad; Prince, Mark E; McKean, Erin L; Chepeha, Douglas B; Wolf, Gregory T; Worden, Francis P; Bradford, Carol R; Carey, Thomas E

    2016-10-01

    High-risk HPV (hrHPV) is the leading etiologic factor in oropharyngeal cancer. HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors generally respond well to therapy, with complete recovery in approximately 80% of patients. However, it remains unclear why some patients are nonresponsive to treatment, with 20% of patients recurring within 5 years. In this study, viral factors were examined for possible clues to differences in tumor behavior. Oropharynx tumors that responded well to therapy were compared with those that persisted and recurred. Viral oncogene alternate transcripts were assessed, and cellular sites of viral integration were mapped and sequenced. Effects of integration on gene expression were assessed by transcript analysis at the integration sites. All of the tumors demonstrated active viral oncogenesis, indicated by expression of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes and alternate E6 splicing. In the responsive tumors, HPV integration occurred exclusively in intergenic chromosome regions, except for one tumor with viral integration into TP63. Each recurrent tumor exhibited complex HPV integration patterns into cancer-associated genes, including TNFRSF13B, SCN2A, SH2B1, UBE2V2, SMOC1, NFIA, and SEMA6D Disrupted cellular transcripts were identified in the region of integration in four of the seven affected genes.

  14. Volumetric Change of Selected Organs at Risk During IMRT for Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ricchetti, Francesco; Wu Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Forastiere, Arlene; Marur, Shanthi; Starmer, Heather; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To assess volumetric changes of selected organs at risk (OAR) during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for oropharyngeal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients that were treated with definitive IMRT {+-} chemotherapy between November 2007 and November 2008 were selected for the present study. As part of an internal quality assurances program, a repeat kilovolt (KV) computed tomography was planned weekly during the 7-week treatment course. On each available scan, a single observer contoured the parotid submandibular, and thyroid glands (PG/SMG/TG), larynx (L), and constrictor, masticatory, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (CM/MM/SCM) as appropriate. The volume at each scan was compared with the one at planning CT in a pair-wise fashion. p values <0.05 after correction for multiple testing were considered significant. Results: A total of 159 scans was obtained during treatment for a total of 185 scans, including the baseline imaging. All OARs showed statistically significant changes over baseline by week 5. At week 7, the PG showed the largest absolute change with an average reduction of {approx}10 mL followed by both the SCM and MM ({approx}-5 mL). The largest ({approx}-30%) relative change was observed for the salivary glands. L and CM showed a {approx}15% increase in volume during treatment. Conclusion: All selected OAR undergo significant volumetric changes during a course of IMRT for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Physiology of oropharyngeal swallow in the cat: a videofluoroscopic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Kobara-Mates, M; Logemann, J A; Larson, C; Kahrilas, P J

    1995-02-01

    The majority of animal studies of deglutition have examined electrically stimulated swallows in sedated animals. This present investigation examined oropharyngeal and cervical esophageal swallow physiology in three awake normal domestic cats using concurrent electromyography (EMG) and videofluorography (VFG). Hooked wire electrodes were surgically implanted into six oropharyngeal muscles in each cat. During collection of VFG and EMG data, each cat ate barium-impregnated cat food while the fluorography tube focused on a lateral view of the oral cavity, pharynx, and cervical esophagus. A number of significant differences in the physiology of swallowing were found between the cat and human adult. The oral stage of swallow is much longer in the cat with bolus accumulation in the valleculae. Duration and components of the pharyngeal stage of swallow are much faster, and the pharyngeal stage occurs earlier in relation to bolus passage through the cricopharyngeus. In addition, the cat exhibits a marked superior constrictor bulge at the onset of the pharyngeal contractile wave and summation of the peristaltic waves in the esophagus, whereas the human adult does not. Feline swallow physiology is more similar to that of the human infant than that of human adults.

  16. Comparison between videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopy and scintigraphy for diagnosis of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Fattori, B; Giusti, P; Mancini, V; Grosso, M; Barillari, M R; Bastiani, L; Molinaro, S; Nacci, A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare videofluoroscopy (VFS), fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and oro-pharyngo- oesophageal scintigraphy (OPES) with regards to premature spillage, post-swallowing residue and aspiration to assess the reliability of these tests for detection of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. Sixty patients affected with dysphagia of various origin were enrolled in the study and submitted to VFS, FEES and OPES using a liquid and semi-solid bolus. As a reference, we used VFS. Both the FEES and the OPES showed good sensitivity with high overall values (≥ 80% and ≥ 90% respectively). The comparison between FEES vs VFS concerning drop before swallowing showed good specificity (84.4% for semi-solids and 86.7% for liquids). In the case of post-swallowing residue, FEES vs VFS revealed good overall validity (75% for semi-solids) with specificity and sensitivity well balanced for the semi-solids. OPES vs. VFS demonstrated good sensitivity (88.6%) and overall validity (76.7%) for liquids. The analysis of FEES vs. VFS for aspiration showed that the overall validity was low (≤ 65%). On the other hand, OPES demonstrated appreciable overall validity (71.7%). VFS, FEES and OPES are capable of detecting oro-pharyngeal dysphagia. FEES gave significant results in the evaluation of post-swallowing residues.

  17. Salvage surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: A retrospective study from 2005 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Philouze, Pierre; Péron, Julien; Poupart, Marc; Pujo, Kevin; Buiret, Guillaume; Céruse, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    In the case of a locoregional recurrence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the curative standard of care is surgery. Our main purpose of this study was to determine the preoperative prognostic factors that would allow us to select the patients on whom we could expect good results with salvage surgery. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study from 2005 to 2013. It included all patients treated for a recurrence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with surgery. Their initial treatment included radiotherapy. Fifty-two patients were included. Poor prognostic factors for survival were the cT status (P = .0039) and local recurrences versus secondary localizations in irradiated areas (P = .016) and a relapse less than a year after the end of the initial treatment (P = .050). Recurrence-free survival was 19% at 5 years. Twenty-nine percent of patients presented local complications, which were mainly fistulas and hemorrhaging at the surgical site. According to the high morbimortality, it is important to carefully select the right patients for surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical outcome of reconstruction of the lateral oropharyngeal wall with an anterolateral thigh free flap.

    PubMed

    Helmiö, Päivi M; Suominen, Sinikka; Vuola, Jyrki; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2010-11-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap is widely used for various reconstructions in the head and neck. However, its use in the oropharynx has not been widely evaluated, so we have reviewed our experience. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 28 patients with oropharyngeal cancer, who were treated with immediate reconstruction with an ALT free flap after excision. We recorded history, stage of tumour, course of operation, postoperative period, oncological treatment, clinical outcome, and follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (range 44-83). Ten of the patients had clinically relevant coexisting conditions. Most of the patients had T3-4 tumours and involved neck nodes. The operations included resection of the tumour, neck dissection, and reconstruction of the oropharynx with an ALT free flap. All donor sites were closed primarily. Eight patients (29%) developed early local complications that required reoperation. Ten patients (36%) had postoperative cardiopulmonary problems. Twenty-seven flaps succeeded; one was lost. There were no other complications or late problems of the donor site except one seroma. Twenty-one patients were given postoperative radiotherapy. After the mean follow-up period of 40 months (range 13-68) 20 patients (71%) were disease-free. Three patients required a permanent gastrostomy and one a permanent tracheostomy. We conclude that the ALT free flap can be used successfully for reconstruction of a lateral oropharyngeal defect with manageable postoperative morbidity.

  19. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Panwala, Kathryn; Holland, John

    2002-11-01

    Between 1985 and 1999, 43 patients with locally-advanced, resectable oropharyngeal cancer were treated with combined surgery and post-operative radiation therapy (RT) at Oregon Health and Science University. Five patients (12 per cent) had Stage III disease and 38 patients (88 per cent) had Stage IV disease. All patients had gross total resections of the primary tumour. Thirty-seven patients had neck dissections for regional disease. RT consisted of a mean tumour-bed dose of 63.0 Gy delivered in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions over a mean of 49 days. At three- and five-years, the actuarial local control was 96 per cent and the actuarial local/regional control was 80 per cent. The three- and five-year actuarial rates of distant metastases were 41 per cent and 46 per cent, respectively. The actuarial overall survival at three- and five-years was 41 per cent and 34 per cent, respectively. The actuarial rates of progression-free survival were 49 per cent at three-years and 45 per cent at five years. Combined surgery and post-operative RT for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer results in excellent local/regional control. This particular group of patients experienced a high-rate of developing distant metastases.

  20. Human papilloma virus testing in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: what the clinician should know.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, Haïtham; Amen, Furrat; Moreau, Frederique; Guigay, Joel; Ferchiou, Malek; Melkane, Antoine E; Hartl, Dana M; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2014-01-01

    High risk Human Papilloma virus (HR-HPV) associated oropharyngeal cancers are on the increase. Although, the scientific community is aware of the importance of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing, there is no consensus on the assays that are required to reliably identify HR-HPV related tumors. A wide range of methods have been developed. The most widely used techniques include viral DNA detection, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or In Situ Hybridization, and p16 detected by immunohistochemistry. However, these tests provide different information and have their own specific limitations. In this review, we summarize these different techniques, in light of the recent literature. p16 Overexpression, which is an indirect marker of HPV infection, is considered by many head and neck oncologists to be the most important marker for patient stratification. We describe the frequent lack of concordance of this marker with other assays and the possible reasons for this. The latest developments in HPV testing are also reported, such as the RNAscope™ HPV test, and how they fit into the existing framework of techniques. HPV testing must not be considered in isolation, as there are important interactions with other parameters, such as tobacco exposure. This is an important and rapidly evolving field and is likely to become pivotal to staging and choice of treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma in the future.

  1. Cephalometric evaluation of the oropharyngeal space in children with atypical deglutition.

    PubMed

    Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício N

    2012-02-01

    For several factors, not yet fully explained until now, infant deglutition may persist after changing the primary teeth and such swallowing is classified as atypical swallowing. Possible causes: finger sucking, bottle feeding, sucking the tongue and mouth breathing. There is no consensus about the etiology of atypical deglutition. The aim of this study was to compare the oropharyngeal space in side-view radiographs of children with atypical deglutition and normal deglutition. Retrospective study, by means of cephalometric analysis of side-view radiographs, measuring the anteroposterior distance of the lumen of the airway in two groups: 55 cephalograms from the experimental group (with atypical deglutition) and 55 side-view radiographs from the control group (normal deglutition). Measurements from the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and a p value <0.05 was considered as an indication of statistical significance. The median in the control group was 10 mm and in the experimental group it was 7 mm, with a statistically significant difference (p <0.001). The oropharyngeal space is reduced in the group with atypical deglutition.

  2. Treatment: Outcome and Toxicity of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Franzese, Ciro; Fogliata, Antonella; Franceschini, Davide; Clerici, Elena; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Navarria, Piera; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy is a common approach for treating squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. We aimed to analyze toxicity and outcome of patients affected by oropharyngeal SCC treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Fifty-four patients presenting advanced orophayngeal carcinoma who were treated with radical radiotherapy were analyzed. All patients were treated with VMAT-RapidArc, with simultaneous integrated boost in 33 fractions for a dose of 69.96 Gy to the high-risk, and of 54.45 Gy to the low-risk volume. Median follow-up was 23 months. In eight cases, locoregional relapse was observed (median time to relapse=10.7 months). Four among eight local recurrences appeared in the high-dose target volume. The 1- and 2-year actuarial disease-free survival rates were 88% and 80%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year actuarial overall survival rates were 94% and 87%, respectively. VMAT for oropharyngeal SCC treatment is effective and safe, with interesting rates of control of disease and survival. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  4. Effects of carbonated liquids on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in people with neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sdravou, Katerina; Walshe, Margaret; Dagdilelis, Lukas

    2012-06-01

    Aspiration is common in adults with neurogenic dysphagia and pharyngeal delay. This can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and aspiration pneumonia. Diet modifications aimed at reducing thin liquid aspiration are partially successful or unpalatable or both. Carbonated liquids show some potential in influencing swallowing behavior. However, there is a paucity of evidence to support this intervention. This study compares the effects of carbonated thin liquids (CTL) with that of noncarbonated thin liquids (NCTL) on oropharyngeal swallowing in adults with neurogenic dysphagia and examines the palatability of the CTL stimulus. Seventeen people with pharyngeal delay attended for videofluoroscopy (VFSS). Outcome measures were oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), stage transition duration (STD), initiation of the pharyngeal swallow (IPS), penetration-aspiration scale (PENASP), and pharyngeal retention (PR). A modification of Quartermaster Hedonic Scale (AQHS) was employed to assess palatability of the CTL. CTL vs. NCTL significantly decreased penetration and aspiration on 5-ml (P = 0.028) and 10-ml (P = 0.037) swallows. CTL had no significant effect on OTT, PTT, IPS, and PR for any volume of bolus. Only one participant disliked the CTL stimulus. These findings support the hypothesis that oropharyngeal swallowing can be modulated in response to sensory stimuli. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Long-Term Results of External Upper Esophageal Sphincter Myotomy for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    David, Eric F.; Klinkenberg-Knol, Elly C.; Mahieu, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy of external myotomy of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) for oropharyngeal dysphagia. In the period 1991–2006, 28 patients with longstanding dysphagia and/or aspiration problems of different etiologies underwent UES myotomy as a single surgical treatment. The main symptoms were difficulties in swallowing of a solid-food bolus, aspiration, and recurrent incidents of solid-food blockages. Pre- and postoperative manometry and videofluoroscopy were used to assess deglutition and aspiration. Outcome was defined as success in the case of complete relief or marked improvement of dysphagia and aspiration and as failure in the case of partial improvement or no improvement. Initial results showed success in 21 and failure in 7 patients. The best outcomes were observed in patients with dysphagia of unknown origin, noncancer-related iatrogenic etiology, and neuromuscular disease. No correlation was found between preoperative constrictor pharyngeal muscle activity and success rate. After follow-up of more than 1 year, 20 patients were marked as success and 3 as failure. All successful patients had full oral intake with a normal bolus consistency without clinically significant aspiration. We conclude that in select cases of oropharyngeal dysphagia success may be achieved by UES myotomy with restoration of oral intake of normal bolus consistency. PMID:19760460

  6. Chemoradiotherapy-induced upregulation of PD-1 antagonizes immunity to HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Falguni; Duluc, Dorothée; Imai, Naoko; Clark, Amelia; Misiukiewicz, Krzys; Bonomi, Marcello; Gupta, Vishal; Patsias, Alexis; Parides, Michael; Demicco, Elizabeth G; Zhang, David Y; Kim-Schulze, Seunghee; Kao, Johnny; Gnjatic, Sacha; Oh, Sangkon; Posner, Marshall R; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-12-15

    While viral antigens in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (HPVOPC) are attractive targets for immunotherapy, the effects of existing standard-of-care therapies on immune responses to HPV are poorly understood. We serially sampled blood from patients with stage III-IV oropharyngeal cancer undergoing concomitant chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy. Circulating immunocytes including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, regulatory T cells (Treg), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were profiled by flow cytometry. Antigen-specific T-cell responses were measured in response to HPV16 E6 and E7 peptide pools. The role of PD-1 signaling in treatment-related immunosuppression was functionally defined by performing HPV-specific T-cell assays in the presence of blocking antibody. While HPV-specific T-cell responses were present in 13 of 18 patients before treatment, 10 of 13 patients lost these responses within 3 months after chemoradiotherapy. Chemoradiotherapy decreased circulating T cells and markedly elevated MDSCs. PD-1 expression on CD4(+) T cells increased by nearly 2.5-fold after chemoradiotherapy, and ex vivo culture with PD-1-blocking antibody enhanced HPV-specific T-cell responses in 8 of 18 samples tested. Chemoradiotherapy suppresses circulating immune responses in patients with HPVOPC by unfavorably altering effector:suppressor immunocyte ratios and upregulating PD-1 expression on CD4(+) T cells. These data strongly support testing of PD-1-blocking agents in combination with standard-of-care chemoradiotherapy for HPVOPC.

  7. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  8. Extensive repeat transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients with previous benign sextant biopsies.

    PubMed

    Borboroglu, P G; Comer, S W; Riffenburgh, R H; Amling, C L

    2000-01-01

    Standard sextant prostate biopsy may underestimate cancer in men in whom clinical findings are suspicious for localized prostate cancer. We describe our experience with extensive transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in men in whom previous sextant biopsy was negative. Between November 1997 and March 1999, 57 men 47 to 72 years old (mean age 61.4) underwent extensive transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate using intravenous sedation at our institution. An average of 22.5 cores (range 15 to 31) were obtained depending on prostate size. Biopsies were obtained from each of 6 sagittal regions, including samples from the far lateral and mid transitional zones. Each patient had undergone at least 1 previous benign transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsy (mean 2.1, range 1 to 4). Indications for repeat biopsy were persistently elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) in 89% of the cases, increased PSA velocity in 63%, suspicious free-to-total PSA in 39% and a previous suspicious biopsy finding in 32%. Clinical factors (PSA, PSA velocity, free-to-total PSA and previous suspicious biopsy) were analyzed for the ability to predict positive biopsy, and tumor parameters were assessed pathologically in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Adenocarcinoma was identified in 17 of the 57 men (30%). Biopsy revealed a Gleason score of 6 to 8 (mean 6.4). In 7 of the 17 patients (41%) in whom cancer was identified only 1 biopsy core was positive. Of the 15 patients in whom previous sextant biopsy had demonstrated high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation extensive biopsy revealed cancer in 7 (47%). Although serum PSA was higher and free-to-total PSA was lower in those with cancer, the only statistically significant predictor of positive biopsy was PSA velocity (p <0.001). Prostate cancer was noted in 64% of the men with PSA velocity 1 ng./ml. or greater. Of the 13 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

  9. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  10. Percutaneous liver biopsy: retrospective study of primary and secondary hepatic lymphoma in twenty-one patients.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Liu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Jiang, Chao-Zhe; Xu, Xiao; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Hepatic lymphoma (HL) is categorized as primary and secondary hepatic lymphoma (PHL and SHL). This disorder can present as hepatic mass or mass-like lesion. Chemotherapy often is the first line treatment for patients with HL. Thus, an accurate pre-management histological diagnosis is essential to potentially improve clinical outcomes. The present study was to explore the prevalence of HL in ultrasound guided liver biopsies for hepatic mass or mass-like lesions, to investigate HL associated clinicopathological features, to raise the awareness of early recognition and proper diagnosis of this entity, and to assess specimen adequacy in needle core biopsy. Twenty-one cases of HL were enrolled. Clinical and pathological characteristics were evaluated, quality of biopsies was assessed and pertinent literature was reviewed. HL was diagnosed in 0.94% of 2242 liver biopsy cases with ambiguous clinical presentation, laboratory tests and image studies. There were two cases of PHL (0.09%), and nineteen cases of SHL (0.85%). Histopathologically, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common type, followed by B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, T-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Additionally, three lymphocytic infiltration patterns were documented microscopically. The nodular infiltration was the most common type. HL is a rare entity and histopathology along with ancillary tests remains the only way to make the diagnosis. Clinicians' awareness of this entity and early liver biopsy are essential in patient management.

  11. Nasopharyngeal biopsy in adults: a large-scale study in a non endemic area.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Horowitz, Gilad; Yehuda, Moshe; Leshno, Moshe; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Fliss, Dan M; Abergel, Avraham

    2015-06-01

    Limited data exist on the referral criteria for endoscopic-guided nasopharyngeal biopsy to rule out nasopharyngeal malignancy among adults in a non-endemic area. Retrospective study of all adult patients that had been referred to our outpatient clinic to undergo endoscopic-guided nasopharyngeal biopsy to exclude nasopharyngeal malignancy between 1/2006-10/2013. All medical consultation referral letters were reviewed, and statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate clinically significant predictors (demographics, clinical manife- stations, nasopharyngeal endoscopic findings) for nasopharyngeal malignancy. A total of 470 patients (470 nasopharyngeal biopsies, 54.9% males and 66% smokers) were included. The most common pathological result was adenoid/lymphoid hyperplasia (76.2%). The overall negative rate of all biopsies for malignancy was 94.2%. Twenty-seven patients had nasopharyngeal malignancy: 22 had squamous cell carcinoma and 5 had non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. Advanced age, cervical mass, and suspicious nasopharyngeal mass were independent risk factors for nasopharyngeal malignancy on univariate and multivariate analyses. Nasopharyngeal biopsy may safely be avoided in adults living in a non-endemic area for NPC who are free of the risk factors of advanced age, the presence of a cervical mass, and suspicious nasopharyngeal mass.

  12. Transperineal vs. transrectal biopsy in MRI targeting.

    PubMed

    Grummet, Jeremy; Pepdjonovic, Lana; Huang, Sean; Anderson, Elliot; Hadaschik, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Prostate biopsy is typically performed via either the transrectal or transperineal approach. MRI-targeted biopsy, whether using any of the three options of cognitive fusion, MRI-ultrasound fusion software, or in-bore MRI-guided biopsy, can also be performed via either transrectal or transperineal approaches. As an extension of traditional random prostate biopsy, the transrectal approach is far more commonly used for MRI-targeted biopsy due to its convenience. However, in the context of today's increasing multi-drug resistance of rectal flora, the transperineal approach is being used more often due to its lack of septic complications. In addition, only a first-generation cephalosporin, not a fluoroquinolone, is required as antibiotic prophylaxis. Evidence shows excellent detection rates of significant prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted and/or systematic transperineal biopsy (TPB). However, there are no head-to-head studies comparing the different MRI-targeted methods within TPB. To provide truly patient-centred care, the biopsy technique using the safest method with the highest detection rate of significant cancer should be used. Depending on healthcare context and hospital resource utilization, MRI-targeted TPB is an excellent option and should be performed wherever available and feasible. Whilst building capacity for TPB in one's practice, the routine use of rectal culture swabs prior to any transrectal biopsies is strongly encouraged. Independent of biopsy route, the addition of systematic cores needs to be discussed with the patient weighing maximal detection of significant cancer against increased detection of insignificant lesions.

  13. Alterations of Bacteroides sp., Neisseria sp., Actinomyces sp., and Streptococcus sp. populations in the oropharyngeal microbiome are associated with liver cirrhosis and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Qian, Guirong; Ren, Zhigang; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Wei; Ye, Ping; Yang, Yunmei; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-23

    The microbiomes of humans are associated with liver and lung inflammation. We identified and verified alterations of the oropharyngeal microbiome and assessed their association with cirrhosis and pneumonia. Study components were as follows: (1) determination of the temporal stability of the oropharyngeal microbiome; (2) identification of oropharyngeal microbial variation in 90 subjects; (3) quantitative identification of disease-associated bacteria. DNAs enriched in bacterial sequences were produced from low-biomass oropharyngeal swabs using whole genome amplification and were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Whole genome amplification combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis monitored successfully oropharyngeal microbial variations and showed that the composition of each subject's oropharyngeal microbiome remained relatively stable during the follow-up. The microbial composition of cirrhotic patients with pneumonia differed from those of others and clustered together in subgroup analysis. Further, species richness and the value of Shannon's diversity and evenness index increased significantly in patients with cirrhosis and pneumonia versus others (p < 0.001, versus healthy controls; p < 0.01, versus cirrhotic patients without pneumonia). Moreover, we identified variants of Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Lachnospiraceae, Neisseria, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus through phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that the populations of Bacteroides, Neisseria, and Actinomycetes increased, while that of Streptococcus decreased in cirrhotic patients with pneumonia versus others (p < 0.001, versus Healthy controls; p < 0.01, versus cirrhotic patients without pneumonia). Alterations of Bacteroides, Neisseria, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus populations in the oropharyngeal microbiome were associated with liver cirrhosis and pneumonia.

  14. Pathologic Markers in Surgically Treated HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer: Retrospective Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tassone, Patrick; Crawley, Meghan; Bovenzi, Cory; Zhan, Tingting; Keane, William; Cognetti, David; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus-associated (HPV) oropharyngeal cancer is a unique clinical entity whose incidence is increasing. It is controversial whether traditional pathologic markers of aggressive head and neck cancer also apply in surgically treated HPV-associated disease. Retrospective study, systematic review, and meta-analysis Data Sources: PubMed and Cochrane review. PubMed and Cochrane review were searched for published articles on surgically treated HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. Eligible studies were included in a meta-analysis of survival using several clinicopathologic markers as predictors. Surgically treated HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients at our institution were studied retrospectively and added to the meta-analysis. Eight published reports, plus our retrospective series, were included in the meta-analysis. This showed significant impact on event-free survival for T stage, nodal number, perineural invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (all P < .05) but not for N stage extracapsular extension ( P = ns). While many traditional clinico-pathologic markers of aggressive disease in head and neck cancer also impact survival in surgically treated HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer, extracapsular extension may be less important.

  15. HPV genotypes detected in the oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Mazza, F; Frati, E R; Fasolo, M M; Colzani, D; Bianchi, S; Fasoli, E; Amendola, A; Orlando, G; Tanzi, E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.

  16. Prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal human papillomavirus in a sample of South African men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Christy Lana; Richter, Karin Louise; Van der Linde, Mike; Coetsee, Judy; Boy, Sonja Catharina

    2014-03-26

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well known to be associated with head and neck cancers (HNCs). HPV-associated HNCs are related to sexual behaviour, particularly the lifetime number of oral sex partners, but the epidemiology of oral and oropharyngeal HPV in South African men has not yet been studied. To determine the oral and oropharyngeal HPV strain prevalence and associated factors in a selected male population in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). Male factory workers were recruited. Oral rinse and gargle samples were tested for 37 HPV types using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems). A questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding age, medical conditions, substance and alcohol use and sexual behaviour. HIV testing was optional. The HPV prevalence was 5.6% among men (N=125) aged 17 - 64 years. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) types 16 and 68 were found in two men. Oral sex seemed to be an uncommon practice in the majority of respondents, but the two respondents with hrHPV did practise oral sex. There was a statistically significant association between HPV infection and an increased number of sexual partners (p=0.027), but not between HPV and substance use, HIV status or clinical mucosal pathology. The prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal HPV was lower than reported in other countries. An association between oral HPV and having multiple sexual partners was found. A larger nationwide study would give a more representative view of the burden of oral and oropharyngeal HPV infection in SA.

  17. Genotyping, levels of expression and physical status of human papilloma virus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma among Colombian patients.

    PubMed

    Erira, Alveiro; Motta, Leidy Angélica; Chala, Andrés; Moreno, Andrey; Gamboa, Fredy; García, Dabeiba Adriana

    2015-10-23

    One of the risk factors for squamous cell oropharyngeal carcinoma is infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV), with prevalences that vary depending on the geographical region.  To identify the most frequent HPV viral types in oropharyngeal cancer, the levels of expression and the physical condition of the viral genome.  Forty-six patients were included in the study from among those attending head and neck surgical services in the cities of Bogotá, Manizales and Bucaramanga. In the histopathological report all study samples were characterized as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DNA extraction was subsequently performed for HPV genotyping and to determine the physical state of the viral genome, as well as RNA to determine viral transcripts using real-time PCR.  HPV prevalence in tumors was 21.74% (n=10) and the most common viral type was HPV-16 (nine cases). Viral expression for HPV-16 was low (one of 11 copies) and the predominant physical state of the virus was mixed (eight cases), with disruption observed at the E1 - E2 binding site (2525 - 3720 nucleotides).  The prevalence of HPV associated with oropharyngeal carcinoma among the Colombian study population was 21.7%, which is relatively low. The most frequent viral type was HPV-16, found in a mixed form and with low expression of E7, possibly indicating a poor prognosis for these patients.

  18. Dimensional and volumetric analysis of the oropharyngeal region in obstructive sleep apnea patients: A cone beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Sachan, Kiran; Agarwal, Akhil; Srivastava, Kamna; Lal, Anubha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a potentially life-threatening condition in which there is a periodic cessation of breathing (for 10 sec or longer) that occurs during sleep in the presence of inspiratory effort. The aim of the study was to assess volumetric and dimensional differences between OSA patients and normal individuals in the upright posture. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on CBCT scans of 32 patients who were divided into two groups -Group I (control group) and Group II (OSA subjects). Group I consisted of 16 patients with normal airway with ESS score from 2 to 10, STOP BANG Questionnaire score of <3 and who had undergone CBCT for various diagnostic reasons. Group II had patients with ESS score >10, STOP BANG Questionnaire score of > 3, AHI index >5. Linear and angular parameters, volume and minimum cross-section area (MCA) of oropharyngeal airway, anteroposterior length and lateral width at MCA was compared amongst the groups. Results: The oropharyngeal volume, MCA, and the anteroposterior and lateral width of the airway at MCA of the OSA subjects was significantly lesser than that of normal subjects. The length of both soft palate and tongue was significantly more in Group II. The angle between the nasopharyngeal airway and the oropharyngeal airway was significantly more obtuse in Group II. Conclusion: The reduction in oropharyngeal volume in OSA patients could be attributed to different anatomical and pathophysiological factors that were corroborated with the findings of the present study. PMID:27857764

  19. Discussing a diagnosis of human papillomavirus oropharyngeal cancer with patients: An exploratory qualitative study of health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Rachael H.; Marlow, Laura A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC) has now been well established. Clinicians' experiences and challenges of talking to patients about HPV have yet to be explored. Methods Fifteen health professionals caring for patients with oropharyngeal SCC were interviewed. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Results Participants expressed mixed views about explaining the causal role of HPV to their patients. Normalizing HPV and emphasizing the positive prognosis associated with it were regarded as key messages to be communicated. Challenging experiences included managing couples in a consultation and patients' concerns about transmitting HPV to their partners. Some participants described limitations to their HPV knowledge and identified the need for further information and training. Conclusion This study identified challenges experienced by health professionals working with patients with oropharyngeal SCC and highlights some key messages to convey to patients. Clinical guidance for health professionals and further information for patients about HPV‐positive oropharyngeal SCC are needed. © 2015 The Authors Head & Neck Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 394–401, 2016 PMID:25351993

  20. Emergence of fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, M; Eigler, A; Tennagen, I; Geiseler, B; Engelmann, E; Trautmann, M

    1994-01-01

    After repeated use of fluconazole for therapy of oropharyngeal candidosis, the emergence of in vitro fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates (MIC, > or = 25 micrograms/ml) together with oral candidosis unresponsive to oral dosages of up to 400 mg of fluconazole were observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by broth microdilution and agar dilution techniques on C. albicans isolates recovered from a cohort of patients with symptomatic HIV infection who were treated repeatedly with fluconazole for oropharyngeal candidosis. In vitro findings did show a gradual increase in the MICs for C. albicans isolates recovered from selected patients with repeated episodes of oropharyngeal candidosis. Primary resistance of C. albicans to fluconazole was not seen. Cross-resistance in vitro occurred between fluconazole and other azoles (ketoconazole, itraconazole), but to a lesser extent. The results of the study suggest that the development of clinical resistance to fluconazole could be clearly correlated to in vitro resistance to fluconazole. Itraconazole may still serve as an effective antifungal agent in patients with HIV infection and oropharyngeal candidosis nonresponsive to fluconazole. PMID:7814530

  1. The influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and cuff position with the laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Takuro; Sugioka, Shingo; Hirokane, Motoko; Son, Hiroki; Uda, Rumiko; Akatsuka, Masafumi; Kotani, Junichiro

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of mouth opening on oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and cuff position of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Fifteen patients who were scheduled for elective oral surgery were recruited into this study. A single, experienced LMA user inserted the LMA according to the manufacturer's recommended technique. Oropharyngeal leak pressure, intracuff pressure, and fiberoptic assessment of the LMA position were documented under 3 mouth conditions: neutral position (1.4-cm distance between upper and lower incisors), mouth open (5- to 6-cm distance between upper and lower incisors), and return to the neutral position. Any ventilation difficulties under the 3 mouth conditions were recorded. Oropharyngeal leak pressure with the mouth open was higher than in the neutral position (P < .001). Compared with the neutral position, intracuff pressure was also higher with the mouth open (P < .001). Both measurement values returned to control levels when the neutral position was once again assumed. The LMA position observed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unchanged by mouth opening and was similar in the 3 mouth conditions (P = .998). Although ventilatory difficulties occurred after mouth opening in 8 of 15 patients (P < .001), it did not occur when the neutral position was reassumed. This study showed that mouth opening led to substantial increases in oropharyngeal leak pressure and intracuff pressure of the LMA, warranting caution because gastric insufflation, sore throat, and ventilation difficulties may occur. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Video-Assisted Needle Core Biopsy in Children Affected by Neuroblastoma: A Novel Combined Technique.

    PubMed

    Avanzini, Stefano; Faticato, Maria Grazia; Sementa, Angela Rita; Granata, Claudio; Martucciello, Giuseppe; Pio, Luca; Prato, Alessio Pini; Garaventa, Alberto; Bisio, Giovanni; Montobbio, Giovanni; Buffa, Piero; Mattioli, Girolamo

    2017-04-01

    Aim This study aims to evaluate the experience gained with video-assisted needle-core biopsy in patients affected by neuroblastoma (NB). Patient and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all the patients presenting at our center with a thoracic, abdominal, and/or pelvic NB who underwent biopsy between 2007 and 2014. Data on demographics, localization, and size of the tumor, image-defined risk factors involved in each case, technical details about biopsies performed, qualitative and quantitative adequacy of tumor sampling and histological diagnosis, postoperative details, and complications were recorded and analyzed. Results During the 7 years of our study 51 patients affected by NB underwent 55 biopsies. Our results focus on the 29 patients undergoing 32 video-assisted needle-core biopsies. The median age was 4 years with a median weight of 13.5 kg. Out of 29, 28 tumors were localized in the abdomen/pelvis compartment, whereas 1 patient presented with a thoracic mass. The median size of the tumors was 57 mm. A total of 28 patients had an adequate tissue sampling for complete tumor characterization. Biopsies were repeated twice in a patient. Three complications occurred in three patients. Conclusions The video-assisted needle-core biopsy combines minimally invasive surgery several advantages with the possibility to obtain multiple samples in different regions with minimal tumor exposition and low complication rate.

  3. Feasibility of CT-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy in Early Diagnosis of BOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Poulou, Loukia S. Tsangaridou, Iris; Filippoussis, Petros; Sidiropoulou, Nektaria; Apostolopoulou, Sofia; Thanos, Loukas

    2008-09-15

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a nonneoplastic, noninfectious lung disease with a diverse spectrum of imaging abnormalities and nonspecific symptoms diagnosed by open lung biopsy, transbroncial biopsy, and/or video-assisted thoracoscopy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the role of percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy in early diagnosis of the disorder. Fourteen BOOP cases diagnosed by CT-guided biopsy were analyzed in terms of imaging abnormalities and complication rate. All had previously undergone a nondiagnostic procedure (bronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage) to exclude infection or lung cancer. The most common imaging abnormalities in descending order were bilateral consolidations (5/14), unilateral tumor-like lesions (5/14), unilateral consolidations (3/14), and diffuse reticular pattern (1/14). Coexistent abnormalities (pleural effusions, nodules, ground-glass opacities) were observed in five patients. The complication rate was 4 of 14 (28.6%), including 2 cases of subclinical pneumothorax and 1 case of minor hemoptysis and local lung injury. None required intervention. We conclude that transthoracic CT-guided biopsy may be used in the diagnosis of BOOP in selected patients with mild complications. For the focal consolidation nodule/mass imaging pattern, CT-guided biopsy may prove to be a reasonable alternative to more invasive procedures.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  5. Molecular subclassification determined by human papillomavirus and epidermal growth factor receptor status is associated with the prognosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Nakashima, Torahiko; Nishijima, Toshimitsu; Satoh, Masanobu; Hatanaka, Yui; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Toh, Satoshi; Komune, Shizuo; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an indicator of good response to chemoradiotherapy in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a molecular-therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Here we investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of HPV infection and EGFR alteration in OPSCC. We analyzed the presence of high-risk HPV using in situ hybridization, protein expressions of p16 and EGFR using immunohistochemistry, and the EGFR gene copy number gain using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in 105 cases of OPSCC. The biopsy specimens before chemoradiotherapy were used for these analyses. HPV infection and p16 protein overexpression were detected in 53.3% and 52.4% of the OPSCCs, and each factor was associated with better overall survival (P = .0026 and P = .0026) and nonkeratinizing histology (P = .0002 and P = .0004), respectively. EGFR gene copy number gain (high polysomy or amplification) was detected in 12.4% of the OPSCCs and was correlated with EGFR protein overexpression (P = .0667) and worse overall survival (P < .0001). HPV infection and EGFR gene copy number gain (EGFR CISH positive) were mutually exclusive. The HPV-negative/EGFR CISH-positive OPSCCs had significantly worse overall survival than did the HPV-positive/EGFR CISH-negative OPSCCs and HPV-negative/EGFR CISH-negative OPSCCs (P < .0001 and P < .0001, respectively). The EGFR CISH-negative OPSCCs had favorable prognosis irrespective of HPV infection. Our results suggest that EGFR gene copy number gain-positive tumors represent an HPV-negative, aggressive subgroup of OPSCCs. The molecular subclassification of OPSCCs based on HPV infection and EGFR status may serve as important information for appropriate therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Promising Treatment Option for the Boost of Oropharyngeal Cancers Not Suitable for Brachytherapy: A Single-Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Tans, Lisa; Teguh, David N.; Rooij, Peter van; Zwijnenburg, Ellen M.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the outcome and toxicity of frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) as a treatment option for boosting primary oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) in patients who not suitable for the standard brachytherapy boost (BTB). Methods and Materials: Between 2005 and 2010, 51 patients with Stage I to IV biopsy-proven OPC who were not suitable for BTB received boosts by means of SBRT (3 times 5.5 Gy, prescribed to the 80% isodose line), after 46 Gy of IMRT to the primary tumor and neck (when indicated). Endpoints of the study were local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and acute and late toxicity. Results: After a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 6-65 months), the 2-year actuarial rates of LC, DFS, and OS were 86%, 80%, and 82%, respectively, and the 3-year rates were 70%, 66%, and 54%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated, as there were no treatment breaks and no Grade 4 or 5 toxicity reported, either acute or chronic. The overall 2-year cumulative incidence of Grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 28%. Of the patients with 2 years with no evidence of disease (n = 20), only 1 patient was still feeding tube dependent and 2 patients had Grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusions: According to our knowledge, this study is the first report of patients with primary OPC who received boosts by means of SBRT. Patients with OPC who are not suitable for the standard BTB can safely and effectively receive boosts by SBRT. With this radiation technique, an excellent outcome was achieved. Furthermore, the SBRT boost did not have a negative impact regarding acute and late side effects.

  7. The use of the automatic core biopsy system in percutaneous renal biopsies: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Burstein, D M; Korbet, S M; Schwartz, M M

    1993-10-01

    We describe our experience with the use of the automatic core biopsy system for percutaneous renal biopsy and compare this with our experience with a standard biopsy needle. Three hundred twenty-three biopsies were performed between June 1983 and January 1993. From June 1983 through October 1990, 232 biopsies were performed with the use of a standard biopsy needle (Tru-cut needle; Travenol Laboratories, Deerfield, IL) and from November 1990 through January 1993, 91 biopsies were conducted with the use of the automatic core biopsy system (Biopty gun and needle; C.R. Bard, Inc, Covington, GA). Biopsies performed prior to January 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, while those performed after January 1990 were reviewed in a prospective manner. The primary indications for renal biopsy were to evaluate proteinuria (48.9%) and renal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (26.0%). The two groups of patients were similar with respect to sex, age, serum creatinine, and coagulation parameters. Material for light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy was obtained in 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.8% of cases, respectively, with the use of the automatic core biopsy system, and these values did not differ significantly from those with the use of the standard needle (99.6%, 96.1%, and 97.8%). Significantly more glomeruli were obtained by light microscopy per biopsy specimen with the use of the automatic core biopsy system versus the standard needle (28 +/- 15 and 21 +/- 13, respectively; P < 0.0001). Complications were assessed and separated by severity. Total complications were observed in 13 patients (14.3%) with the automatic core device and in 31 patients (13.4%) with the standard needle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)