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Sample records for orthodontic space closure

  1. Alveolar ridge expansion-assisted orthodontic space closure in the mandibular posterior region.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Mete; Akdeniz, Berat Serdar; Sumer, Mahmut

    2013-12-01

    Orthodontic closure of old, edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region is a major challenge. In this report, we describe a method of orthodontic closure of edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region accelerated by piezoelectric decortication and alveolar ridge expansion. Combined piezosurgical and orthodontic treatments were used to close 14- and 15-mm-wide spaces in the mandibular left and right posterior areas, respectively, of a female patient, aged 18 years and 9 months, diagnosed with skeletal Class III malocclusion, hypodontia, and polydiastemas. After the piezoelectric decortication, segmental and full-arch mechanics were applied in the orthodontic phase. Despite some extent of root resorption and anchorage loss, the edentulous spaces were closed, and adequate function and esthetics were regained without further restorative treatment. Alveolar ridge expansion-assisted orthodontic space closure seems to be an effective and relatively less-invasive treatment alternative for edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region.

  2. Alveolar ridge expansion-assisted orthodontic space closure in the mandibular posterior region

    PubMed Central

    Akdeniz, Berat Serdar; Sumer, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontic closure of old, edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region is a major challenge. In this report, we describe a method of orthodontic closure of edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region accelerated by piezoelectric decortication and alveolar ridge expansion. Combined piezosurgical and orthodontic treatments were used to close 14- and 15-mm-wide spaces in the mandibular left and right posterior areas, respectively, of a female patient, aged 18 years and 9 months, diagnosed with skeletal Class III malocclusion, hypodontia, and polydiastemas. After the piezoelectric decortication, segmental and full-arch mechanics were applied in the orthodontic phase. Despite some extent of root resorption and anchorage loss, the edentulous spaces were closed, and adequate function and esthetics were regained without further restorative treatment. Alveolar ridge expansion-assisted orthodontic space closure seems to be an effective and relatively less-invasive treatment alternative for edentulous spaces in the mandibular posterior region. PMID:24396740

  3. Understanding the basis of space closure in Orthodontics for a more efficient orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Jacob, Helder B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Space closure is one of the most challenging processes in Orthodontics and requires a solid comprehension of biomechanics in order to avoid undesirable side effects. Understanding the biomechanical basis of space closure better enables clinicians to determine anchorage and treatment options. In spite of the variety of appliance designs, space closure can be performed by means of friction or frictionless mechanics, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Friction mechanics or sliding mechanics is attractive because of its simplicity; the space site is closed by means of elastics or coil springs to provide force, and the brackets slide on the orthodontic archwire. On the other hand, frictionless mechanics uses loop bends to generate force to close the space site, allowing differential moments in the active and reactive units, leading to a less or more anchorage control, depending on the situation. Objective: This article will discuss various theoretical aspects and methods of space closure based on biomechanical concepts. PMID:27275623

  4. Understanding the basis of space closure in Orthodontics for a more efficient orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Jacob, Helder B

    2016-01-01

    Space closure is one of the most challenging processes in Orthodontics and requires a solid comprehension of biomechanics in order to avoid undesirable side effects. Understanding the biomechanical basis of space closure better enables clinicians to determine anchorage and treatment options. In spite of the variety of appliance designs, space closure can be performed by means of friction or frictionless mechanics, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Friction mechanics or sliding mechanics is attractive because of its simplicity; the space site is closed by means of elastics or coil springs to provide force, and the brackets slide on the orthodontic archwire. On the other hand, frictionless mechanics uses loop bends to generate force to close the space site, allowing differential moments in the active and reactive units, leading to a less or more anchorage control, depending on the situation. This article will discuss various theoretical aspects and methods of space closure based on biomechanical concepts.

  5. Does the bracket–ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Henry; Collins, Jill; Tinsley, David; Sandler, Jonathan; Benson, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bracket–ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. Design: Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. Setting: A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). Participants: Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. Methods: Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and elastomeric ligatures; (2) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and Super Slick® low friction elastomeric ligatures; (3) Damon 3MX® passive self-ligating brackets. Space closure was undertaken on 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel archwires with nickel–titanium coil springs. Participants were recalled at four weekly intervals. Upper alginate impressions were taken at each visit (maximum three). The primary outcome measure was the mean amount of space closure in a 3-month period. Results: A one-way ANOVA was undertaken [dependent variable: mean space closure (mm); independent variable: group allocation]. The amount of space closure was very similar between the three groups (1 mm per 28 days); however, there was a wide variation in the rate of space closure between individuals. The differences in the amount of space closure over three months between the three groups was very small and non-significant (P = 0·718). Conclusion: The hypothesis that reducing friction by modifying the bracket/ligature interface increases the rate of space closure was not supported. The major determinant of orthodontic tooth movement is probably the individual patient response. PMID:23794696

  6. A clinical investigation of force delivery systems for orthodontic space closure.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, C; Jones, S P

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the force retention, and rates of space closure achieved by elastomeric chain and nickel titanium coil springs. Randomized clinical trial. Eastman Dental Hospital, London and Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, 1998-2000. Twenty-two orthodontic patients, wearing the pre-adjusted edgewise appliance undergoing space closure in opposing quadrants, using sliding mechanics on 0.019 x 0.025-inch posted stainless steel archwires. Medium-spaced elastomeric chain [Durachain, OrthoCare (UK) Ltd., Bradford, UK] and 9-mm nickel titanium coil springs [OrthoCare (UK) Ltd.] were placed in opposing quadrants for 15 patients. Elastomeric chain only was used in a further seven patients. The initial forces on placement and residual forces at the subsequent visit were measured with a dial push-pull gauge [Orthocare (UK) Ltd]. Study models of eight patients were taken before and after space closure, from which measurements were made to establish mean space closure. The forces were measured in grammes and space closure in millimetres. Fifty-nine per cent (31/53) of the elastomeric sample maintained at least 50 per cent of the initial force over a time period of 1-15 weeks. No sample lost all its force, and the mean loss was 47 per cent (range: 0-76 per cent). Nickel titanium coil springs lost force rapidly over 6 weeks, following that force levels plateaued. Forty-six per cent (12/26) maintained at least 50 per cent of their initial force over a time period of 1-22 weeks, and mean force loss was 48 per cent (range: 12-68 per cent). The rate of mean weekly space closure for elastomeric chain was 0.21 mm and for nickel titanium coil springs 0.26 mm. There was no relationship between the initial force applied and rate of space closure. None of the sample failed during the study period giving a 100 per cent response rate. In clinical use, the force retention of elastomeric chain was better than previously concluded. High initial forces resulted in high force decay

  7. Maxillary hypoplasia in the cleft patient: contribution of orthodontic dental space closure to orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justine C; Slack, Ginger C; Walker, Ryann; Graves, Lindsay; Yen, Sandra; Woo, Jessica; Ambaram, Rishal; Martz, Martin G; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2014-02-01

    Cleft lip and palate surgery in the developing child is known to be associated with maxillary hypoplasia. However, the effects of nonsurgical manipulations on maxillary growth have not been well investigated. The authors present the contribution of orthodontic dental space closure with canine substitution to maxillary hypoplasia and the need for orthognathic surgery. Cleft lip/palate and cleft palate patients older than 15 years of age were reviewed for dental anomalies, orthodontic canine substitution, and Le Fort I advancement. Skeletal relationships of the maxilla to the skull base (SNA), mandible (ANB), and facial height were determined on lateral cephalograms. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Ninety-five patients were reviewed (mean age, 18.1 years). In 65 patients with congenitally missing teeth, 55 percent with patent dental spaces required Le Fort I advancement. In contrast, 89 percent who underwent canine substitution required Le Fort I advancement (p = 0.004). Canine substitution is associated with a statistically significant increase in maxillary retrognathia when compared with dental space preservation on lateral cephalograms (mean SNA, 75.2 and 79.0, respectively; p = 0.006). Adjusting for missing dentition, logistic regression analyses demonstrated that canine substitution is an independent predictor for orthognathic surgery (OR, 6.47) and maxillary retrusion defined by SNA < 78 (OR, 8.100). The coordination of orthodontia and surgery is essential to cleft care. The authors report a strong association between orthodontic cleft closure using canine substitution with maxillary hypoplasia and subsequent Le Fort I advancement, and suggest systematic criteria for management of cleft-related dental agenesis. Therapeutic, III.

  8. Effectiveness of nickel-titanium springs vs elastomeric chains in orthodontic space closure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H; Rizk, M Z; Wafaie, K; Almuzian, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of nickel titanium closing springs (NiTi-CS) and elastomeric power chains (EPC) in orthodontic space closure and to assess the adverse periodontal effects, cost efficiency and patient-centred outcomes between both of these methods. An electronic search of online databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS and Web of Science), reference lists and grey literature as well as hand search were conducted without language restriction up to November/2017. Two authors blindly and in duplicate were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. 95% confidence intervals and mean difference for continuous data were calculated. A meta-analysis that generated a random-effect model for the comparable outcomes was conducted, and heterogeneity was measured using I 2 statistic. Of 187 records, 4 RCTs met the criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis featuring 290 test quadrants. Faster space closure with NiTi-CS was observed with a mean difference of (0.20 mm/month, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28). Loss of anchorage appears to be similar within both groups when synthesized qualitatively. With exception to anchorage loss, secondary outcomes could not be investigated in the included trials. There is a moderate quality of evidence suggesting a faster orthodontic space closure with the NiTi-CS when compared to EPC. A comparable amount of anchorage loss was observed regardless of the utilized method of space closure. Further high-quality RCTs with parallel-groups, reporting on the adverse effects and patient-centred values, are recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison of three-dimensional orthodontic load systems of different commercial archwires for space closure.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Steven; Chen, Jie

    2012-03-01

    To experimentally quantify the effects of the loop design on three-dimensional orthodontic load systems of two types of commercial closing loop archwires: Teardrop and Keyhole. An orthodontic force tester and custom-made dentoform were used to measure the load systems produced on two teeth during simulated space closure. The system included three force components along and three moment components about three clinically defined axes on two target teeth: the left maxillary canine and the lateral incisor. The archwires were attached to the dentoform and were activated following a standard clinical procedure. The resulting six load components produced by the two archwires were reported and compared. The results were also compared with those of the T-loop archwire published previously. The three designs deliver similar loading patterns; however, the component magnitudes are dependent on the design. All of the designs result in lingual tipping of the teeth, canine lingual-mesial displacement, canine crown-mesial-in rotation, and incisor crown-distal-in rotation.

  10. Comparison of three-dimensional orthodontic load systems of different commercial archwires for space closure

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Steven; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To experimentally quantify the effects of the loop design on three-dimensional orthodontic load systems of two types of commercial closing loop archwires: Teardrop and Keyhole. Materials and Methods An orthodontic force tester and custom-made dentoform were used to measure the load systems produced on two teeth during simulated space closure. The system included three force components along and three moment components about three clinically defined axes on two target teeth: the left maxillary canine and the lateral incisor. The archwires were attached to the dentoform and were activated following a standard clinical procedure. Results The resulting six load components produced by the two archwires were reported and compared. The results were also compared with those of the T-loop archwire published previously. Conclusions The three designs deliver similar loading patterns; however, the component magnitudes are dependent on the design. All of the designs result in lingual tipping of the teeth, canine lingual-mesial displacement, canine crown-mesial-in rotation, and incisor crown-distal-in rotation. PMID:21879793

  11. Nickel titanium springs versus stainless steel springs: A randomized clinical trial of two methods of space closure.

    PubMed

    Norman, Noraina Hafizan; Worthington, Helen; Chadwick, Stephen Mark

    2016-09-01

    To compare the clinical performance of nickel titanium (NiTi) versus stainless steel (SS) springs during orthodontic space closure. Two-centre parallel group randomized clinical trial. Orthodontic Department University of Manchester Dental Hospital and Orthodontic Department Countess of Chester Hospital, United Kingdom. Forty orthodontic patients requiring fixed appliance treatment were enrolled, each being randomly allocated into either NiTi (n = 19) or SS groups (n = 21). Study models were constructed at the start of the space closure phase (T0) and following the completion of space closure (T1). The rate of space closure achieved for each patient was calculated by taking an average measurement from the tip of the canine to the mesiobuccal groove on the first permanent molar of each quadrant. The study was terminated early due to time constraints. Only 30 patients completed, 15 in each study group. There was no statistically significant difference between the amounts of space closed (mean difference 0.17 mm (95%CI -0.99 to 1.34; P = 0.76)). The mean rate of space closure for NiTi coil springs was 0.58 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.24) and 0.85 mm/4 weeks (SD 0.36) for the stainless steel springs. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.024), in favour of the stainless steel springs, when the mean values per patient were compared. Our study shows that stainless steel springs are clinically effective; these springs produce as much space closure as their more expensive rivals, the NiTi springs.

  12. Orthodontic space closure without contralateral extraction through mesial movement of lower molars in patients with aplastic lower second premolars.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, B; Guitard, Y

    2001-09-01

    A method is presented that allows unilateral space closure in patients with aplastic lower second premolars. Based on a straight-wire appliance, space closure was achieved with a combination of "push mechanics" using the second molar as an anchorage unit and Class II "pull mechanics", thus avoiding the application of any distalizing force on the lower incisors. The results from 13 consecutively treated subjects (five boys, eight girls, mean age 12 years and 6 months) were analyzed. Complete bodily space closure was achieved in all 13 cases within a mean treatment time of 2 years and 7 months. The desired Angle Class III molar relationship of one premolar width (+/- 1/4 premolar width) on the aplastic side was successful in eleven patients, an additional 4.7 mm of space being created for the third molar on the aplastic side compared with the contralateral side (p < or = 0.01). However, adverse effects could be kept to a minimum, with no method-dependent side effects being recorded with regard to canine and molar relationships on the contralateral side, or to overbite, overjet, or upper and lower incisor inclination. The mean lower midline shift of 0.8 mm was in accordance with the mean distal canine relationship of 1/3 premolar width on the aplastic side. These results confirm that orthodontic space closure in cases of unilateral aplastic lower second premolars can be performed successfully with the presented treatment method without the need for additional premolar extractions, prosthodontic treatment or implants. Furthermore, the prognosis for the lower wisdom tooth on the aplastic side is improved.

  13. Alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the maxillary midline diastema: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Seok; Lee, Seung-Youp; Chang, Moontaek

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the diastema between maxillary central incisors. Sixty patients who had a visible diastema between maxillary central incisors that had been closed by orthodontic approximation were selected for this study. Various papilla dimensions were assessed on clinical photographs and study models before the orthodontic treatment and at the follow-up examination after closure of the diastema. Influences of the variables assessed before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of papilla height (PH) and papilla base thickness (PBT) were evaluated by univariate regression analysis. To analyze potential influences of the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of PH and PBT, a multiple regression model was formulated including the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions as predictor variables. On average, PH decreased by 0.80 mm and PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema (P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis revealed that the PH (P=0.002) and PBT (P=0.047) before orthodontic treatment influenced the alteration of PH. With respect to the alteration of PBT, the diastema width (P=0.045) and PBT (P=0.000) were found to be influential factors. PBT before the orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the alteration of PBT in the multiple regression model. PH decreased but PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema. The papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment influenced the alterations of PH and PBT after closure of the diastema. The PBT increased more when the diastema width before the orthodontic treatment was larger.

  14. Alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the maxillary midline diastema: a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the diastema between maxillary central incisors. Methods Sixty patients who had a visible diastema between maxillary central incisors that had been closed by orthodontic approximation were selected for this study. Various papilla dimensions were assessed on clinical photographs and study models before the orthodontic treatment and at the follow-up examination after closure of the diastema. Influences of the variables assessed before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of papilla height (PH) and papilla base thickness (PBT) were evaluated by univariate regression analysis. To analyze potential influences of the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of PH and PBT, a multiple regression model was formulated including the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions as predictor variables. Results On average, PH decreased by 0.80 mm and PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema (P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis revealed that the PH (P=0.002) and PBT (P=0.047) before orthodontic treatment influenced the alteration of PH. With respect to the alteration of PBT, the diastema width (P=0.045) and PBT (P=0.000) were found to be influential factors. PBT before the orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the alteration of PBT in the multiple regression model. Conclusions PH decreased but PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema. The papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment influenced the alterations of PH and PBT after closure of the diastema. The PBT increased more when the diastema width before the orthodontic treatment was larger. PMID:27382507

  15. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues, Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper arch anchorage. There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  16. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification. PMID:28444016

  17. Modified grassline technique for orthodontic space closure.

    PubMed

    Lohmiller, Rose Marie

    2006-04-01

    Use of traditional orthodontic measures in the periodontally compromised dentition can be problematic. This article describes a variation of the Grassline technique, in which the author uses adhesive bonding to harmoniously re-align malpositioned teeth. In this simple, easy-to-learn technique, a cotton thread is used to achieve orthodontic tooth movement. Initial contact with the saliva causes shrinkage of the thread, exercising a minor force that moves the teeth while allowing enough time for the tissues to regenerate. With this moderate, intermittent force, successful treatment is achieved with minimal risk. Moreover, this orthodontic technique has been associated with an increase in bone volume. This article presents this new technique and details methods for maintaining treatment success. The technique also is compared with an approach described in the literature. Two case reports are presented; the technique is employed in the first to close a diastema in a periodontally compromised dentition and in the second to correct the migration of maxillary and mandibular incisors. Photographs and radiographs show the esthetic improvement achieved in both cases using this technique.

  18. Postretention stability after orthodontic closure of maxillary interincisor diastemas

    PubMed Central

    de MORAIS, Juliana Fernandes; de FREITAS, Marcos Roberto; de FREITAS, Karina Maria Salvatore; JANSON, Guilherme; CASTELLO BRANCO, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Anterior spaces may interfere with smile attractiveness and compromise dentofacial harmony. They are among the most frequent reasons why patients seek orthodontic treatment. However, midline diastema is commonly cited as a malocclusion with high relapse incidence by orthodontists. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the stability of maxillary interincisor diastemas closure and the association of their relapse and interincisor width, overjet, overbite and root parallelism. Material and Methods Sample comprised 30 patients with at least a pretreatment midline diastema of 0.5 mm or greater after eruption of the maxillary permanent canines. Dental casts and panoramic radiographs were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment and postretention. Results Before treatment, midline diastema width was 1.52 mm (SD=0.88) and right and left lateral diastema widths were 0.55 mm (SD=0.56) and 0.57 mm (SD=0.53), respectively. According to repeated measures analysis of variance, only midline diastema demonstrated significant relapse. In the overall sample the average relapse of midline diastema was 0.49 mm (SD=0.66), whilst the unstable patients showed a mean space reopening of 0.78 mm (SD=0.66). Diastema closure in the area between central and lateral incisors showed great stability. Multivariate correlation tests showed that only initial diastema width (β=0.60) and relapse of overjet (β=0.39) presented association with relapse of midline diastema. Conclusions Midline diastema relapse was statistically significant and occurred in 60% of the sample, while lateral diastemas closure remained stable after treatment. Only initial diastema width and overjet relapse showed association with relapse of midline diastema. There was no association between relapse of interincisor diastema and root parallelism. PMID:24918661

  19. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure.

    PubMed

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media.

  20. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Khajeh, Farzaneh; Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh; Fattahi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different environmental conditions, such as high temperature or exposure to some chemical agents, may affect the force decay of different methods of space closure during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the force decay pattern in the presence of tea as a popular drink in some parts of the world and two mouthwashes that are usually prescribed by the orthodontist once the treatment is in progress. Materials and Methods: Elastic chain (EC), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) closed coil spring and tie-back (TB) method were used as the means of space closure. The specimens were placed in five different media: Hot tea, hot water (65°), chlorhexidine mouthwash, fluoride mouthwash and the control group (water at 37°). The specimens were stretched 25 mm and the elastic force of three systems was measured at the beginning of the study, after 24 h, after 1 week and after 3 weeks. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the results between the groups and Duncan test was carried out to compare the sets of means in different groups (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Tea increases the force decay in the EC and TB groups. Oral mouthwashes also resulted in more rapid force decay than the control group. EC and Ni-Ti groups were not much affected in the presence of oral mouthwashes. Conclusion: Regarding the immersion media, TB method showed the biggest variation in different media and Ni-Ti coil spring was least affected by the type of media. PMID:25709675

  1. A 4-year clinical evaluation of direct composite build-ups for space closure after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Öztaş, Evren; Tekçe, Neslihan; Uysal, Ömer

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the medium-term clinical performance of direct composite build-ups for diastema closures and teeth recontouring using a nano and a nanohybrid composite in combination with three- or two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. A total of 30 patients (mean age, 19.5 years) received 147 direct composite additions for teeth recontouring and diastema closures. A nano and a nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XT and CeramX Duo) were bonded to tooth structure by using a three-step (Scotchbond Multipurpose) or a two-step (XP Bond) etch and rinse adhesive. Ten out of 147 composite build-ups (composite addition) constituted tooth recontouring cases, and the remaining 137 constituted diastema closure cases. The restorations were evaluated by two experienced, calibrated examiners according to modified Ryge criteria at the following time intervals: baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. The 4-year survival rates were 92.8 % for Filtek Supreme XT/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 93 % for CeramX Duo/XP Bond. Only ten restorations failed (5 Filtek Supreme XT and 5 CeramX Duo). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two composite-adhesive combinations with respect to color match, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, caries formation, marginal adaptation, and surface texture on comparing the five time periods (baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years) The 4-year survival rates in the present study were favorable. The restorations exhibited excellent scores with regard to color match, marginal adaptation, surface texture, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, and caries formation, after 4 years of clinical evaluation. Clinical relevance An alternative clinical approach for correcting discrepancies in tooth size and form, such as performing direct composite restorations following fixed orthodontic treatment, may be an excellent and minimally invasive treatment.

  2. Combined orthodontic-restorative management of maxillary central incisors lost following traumatic injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Seehra, Jadbinder; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    A history of traumatic dental injury to the maxillary central incisors during preadolescence or adolescence is common and may result in premature loss. Treatment options include prosthetic implant replacement, autotransplantation, and orthodontic space closure with direct composite recontouring. This case report describes the treatment of an adolescent girl who presented with a crowded Class I malocclusion complicated by a history of trauma to the maxillary central incisors. The treatment plan consisted of orthodontic space closure following loss of both maxillary central incisors and mandibular premolars. This case highlights that orthodontic space closure can be a valuable treatment option in selected Class I crowded and Class II uncrowded malocclusions, producing predictable and efficient results.

  3. Piezosurgery®-assisted periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Pakhare, Vikas Vilas; Khandait, Chinmay Harishchandra; Shrivastav, Sunita Satish; Dhadse, Prasad Vijayrao; Baliga, Vidya Sudhindhra; Seegavadi, Vasudevan Dwarkanathan

    2017-01-01

    Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontic procedure has become useful adjunct to reduce orthodontic treatment time as compared with conventional orthodontics. This case demonstrates the use of Piezosurgery ® to facilitate rapid tooth movement with relatively shorter treatment time. A 23-year-old male with Angles Class I malocclusion having spaced anterior teeth and protrusion requested orthodontic treatment with reduced time period. Before surgery, presurgical orthodontic treatment was done to do initial alignment of the teeth. This was followed by piezosurgical corticotomy and final space closure was achieved by active orthodontic tooth movement. The total treatment time required to complete the orthodontic treatment was 5 months. 1-year follow-up revealed no evidence of any adverse periodontal effects or relapse. Thus, Piezosurgery ® -assisted corticotomy may prove to be a noble and effective treatment approach to decrease the orthodontic treatment time.

  4. Piezosurgery®-assisted periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Pakhare, Vikas Vilas; Khandait, Chinmay Harishchandra; Shrivastav, Sunita Satish; Dhadse, Prasad Vijayrao; Baliga, Vidya Sudhindhra; Seegavadi, Vasudevan Dwarkanathan

    2017-01-01

    Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontic procedure has become useful adjunct to reduce orthodontic treatment time as compared with conventional orthodontics. This case demonstrates the use of Piezosurgery® to facilitate rapid tooth movement with relatively shorter treatment time. A 23-year-old male with Angles Class I malocclusion having spaced anterior teeth and protrusion requested orthodontic treatment with reduced time period. Before surgery, presurgical orthodontic treatment was done to do initial alignment of the teeth. This was followed by piezosurgical corticotomy and final space closure was achieved by active orthodontic tooth movement. The total treatment time required to complete the orthodontic treatment was 5 months. 1-year follow-up revealed no evidence of any adverse periodontal effects or relapse. Thus, Piezosurgery®-assisted corticotomy may prove to be a noble and effective treatment approach to decrease the orthodontic treatment time. PMID:29491592

  5. Orthodontic space closure without counterbalancing extractions in patients with bilateral aplasia of the lower second premolars.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Bernd; Rottwinkel, Yvonne

    2002-09-01

    Orthodontic space closure in situations with bilateral aplastic lower second premolars without maxillary extractions is a rarely practiced treatment method. Due to the high risk of severe side effects, preference is currently given to the maintenance of deciduous second molars and subsequent prosthodontic solutions. As a combination of Class I push and Class II pull mechanics seemed likely to reduce secondary effects by transferring the anchorage site from the reactive lower anterior teeth to the more resistant upper arch, a clinical study was carried out in order to investigate effects and secondary effects of the mechanics. Casts, panoramic radiographs and lateral headfilms of 13 consecutively treated, non-selected adolescents (seven boys, six girls, mean age at start of treatment 13 years 4 months) were evaluated. In six patients a Jasper Jumper trade mark was inserted in addition for a mean period of 6 months. The treatment outcome after a mean period of 3 years and 1 month showed in almost all cases the desired Class III molar occlusion of one cusp width (+/- 1/4 cw) with overbite and overjet within the normal range. Analyses of static and dynamic occlusion revealed anterior/canine protected articulation and a satisfactory number of centric contact points. A significant space gain (p

  6. Mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage.

    PubMed

    Reynders, Reint Meursinge; Ladu, Luisa

    2017-10-27

    Data sourcesPubmed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Web of Science databases. Hand searches of the journals European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Seminars in Orthodontics, American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics and Angle Orthodontist.Study selectionTwo reviewers independently selected studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of orthodontic patients requiring extraction of the maxillary first premolars and closure of the spaces without anchorage loss were considered.Data extraction and synthesisData extraction and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted.ResultsFourteen studies; seven RCTS and seven CCTs were included. In total 303 patients received TISADs with 313 control patients. Overall the quality of the studies was considered to be moderate. Overall the TISAD group had significantly less anchorage loss than the control group. On average, TISADs enabled 1.86mm more anchorage preservation than did conventional methods.ConclusionsThe results of the meta-analysis showed that TISADs are more effective than conventional methods of anchorage reinforcement. The average difference of 2mm seems not only statistically but also clinically significant. However, the results should be interpreted with caution because of the moderate quality of the included studies. More high-quality studies on this issue are necessary to enable drawing more reliable conclusions.

  7. Orthodontic Replacement of Lost Permanent Molar with Neighbor Molar: A Six-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Knop, Luegya Amorim Henriques; Sampaio, Luana Paz

    2017-01-01

    Extraction is very frequent indication in orthodontic planning, especially when there are crowding, biprotrusion, and aesthetically unpleasant profiles. Next to extraction comes space closure, which represents a challenge for orthodontists because of extended treatment time, discomfort created for the patient, tissue tolerance, and stability concerns. When it comes to what mechanics to choose for space closure, loops present two major advantages in relation to sliding mechanics: absence of abrasion and possibility to reach pure dental translation. A case is presented where an adult female patient with early loss of the first lower permanent molars, minor lower crowding, and tooth biprotrusion was treated with upper first bicuspids extraction along with upper and lower space closure done with T-loops to promote best space closure control in order to correct the malocclusion and enhance facial aesthetics. PMID:29318054

  8. [Pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment for skeletal open bite].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hu, W; Sun, Y

    2001-05-01

    To Study the principles and rules of pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment for skeletal open bite patients. Thirty-two surgically treated open bite cases were analyzed, of which 9 were males, and 23 were females, aged from 16 to 38. Open bite was from 1 to 8.5 mm, average was 4 mm. 31 patients were Class III malocclusion, while 1 patient was Class II malocclusion. 1. Totally 21 patients were treated with orthodontics before and after orthognathic surgery, while 8 patients had pre-surgical orthodontics only, and other 3 had post-surgical orthodontics only. The duration for pre-surgical orthodontics was from 4 to 33 months, average was 12 months. The duration for post-surgical orthodontics was from 3 to 17 months, average was 8.5 months. 2. Presurgical orthodontic treatment included: Alignment of arches, decompensation of incisors, avoiding extrusion of incisors, and slight expansion of arches for coordination of arches. 3. Post-surgical orthodontic treatment included: Closure of residual spaces in the arches, realignment of arches, vertical elastics and Class II or III intermaxillary elastics. Skeletal open bites require combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgery for optimal and esthetical pleasing results.

  9. Applying extrusive orthodontic force without compromising the obturated canal space.

    PubMed

    Keinan, David; Szwec, Jerard; Matas, Avital; Moshonov, Joshua; Yitschaky, Oded

    2013-08-01

    Complicated tooth fractures can be the unfortunate result of orofacial trauma and can offer a therapeutic challenge for the dentist. A conservative solution for gaining supragingival sound tooth structure often includes orthodontic forced eruption. Usually, this procedure is carried out by applying extrusive force after placing a provisional acrylic Richmond crown on the tooth. However, this long-lasting dental treatment may jeopardize the coronal seal of the root canal space, leading to microleakage and endodontic failure. Orthodontic forced eruption demands application of force to an attachment connected to the remaining short clinical crown. In this article, the authors describe a case in which they used a new technique for orthodontic forced eruption of a traumatized tooth, using an extracanal attachment to apply extrusion force, and discuss its possible advantages and limitations. An extracanal attachment approach for orthodontic forced eruption without compromising the obturated canal space can be a solution for posttraumatic crown fracture. Practical Implications. The described procedure for forced eruption by using an extracanal pin attachment is efficient and convenient and does not require the clinician to apply force directly to the provisional crown. Therefore, during the application of force, there is less risk of loosening the provisional crown, and the canal space is kept intact with either the final restoration or dressing material.

  10. Effects of supplemental vibrational force on space closure, treatment duration, and occlusal outcome: A multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Andrew T; Woodhouse, Neil R; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Johnson, Nicola; Slipper, Carmel; Grant, James; Alsaleh, Maryam; Khaja, Yousef; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2018-04-01

    A multicenter parallel 3-arm randomized clinical trial was carried out in 3 university hospitals in the United Kingdom to investigate the effect of supplemental vibratory force on space closure and treatment outcome with fixed appliances. Eighty-one subjects less than 20 years of age with mandibular incisor irregularity undergoing extraction-based fixed appliance treatment were randomly allocated to supplementary (20 minutes/day) use of an intraoral vibrational device (AcceleDent; OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) (n = 29), an identical nonfunctional (sham) device (n = 25), or fixed-appliance only (n = 27). Space closure in the mandibular arch was measured from dental study casts taken at the start of space closure, at the next appointment, and at completion of space closure. Final records were taken at completion of treatment. Data were analyzed blindly on a per-protocol basis with descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear regression modeling with 95% confidence intervals. Sixty-one subjects remained in the trial at start of space closure, with all 3 groups comparable for baseline characteristics. The overall median rate of initial mandibular arch space closure (primary outcome) was 0.89 mm per month with no difference for either the AcceleDent group (difference, -0.09 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.39 to 0.22 mm/month; P = 0.57) or the sham group (difference, -0.02 mm/month; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.29 mm/month; P = 0.91) compared with the fixed only group. Similarly, no significant differences were identified between groups for secondary outcomes, including overall treatment duration (median, 18.6 months; P >0.05), number of visits (median, 12; P >0.05), and percentage of improvement in the Peer Assessment Rating (median, 90.0%; P >0.05). Supplemental vibratory force during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances does not affect space closure, treatment duration, total number of visits, or final occlusal outcome. NCT02314975

  11. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  12. A comparative evaluation of rate of space closure after extraction using E-chain and stretched modules in bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Rajat; Londhe, S M; Kumar, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the rate of space closure between E-chain mechanics in one side of upper arch and by elastomeric module with ligature wire on the contralateral side in same patient. Thirty bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases were taken up for comprehensive fixed orthodontic treatment after extraction of all first premolars to retract both upper and lower anterior teeth. After initial alignment and levelling, alginate impressions were made for upper and lower arches and models constructed. In the upper arch model a vernier caliper was used to measure the extraction space in both sides from middle point of distal surface of canine to the middle most point of mesial surface of second premolar. This is the amount of space present before the onset of retraction mechanics. During space closure procedure two different retracting components were applied in right and left sides of each case. On right side elastic chain (E-chain) applied in both upper and lower arches and on left side elastomeric module with steel ligature (0.010") stretched double its diameter fixed in both arches. Both the mechanisms produced approximately 250-300 g of force as measured by a tension gauge. After onset of retraction mechanism all patients were recalled after every six weeks for three visits. In all these three visits modules and E-chains were changed. In all three visits impression was made, models constructed, and the remaining available space was measured by a vernier caliper up to 0.1 mm level variations. Mean value for total space closure in case of E-chain was 2.777 mm whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 3.017 mm. Mean value for rate of space closure in case of E-chain was 0.2143 mm, whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 0.2343 mm with a standard deviation of 0.001104 and 0.001194, respectively. The standard deviation for total space closure was 0.1305 for E-chain and 0.1487 for module with ligature

  13. Orthodontic treatment for oral rehabilitation after multiple maxillofacial bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshiki; Ogino, Tomoko Kuroiwa; Hirashita, Ayao

    2008-09-01

    We present the orthodontic treatment of a patient with occlusal dysfunction after plastic surgery for multiple maxillofacial bone fractures caused by a traffic accident. The patient had mandibular deviation to the right because of inappropriate repositioning and fixation of the fractured bone and complete avulsion of both mandibular central incisors. The bilateral mandibular incisors, canines, and premolars were also suspected of partial avulsion or alveolar bone fracture. Several tests, including percussion and dental computed tomography, were performed on these teeth to rule out ankylosis and confirm tooth movement. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was carried out with expansion of the maxillary arch, alignment of both arches, and space closure between the mandibular lateral incisors to improve the occlusion. Good occlusion and interdigitation were obtained. Orthodontic treatment is useful for the rehabilitation of occlusal dysfunction caused by multiple maxillofacial bone fractures.

  14. Numeric simulation model for long-term orthodontic tooth movement with contact boundary conditions using the finite element method.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Ryo; Yamaoka, Satoshi; Anh, Tuan Nguyen; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2017-11-01

    Although many attempts have been made to simulate orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method, most were limited to analyses of the initial displacement in the periodontal ligament and were insufficient to evaluate the effect of orthodontic appliances on long-term tooth movement. Numeric simulation of long-term tooth movement was performed in some studies; however, neither the play between the brackets and archwire nor the interproximal contact forces were considered. The objectives of this study were to simulate long-term orthodontic tooth movement with the edgewise appliance by incorporating those contact conditions into the finite element model and to determine the force system when the space is closed with sliding mechanics. We constructed a 3-dimensional model of maxillary dentition with 0.022-in brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire. Forces of 100 cN simulating sliding mechanics were applied. The simulation was accomplished on the assumption that bone remodeling correlates with the initial tooth displacement. This method could successfully represent the changes in the moment-to-force ratio: the tooth movement pattern during space closure. We developed a novel method that could simulate the long-term orthodontic tooth movement and accurately determine the force system in the course of time by incorporating contact boundary conditions into finite element analysis. It was also suggested that friction is progressively increased during space closure in sliding mechanics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Transversal changes, space closure, and efficiency of conventional and self-ligating appliances : A quantitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianrui; Xue, Chaoran; He, Yiruo; Zhao, Mengyuan; Luo, Mengqi; Wang, Peiqi; Bai, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) were compared to conventional brackets (CBs) regarding their effectiveness on transversal changes and space closure, as well as the efficiency of alignment and treatment time. All previously published randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) dealing with SLBs and CBs were searched via electronic databases, e.g., MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. In addition, relevant journals were searched manually. Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers and assessment of the risk of bias was executed using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (version 5.3). A total of 976 patients in 17 RCTs were included in the study, of which 11 could be produced quantitatively and 2 showed a low risk of bias. Meta-analyses were found to favor CB for mandibular intercanine width expansion, while passive SLBs were more effective in posterior expansion. Moreover, CBs had an apparent advantage during short treatment periods. However, SLBs and CBs did not differ in closing spaces. Based on current clinical evidence obtained from RCTs, SLBs do not show clinical superiority compared to CBs in expanding transversal dimensions, space closure, or orthodontic efficiency. Further high-level studies involving randomized, controlled, clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results.

  16. Effect of orthodontic treatment involving first premolar extractions on mandibular third molar angulation and retromolar space.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-García, Luz-Victoria; Vaillard-Jiménez, Esther; García-Rocha, Araceli; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa

    2017-03-01

    Third molars present more problems than other teeth because they are the last teeth to erupt, and so it is important to assess their development when designing an orthodontic treatment plan. The aim of this study was to compare the angulation of the mandibular third molar and retromolar space before and after orthodontic treatment in cases involving first premolar extraction. 76 patients, 59 women (77.63%) and 17 men (22.36%), were recruited from the Orthodontics Clinic at Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (Mexico). Panoramic radiographs were analyzed before and after orthodontic treatment that included first premolar extractions, measuring retromolar space (RS) and the angles formed by the intersection of the axes of the third and second molar (α) and the intersection of the axis of the mandibular plane and third molar (β). The data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The angle α and β showed statistically significant differences on the left side in women. In men, only the right side α angle showed significant differences. Retromolar space increased significantly on both sides for both sexes. Third molar angulation presents different behaviors between men and women, with greater verticalization in women. Key words: Third molar, retromolar space, orthodontics.

  17. Effect of orthodontic treatment involving first premolar extractions on mandibular third molar angulation and retromolar space

    PubMed Central

    Vaillard-Jiménez, Esther; García-Rocha, Araceli; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Background Third molars present more problems than other teeth because they are the last teeth to erupt, and so it is important to assess their development when designing an orthodontic treatment plan. The aim of this study was to compare the angulation of the mandibular third molar and retromolar space before and after orthodontic treatment in cases involving first premolar extraction. Material and Methods 76 patients, 59 women (77.63%) and 17 men (22.36%), were recruited from the Orthodontics Clinic at Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (Mexico). Panoramic radiographs were analyzed before and after orthodontic treatment that included first premolar extractions, measuring retromolar space (RS) and the angles formed by the intersection of the axes of the third and second molar (α) and the intersection of the axis of the mandibular plane and third molar (β). Results The data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The angle α and β showed statistically significant differences on the left side in women. In men, only the right side α angle showed significant differences. Retromolar space increased significantly on both sides for both sexes. Conclusions Third molar angulation presents different behaviors between men and women, with greater verticalization in women. Key words:Third molar, retromolar space, orthodontics. PMID:28298970

  18. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2010-01-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar to the contralateral first molar, and from canine to canine in the mandibular arch was performed. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every 2 weeks. The total treatment time was 5 months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful closure of the anterior open bite with adequate overbite and interdigitation of the teeth were achieved. PMID:24151417

  19. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report.

    PubMed

    Aljhani, Ali S; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2011-04-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar to the contralateral first molar, and from canine to canine in the mandibular arch was performed. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every 2 weeks. The total treatment time was 5 months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful closure of the anterior open bite with adequate overbite and interdigitation of the teeth were achieved.

  20. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class I malocclusion with maxillary vertical excess--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Jyothi; Isaac, Anish; Shanthraj, Ravis; Madannagowda, Shivalinga

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of an adult male with vertical maxillary excess, excessive gingival display on smiling, a convex profile, proclined upper and lower incisors, and crowded lower anteriors with severe lip incompetence. The therapy included stages: (1) Pre surgical orthodontics- leveling and aligning of the maxillary and mandibular arch with closure of all extraction spaces. (2) Surgical phase-Lefort I osteotomy for superior maxillary impaction, 5 mm of anterior and 3 mm of posterior impaction ofmaxilla was done. (3) Post surgical orthodontics for finishing and detailing. The treatment lasted 16 months; improved facial esthetics significantly; and resulted in a normal occlusion, overjet, and overbite.

  1. Finite element analysis of the effect of force directions on tooth movement in extraction space closure with miniscrew sliding mechanics.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yukio; Kawamura, Jun; Fukui, Hisao

    2012-10-01

    Miniscrews placed in bone have been used as orthodontic anchorage in extraction space closure with sliding mechanics. The movement patterns of the teeth depend on the force directions. To move the teeth in a desired pattern, the appropriate direction of force must be selected. The purpose of this article is to clarify the relationship between force directions and movement patterns. By using the finite element method, orthodontic movements were simulated based on the remodeling law of the alveolar bone. The power arm length and the miniscrew position were varied to change the force directions. When the power arm was lengthened, rotation of the entire maxillary dentition decreased. The posterior teeth were effective for preventing rotation of the anterior teeth through an archwire. In cases of a high position of a miniscrew, bodily tooth movement was almost achieved. The vertical component of the force produced intrusion or extrusion of the entire dentition. Within the limits of the method, the mechanical simulations demonstrated the effect of force direction on movement patterns. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  3. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., orthodontic metal bracket, orthodontic wire clamp, preformed orthodontic space maintainer, orthodontic expansion screw retainer, orthodontic spring, orthodontic tube, and orthodontic wire. (b) Classification...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., orthodontic metal bracket, orthodontic wire clamp, preformed orthodontic space maintainer, orthodontic expansion screw retainer, orthodontic spring, orthodontic tube, and orthodontic wire. (b) Classification...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., orthodontic metal bracket, orthodontic wire clamp, preformed orthodontic space maintainer, orthodontic expansion screw retainer, orthodontic spring, orthodontic tube, and orthodontic wire. (b) Classification...

  6. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., orthodontic metal bracket, orthodontic wire clamp, preformed orthodontic space maintainer, orthodontic expansion screw retainer, orthodontic spring, orthodontic tube, and orthodontic wire. (b) Classification...

  7. Class III orthognathic surgical cases facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontics: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wu, JiaQi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Jiang, JiuHui

    2015-11-01

    To describe a multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes corticotomy, orthodontic force and orthognathic surgery for the management of skeletal Class III surgical cases. The main advantage of the combined techniques is a reduction in treatment time for young adult patients. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO) was delivered to three young adult patients during their pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. After aligning and levelling the dental arches, a piezosurgical corticotomy was performed to the buccal aspect of the alveolar bone. Bone graft materials were used to cover the decorticated area and soft tissue flaps were replaced. The mean time for extraction space closure was 5.4 ± 1.3 months and the mean time for pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was 12.0 ± 0.9 months. The average total treatment time was 20.4 ± 2.4 months. A pre-existing bony fenestration in the buccal cortex adjacent to the right lateral incisor root apex of Case 1 was corrected. The facial aesthetics of three patients improved following multidisciplinary treatment. This approach may be an efficient method for the orthognathic patient who desires a reduced treatment time, but further clinical research is required.

  8. Skeletal anchorage for orthodontic correction of severe maxillary protrusion after previous orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Nishi-Sasaki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Takuro; Nishio, Clarice; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The correction of a severe maxillary protrusion in an adult by distal movement of the maxillary molars has been one of the most difficult biomechanical problems in orthodontics. This article reports on the treatment of an adult case of severe maxillary protrusion and a large overjet treated with a skeletal anchorage system. A female patient, age 22 years and 3 months, complained of the difficulty of lip closure due to severe maxillary protrusion with a gummy smile. Overjet and overbite were +7.6 mm and -0.9 mm, respectively. She had a history of orthodontic treatment in which her maxillary first premolars were extracted. In order to conduct distal movement of the maxillary molars, anchor plates were placed in the zygomatic process. After achieving a Class I molar relationship, retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were performed. After a 2-year treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved with a Class I molar relationship. Her convex facial profile with upper lip protrusion was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension in lip closure. After a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of maxillary protrusion, indicating a stability of the occlusion. The result of this treatment indicated that skeletal anchorage is of great importance as a remedy for achieving intrusion and retraction of the maxillary incisors in cases of severe maxillary protrusion with a patient who had previous orthodontic treatment.

  9. Comparative assessment of the efficacy of closed helical loop and T-loop for space closure in lingual orthodontics-a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ajay; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, Rana Pratap; Srivastava, Kamna

    2018-05-28

    Retraction in lingual orthodontics has biomechanical differences when compared to labial orthodontics, which is not yet established. Thus, we have intended to compare the biomechanical characteristics of closed helical loop and T-loop on 1 mm activation with 30° of compensatory curvatures during retraction in lingual orthodontics. STb lingual brackets were indirectly bonded to maxillary typhodont model that was scanned to obtain FEM model. Closed helical loop (2 × 7 mm) and T-loop (6 × 2 × 7 mm) of 0.016″ × 0.016″ TMA wire were modeled without preactivation bends. Preactivation bends at 30° were given in the software. Boundary conditions were set. The force (F) and moment (M) of both the loops were determined on 1 mm activation, using ANSYS software. M/F ratio was also calculated for both the loops. T-loop exerted less force, thus increased M/F ratio as compared to closed helical loop on 1 mm activation. When torque has to be preserved in the anterior segment during retraction in lingual orthodontics, T-loop can be preferred over closed helical loop.

  10. Invisible Cost Effective Mechanics for Anterior Space Closure.

    PubMed

    Jumle, Aatish Vinod; Bagrecha, Saurabh; Gharat, Ninad; Misal, Abhijit; Toshniwal, N G

    2015-01-01

    The shifting paradigm towards invisible orthodontic treatment and also awareness in patients has allured their focus towards the most esthetic treatment approach. Also the lingual treatment is proved successful and is very well accepted by the patients. The problem that persist is its high expenses, which is not affordable by all patients. This article is a effort to treat a simple Class I malocclusion with anterior spacing using a simple, esthetic, Cost effective approach with acceptable results when esthetics plays a priority role.

  11. Orthodontic movement of a maxillary incisor through the midpalatal suture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra; de Oliveira Baldo, Taiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Ulian; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    Orthodontic space closure is a treatment alternative when a maxillary central incisor is missing. The objective of this report was to present an unusual treatment in which a right maxillary central incisor was moved through the midpalatal suture to replace the absent contralateral tooth. The biologic aspects and clinical appearance of the recontoured lateral and central incisors were analyzed. The position of the examined teeth and the appearance of the surrounding soft tissues were satisfactory; however, the upper midline frenulum deviated to the left. The incisor was successfully moved with no obvious detrimental effects as observed on the final radiographs. In the radiographic and tomographic examinations, the midline suture seemed to have followed the tooth movement. The patient expressed satisfaction with the results. It was concluded that orthodontic movement of the central incisor to replace a missing contralateral tooth is a valid treatment option, and the achievement of an esthetic result requires an interdisciplinary approach, including restorative dentistry and periodontics.

  12. A clinical study of space closure with nickel-titanium closed coil springs and an elastic module.

    PubMed

    Samuels, R H; Rudge, S J; Mair, L H

    1998-07-01

    A previous study has shown that a 150-gram nickel-titanium closed coil spring (Sentalloy, GAC International Inc.) closed spaces more quickly and more consistently than an elastic module (Alastik, Unitec/3M). This study used the same friction sensitive sliding mechanics of pitting the six anterior teeth against the second bicuspid and first molars, to examine the rate of space closure of 100-gram and 200-gram nickel-titanium closed coil springs. The results for the three springs and elastic module were compared. The nickel-titanium closed coil springs produced a more consistent space closure than the elastic module. The 150- and 200-gram springs produced a faster rate of space closure than the elastic module or the 100-gram spring. No significant difference was noted between the rates of closure for the 150- and the 200-gram springs.

  13. Effect of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite socket preservation on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10(-4)mm(2) in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®.

  14. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Massoud; Arayesh, Ali; Shamloo, Nafise; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR). Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®. PMID:25685742

  15. Orthodontic treatment of a complex open-bite malocclusion with temporary anchorage devices: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2010-08-01

    Orthodontic temporary anchorage devices provide a novel alternative to orthognathic surgery for the treatment of severe anterior open-bite malocclusions. These implantable devices provide skeletal anchorage for maxillary molar intrusion, allowing for mandibular autorotation and subsequent open-bite closure. This case demonstrates step-by-step treatment of a 41-year-old woman with a severe open-bite malocclusion. Detailed orthodontic mechanics are described at every stage of treatment.

  16. Perventricular double-device closure of wide-spaced multi-hole perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Hongxin, Li; Zhang, Hai-Zhou; Wenbin, Guo; Zou, Cheng-Wei; Farhaj, Zeeshan

    2017-04-17

    Device closure of a wide-spaced multi-hole PmVSD is difficult to succeed in percutaneous approach. This study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of perventricular device closure of wide-spaced multi-hole PmVSD using a double-device implanting technique. Sixteen patients with wide-spaced multi-hole PmVSD underwent perventricular closure with two devices through an inferior median sternotomy approach under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. The largest hole and its adjacent small holes were occluded with an optimal-sized device. The far-away residual hole was occluded with the other device using a probe-assisted delivery system. All patients were followed up for a period of 1 to 4 years to determine the residual shunt, atrioventricular block and the adjacent valvular function. The number of the holes of the PmVSD was 2 to 4. The maximum distance between the holes was 5.0 to 10.0 mm (median, 6.4 mm). The diameter of the largest hole was 2.5 to 7.0 mm (median, 3.6 mm). The success rate of double-device closure was 100%. Immediate residual shunts were found in 6 patients (38%), and incomplete right bundle branch block at discharge occurred in 3 cases (19%). Both complications decreased to 6% at 1-year follow-up. Neither of them had a severe device-related complication. Perventricular closure of a wide-spaced multi-hole PmVSD using a double-device implanting technique is feasible, safe, and efficacious. In multi-hole PmVSDs with the distance between the holes of more than 5 mm, double-device implantation may achieve a complete occlusion.

  17. Rehabilitative treatment of cleft lip and palate: experience of the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - USP (HRAC-USP) - Part 2: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, José Alberto de Souza; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini; LAURIS, Rita de Cássia Moura Carvalho; de ALMEIDA, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; NEVES, Lucimara Teixeira; TRINDADE-SUEDAM, Ivy Kiemle; YAEDÚ, Renato Yassutaka Faria; SOARES, Simone; PINTO, João Henrique Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the pediatric dentistry and orthodontic treatment protocol of rehabilitation of cleft lip and palate patients performed at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies - University of São Paulo (HRAC-USP). Pediatric dentistry provides oral health information and should be able to follow the child with cleft lip and palate since the first months of life until establishment of the mixed dentition, craniofacial growth and dentition development. Orthodontic intervention starts in the mixed dentition, at 8-9 years of age, for preparing the maxillary arch for secondary bone graft procedure (SBGP). At this stage, rapid maxillary expansion is performed and a fixed palatal retainer is delivered before SBGP. When the permanent dentition is completed, comprehensive orthodontic treatment is initiated aiming tooth alignment and space closure. Maxillary permanent canines are commonly moved mesially in order to substitute absent maxillary lateral incisors. Patients with complete cleft lip and palate and poor midface growth will require orthognatic surgery for reaching adequate anteroposterior interarch relationship and good facial esthetics. PMID:22666849

  18. Comparison of anchorage reinforcement with temporary anchorage devices or a Herbst appliance during lingual orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Rebecca; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2015-06-20

    Orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction in cases of aplasia or extraction requires stable anchorage. Reinforcement may be achieved by using either temporary anchorage devices (TAD) or a fixed, functional appliance. The objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of both methods by testing the null-hypothesis of no significant difference in velocity of space closure (in mm/month) between them. In addition, we set out to describe the quality of posterior space management and treatment-related factors, such as loss of anchorage (assessed in terms of proportions of gap closure by posterior protraction or anterior retraction), frequencies of incomplete space closure, and potential improvement in the sagittal canine relationship. Twenty-seven subjects (15 male/12 female) with a total of 36 sites treated with a lingual multi-bracket appliance were available for retrospective evaluation of the effects of anchorage reinforcement achieved with either a Herbst appliance (n(subjects) = 15; 7 both-sided/8 single-sided Herbst appliances; n(sites) = 22) or TADs (n(subjects )= 12; 2 both-sided; 10 single-sided; n(sites) = 14). Descriptive analysis was based on measurements using intra-oral photographs which were individually scaled to corresponding plaster casts and taken on insertion of anchorage mechanics (T1), following removal of anchorage mechanics (T2), and at the end of multi-bracket treatment (T3). The null-hypothesis was rejected: The rate of mean molar protraction was significantly faster in the Herbst-reinforced group (0.51 mm/month) than in the TAD group (0.35). While complete space closure by sheer protraction of posterior teeth was achieved in all Herbst-treated cases, space closure in the TAD group was achieved in 76.9% of subjects by sheer protraction of molars, and it was incomplete in 50% of cases (mean gap residues: 1 mm). Whilst there was a deterioration in the canine relationship towards

  19. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiekwe, G I; Oguchi, C O; daCosta, O O; Utomi, I L

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial orthodontics has been shown to be a critical component of the care of patients with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and clinical experience in cleft and craniofacial care, of orthodontic residents in Nigeria. Questionnaires were sent out to orthodontic residents in the six Postgraduate Orthodontic Training Centers in the country at that time. The questionnaires were self-administered and covered areas in beliefs in cleft care and the clinical experience and challenges faced by the residents in the provision of craniofacial orthodontic care at their various institutions. Thirty-three respondents returned completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 97%. All the respondents believed that residents should be involved in cleft and craniofacial care. Postnatal counseling was the clinical procedure in which the residents reported the highest level of clinical experience (47.4%). The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their centers. Orthodontic residents in Nigeria believe that they should be involved in the management of patients with craniofacial anomalies and cleft lip and palate. However, majority of the residents have limited clinical experience in the management of these patients. A lot more needs to be done, to expose orthodontic residents in training, to all aspects of the orthodontic and multidisciplinary team care required for the cleft/craniofacial patient.

  20. Orthodontic treatment for a patient with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakathir, Manal A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects myelinated axons, destroying the myelin and damaging axons to varying degrees. The course of MS is highly varied and unpredictable. Metals used during orthodontic treatment can negatively affect imaging techniques used to diagnose and monitor the progression of MS, while medications used to treat MS can negatively affect orthodontic tooth movement. The present case report highlights some of the challenges encountered during orthodontic treatment of a patient with MS and how to overcome them. The patient was a 20-year-old woman with complaints of diastema and spacing in the upper arch. Although closing the spaces was challenging due to some of the MS medications, she was treated successfully, without complications, within 20 months using closing loops. PMID:28717636

  1. [Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-qi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Zou, Wei; Bai, Yun-yang; Jiang, Jiu-hui

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the treatment time and the anterior and posterior teeth movement pattern as closing extraction space for the Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment. There were 10 skeletal Class III patients in accelerated osteogenic orthodontic group (AOO) and 10 patients in control group. Upper first premolars were extracted in all patients. After leveling and alignment (T2), corticotomy was performed in the area of maxillary anterior teeth to accelerate space closing.Study models of upper dentition were taken before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after space closing (T3). All the casts were laser scanned, and the distances of the movement of incisors and molars were digitally measured. The distances of tooth movement in two groups were recorded and analyzed. The alignment time between two groups was not statistically significant. The treatment time in AOO group from T2 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 9.1 ± 4.1 months). The treatment time in AOO group from T1 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 6.3 ± 4.8 months), and the differences were significant (P < 0.01). Average distances of upper incisor movement (D1) in AOO group and control group were (2.89 ± 1.48) and (3.10 ± 0.95) mm, respectively. Average distances of upper first molar movement (D2) in AOO group and control group were (2.17 ± 1.13) and (2.45 ± 1.04) mm, respectively.No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (P > 0.05). Accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment could accelerate space closing in Class III surgical patients and shorten preoperative orthodontic time. There were no influence on the movement pattern of anterior and posterior teeth during pre-surgical orthodontic treatment.

  2. Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, and post-retention changes. Practical information useful to the physician who encounters patient with these disorders is balanced with good research data to support the various claims. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21249042

  3. Lingual vs. labial fixed orthodontic appliances: systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Gölz, Lina; Jäger, Andreas; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare the therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial orthodontic fixed appliances from clinical trials on human patients in an evidence-based manner. Randomized and prospective non-randomized clinical trials comparing lingual and labial appliances were included. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed using the Cochrane tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2015, without limitations. A total of 13 papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. Compared with labial appliances, lingual appliances were associated with increased overall oral discomfort, increased speech impediment (measured using auditory analysis), worse speech performance assessed by laypersons, increased eating difficulty, and decreased intermolar width. On the other hand, lingual appliances were associated with increased intercanine width and significantly decreased anchorage loss of the maxillary first molar during space closure. Based on existing trials, there is insufficient evidence to make robust recommendations for lingual fixed orthodontic appliances regarding their therapeutic or adverse effects, as the quality of evidence was low. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  5. Orthodontic-periodontal interactions: Orthodontic extrusion in interdisciplinary regenerative treatments.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Maria Giacinta; Kaitsas, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Orthodontics is a periodontal treatment. "Guided orthodontic regeneration" (GOR) procedures use orthodontic movements in perio-restorative patients. The GOR technique includes a guided orthodontic "soft tissue" regeneration (GOTR) and a guided orthodontic "bone" regeneration (GOBR) with a plastic soft tissue approach and a regenerating reality. The increased amount of soft tissue gained with orthodontic movement can be used for subsequent periodontal regenerative techniques. The increased amount of bone can as well improve primary implant stability and, eventually, simplify a GTR technique to regenerate soft tissues, to restore tooth with external resorption in aesthetic zone or to extract a tooth to create new hard-soft tissue for adjacent teeth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. The use of titanium miniscrews for molar protraction in extraction treatment.

    PubMed

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca; Arcuri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Orthodontic space closure in the mandibular arch by protraction of the mandibular second molars, after the extraction of first molars, may sometimes result in loss of incisor anchorage when using conventional orthodontic procedures. The introduction of miniscrews for immediate loading as orthodontic anchorage, has enlarged treatment possibilities. The authors illustrate their clinical experience in an adult patient treated with the extraction of mandibular first molars and the protraction of second and third molars into the extraction sites. Anchorage control was achieved with the surgical insertion of titanium miniscrews for immediate loading in the cortical bone distal to second bicuspids. Space closure was achieved by means of sliding mechanics according to Bidimensional Technique. The position of lower incisors was maintained preventing any detrimental facial effect.

  7. Orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Olive, Richard J

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of treating children with impacted maxillary canines by orthodontic treatment alone. The subjects were 28 children (mean age: 13.5 years, range 11.4-16.1 years) with between them 32 palatally impacted canines. The overlying primary canines were extracted between 0 and 42 months before the start of appliance treatment to open space in the arches for the impacted teeth. No other surgical procedures were carried out prior to the start of appliance treatment. Appliance treatment was deferred for at least six months if an impacted canine was the main reason for treatment, otherwise treatment was commenced according to the needs of the patient. In 94% of the cases, the severity of impaction lessened following extraction of the overlying primary canines and orthodontic treatment. The deepest impactions tended to occur in the oldest children. The majority (75%) of the canines emerged following orthodontic treatment to create space for them in the arch; the remainder were surgically exposed. Appliance treatment tended to take longer in children with the deepest impactions. It is concluded that fixed appliance treatment to create space for a palatally impacted canine is an effective management option for children with impacted maxillary canines.

  8. Clinical outcomes for patients finished with the SureSmile™ method compared with conventional fixed orthodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Alford, Timothy J; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K; Eckert, George J; Snyder, Ronald J

    2011-05-01

    Utilize American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) cast/radiographic evaluation (CRE) to compare a series of 63 consecutive patients, finished with manual wire bending (conventional) treatment, vs a subsequent series of 69 consecutive patients, finished by the same orthodontist using the SureSmile™ (SS) method. Records of 132 nonextraction patients were scored by a calibrated examiner blinded to treatment mode. Age and discrepancy index (DI) between groups were compared by t-tests. A chi-square test was used to compare for differences in sex and whether the patient was treated using braces only (no orthopedic correction). Analysis of covariance tested for differences in CRE outcomes and treatment times, with sex and DI included as covariates. A logarithmic transformation of CRE outcomes and treatment times was used because their distributions were skewed. Significance was defined as P < .05. Compared with conventional finishing, SS patients had significantly lower DI scores, less treatment time (∼7 months), and better CRE scores for first-order alignment-rotation and interproximal space closure; however, second-order root angulation (RA) was inferior. SS patients were treated in less time to better CRE scores for first-order rotation (AR) and interproximal space closure (IC) but on the average, malocclusions were less complex and second order root alignment was inferior, compared with patients finished with manual wire bending.

  9. Clinical outcomes for patients finished with the SureSmile™ method compared with conventional fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Timothy J.; Roberts, W. Eugene; Hartsfield, James K.; Eckert, George J.; Snyder, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Utilize American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) cast/radiographic evaluation (CRE) to compare a series of 63 consecutive patients, finished with manual wire bending (conventional) treatment, vs a subsequent series of 69 consecutive patients, finished by the same orthodontist using the SureSmile™ (SS) method. Materials and Methods Records of 132 nonextraction patients were scored by a calibrated examiner blinded to treatment mode. Age and discrepancy index (DI) between groups were compared by t-tests. A chi-square test was used to compare for differences in sex and whether the patient was treated using braces only (no orthopedic correction). Analysis of covariance tested for differences in CRE outcomes and treatment times, with sex and DI included as covariates. A logarithmic transformation of CRE outcomes and treatment times was used because their distributions were skewed. Significance was defined as P < .05. Results Compared with conventional finishing, SS patients had significantly lower DI scores, less treatment time (~7 months), and better CRE scores for first-order alignment-rotation and interproximal space closure; however, second-order root angulation (RA) was inferior. Conclusion SS patients were treated in less time to better CRE scores for first-order rotation (AR) and interproximal space closure (IC) but on the average, malocclusions were less complex and second order root alignment was inferior, compared with patients finished with manual wire bending. PMID:21261488

  10. Allergy and orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  11. Evaluation of Interdental Spaces of the Mandibular Posterior Area for Orthodontic Mini-Implants with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Moslemzadeh, Seyed Hossein; Sohrabi, Aydin; Kananizadeh, Yusef; Nourizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The use of mini-implants has increased in recent years because of their role in absolute anchorage, but the placement sites may affect the success or failure of the procedure, so it is very important to determine the appropriate and safe location for orthodontic mini-implants. On the other hand, the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), which offers clear 3-Dimentional (3D) images, has been widely used in orthodontics and implant dentistry for surgical guidance of mini-implant placement. Aim The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate inter-radicular spaces between mandibular canines to second molars using cone beam 3D images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study, maxillofacial CBCT scan data were obtained from 40 adults. The 3D images were evaluated in five axial sections at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm from the cementoenamel Junction (CEJ). To determine inter-radicular spaces, tangent lines were drawn buccolingually to the roots in axial section and the minimum distance between these two lines was measured. The data was analysed using Friedman test with SPSS(ver.13). Results Interradicular spaces of canine to second molar increased from cervical to apical direction. The maximum distance was recorded at 4 mm from the CEJ between first and second molars. Conclusion According to our findings there is a distinct pattern of inter-radicular space changes in mandible. Attention to this pattern during placement of mini-implants can ensure the safety of the procedure. PMID:28571251

  12. Case studies on local orthodontic traction by minis-implants before implant rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei; Xu, Wei-Feng; Ma, Zhi-Gui; Zhang, Shan-Yong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dentition defect with malocclusion is a common occurrence in the clinical work. To restore proper occlusion, preprosthetic corrections of these malposed teeth are often indispensible. The use of orthodontic mini-implants as temporary anchorage devices provides a plausible treatment for those patients with local problems. The aim of this study was to present two cases using local orthodontic traction in conjunction with mini-implants to provide necessary conditions for implant rehabilitation in three dimensional space. Clinical consideration: Two cases who had dentition defect with malocclusion were included in the present study. As both of them rejected crown reduction or orthodontics treatment, local orthodontic traction by mini-implants was used to restore normal space for implant rehabilitation in three dimensions. Careful mechanics analysis and personalized mechanical device were under consideration. The results showed that the biological responses of the corrected teeth and the surrounding bony structures appeared normal and acceptable. Moreover the patients achieved an ideal local occlusion with a short treatment time. Conclusion: In conclusion local orthodontic traction by mini-implants was a less-invasive and short-term method with favorable effects and less necessary occlusal adjustments. PMID:26221389

  13. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  14. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pulgaonkar, Rohan; Chitra, Prasad

    2015-11-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered.

  15. Conservative reconstruction of the smile by orthodontic, bleaching, and restorative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Machado, Lucas Silveira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Garcia; Santos, Eduardo Almada; Lugato, Isabel Cristina Prado Torres; Sundfeld Neto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The following is a clinical case report of a patient whose chief complaint was the presence of generalized spacing in the maxillary anterior segment following orthodontic treatment. After meticulous clinical analyses and discussions of the clinical procedures to be adopted, dental bleaching was performed in both arches with 10% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme 10% Hydrogen Peroxide - Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, USA) after the conclusion and stabilization of orthodontic treatment. Then, the orthodontic appliance was removed and the diastemas in the maxillary anterior teeth were closed with Amelogen Plus (Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, USA) resin composite. It was observed that the association of orthodontic, bleaching, and restorative procedures was capable of restoring dental shape, function, and esthetics, allowing the patient to smile without hesitation. PMID:22229015

  16. Indication for and frequency of early orthodontic therapy or interceptive measures.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Peter

    2003-05-01

    -to-edge bite) in 1.9%. Extreme anterior open bite > or =6 mm) was recorded in only two children (0.09%). In 19.6% of the children, a supporting zone was reduced in at least one quadrant, necessitating interceptive measures such as the insertion of a space maintainer or later orthodontic treatment (space opening or extraction therapy).

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Cement Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, Eldad; Sharabi, Revital; Eden, Adi; Zabrovsky, Asher; Ben-Gal, Gilad; Sharon, Esi; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Beyth, Nurit

    2018-01-01

    Enamel demineralization is a common problem found in patients using orthodontic devices, such as orthodontic braces. It was found that Streptoccocus mutans growth increases adjacent to orthodontic devices, which may result in caries development. Incorporated antibacterial quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles were previously shown to be highly efficacious against various bacteria. Combining antibacterial materials in orthodontic cement may be advantageous to prevent bacterial outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of orthodontic cement containing QPEI nanoparticles in reducing S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of extracted lower incisors. The antibacterial effect on S. mutans and L. casei outgrowth of Neobond bracket adhesive orthodontic cement with and without QPEI nanoparticles was compared. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using crystal violet staining and bacterial count (CFU/mL). The teeth in the experimental group, with the QPEI nanoparticles cement, showed significantly lower optical density (OD) values and CFU counts of S. mutans and L. casei than the teeth in the control group (p < 0.05). Based on the results, it can be concluded that orthodontic cement containing QPEI nanoparticles significantly inhibits S. mutans and L. casei growth around orthodontic brackets. PMID:29584643

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Cement Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Eldad; Sharabi, Revital; Eden, Adi; Zabrovsky, Asher; Ben-Gal, Gilad; Sharon, Esi; Pietrokovski, Yoav; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Beyth, Nurit

    2018-03-27

    Enamel demineralization is a common problem found in patients using orthodontic devices, such as orthodontic braces. It was found that Streptoccocus mutans growth increases adjacent to orthodontic devices, which may result in caries development. Incorporated antibacterial quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles were previously shown to be highly efficacious against various bacteria. Combining antibacterial materials in orthodontic cement may be advantageous to prevent bacterial outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of orthodontic cement containing QPEI nanoparticles in reducing S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of extracted lower incisors. The antibacterial effect on S. mutans and L. casei outgrowth of Neobond bracket adhesive orthodontic cement with and without QPEI nanoparticles was compared. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using crystal violet staining and bacterial count (CFU/mL). The teeth in the experimental group, with the QPEI nanoparticles cement, showed significantly lower optical density (OD) values and CFU counts of S. mutans and L. casei than the teeth in the control group ( p < 0.05). Based on the results, it can be concluded that orthodontic cement containing QPEI nanoparticles significantly inhibits S. mutans and L. casei growth around orthodontic brackets.

  19. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong

    2010-06-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing.

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal changes during orthodontic tooth movement - work in progress.

    PubMed

    Zimbran, Adela; Dudea, Diana; Gasparik, Cristina; Dudea, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment. The upper first premolars were extracted bilaterally due to severe crowding, and the canines were distalized using elastomeric chain with a net force of 100 cN. Ultrasonographic scans (US scans) were performed before, during and after retraction, in three distinct areas of the canines buccal surface: mesial, middle and distal. The reference point was the bracket, which appeared hyperechoic on the US scan. Four different dimensions were obtained: D1 (depth of the sulcus), D2 (thickness of the gingiva), D3 (length of the supracrestal fibers), D4 (width of periodontal space). An increase of D1 was observed in all three areas of the periodontium, during orthodontic treatment. D3 was strongly correlated before and immediately after force delivery only for the mesial area (r=0.828, p<0.05). In total, 228 variables were statistically analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, in order to demonstrate the relationship between periodontal findings during orthodontic tooth movement. High-resolution ultrasonography has the capability to obviate changes in periodontal ligament space and free gingiva during orthodontic tooth movement.

  1. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome.

    PubMed

    AlSarheed, Maha A; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S

    2015-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan.

  2. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, Maha A.; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan. PMID:26219452

  3. Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meeran, Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of orthodontic treatment are numerous and in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Orthodontic treatment can play an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it carries with it the risks of enamel demineralization, tissue damage, root resorption, open gingival embrasures in the form of triangular spaces, allergic reactions to nickel, and treatment failure in the form of relapse. These potential complications are easily avoidable by undertaking certain precautions and timely interventions by both the orthodontist and the patient. The orthodontist must ensure that the patient is aware of the associated risks and stress the importance of the patient's role in preventing these untoward outcomes. The decision whether to proceed with the orthodontic treatment is essentially a risk-benefit analysis, where the perceived benefits of commencing treatment outweigh the potential risks. This article provides an overview of the iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and the role of the patient as well as the orthodontist in preventing the associated risks. PMID:24987646

  4. Space Station environmental control and life support system distribution and loop closure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, William R.; Reuter, James L.; Schunk, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Space Station's environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) encompasses functional elements concerned with temperature and humidity control, atmosphere control and supply, atmosphere revitalization, fire detection and suppression, water recovery and management, waste management, and EVA support. Attention is presently given to functional and physical module distributions of the ECLSS among these elements, with a view to resource requirements and safety implications. A strategy of physical distribution coupled with functional centralization is for the air revitalization and water reclamation systems. Also discussed is the degree of loop closure desirable in the initial operational capability status Space Station's oxygen and water reclamation loops.

  5. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  6. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    PubMed

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  7. Orthodontics is temporomandibular disorder-neutral.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Daniele; Stellini, Edoardo; Gracco, Antonio; Lombardo, Luca; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    To assess if subjects with a clinical diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have a similar prevalence of orthodontic history as a population of TMD-free individuals and to assess if those subjects who have a history of ideal orthodontics have fewer symptoms than those with a history of nonideal orthodontics. Two groups of age- and sex-matched individuals belonging to either a study ("TMD") or a control group were recruited. Subjects who underwent orthodontic treatment were classified as having a history of ideal or nonideal orthodontics based on the current presence of normal values in five reference occlusal features. The correlation with a history of orthodontic treatment was not clinically significant for any of the TMD diagnoses (ie, muscle pain, joint pain, disc displacement, arthrosis), with Phi (Φ) coefficient values within the -0.120 to 0.058 range. Within the subset of patients with a history of orthodontics, the correlation of ideal or nonideal orthodontic treatment with TMD diagnoses was, in general, not clinically relevant or was weakly relevant. Findings confirmed the substantial absence of clinically significant effects of orthodontics as far as TMD is concerned. The very low correlation values of a negative or positive history of ideal or nonideal orthodontics with the different TMD diagnoses suggest that orthodontic treatment could not have a true role for TMD.

  8. Perceptions of orthodontic case complexity among orthodontists, general practitioners, orthodontic residents, and dental students.

    PubMed

    Heath, Elizabeth M; English, Jeryl D; Johnson, Cleverick D; Swearingen, Elizabeth B; Akyalcin, Sercan

    2017-02-01

    Our aims were to assess the perceptions of orthodontic case complexity among orthodontists, general dentists, orthodontic residents, and dental students and to compare their perceptions with the American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI). Orthodontists, general dentists, orthodontic residents, and dental students (n = 343) participated in a Web-based survey. Pretreatment orthodontic records of 29 cases with varying DI scores were obtained. Respondents were asked to evaluate case complexity on a 100-point visual analog scale. Additional information was collected on participants' orthodontic education and orthodontic treatment preferences. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between the average complexity score and the DI score. Repeated measures analysis with linear mixed models was used to assess the association between the average complexity score and the DI score and whether the association between the 2 scores varied by level of difficulty or panel group. The level of significance for all analyses was set at P <0.05. The results showed that 71.6% of general dentists provided some orthodontic services, with 21.0% providing full fixed appliances and 38.3% providing clear aligners. DI score was significantly associated with complexity perceptions (P = 0.0168). Associations between average complexity and DI score varied significantly by provider group (P = 0.0033), with orthodontists and residents showing the strongest associations. When the DI score was greater than 15, orthodontists and residents perceived cases as more complex than did the other provider groups. Orthodontists and orthodontic residents had better judgments for evaluating orthodontic case complexity. The high correlation between orthodontic professionals' perceptions and DI scores suggested that additional orthodontic education and training have an influence on the ability to recognize case complexity. Copyright © 2017 American Association of

  9. Orthodontic Intervention to Impacted and Transposed Lower Canines

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Impacted and transposed teeth cause serious difficulties in tooth eruption and movement as well as esthetic and functional outcomes. Proper treatment planning including good biomechanical control is essential in order to avoid side effects during traction and aligning of the impacted and/or transposed teeth. The purpose of the present study was to present a successfully treated female patient having transposed and impacted lower canines by means of a modified lingual arch and fixed orthodontic appliance. A female patient aged 13 years and 9 months presented to the orthodontic department with a chief compliant of bilateral spacing and missing teeth in mandibular dentition. After leveling and creating sufficient space in the mandibular arch for the canines, a modified lingual arch was cemented to the mandibular first molars. The lingual arch had two hooks extending to the distobuccal areas of the canine spaces. Elastic chains were applied between the hooks on the lingual arch and the ligatures tied to the attachments on the canine crowns. The light forces generated by elastic materials caused impacted canines to erupt and tend towards their own spaces in the dental arch. As a result, impacted and transposed lower canines were properly positioned in their spaces, and the treatment results were stable during the retention period. PMID:28540090

  10. Periodontic and orthodontic treatment in adults.

    PubMed

    Ong, Marianne M A; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an update of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics in adults. Specific areas reviewed are the reaction of periodontal tissue to orthodontic forces, the influence of tooth movement on the periodontium, the effect of circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy in preventing orthodontic relapse, the effect of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, microbiology associated with orthodontic bands, and mucogingival and esthetic considerations. In addition, the relationship between orthodontics and implants (eg, using dental implants for orthodontic anchorage) is discussed.

  11. Application of the 2-piece orthodontic C-implant for provisional restoration with laser welded customized coping: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paek, Janghyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Jeong, Do-Min; Shim, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim

    2015-03-25

    This article presents the application of laser welding technique to fabricate an orthodontic mini-implant provisional restoration in missing area after limited orthodontic treatment. A 15-year-old boy case is presented. Two-piece orthodontic C-implant was placed after regaining space for missing right mandibular central incisor. Due to angular deviation of implant, customized abutment was required. Ready-made head part was milled and lingual part of customized abutment was made with non-precious metal. Two parts then were laser welded (Master 1000, Elettrolaser Italy, Verona, Italy) and indirect lab composite (3 M ESPE Sinfony, St. Paul, MN, USA) was built up. The patient had successful result, confirmed by clinical and radiographic examinations. Before the patient is ready to get a permanent restoration later on, this provisional restoration will be used. This case shows that a two-piece orthodontic C-implant system can be used to maintain small edentulous space after orthodontic treatment.

  12. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal management of orthodontic pain.

    PubMed

    Topolski, Francielle; Moro, Alexandre; Correr, Gisele Maria; Schimim, Sasha Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Pain is an undesirable side effect of orthodontic tooth movement, which causes many patients to give up orthodontic treatment or avoid it altogether. The aim of this study was to investigate, through an analysis of the scientific literature, the best method for managing orthodontic pain. The methodological aspects involved careful definition of keywords and diligent search in databases of scientific articles published in the English language, without any restriction of publication date. We recovered 1281 articles. After the filtering and classification of these articles, 56 randomized clinical trials were selected. Of these, 19 evaluated the effects of different types of drugs for the control of orthodontic pain, 16 evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic pain, and 21 evaluated other methods of pain control. Drugs reported as effective in orthodontic pain control included ibuprofen, paracetamol, naproxen sodium, aspirin, etoricoxib, meloxicam, piroxicam, and tenoxicam. Most studies report favorable outcomes in terms of alleviation of orthodontic pain with the use of low-level laser therapy. Nevertheless, we noticed that there is no consensus, both for the drug and for laser therapy, on the doses and clinical protocols most appropriate for orthodontic pain management. Alternative methods for orthodontic pain control can also broaden the clinician's range of options in the search for better patient care.

  14. Optimal management of orthodontic pain

    PubMed Central

    Topolski, Francielle; Moro, Alexandre; Correr, Gisele Maria; Schimim, Sasha Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Pain is an undesirable side effect of orthodontic tooth movement, which causes many patients to give up orthodontic treatment or avoid it altogether. The aim of this study was to investigate, through an analysis of the scientific literature, the best method for managing orthodontic pain. The methodological aspects involved careful definition of keywords and diligent search in databases of scientific articles published in the English language, without any restriction of publication date. We recovered 1281 articles. After the filtering and classification of these articles, 56 randomized clinical trials were selected. Of these, 19 evaluated the effects of different types of drugs for the control of orthodontic pain, 16 evaluated the effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic pain, and 21 evaluated other methods of pain control. Drugs reported as effective in orthodontic pain control included ibuprofen, paracetamol, naproxen sodium, aspirin, etoricoxib, meloxicam, piroxicam, and tenoxicam. Most studies report favorable outcomes in terms of alleviation of orthodontic pain with the use of low-level laser therapy. Nevertheless, we noticed that there is no consensus, both for the drug and for laser therapy, on the doses and clinical protocols most appropriate for orthodontic pain management. Alternative methods for orthodontic pain control can also broaden the clinician’s range of options in the search for better patient care. PMID:29588616

  15. Adjusting dento-alveolar morphology with orthodontic mini-implants (miniscrews). A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Cristina Dana; Pop, R V; Pop, Silvia-Izabella; Bratu, Em A

    2011-01-01

    Mini-implants are increasingly popular for creating skeletal anchorage in clinical orthodontics. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the clinical uses, benefits and drawbacks of the miniscrew implants used to reorder and adjust the dento-alveolar morphology of the overerupted maxillary molars. The loss of the lower premolars and molars very often leads to overeruption of the opposing maxillary teeth, combined with insufficient space for prosthetic restorations. The available treatment options are either a significant reduction of the maxillary teeth, often associated with endodontic treatment, or a complex orthodontic treatment. In the previous years, different cases of orthodontic intrusion with mini-implants were described. In this report, the authors describe a case of a young patient who needed a maxillary molar intrusion in order to get sufficient prosthetic space for an implant supported fixed restoration in the third quadrant. This treatment type preserved maximum tooth structures and allowed a successful mandibular restoration.

  16. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Dannan, Aous

    2010-01-01

    Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients’ periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment. PMID:20922083

  17. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Dannan, Aous

    2010-01-01

    Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients' periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment.

  18. [The prehistory of orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Julien

    2015-06-01

    Orthodontics came into being in 1728. Previously, practitioners were at a loss when confronted with crooked teeth. A Latin philosopher had an ingenious flash of orthodontic inspiration. Other authors were content to either extract the malposed teeth or to modify their shape. However, interest in an approach to preventive orthodontics had now begun. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  19. Comparison of excursive occlusal force parameters in post-orthodontic and non-orthodontic subjects using T-Scan® III.

    PubMed

    Qadeer, Sarah; Abbas, Ahmed A; Sarinnaphakorn, Lertrit; Kerstein, Robert B

    2018-01-01

    Published studies indicate that orthodontically treated patients demonstrate increased posterior occlusal friction contributing to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms. This study investigated measured excursive movement occlusal contact parameters and their association with TMD symptoms between non- and post-orthodontic subjects. Twenty-five post-orthodontic and 25 non-orthodontic subjects underwent T-Scan® computerized occlusal analysis to determine their disclusion time (DT), the excursive frictional contacts, and occlusal scheme. Each subject answered a TMD questionnaire to determine the presence or absence of TMD symptoms. Statistical analysis compared the within group and between group differences (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed in the disclusion time: DT = 2.69 s in the post-orthodontic and 1.36 s in the non-orthodontic group. In the non-orthodontic group, 72.7% working and 27.3% non-working side contacts were seen, while in the post-orthodontic group, (near equal) 54.7% working and 45.3% non-working side contacts were seen. Presence of canine guidance was seen in 60% of the non-orthodontic group and 24% in the post-orthodontic group. Seventy-two percent of the post orthodontics subjects presented with one or more TMD symptoms. Significantly longer disclusion time, higher posterior frictional contacts, and more TMD symptoms were observed in the post-orthodontic group, suggesting that orthodontic treatment increases posterior tooth friction. Computerized occlusal analysis is an objective diagnostic tool determining the quality of excursive movements following orthodontic treatment.

  20. Orthodontic extrusion of the lower third molar with an orthodontic mini implant.

    PubMed

    Park, Wonse; Park, Joon-Soo; Kim, Yun-Mi; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Kim, Kee-Deog

    2010-10-01

    Neurologic changes owing to damage to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) are the most serious complication of lower third molar (M3) extraction because of their close spatial relationship. We adopted the concept of regional orthodontic treatment and extrusion, using skeletal anchorage with an orthodontic mini implant. Two malformed M3s that were closely apposed to the IAN were extruded with the aid of 3 or 4 orthodontic brackets and a mini implant. Both of the M3s were extruded successfully. The patients experienced little discomfort with the orthodontic appliances and there was neither permanent neurologic damage nor fracture of the root fragments following subsequent M3 extraction. Orthodontic treatment using a miniscrew to separate the IAN and M3, or luxation of the M3 may be a good alternative treatment option for extrusion of a vertically impacted lower M3 with fragile roots. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implants for orthodontic anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Sun, Yannan; Zhang, Yimei; Cai, Ting; Sun, Feng; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Implantanchorage continues to receive much attention as an important orthodontic anchorage. Since the development of orthodontic implants, the scope of applications has continued to increase. Although multiple reviews detailing implants have been published, no comprehensive evaluations have been performed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of implants based on data published in review articles. An electronic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Ebsco and Sicencedirect for reviews with “orthodontic” and “systematic review or meta analysis” in the title, abstract, keywords, or full text was performed. A subsequent manual search was then performed to identify reviews concerning orthodontic implants. A manual search of the orthodontic journals American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO), and Angle Othodontist was also performed. Such systematic reviews that evaluated the efficacy and safety of orthodontic implants were used to indicate success rates and molar movements. A total of 23 reviews were included in the analysis. The quality of each review was assessed using a measurement tool for Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and the review chosen to summarize outcomes had a quality score of >6. Most reviews were less than moderate quality. Success rates of implants ranged in a broad scope, and movement of the maxillary first molar was superior with implants compared with traditional anchorage. PMID:29595673

  2. Removable orthodontic appliances: new perspectives on capabilities and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hamid Zafarmand, A; Mahdi Zafarmand, M

    2013-06-01

    Removable appliances are a dependable choice for many patients but like all orthodontic appliances, they have some limitations in use. Patient selection and appropriate appliance design are two key factors for success. Many patients, especially adults, prefer intra-oral appliances to extra-oral devices. Sometimes a removable intra-oral appliance can solve a dental problem in a shorter period of time compared to fixed treatment, and this has also been repeatedly seen in molar distalisation. From the interceptive perspective, the appliance can prevent or alleviate an impending crowding for erupting permanent incisors. This article describes 5 patients with different orthodontic problems: impending crowding for erupting upper canine with 2 approaches, provision of space for upper cuspids, resolution of chronic attrition of anterior teeth, relief of space shortage for upper canines eruption, and reduction of excess overjet. All subjects were treated with removable appliances of various designs.

  3. Surgical, Orthodontic and Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Follicular Ameloblastoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Herman F.; Tarawneh, Fadi; Fourkas, Panagiotis; Antoniades, Dimitrios Z.; Athanasiou, Athanasios E.

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the combined surgical, orthodontic and prosthodontic rehabilitation of an adult female patient with a previous history of follicular ameloblastoma, which was treated through partial mandibulectomy and an immediate replacement of missing bone with an autologous calvarial bone graft. Orthodontic treatment was undertaken in order to restore occlusal disturbances and obtain sufficient space for two dental implants and an optimum prosthodontic rehabilitation. PMID:20396452

  4. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  5. Surgical orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  6. Study on the perception of orthodontic treatment according to age: A questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonji

    2017-07-01

    This questionnaire study aimed to estimate the overall frequencies of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment among adults categorized according to age, sex, and area of living, and to identify barriers or negative perceptions preventing them from receiving orthodontic treatment. The participants included 598 adults aged over 20 years (230 men and 368 women) who visited the Dental Hospital of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The participants' opinions regarding their consideration of receiving orthodontic treatment were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire. The overall rate of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment was 48.5%. Compared to adults in their 20s (63.2%), those in their 40s and 50s had a lower percentage of interest in orthodontic treatment (46.2% and 45.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, women (52.2%) had a higher rate of interest than did men (42.6%; p < 0.05). The area of living had no effect on the percentage of interest. The order of priority of chief complaints differed according to age: protrusion for those in the 20s and 30s, and spacing for those in the 40s to 60s. Overall, the main reason for not seeking treatment was the treatment fee. Respondents aged over 40 considered themselves "too old" for orthodontic treatment. The middle-aged had a relatively high percentage of interest (above 45%) in orthodontic treatment. However, demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the positive interest. These results highlight the need for educating the middle-aged about the limitations and possibilities of orthodontic treatment to increase its acceptance.

  7. Computational and clinical investigation on the role of mechanical vibration on orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhipeng; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Turk, Tamer; Grove, Johnathan; Dalci, Oyku; Chen, Junning; Zheng, Keke; Ali Darendeliler, M; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2017-07-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biomechanics for orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) subjected to concurrent single-tooth vibration (50Hz) with conventional orthodontic force application, via a clinical study and computational simulation. Thirteen patients were recruited in the clinical study, which involved distal retraction of maxillary canines with 1.5N (150g) force for 12weeks. In a split mouth study, vibration and non-vibration sides were randomly assigned to each subject. Vibration of 50Hz, of approximately 0.2N (20g) of magnitude, was applied on the buccal surface of maxillary canine for the vibration group. A mode-based steady-state dynamic finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted based on an anatomically detailed model, complying with the clinical protocol. Both the amounts of space closure and canine distalization of the vibration group were significantly higher than those of the control group, as measured intra-orally or on models (p<0.05). Therefore it is indicated that a 50Hz and 20g single-tooth vibration can accelerate maxillary canine retraction. The volume-average hydrostatic stress (VHS) in the periodontal ligament (PDL) was computationally calculated to be higher with vibration compared with the control group for maxillary teeth and for both linguo-buccal and mesial-distal directions. An increase in vibratory frequency further amplified the PDL response before reaching a local natural frequency. An amplification of PDL response was also shown to be induced by vibration based on computational simulation. The vibration-enhanced OTM can be described by mild, vigorous and diminishing zones among which the mild zone is considered to be clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Periodontal status of Pakistani orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Yousuf; Han, Ling Na; Safdar, Jawad; Sheikh, Omair Ahmed; Pan, Ya Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the periodontal status of orthodontic patients and non-orthodontic patients, aged 15-28 years, of both genders. The cross-sectional study included 100 orthodontic and 100 non-orthodontic patients evaluated using a Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need (CPITN) probe on the index teeth. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants to assess and evaluate the use of oral hygiene aids. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17, and various comparisons were performed using the chi-square test. The study revealed that there was a statistically significant association in CPITN scores between the orthodontic and non-orthodontic patients (p < 0.01). The study showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment have increased plaque accumulation and probing depth resulting in periodontal tissue destruction. Proper oral hygiene practices and interdental aids should be employed to control plaque.

  9. Inter-proximal enamel reduction in contemporary orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Pindoria, J; Fleming, P S; Sharma, P K

    2016-12-16

    Inter-proximal enamel reduction has gained increasing prominence in recent years being advocated to provide space for orthodontic alignment, to refine contact points and to potentially improve long-term stability. An array of techniques and products are available ranging from hand-held abrasive strips to handpiece mounted burs and discs. The indications for inter-proximal enamel reduction and the importance of formal space analysis, together with the various techniques and armamentarium which may be used to perform it safely in both the labial and buccal segments are outlined.

  10. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  11. Comparison of personality traits, attitude toward orthodontic treatment, and pain perception and experience before and after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S; Abu Nabaa, Mona A; Al Maaitah, Emad F; Al-Omairi, Mahmoud K

    2015-05-01

    To compare personality traits, attitude toward orthodontic treatment, and pain perception and experience before and after orthodontic treatment. One hundred subjects (50 male and 50 female) were included in this study. The mean (SD) age was 17.5 (2.05) years at T1 and 19.15 (2.32) years at T2. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires that included assessment of patients' personality traits, attitudes toward orthodontic treatment, and pain perception/experience. Subjects completed the questionnaires at two different times: before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after fixed orthodontic treatment (T2). Subjects were treated by fixed orthodontic appliances for an average (SD) period of 18.64 (0.35) months. Paired sample t-test and chi-square test were used to detect any differences. Significant changes in personality traits were detected after orthodontic treatment irrespective of gender. Neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness scores were improved (P < .001). A positive attitude toward orthodontic treatment was reported at T1 (4.31 [±1.26]) and improved at T2 (3.98 [±1.16]) irrespective of gender (P < .05). The average (SD) expected pain score (T1) was 4.73 (1.88) and the average (SD) experienced pain score (T2) was 4.63 (1.58). Significant difference in the expected and experienced pain scores was not detected (P  =  .11). Personality traits and attitude toward orthodontic treatment improved after orthodontic treatment. Reported actual pain experience during orthodontic treatment was similar to that expected before treatment.

  12. Periodontal status and orthodontic treatment need of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Leelataweewud, Pattarawadee; Putongkam, Pongstorn; Ketanont, Sutasinee

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the periodontal status and orthodontic treatment need of autistic children and compare these findings to nonaffected, same-age individuals. The periodontal status and orthodontic treatment need were evaluated in 32 autistic and 48 nonautistic boys and girls age 8 years to 12 years (mean 9.7 ± 1.2 years and 9.9 ± 1.1 years, respectively). The periodontal status of all subjects was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN) with a slight modification. The orthodontic treatment need was determined using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Chi-square test and odds ratio were used for statistical analysis. No significant sex differences were found in the autistic or nonautistic groups. The autistic children presented with a significantly poorer periodontal status than the nonautistic children (P<.05). No significant differences in terms of the various malocclusion categories were found between both groups (P>.05); however, children with autism showed missing teeth, spacing, diastemas, reverse overjets, open bites, and Class II molar relationship tendencies in a higher percentage than nonautistic individuals. In all, autistic children and nonautistic children frequently needed orthodontic treatment. This study suggests that children with autism require special dental management to improve their oral hygiene as well as their dental esthetics. More care from parents, general dentists, and pedodontists/orthodontists should be provided routinely to autistic children. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  13. Orthodontics at a Pivotal Point of Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The profession of orthodontics is projected to face a multitude of challenges. Do cyclic forces accelerate the rate of tooth movement and hence the speed of orthodontic treatment? Would bioengineered cementum and dentine be a solution to root resorption? What would orthodontics be like when bioengineered periodontal ligament and alveolar bone become clinical practice, or one day, entire teeth are bioengineered? Would it be possible to selectively differentiate stem cells into osteoblasts or osteoclasts by either static or cyclic forces? What is the new demand on orthodontic expertise with increasingly automated appliances? What will be the impact of the next generation of dental implants or rapid prototyped crowns on orthodontics? A century ago, Edward Angle’s practice of fixed appliances, along with other seminal contributions, such as functional appliances, established the profession of orthodontics. Today, the biophysical principles of orthodontics remain largely unchanged from Angle’s era, despite incremental refinements of brackets and wires. The paucity of fundamental innovations in orthodontics for decades presents intrinsic risks for the profession. This review will identify challenges for contemporary orthodontics and delineate strategies for the profession to evolve in an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advances, and serve as a call to action for the orthodontic profession. PMID:25018618

  14. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  15. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  16. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic band...

  17. Association of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life in Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali H; Hassan, Mona HA; Linjawi, Amal I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to assess the effects of different orthodontic treatment needs on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment as perceived by the children and their parents. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of orthodontic patients and their attending parents was conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatment needs and the OHRQoL. The study sample comprised 120 young orthodontic patients (36 boys, 84 girls; age range, 12–15 years). Each participant was assessed for orthodontic treatment needs and OHRQoL using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Needs and the Michigan Oral Health-related Quality of Life Scales–Version C (child) and Version PG (parent/guardian), respectively. Results Orthodontic treatment needs significantly affected mouth aching, chewing and biting, going to school, and playing. Higher income and borderline index of orthodontic treatment needs are significantly related to oral health impact on quality of life perceived by the child, while younger age and high school education are related to oral health impact on quality of life as perceived by the parent/guardians. Conclusion These findings emphasize the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL in children. PMID:25419119

  18. Maxillary incisors changes during space closure with conventional and skeletal anchorage methods: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes) and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration) were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. More RCT's that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  19. Orthodontic Treatment Consideration in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Almadih, Ahmed; Al-Zayer, Maryam; Dabel, Sukainh; Alkhalaf, Ahmed; Al Mayyad, Ali; Bardisi, Wajdi; Alshammari, Shouq; Alsihati, Zainab

    2018-02-01

    Although orthodontic treatment is commonly indicated for young healthy individuals, recent trends showed an increase in number of older individuals undergoing orthodontic interventions. The increased age resulted in a proportionate increase in the prevalence of systemic diseases facing dentists during orthodontic procedures, especially diabetes mellitus. This necessitates that dentists should be aware of the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and its early signs particularly in teeth and oral cavity. It is also essential for them to understand the implications of diabetes on orthodontic treatment and the measures to be considered during managing those patients. In this review, we focused on the impact of diabetes mellitus on orthodontic treatment. We also summarized the data from previous studies that had explained the measures required to be taken into consideration during managing those patients. We included both human and animal studies to review in depth the pathophysiological mechanisms by which diabetes affects orthodontic treatment outcome. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the need to carefully identify early signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus in patients demanding orthodontic treatment and to understand the considerations to be adopted before and during treating these patients.

  20. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; da Cunha, Amanda Carneiro; da Silveira, Bruno Lopes; Marquezan, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. Methods: This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Conclusion: Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used. PMID:29364385

  1. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Cunha, Amanda Carneiro da; Silveira, Bruno Lopes da; Marquezan, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  2. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  3. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  4. Patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Renske; Bos, Annemieke; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the expectations of children and their primary care-givers towards orthodontic treatment and to compare the results with those of a UK sample. A questionnaire survey of children and their primary care-givers attending for their first consultation. The Department of Orthodontics at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. A total of 168 subjects (84 patients and 84 parents) completed the questionnaire. The children were aged 10 to 14 years. The responses of the children and parents and differences between boys and girls were examined using parametric statistical methods. The data from the Dutch sample were compared with a similar UK sample. Patients and parents shared similar expectations of orthodontic treatment, with the exception of expectations of having a brace fitted at the first appointment, orthodontic treatment involving headgear, any problems with orthodontic treatment, duration of orthodontic treatment and concerning reactions from the public. Among the child participants, boys and girls only differed in their expectations of orthodontic treatment involving jaw surgery. Differences between Dutch and English participants were found regarding the first visit, type of orthodontic treatment, reactions from the public, and pain and problems with orthodontic treatment. Since the expectations of patients and their parents differ on several aspects, effective communication between the orthodontist, patient and parent is considered to be essential. Our hypothesis that Dutch patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment differ from the expectations of English patients and parents was supported.

  5. [Effect of dental arch length decrease during orthodontic treatment in the upper airway development. A review].

    PubMed

    Haddad, Stéphanie; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Schouman, Thomas; Goudot, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    A possible relation between an upper airway space decrease and the development of obstructive sleep apnea syndrom explains the importance to know the effect of the modification of dental arch length on the upper airway during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this article is to expose recent knowledge about upper airway development and dental arch length decrease factors, to determine the influence of this decrease on upper airway development. A review was done to determine the upper airway normal development, to define dental arch to specify if an ideal position of dental arch on apical base exists. All of the length dental arch decrease factors during orthodontic treatment (dental extraction, dental agenesis and dental malpositions) and their upper airway resounding were searched. Some authors found a diminution of upper airway space after premolars extractions while others didn't found this diminution after extractions premolars when incisor retraction is finished. A decrease of transversal maxillary diameter and nasal cavity may be due to absence of permanent teeth. The effect of dental arch length decrease during orthodontic treatment in the upper airway development was not scientifically proved. However we had to be vigilant and adapt our orthodontic treatment case by case to avoid an upper airway modification. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  6. Oral mucosal lesions during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Baricevic, Marinka; Mravak-Stipetic, Marinka; Majstorovic, Martina; Baranovic, Marijan; Baricevic, Denis; Loncar, Bozana

    2011-03-01

    Oral mucosal lesions can result from irritation caused by orthodontic appliances or malocclusion, but their frequency is not known. To examine the frequency of oral mucosal lesions in wearers of orthodontic appliances in comparison to children with malocclusion. This study comprised 111 subjects: 60 wearers of orthodontic appliances and 51 controls (aged between 6 and 18 years). Type and severity of mucosal lesions, their topography, gingival inflammation, and oral hygiene status were determined by using clinical indices. Mucosal lesions were more present in wearers of orthodontic appliances than in children with malocclusion. Gingival inflammation, erosion, ulceration, and contusion were the most common findings in orthodontic patients. The severity of gingival inflammation was in correlation with oral hygiene status; the poorer oral hygiene, the more severe gingival inflammation was. Better oral hygiene status was found in children during orthodontic treatment than in children with malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment carries a higher risk of mucosal lesions and implies greater awareness of better oral hygiene as shown by the results of this study. Oral hygiene instructions and early treatment of oral lesions are important considerations in better patient's motivation, treatment planning, and successful outcome. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Orthodontic miniplate with tube as an efficient tool for borderline cases.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Nelson, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    An orthodontic miniplate tube device, the C-tube, was designed for use in patients for whom a conventional miniscrew is not suitable, such as those with narrow interradicular spaces, extended maxillary sinuses, dilacerated roots, or severe alveolar bone loss. After local anesthesia, 2 parallel horizontal incisions are made in the area of placement, and the periosteum is elevated. The C-tube is slipped under the mucosal flap and fixed with self-drilling miniscrews (diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 4 mm). Because the screws are short, there is adequate retention in the alveolar plate, and the clinician can avoid the increased morbidity of anchoring to the zygomatic buttress. This makes placement possible with superficial anesthesia. A small rolled tube at the head part can act as an orthodontic tube and accommodate archwires or as a hook to attach orthodontic elastics. However, in some patients with pneumatization or systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, or in heavy smokers, cross-type C-tubes with longer miniscrews are recommend for better stability. This new type of orthodontic miniplate can be an effective alternative to conventional 1-component screws or miniplates in complex situations. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  9. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  10. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics advocated for comprehensive fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with full thickness flaps and labial and lingual corticotomies around teeth to be moved. Bone graft should be applied directly over the bone cuts and the flap sutured in place. Tooth movement should be initiated two weeks after the surgery, and every two weeks thereafter by activation of the orthodontic appliance. Orthodontic treatment time with this technique will be reduced to one-third the time of conventional orthodontics. Alveolar augmentation of labial and lingual cortical plates were used in an effort to enhance and strengthen the periodontium, reasoning that the addition of bone to alveolar housing of the teeth, using modern bone grafting techniques, ensures root coverage as the dental arch expanded. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics is promising procedure but only few cases were reported in the literature. Controlled clinical and histological studies are needed to understand the biology of tooth movement with this procedure, the effect on teeth and bone, post-retention stability, measuring the volume of mature bone formation, and determining the status of the periodontium and roots after treatment. PMID:23960473

  11. Assessment of motivation and psychological characteristics of adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Pabari, Sona; Moles, David R; Cunningham, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the demand for adult orthodontic treatment has grown rapidly; yet there is a paucity of information on this subgroup of patients. It is well known that understanding the psychological characteristics and motives of any patient is fundamental and that these factors might affect patient satisfaction and adherence with treatment. There is therefore a need for clinicians to improve their understanding of this subgroup to enhance the patient's experience of treatment delivery and to increase the potential for a successful treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to develop a measure for the assessment of motivating factors and psychological characteristics of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. This study involved the qualitative development of a valid patient-centered questionnaire to assess motivating factors for adults seeking orthodontic treatment. This was achieved through semi-structured in-depth interviews; key themes were identified and used to construct a questionnaire assessing motivation for treatment. This was then combined with 3 previously validated questionnaires to measure self-esteem, anxiety or depression, and body image and facial body image. The questionnaire was distributed to 172 adult orthodontic patients at different stages of treatment in a large teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. In addition, the self-esteem, body image, and facial body image scores were compared with data on orthognathic patients from the same hospital and with data from members of the general public. Desire to straighten the teeth and improve the smile were the key motivating factors for the adult group studied. Other motives included to improve the bite, improve facial appearance, and close (dental) spacing. With respect to the psychological characteristics of self-esteem, body image, and facial body image, the adult orthodontic group was comparable with the general public. However, differences were noted when comparing data from the adult

  12. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali H.; Al-Saeed, Samar H.; Al-Maghlouth, Basma A.; Bahammam, Maha A.; Linjawi, Amal I.; El-Bialy, Tarek H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature to assess the quality of evidence related to corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment (CAOT) as adjunctive treatment in orthodontics. Methods: The study was conducted in the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Various electronic databases were searched and abstracts were retrieved. Defined inclusion criteria were then applied to the obtained original articles for further evaluation by 2 examiners independently. The criteria of selection included human, or animal studies, which assessed some aspects of CAOT and/or the biological principles behind it. Case reports and series were excluded. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the methodological score for clinical trials developed. Results: Fourteen articles were retrieved initially, but only 12 articles were finally selected for the study. The CAOT was found to accelerate tooth movement by 2-2.5 folds when compared with conventional orthodontic tooth movement. The CAOT was found safe on periodontal health and exhibits no or little risk of root resorption. A localized turnover of alveolar spongiosa and the absence of a hyalinized zone was the acceptable biological explanation of CAOT. There is no evidence to support that CAOT enhances the movement of ankylosed teeth, closing old extraction sites, post-orthodontic stability, or transverse expansion. Conclusions: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment should be considered with caution. Long term randomized clinical trials are still needed. PMID:26108582

  13. Improvement in smile esthetics following orthodontic treatment: a retrospective study utilizing standardized smile analysis.

    PubMed

    Maganzini, Anthony L; Schroetter, Sarah B; Freeman, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    To quantify smile esthetics following orthodontic treatment and determine whether these changes are correlated to the severity of the initial malocclusion. A standardized smile mesh analysis that evaluated nine lip-tooth characteristics was applied to two groups of successfully treated patients: group 1 (initial American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index [DI] score<20) and group 2 (initial DI score>20). T-tests were used to detect significant differences between the low-DI and high-DI groups for baseline pretreatment measurements, baseline posttreatment measurements, and changes from pre- to posttreatment. A Spearman correlation test compared the initial DI values with the changes in the nine smile measurements. Five of the smile measurements were improved in both groups following orthodontic treatment. Both groups demonstrated improved incisor exposure, an improved gingival smile line, an increase in smile width, a decreased buccal corridor space, and an improvement in smile consonance. Spearman correlation tests showed that initial DI value was not correlated to changes in any of the individual smile measurements. Smile esthetics is improved by orthodontic treatment regardless of the initial severity of the malocclusion. In other words, patients with more complex orthodontic issues and their counterparts with minor malocclusions benefitted equally from treatment in terms of their smile esthetics.

  14. 21 CFR 872.5500 - Extraoral orthodontic headgear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An extraoral orthodontic headgear is a device intended for use with an orthodontic appliance to... patient's neck or head and an inner bow portion intended to be fastened to the orthodontic appliance in the patient's mouth. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  15. Effects of different orthodontic primers on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Asli; Yasa, Asli; Sogut, Ozlem; Ozturk, Mehmet Ali; Uysal, Tancan

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of one self-etching and two filled orthodontic primers on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Brackets were bonded to 84 bovine teeth and the vestibular enamel surfaces covered with acid-resistant nail varnish exposing 1 mm of space on each side of the bracket base. The teeth were allocated to four groups, using either Transbond XT conventional primer on etched enamel (group 1), Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer on untreated enamel (group 2), Pro Seal filled resin primer on etched enamel (group 3), or Opal Seal filled resin primer on etched enamel (group 4). Each tooth was subjected to 15,000 strokes of brushing followed by exposure to an acid challenge. Calcium-ion release from each sample was calculated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. Statistically significant differences were observed between the four groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the controls (group 1) and the Opal Seal group. Higher calcium release was observed in the Pro Seal group and the self-etching primer group compared to the controls. The highest calcium release was recorded in the self-etching primer group. Filled sealants may not have a protective effect against enamel demineralization. Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer should be used cautiously, considering the risk of demineralization involved in its application.

  16. Cone beam CT in orthodontics: the current picture.

    PubMed

    Makdissi, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    The introduction of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology to dentistry and orthodontics revolutionized the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of orthodontic patients. This review article discusses the use of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics. The steps required to install and operate a CBCT facility within the orthodontic practice as well as the challenges are highlighted. The available guidelines in relation to the clinical applications of CBCT in orthodontics are explored. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Selling orthodontic need: innocent business decision or guilty pleasure?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Marc Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The principal objective for most patients seeking orthodontic services is a detectable improvement in their dentofacial appearance. Orthodontic treatment, in the mind of the patient, is something that makes you look better, feel better about yourself, and perhaps enhances your social possibilities, ie, to find a companion or make a positive impression during a job interview. Orthodontics, as a speciality, has collectively advanced the idea that enhanced occlusion (bite) improves the health and longevity of the dentition, and as a result many patients seeking orthodontic services affirm that their secondary goal of treatment is an oral health benefit. It would appear that there is some disparity between the end-user of orthodontic services and the orthodontic provider's perception of what constitutes orthodontic need. The aim of this paper is to examine two contrasting models that characterise how dentists 'sell' orthodontic services to patients and to discuss the conflict between professional ethics, practice management and evidence-based decision-making in orthodontic practice.

  18. [Root resorption and orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.

  19. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  20. Clinical evaluation of neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B) rare earth magnets in the treatment of mid line diastemas

    PubMed Central

    Manoj-Kumar, Mitta; Gowri-Sankar, Singaraju; Chaitanya, Nellore; Vivek-Reddy, Ganugapanta; Venkatesh, Nettam

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the closure of midline diastema using the Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets and to compare the treatment duration of midline diastemas with the use of magnets compared to regular orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods Thirty patients with age group 12 to 30 years with the midline diastema ranging from 0.5 to 3mm were selected. These patients were divided into two groups. Diastema closure in one group was accomplished by conventional method, in other group was done with Ne2Fe14B magnets. These magnets were fitted to the labial surfaces of the maxillary central incisors such a way that the opposite poles of the magnets face each other. At each appointment, study models and radiographs were taken for study subjects and the midline diastema was measured using digital vernier calipers on the study models obtained. Descriptive statistics carried out using Paired t-test. Results Subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets showed a significant difference compared to fixed orthodontic appliance subjects with respect to time of closure, rate of space closure and incisal inclination. Significant difference between 2 groups with reduction of 64.6 days in time to diastema closure in subjects treated with Ne2Fe14B magnets (P<0.05). Conclusions Ne2Fe14B magnets more efficient in complete closure of mid line diastema in less duration of time. Key words:Midline diastema, Ne2Fe14B magnets, rare earth magnets, space closure. PMID:27034757

  1. Patients treated with orthodontic-myofunctional therapeutic protocol.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, S; Antonini, G; D'Alatri, L; D'Angelantonio, M; Fiorita, A; Deli, R

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to report three cases that needed myofunctional and orthodontic treatment and the good results achieved after the therapy. Orthodontic treatment alone, in presence of bad habits, is not enough to solve the orthodontic issues, so it needs to be combined with myofunctional treatment.

  2. Oral hygiene status among orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Farhad; Awartani, Fatin

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral hygiene status of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The following indices were used to evaluate the oral hygiene status of patients in orthodontic treatment: gingival bleeding index (GBI), plaque index (PI), and ortho-plaque index (OPI). A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared covering oral hygiene practice, oral hygiene cleaning aids, and number of visits to a dental hygienist. Fifty patients (15-30 years old) were selected for the study from among the orthodontic patients treated at the King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that the PI and OPI were high with mean scores of 65.24 (SD 16.43) and 53.56 (SD 8.74) respectively, while the average GBI was a much lower value at 19.14 (SD 7.95). No significant difference was observed between male and female patients for the PI (p=0.925) and for the OPI (p=0.072), but a significant difference was observed for the GBI at the 5 percent significance level (p=0.033). The result of OPI showed that 20 (40 percent) of the patients had fair oral hygiene, whereas 30 (60 percent) had poor oral hygiene. Only 16 (32 percent) of the participants reported visiting the dental hygienist during their orthodontic treatment, while the remaining 34 (68 percent) did not. The oral home care of the orthodontic patients surveyed was not at an optimal level, which indicated the need to establish an oral hygiene maintenance program. Inadequate oral home care among orthodontic patients may make them more prone to develop gingivitis during orthodontic treatment. It is, therefore, essential that oral hygiene instructions and a hygiene maintenance program not be overlooked during orthodontic treatment.

  3. Social media use by orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Henzell, M; Knight, A; Antoun, J S; Farella, M

    2013-12-01

    Internet-based social media sites have recently surged in popularity and are often used to share thoughts and seek support about health issues. The aim of this study was to investigate how orthodontic patients use Internet-based social media sites to share their treatment-related experiences and attitudes towards braces. A secondary objective was to investigate whether an online or mobile application would be considered helpful in improving co-operation with the use of orthodontic appliances. Patients visiting the orthodontic clinic at the University of Otago were asked to participate in a cross-sectional survey that sought details of their Internet-based social media use and their thoughts about the development of a reminder application. The sample comprised 130 orthodontic patients, with a mean age of 17.2 (SD 6.9) and a nearly equal sex distribution (52.3% were female). Internet-based social media sites were used by 80.8%, with Facebook being the most popular. Some 13.3% of the sample had posted comments about braces on these social media sites. Only 6.7% had considered obtaining information about orthodontic treatment from Internet-based social media sites, with the majority (81%) preferring to seek this information directly from their orthodontist. Nearly two-thirds of those who had difficulty remembering to wear their orthodontic appliances reported that a reminder application on their phone would be beneficial. A large proportion of orthodontic patients use Internet-based social media sites, although only a few currently use them to post about treatment-related topics. Social media sites may provide a useful channel of communication for patients seeking support. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of phone reminder applications in orthodontics.

  4. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  6. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  7. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  8. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  9. Orthodontic management of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paduano, Sergio; Cioffi, Iacopo; Rongo, Roberto; Cupo, Antonello; Bucci, Rosaria; Valletta, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 15 years, with permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. Multibracket straightwire fixed appliance was used to open the space for dental implant placement, and treat the impaired occlusion. The missing lateral incisors were substituted with oral implants.

  10. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil; Jharwal, Vikas; Rathore, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of good oral hygiene is important for patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a manual orthodontic toothbrush, powered toothbrush with oscillating head and sonic toothbrush in controlling plaque, gingivitis and interdental bleeding in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and to compare their relative efficacy. Sixty subjects, who were to receive orthodontic treatment with both upper and lower fixed appliances, were randomly divided into three study groups, with 20 patients in each group. Groups I to III were given manual orthodontic, powered and sonic toothbrushes, respectively. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and interdental bleeding index were scored to assess the level of plaque accumulation, gingival health and interdental bleeding at baseline; 4 and 8 weeks recall visits after fixed appliance bonding. Paired t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for intragroup and intergroup comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. This study showed that a significant reduction in all the three indices scores was found from baseline to 4 and 8 weeks in group III. On intergroup comparison, no statistically significant differences were detected between the three groups for any of the parameters assessed. On intragroup comparison, sonic brushes performed superiorly in reducing gingivitis, plaque and interdental bleeding as compared to the manual orthodontic and powered brushes. On intergroup comparison, the relative comparative effectiveness was found to be similar for all the three brushes. How to cite this article: Sharma R, Trehan M, Sharma S, Jharwal V, Rathore N. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):181-189.

  11. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil; Jharwal, Vikas; Rathore, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Maintenance of good oral hygiene is important for patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a manual orthodontic toothbrush, powered toothbrush with oscillating head and sonic toothbrush in controlling plaque, gingivitis and interdental bleeding in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and to compare their relative efficacy. Materials and methods: Sixty subjects, who were to receive orthodontic treatment with both upper and lower fixed appliances, were randomly divided into three study groups, with 20 patients in each group. Groups I to III were given manual orthodontic, powered and sonic toothbrushes, respectively. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and interdental bleeding index were scored to assess the level of plaque accumulation, gingival health and interdental bleeding at baseline; 4 and 8 weeks recall visits after fixed appliance bonding. Paired t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for intragroup and intergroup comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: This study showed that a significant reduction in all the three indices scores was found from baseline to 4 and 8 weeks in group III. On intergroup comparison, no statistically significant differences were detected between the three groups for any of the parameters assessed. Conclusion: On intragroup comparison, sonic brushes performed superiorly in reducing gingivitis, plaque and interdental bleeding as compared to the manual orthodontic and powered brushes. On intergroup comparison, the relative comparative effectiveness was found to be similar for all the three brushes. How to cite this article: Sharma R, Trehan M, Sharma S, Jharwal V, Rathore N. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):181-189. PMID:26628852

  12. Suitability of Exoseal Vascular Closure Device for Antegrade Femoral Artery Puncture Site Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Liebl, Andrea; Poullos, Nektarios

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of the Exoseal vascular closure device for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods. In a prospective study from February 2011 to January 2012, a total of 93 consecutive patients received a total of 100 interventional procedures via an antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. An Exoseal vascular closure device (6F) was used for closure in all cases. Puncture technique, duration of manual compression, and use of compression bandages were documented. All patients were monitored by vascular ultrasound and color-coded duplex sonography of their respective femoral artery puncture site within 12 to 36more » h after angiography to check for vascular complications. Results. In 100 antegrade interventional procedures, the Exoseal vascular closure device was applied successfully for closure of the femoral artery puncture site in 96 cases (96 of 100, 96.0 %). The vascular closure device could not be deployed in one case as a result of kinking of the vascular sheath introducer and in three cases because the bioabsorbable plug was not properly delivered to the extravascular space adjacent to the arterial puncture site, but instead fully removed with the delivery system (4.0 %). Twelve to 36 h after the procedure, vascular ultrasound revealed no complications at the femoral artery puncture site in 93 cases (93.0 %). Minor vascular complications were found in seven cases (7.0 %), with four cases (4.0 %) of pseudoaneurysm and three cases (3.0 %) of significant late bleeding, none of which required surgery. Conclusion. The Exoseal vascular closure device was safely used for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery, with a high rate of procedural success (96.0 %), a low rate of minor vascular complications (7.0 %), and no major adverse events.« less

  13. Orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cássio Volponi; Saraiva, Luciana; Bauer, Flávio Paim Falcão; Kimura, Rui Yoshio; Souto, Maria Luisa Silveira; Bernardo, Carlos Cheque; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Pustiglioni, Francisco Emílio

    2018-04-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is a condition that promotes breakdown of the periodontal tissues in a short time. In severe cases, pathologic migration of teeth and tooth loss can occur, producing esthetic and functional problems for the patient. Orthodontic treatment may be recommended to restore esthetics and masticatory function. We assessed the effects of orthodontic movement in the periodontal tissues of treated patients with AP. Ten subjects (ages 25.0 ± 5.22 years) with AP received periodontal treatment followed by orthodontic treatment. Maintenance sessions were performed monthly under a strict dental biofilm control. They were compared with 10 periodontally healthy subjects (ages 22.9 ± 5.23 years) who received orthodontic treatment. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and dental plaque index were measured at baseline, after orthodontic treatment, and after 4 months. Statistical analysis showed improvement in all clinical parameters between baseline and 4 months after orthodontic treatment: probing pocket depth (0.29 mm), clinical attachment level (0.38 mm), bleeding on probing (4.0%), and dental plaque index (11%). The periodontal parameters of the AP patients remained stable during orthodontic treatment under strict biofilm control. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgically Facilitated Orthodontic Therapy: Optimizing Dentoalveolar Bone and Space Appropriation for Facially Prioritized Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mandelaris, George A; DeGroot, Bradley S; Relle, Robert; Shah, Brian; Huang, Iwei; Vence, Brian S

    2018-03-01

    Comorbidities that negatively impact orthodontic (malocclusion), periodontal (periodontitis, deficient dentoalveolar bone volume, mucogingival), and prosthetic (structural integrity compromise from caries, attrition, and erosion) conditions can affect the general health of the patient. In addition, emerging data highlights the importance of undiagnosed airway volume deficiencies and sleep-disordered breathing conditions in the adult and pediatric population. Deficiencies in dentoalveolar bone and discrepancies in skeletal relationships can impact the volume of hard- and soft-tissue structures of the periodontium and decrease oral cavity volume. Contemporary interdisciplinary dentofacial therapy (IDT) is a key process for addressing the comprehensive problems of patients based on etiology, homeostasis, and sustainability of physiologically sound outcomes. These provide the patient with sustainable esthetics and function. Surgically facilitated orthodontic therapy (SFOT) uses corticotomies and dentoalveolar bone decortication to stimulate the regional acceleratory phenomenon and upregulate bone remodeling and tooth movement as a part of orthodontic decompensation. It also generally includes guided periodontal tissue regeneration and/or dentoalveolar bone augmentation. SFOT as a part of IDT is demanding and requires extensive attentiveness and communication among all team members. This article focuses on the role of SFOT as an integral component of contemporary IDT to facilitate highly predictable and sustainable outcomes.

  15. Acceptability and attractiveness of intra- and extra-oral orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Karajeh, M A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of different intra-oral and extra-oral orthodontic appliances, to rank orthodontic appliances from the most to the least attractive and to investigate the factors that may affect the acceptance of orthodontic treatment. A random sample of 800 students (schoolchildren and university students) were invited to participate in this study and a total of 688 students were included (86%). A self-administrated structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study. More than one-half in each age group (53%) claimed that they would accept to have orthodontic treatment. Acceptance of the different orthodontic appliances was affected by gender, age and type of school. Removable appliance was reported as the most acceptable and facemask was reported as the least acceptable orthodontic appliances. Majority of subjects ranked ceramic and facemask appliances as the most and the least attractive orthodontic appliances, respectively. The predictor variables for the acceptance of orthodontic treatment were perceived demand for orthodontic treatment, perceived positive effect of orthodontic treatment and expected benefits from orthodontic treatment. Removable appliance was the most acceptable orthodontic appliance whereas ceramic appliance was ranked as the most attractive one. Facemask was the least acceptable and the least attractive option.

  16. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  17. [Ridge preservation with synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite reduces the severity of gingival invaginations-a prospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Reichert, Christoph; Wenghoefer, Matthias; Kutschera, Eric; Götz, Werner; Jäger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Gingival invaginations develop after tooth extraction and subsequent orthodontic space closure. Aetiological factors and long-term effects of gingival invaginations on oral health are nearly unknown. In addition, preventive or therapeutic strategies are rare. This prospective clinical study employing the split mouth technique was performed to investigate the effect of extraction socket augmentation with a synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NanoBone(®) Artoss, Rostock, Germany) on the incidence and degree of gingival invaginations. A total of 10 orthodontic patients with need for symmetric premolar extractions offering a total of 28 extractions were included in this trial. The study plan provided one extraction site to be augmented with synthetic nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NanoBone(®)), the other served as control. After primary wound healing, space closure was performed under defined biomechanical conditions. After space closure was accomplished, occurrence and degree of gingival invaginations as well as probing depths of the adjacent teeth mesial and distal to the extractions were determined and dental radiographs were taken. The degree of gingival invaginations and probing depths mesial and distal of the extraction were significantly reduced on NanoBone(®) augmented extraction sites. In addition, 70% of the radiographs revealed translucent and hyperdense areas on the intervention side after space closure. Apical root resorption was found in 2 patients on both the NanoBone(®) side and the control side. Ridge preservation with NanoBone(®) appeared to reduce the severity of gingival invaginations. Further investigation on long-term effects is mandatory to eliminate the appearance of adverse effects.

  18. Orthodontic Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rongo, Roberto; Cupo, Antonello; Valletta, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 15 years, with permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. Multibracket straightwire fixed appliance was used to open the space for dental implant placement, and treat the impaired occlusion. The missing lateral incisors were substituted with oral implants. PMID:24711929

  19. Orthodontics for the dog. Treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L

    1986-09-01

    This article considers the prevention of orthodontic problems, occlusal adjustments, simple tooth movements, rotational techniques, tipping problems, adjustment of crown height, descriptions of common orthodontic appliances, and problems associated with therapy.

  20. Are claims made in orthodontic journal advertisements evidence-supported?

    PubMed

    Livas, Christos; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Ren, Yijin; Katsaros, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    To examine the supporting evidence of advertisements published in six leading orthodontic journals. The 2012-2013 printed issues of American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, and Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics were screened for advertisements implying superior performance compared with competitor products. Advertisements were classified according to type of product, availability, and currency of supporting references. A total of 99 unique advertisements claiming clinical benefit or superiority were identified. The overwhelming majority of the identified advertisements promoted appliance products (62.6%), orthodontic materials (14.1%), and dental operatory equipment, including imaging systems (12.1%). Advertisements were found to provide references or not regardless of the product type. Half of the advertisements referred to at least one peer-reviewed publication, whereas unpublished studies were cited by 25% of the advertisements. Most of the referenced articles were published within the past 5 years. The scientific background of advertisements in the orthodontic literature appears limited. While surveillance of journal advertising needs to be regulated, clinicians are urged to critically appraise the claims being made in orthodontic print advertisements by consulting the associated existing evidence.

  1. Vibration paradox in orthodontics: Anabolic and catabolic effects

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, Mani; Alansari, Sarah; Hamidaddin, Mohammad A.; Sangsuwon, Chinapa; Alyami, Bandar; Thirumoorthy, Soumya N.; Oliveira, Serafim M.; Nervina, Jeanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Vibration in the form of High Frequency Acceleration (HFA) is anabolic on the craniofacial skeleton in the absence of inflammation. Orthodontic forces trigger an inflammation-dependent catabolic cascade that is crucial for tooth movement. It is unknown what effect HFA has on alveolar bone if applied during orthodontic treatment. The objectives of this study are to examine the effect of HFA on the rate of tooth movement and alveolar bone, and determine the mechanism by which HFA affects tooth movement. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided to control, orthodontic force alone (OTM), and different experimental groups that received the same orthodontic forces and different HFA regimens. Orthodontic tooth movement was assessed when HFA parameters, frequency, acceleration, duration of exposure, and direct or indirect application were varied. We found that HFA treatment significantly enhanced the inflammation-dependent catabolic cascade during orthodontic tooth movement. HFA treatment increased inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis, and decreased alveolar bone density during orthodontic tooth movement. Each of the HFA variables produced significant changes in the rate of tooth movement and the effect was PDL-dependent. This is the first report that HFA enhances inflammation-dependent catabolic cascades in bone. The clinical implications of our study are highly significant, as HFA can be utilized to enhance the rate of orthodontic tooth movement during the catabolic phase of treatment and subsequently be utilized to enhance retention during the anabolic remodeling phase after orthodontic forces are removed. PMID:29734391

  2. The knowledge and attitudes of orthodontic trainees towards orthodontic therapists: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sameer; Mack, Gavin

    2017-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitudes of orthodontic trainees towards orthodontic therapists (OTs) in the UK. Cross-sectional survey. UK-based orthodontic trainees. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Training Grades Group of the British Orthodontic Society assessing exposure to OTs and their knowledge regarding current supervision guidelines and scope of practice. Attitudes towards OTs were also explored. Seventy-six responses (response rate 57%) were returned. Nearly 90% of trainees had no formal training regarding OTs. A total of 15.5% were aware of the correct current supervision guidelines and there was large variation in the knowledge of OTs' scope of practice. The majority of trainees were happy to supervise OTs, but only 22.4% felt prepared for this during training. In total, 63% of trainees felt that OTs could impact their own future job prospects. Currently, there is minimal formal training provided to trainees regarding the role of OTs. This is reflected in the lack of knowledge regarding supervision guidelines and scope of practice. Overall, trainees felt OTs were positive for the workforce but were concerned regarding the impact of their own future employment.

  3. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  4. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  5. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  6. Orthodontic therapists--a challenge for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Trevor

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of orthodontic therapists in 2007 has led to significant changes to the delivery of orthodontic treatment in the UK. This article outlines the author's experience of training therapists on the Yorkshire Orthodontic Therapy Course and discusses challenges faced by this new way of providing orthodontics in the UK.

  7. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  8. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  9. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  10. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  11. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  12. Dentistry's oldest specialty: orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.

    PubMed

    George, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) has 15,500 members worldwide and is the oldest and largest of the recognized dental specialties. A strategic planning process has identified six key challenges, and this article describes the progress that is being made in the areas of (a) consumer education, (b) volunteer leadership development, (c) recruitment and retention of orthodontic educators, (d) relationships with ADA and other healthcare organizations, (e) the AAO's role in international orthodontics, and (f) advocacy. The AAO is working for freedom of choice in dental healthcare providers; fee-for-service dental care; orthodontic insurance coverage as a benefit of employment, with direct reimbursement as the preferred plan; self-referred access to specialists; private and public funding that promote quality orthodontic care; and the retention of tax deductibility of dental healthcare benefits, including orthodontic care.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Zharmagambetova, A; Tuleutayeva, S; Akhmetova, S; Zharmagambetov, A

    2017-03-01

    An orthodontic appliance in the mouth worsens conditions for its self-cleaning, complicates the teeth care and makes an environment favorable to the soft tooth deposit, in turn, leads to the teeth enamel demineralization. In literature, the majority of works are devoted to the study of the microbial landscape with fixed orthodontic treatment. Despite the obvious relevance, the formation problem of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms when treating dentoalveolar anomalies with a removable orthodontic appliance remains understudied. The research aim was to investigate the influence of the removable type of orthodontic treatment of patients aged 12 with dentoalveolar anomalies on the mouth microbiocenosis. The dental examination and microbiological study was conducted to 100 children aged 12 with dentoalveolar anomalies. The dental examination included assessment of the oral hygiene state by the OHI-S index. The microbiological research was conducted in the following sequence: the bacterioscopy smear of plaque, stained by the Gram and Burri method with the assessment of morphological and tinctorial properties of microorganisms. The statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS v22.0 forWindows program. The dental examination showed that the oral hygiene state varied according to the orthodontic treatment stage. During the orthodontic treatment the OHI-S Index was 2.1 score, indicating a satisfactory oral hygiene level. The microbiological study showed that persistent contaminants were lactobacilli, streptococci, staphylococci, and yeast-like fungi. However, the treatment showed a decrease of normal flora level and the increase in number of Candidaalbicans, Staphylococcusaureus and Streptococcusmutans, that was a trigger in the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. During the orthodontic treatment, children with dentoalveolar anomalies are at high risk of dental caries and periodontal disease.

  14. Unmet orthodontic treatment need in rural Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Otuyemi, O D; Ugboko, V I; Adekoya-Sofowora, C A; Ndukwe, K C

    1997-10-01

    A survey of orthodontic treatment need was carried out among randomly selected rural Nigerian adolescents using the index of orthodontic treatment need. Altogether, 704 subjects (381 boys and 323 girls) aged 12-18 years (mean 14.8, SD 1.79) were recruited in the study. The results indicated that 12.6% of the population were in objective need of orthodontic treatment. Whilst there was a discrepancy in the proportions of Nigerian adolescents needing orthodontic treatment on aesthetic and dental health grounds, girls were found to have a more attractive dental appearance and less orthodontic treatment need than boys. However, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The correlation between the orthodontist's and the subject's rating of dental appearance was found to be low (r=0.35). The study also provided reliable baseline data for planning orthodontic services in Nigeria especially in areas where there are no dental services.

  15. [Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Houb-Dine, Afaf; Rerhrhaye, Mariam; Ismaili, Zouheir; Rerhrhaye, Wiam

    2011-12-01

    Root resorption associated to orthodontic treatment is of multiple etiologies and a non intentional iatrogenic side effect which exists in almost all the orthodontic treatment. This clinical case of an apparently healthy patient illustrates the occurrence during the orthodontic treatment of a root resorption interesting the left central incisor, victims of previous traumatism and presenting a moderate periodontal attachment loss. The orthodontic treatment was carried out with light and continuous forces and a per-orthodontic periodontal maintenance in respect of periodontal requirements. As soon as the root resorption on the left central incisive was diagnosed, the active orthodontic treatment was interrupted in order to stabilize the lesion and a regular clinical and radiological monitoring was established.

  16. Objectification of Orthodontic Treatment Needs: Does the Classification of Malocclusions or a History of Orthodontic Treatment Matter?

    PubMed

    Kozanecka, Anna; Sarul, Michał; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic classifications make it possible to give an accurate diagnosis but do not indicate an objective orthodontic treatment need. In order to evaluate the need for treatment, it is necessary to use such indicators as the IOTN. The aim of the study was to find (i) relationships between individual diagnosis and objective recommendations for treatment and (ii) an answer to the question whether and which occlusal anomalies play an important role in the objectification of treatment needs. Two hundred three 18-year-old adolescents (104 girls, 99 boys) were examined. In order to recognize occlusal anomalies, the classifications proposed by Orlik-Grzybowska and Ackerman-Proffit were used. The occlusal anomalies were divided into three categories: belonging to both classifications, typical of OrlikGrzybowska classification and typical of Ackerman-Proffit classification. In order to determine the objective need for orthodontic treatment, the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the IOTN was used. The occurrence of the following malocclusions covered by both classifications, namely abnormal overjet, crossbite and Angle's class, had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) impact on an increase of treatment needs in the subjects (DHC > 3). As for the classification by Orlik-Grzybowska, dental malpositions and canine class significantly affected the need for orthodontic treatment, while in the case of the Ackerman-Proffit scheme, it was asymmetry and crowding. There was no statistically significant correlation between past orthodontic treatment and current orthodontic treatment need. IOTN may be affected by a greater number of occlusal anomalies than it was assumed. Orthodontic treatment received in the past slightly reduces the need for treatment in 18-year-olds.

  17. Adverse reactions to orthodontic materials.

    PubMed

    Sifakakis, I; Eliades, T

    2017-03-01

    Adverse effects can arise from the clinical use of orthodontic materials, due to the release of constituent substances (ions from alloys and monomers, degradation by-products, and additives from polymers). Moreover, intraoral aging affects the biologic properties of materials. The aim of this review is to present the currently identified major adverse effects of the metallic and polymeric components found in orthodontic appliances and materials. Corrosion in metallic orthodontic attachments releases metal ions, mainly iron, chromium, and nickel. The latter has received the greatest attention because of its reported potential for an allergic response. The formation of an oxide layer may inhibit the outward movement of ions, thereby acting as an obstacle for release. Titanium alloys have superior corrosion resistance than stainless steel. The efficiency of polymerisation is considered an essential property for all polymers. A poor polymer network is susceptible to the release of biologically reactive substances, such as bisphenol-A (BPA), which is capable of inducing hormone-related effects. The close proximity of a light-curing tip to the adhesive, pumice prophylaxis after bonding, indirect irradiation and mouth rinsing during the first hour after bonding may decrease BPA release. The adverse effects of some orthodontic materials should be considered during material selection and throughout orthodontic treatment, in order to minimise possible undesirable implications. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Re-shaping NHS orthodontic provision - the North Wales experience.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B R K; Plunkett, D J; Hickman, J; Sandham, J S

    2017-05-26

    The orthodontic service provision within North Wales, in common with many areas of the United Kingdom, was experiencing increasing waiting times for assessment and treatment. Reasons for this included an increasing population, patient demand and fixed NHS contracted orthodontic provision. In addition to these universal challenges, the geography of North Wales contributed to difficulties in accessing care. It was felt that with a reshaping of the orthodontic services there was potential to enhance the quality of orthodontic care available to patients and deliver prudent NHS orthodontic services. Three distinct, but inter-related steps, were identified to progress the reshaping of the service with the intended outcome of achieving an improved co-ordinated service. Initially, this involved the re-commissioning of the primary care specialist service through a formal retendering process. Following this, a standardised orthodontic referral form was developed, to be used for all orthodontic referrals regardless of whether their destination was a primary or secondary care provider. Finally, a formal accreditation process for all non-specialist dentists who were undertaking NHS orthodontic treatment was developed and implemented. The successful outcome of this process was only possible because of the close working partnership between the North Wales Orthodontic Managed Clinical Network (OMCN) and Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board.

  19. Laser diagnostics in orthodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2003-10-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucose membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of measuring system on formation of the speckle-interferometric signal is studied.

  20. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the...

  1. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the...

  2. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  3. Orthodontics in the "Art" of Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mayuri

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetics in dentistry has of late become an awakening/actor among patients and often serves as a major reason for seeking dental treatment and care. Ever since the introduction of orthodontics as a separate specialty branch in dentistry, a variety of techniques have evolved, and methods developed both in the type of devices/instruments used and treatments planned. The discipline of orthodontic aesthetics involves micro and macro aesthetics, gingival, and facial aesthetics. This article helps focus on the artistic part of the orthodontic science. It brings out various important factors involved in customizing aesthetic orthodontic treatment planning according to the individual needs of the patient. Through this kind of treatment planning not only are the functional and biological needs of the patient met, they also provide a stable and durable results. Less invasive treatment planning makes it easier for the patient to select future treatment options as new technologies keep evolving. The review was selected by typing aesthetic orthodontics in the Google search engine, Pubmed, and Pubmed Central. Literature review of articles reflecting history, different analysis, factors responsible, and the latest technique was conducted.

  4. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  5. Extractions, retention and stability: the search for orthodontic truth.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sheldon

    2017-04-01

    From the beginnings of modern orthodontics, questions have been raised about the extraction of healthy permanent teeth in order to correct malocclusions. A hundred years ago, orthodontic tooth extraction was debated with almost religious intensity by experts on either side of the issue. Sheldon Friel and his mentor Edward H. Angle both had much to say about this controversy. Today, after significant progress in orthodontic practice, similar arguments are being voiced between nonextraction expansionists and those who see the need for tooth extractions in some orthodontic patients. Furthermore, varying concepts of mechanical retention of treatment results have evolved over the years which have been misinterpreted as enhancing natural orthodontic stability. In this essay, representing the Ernest Sheldon Friel Memorial Lecture presented in 2016 at the 92nd Congress of the European Orthodontic Society, a full spectrum of evidence from biology, anthropology and history is critically discussed in the search for truth among highly contested orthodontic variables: extraction versus nonextraction, fixed retention versus limited retention, and rationalized stability versus biological homeostasis. Conscientious clinicians should try to develop individualized treatment plans for their patients, and not be influenced by treatment 'philosophies' with untested claims in clinical orthodontics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Highly cited orthodontic articles from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Prevezanos, Panagiotis; Tsolakis, Apostolos I; Christou, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Identification of highly cited articles based on the h-index and its properties is important for the evaluation of the past, present, and future of any research discipline. In this study, we aimed to identify the h-classic articles in orthodontics. One search on the Web of Science identified all articles from 2000 to 2015 in the 89 journals indexed by the 2015 InCites Journal Citation Reports in the scientific area "dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine." A second search was performed in the Web of Science using all mesh terms related to orthodontics. Then, we applied the h-classic method to select the recent articles with the greatest scientific impact in orthodontics. Eighty articles were considered as h-classic articles. They were published in 20 of the 89 dental journals of the 2015 InCites Journal Citation Reports list. Only 36 articles appeared in orthodontic journals: 23 in the American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics (28.8%), 7 in The Angle Orthodontist (8.8%), and 6 in European Journal of Orthodontics (7.5%). Thirty-eight articles originated from Europe, 28 from the Americas, and 14 from the Middle East and Asia. More than half of fundamental orthodontic research is published in nonorthodontic journals showing that our field is currently limited, and interactions with other research fields should be sought to increase orthodontic research importance and appeal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Everyday uses of adult orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Joseph A

    2004-09-01

    Adults are now much more in favor of receiving orthodontic treatment than in the past. The baby boomer generation has a deep desire to keep their "youngness" and is willing to invest in such. Along with this attitude has come the ability to treat malocclusions and other clinical deficiencies with new products that decrease the treatment time. Nickel titanium wire has revolutionized the mechanics of treatment, so that often only one wire need be used throughout treatment, and the time of care has been reduced. Invisalign has resulted in higher acceptance rates for treatment that was passed up before. Although Invisalign has its limitations, for most basic alignment, it can provide a nice result. Patients who might come to an office for Invisalign can be open to braces if Invisalign will not correct their problem. In this article, several uses of adult orthodontics have been shown. It behooves the general practitioner to refer those cases that can benefit from the multiple uses of orthodontics. Should the GP desire to learn to perform any or all of the tooth movements necessary to create a more desired outcome, there are several marketed orthodontic courses that will provide the knowledge necessary. Finally, I encourage those who would enjoy treating patients with orthodontic needs. I have found it to be very rewarding to work toward a shared outcome that is often a less invasive treatment. Patients really enjoy the results.

  8. A discerning approach to simple aesthetic orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Noar, J H; Sharma, S; Roberts-Harry, D; Qureshi, T

    2015-02-16

    There is currently considerable interest from general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the use of simple orthodontics to treat adult malocclusions. There is controversy in this, particularly in relation to 'quick fixes', simple orthodontics and 'straight teeth in six months' as opposed to more conventional treatment where the whole malocclusion is treated. This article will present a case for the use of simple aesthetic adult orthodontics in a measured and planned way. It will discuss the processes, planning and the importance of consent. It will also highlight how digital technology is used to preview, consent and execute an aesthetic result. Many of the recent systems emerging, have been as a result of the demand and supply of cosmetic dentistry. This, to a degree, has not helped since the implication of a 'quick-fix' is associated with this field. There has also been discussion on what the limits of GDP orthodontics should be. There is variability in how GDPs approach orthodontics, their experience, skill and ability to treat to an acceptable standard. Short courses may be one way of delivering orthodontic training but some of these courses are not regulated and the amount of internal mentoring is variable. This article highlights some of the systems in use, and potential upsides and downsides of this approach.

  9. Comparison of university and private-practice orthodontic treatment outcomes with the American Board of Orthodontics objective grading system.

    PubMed

    Cook, Devon R; Harris, Edward F; Vaden, James L

    2005-06-01

    Treatment outcomes and duration of treatment for patients treated in university graduate orthodontic programs and private orthodontic practices were assessed and compared with the ABO objective grading system. The treatment records of 139 randomly selected adolescents who had received comprehensive orthodontic treatment were examined. Seventy-seven subjects had been treated in 3 postgraduate orthodontic clinics, and 62 had been treated in 3 private orthodontic practices. Pretreatment, all subjects had Class II Division 1 malocclusions and ANB angles equal to or greater than 4 degrees . All patients were treated with premolar extractions. Posttreatment dental casts were measured and scored with the ABO objective grading system. No significant differences were found between the groups in the alignment, buccolingual inclination, and overjet components. Patients treated in private practice had significantly lower scores for marginal ridge height and occlusal relationship. Patients treated in the university programs had significantly lower scores for occlusal contact and interproximal contact components. There was no significant difference in the overall score, thus no significant difference in the overall quality of orthodontic treatment outcome between patients treated in university programs and private practices. However, the university group had a significantly larger sample variance for the overall score. There was no significant difference in the duration of the treatment between patients treated in a university setting and in a private practice.

  10. An investigation into the placement of force delivery systems and the initial forces applied by clinicians during space closure.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, C; Ireland, A J; Sherriff, M

    1997-05-01

    This in vitro investigation was designed to establish not only how clinicians apply forces for space closure when using the straight wire appliance and sliding mechanics, but also to quantify the initial force levels produced. A single typodont, with residual extraction space in each quadrant, was set up to simulate space closure using sliding mechanics. On two occasions, at least 2 months apart, 18 clinicians were asked to apply three force delivery systems to the typodont, in the manner in which they would apply it in a clinical situation. The three types of force delivery system investigated were elastomeric chain, an elastomeric module on a steel ligature, and a nickel-titanium closed coil spring. A choice of spaced or unspaced elastomeric chain produced by a single manufacturer was provided. The amount of stretch which was placed on each type of system was measured and, using an Instron Universal Testing Machine, the initial force which would be generated by each force delivery system was established. Clinicians were assessed to examine their consistency in the amount of stretch which each placed on the force delivery systems, their initial force application and their ability to apply equivalent forces with the different types of force delivery system. The clinicians were found to be consistent in their method of application of the force delivery systems and, therefore, their force application, as individuals, but there was a wide range of forces applied as a group. However, most clinicians applied very different forces when using different force delivery systems. When using the module on a ligature the greatest force was applied, whilst the nickel titanium coil springs provided the least force.

  11. Occlusal features and need for orthodontic treatment in persons with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Son; Binh, Ho Duy; Nguyen, Khac Minh; Maasalu, Katre; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare; Saag, Mare; Jagomägi, Triin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) analyse dental occlusion and determine the need for orthodontic treatment of persons with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in comparison with the healthy population and (b) investigate the associations between OI and malocclusion. A case-control study included 26 OI persons and 400 healthy participants (control group). Occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment were defined according to Dental Health Component-Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Dental Aesthetic Index. Results showed that Angle Class I, II, and III relationship was found in 23.1%, 3.8%, and 73.1% of OI group, and in the control group, it was 67%, 17.5%, and 15.5%, respectively. OI group had significantly higher prevalence of reverse overjet >1 mm (76.9%), missing teeth (42.3%), posterior crossbite (34.6%), and open bite >2 mm (19.2%) compared to the control group (8.5%, 2.2%, 6.2%, and 3.5%, respectively). OI group had less incisal segment crowding and more incisal segment spacing than the control group ( p  < 0.05). The need for orthodontic treatment of OI group according to Dental Health Component-Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Dental Aesthetic Index was 88.5% and 61.5%, respectively, while in the control group, it was 24.8% and 51.8%. The malocclusion in OI persons was associated with reverse overjet > 1 mm (OR = 13.3, 95% CI = 3.9-44.7, p  < .001), Angle Class III malocclusion (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.0-30.8, p  = .003), and missing teeth (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.0-22.4, p  = .049). In conclusion, there is the high probability of malocclusion in OI persons. Persons with OI require early orthodontic treatment because of significant correlation of OI disease with Angle Class III malocclusion, reverse overjet, and missing teeth.

  12. Occlusal features and need for orthodontic treatment in persons with osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Binh, Ho Duy; Nguyen, Khac Minh; Maasalu, Katre; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare; Saag, Mare; Jagomägi, Triin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to (a) analyse dental occlusion and determine the need for orthodontic treatment of persons with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in comparison with the healthy population and (b) investigate the associations between OI and malocclusion. A case‐control study included 26 OI persons and 400 healthy participants (control group). Occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment were defined according to Dental Health Component‐Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Dental Aesthetic Index. Results showed that Angle Class I, II, and III relationship was found in 23.1%, 3.8%, and 73.1% of OI group, and in the control group, it was 67%, 17.5%, and 15.5%, respectively. OI group had significantly higher prevalence of reverse overjet >1 mm (76.9%), missing teeth (42.3%), posterior crossbite (34.6%), and open bite >2 mm (19.2%) compared to the control group (8.5%, 2.2%, 6.2%, and 3.5%, respectively). OI group had less incisal segment crowding and more incisal segment spacing than the control group (p < 0.05). The need for orthodontic treatment of OI group according to Dental Health Component‐Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Dental Aesthetic Index was 88.5% and 61.5%, respectively, while in the control group, it was 24.8% and 51.8%. The malocclusion in OI persons was associated with reverse overjet > 1 mm (OR = 13.3, 95% CI = 3.9–44.7, p < .001), Angle Class III malocclusion (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.0–30.8, p = .003), and missing teeth (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 1.0–22.4, p = .049). In conclusion, there is the high probability of malocclusion in OI persons. Persons with OI require early orthodontic treatment because of significant correlation of OI disease with Angle Class III malocclusion, reverse overjet, and missing teeth. PMID:29744175

  13. In vitro cytotoxicity of orthodontic primers.

    PubMed

    D'Antò, Vincenzo; Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Polito, Ilaria; Paduano, Sergio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Valletta, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four orthodontic primers: Transbond XT and Transbond MIP (3M, USA), Eagle Fluorsure (American Orthodontics, USA) and Ortho Solo (Ormco, USA). Balb 3T3 cells were exposed to different concentrations of primers (0-0.25 mg/ml). Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was evaluated by MTT assay and cell necrosis was measured by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). All the materials decreased cell viability in a dose related manner. Cytotoxicity of orthodontic primers based on concentrations which caused a 50% decrease of mitochondrial activity was ranked as follows: Transbond XT (45.57 mg/ml) > Eagle Fluorsure (49.27 mg/ml) > Transbond MIP (64.35 mg/ml) > Ortho solo (70.09 mg/ml). Our results suggest that the cytotoxic potencies demonstrated by orthodontic primers might be of clinical relevance since they disturbed cell metabolism and induced cell death in monolayer cultures.

  14. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    Orthodontic treatment in adults has gained social and professional acceptance in recent years. An assessment of orthodontic treatment need helps to identify individuals who will benefit from treatment and safeguard their interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the objective and subjective levels of orthodontic treatment need in a sample of orthodontically untreated adult Asian males. A sample of male army recruits (n = 339, age 17-22 years, Chinese = 258, Malay = 60, Indian = 21) with no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial anomalies participated in the study on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Impressions for study models were taken. Objective treatment need was assessed based on study model analysis using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Questionnaires were used to assess subjective treatment need based on subjective esthetic component (EC) ratings. Fifty percentage of the sample had a definite need for orthodontic treatment (dental health component [DHC] grades 4 and 5), whereas 29.2% had a moderate need for treatment (DHC grades 3). The occlusal trait most commonly identified was dental crossbite. Malay males had the highest percentage with a definite need for treatment for both dental health and esthetic reasons in comparison with Chinese and Indian males. However, there was no difference in the level of treatment need among the ethnic groups (P > .05). No correlation between objective and subjective EC scores was found (P > .05). A high level of investigator-identified treatment need was not supported by a similar level of subject awareness among the adult sample.

  15. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  16. Effect of orthodontic pain on quality of life of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sujoy; Banerjee, Rajlakshmi; Shenoy, Usha; Agarkar, Sanket; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta

    2018-01-01

    Pain is an important aspect of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). Understanding how patients' pain experiences during their treatment affect their quality of life (QOL) is important and the absence of pain/discomfort is important for achieving a high QOL. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between pain and OHRQOL among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances and to evaluate whether patient motivation and counseling had an effect on the pain and discomfort. The McGill-Short-Form with visual analog scale and present pain intensity and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 indices were used to determine the intensity and severity of pain and to evaluate the QOL of 200 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment during different phases of treatment. There was a significant correlation found between pain and the QOL of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Overall score of OHRQOL increased significantly (mean 43.5 ± 10.9) in the initial phase of treatment where the incidence of severe to moderate pain was reported in 80% patients. Ninety-five percent patients felt pain or discomfort. After 1 day of appliance placement, more than 85% of patients experienced severe to mild pain whereas 9% of patients suffered very severe pain. Pain reduced over a week, and at the end of a month, 10.5% patients had moderate pain whereas majority, i.e., 58% of patients complained of only mild pain (P < 0.05). Pain is important sequelae of orthodontic treatment and has a significant effect on the QOL of orthodontic patients, especially during the initial phases of treatment. Patient motivation and counseling by the orthodontist have a profounding effect in reducing the pain and discomfort, improving the QOL, and an overall improvement in the patient compliance affecting the successful outcome of the treatment.

  17. Effects of intraoral aging of arch-wires on frictional forces: An ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avinash; Khanam, Arifa; Ghafoor, Hajra

    2016-01-01

    Archwires act as gears to move teeth with light, continuous forces. However, the intraoral use of orthodontic archwires is liable to surface deposits which alter the mechanical properties of archwires, causing an increase in the friction coefficient. To evaluate the surface changes of the stainless steel archwires after 6 weeks of intraoral use and its influence on frictional resistance during sliding mechanics. As-received rectangular 0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel orthodontic archwires (control) were compared with the archwires retrieved after the final phase of leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment collected after 6 weeks of intraoral exposure (test samples) from 10 patients undergoing treatment. The control and test samples were used to evaluate surface debris using Scanning Electron Microscopy, surface roughness was assessed using Atomic Force Microscope and frictional forces were measured using Instron Universal Testing Machine in the buccal inter-bracket region that slides through the molar tube for space closure. Unpaired t -test and Pearson correlation tests were used for statistical analysis ( P < 0.05 level of significance). Significant increase was observed in the level of debris ( P = 0.0001), surface roughness ( P = 0.0001), and friction resistance ( P = 0.001) of orthodontic archwires after their intraoral exposure. Significant positive correlations ( P < 0.05) were also observed between these three variables. Stainless steel test archwires showed a significant increase in the degree of debris and surface roughness, increasing the frictional forces between the archwire-bracket interfaces which would considerably reduce the normal orthodontic forces. Thus, continuing the same archwire after levelling and alignment for space closure is not recommended.

  18. Magnetic bead-based salivary peptidome profiling for periodontal-orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with periodontitis seek periodontal-orthodontic treatment to address certain functional and aesthetic problems. However, little is known of the effect of periodontitis on orthodontic treatment. Thus, we compared the differences in peptide mass fingerprints of orthodontic patients with and without periodontitis by MALDI-TOF MS using a magnetic bead-based peptidome analysis of saliva samples. In this way, we aimed to identify and explore a panel of differentially-expressed specific peptides. Results Saliva samples from 24 patients (eight orthodontic patients without periodontitis, eight with periodontitis and another eight with periodontitis but no orthodontic treatment) were analyzed, and peptide mass fingerprints were created by scanning MS signals using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) combined with magnetic beads. Nine mass peaks showed significant differences. Orthodontic patients in the group without periodontal disease showed higher mass peaks for seven peptides of the nine, whereas the mass peaks for the other two peptides were higher in the periodontal-orthodontic patients. Besides, these differentially-expressed peptides were sequenced. Conclusions The elucidated candidate biomarkers indicated interactions between periodontal condition and orthodontic treatment and their contributions to the changes of saliva protein profiles. Our results provide novel insight into the altered salivary protein profile during periodontal-orthodontic treatment, and may lead to the development of a therapeutic monitoring strategy for periodontics and orthodontics. PMID:23126675

  19. Gender equality in orthodontic literature and leadership in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dragstrem, Kristina G; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Lee, Damian J; Sukotjo, Cortino; Galang, Maria Therese

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate gender equality in orthodontics by reviewing the authorship in three orthodontic journals in addition to the involvement of women in leadership roles within orthodontic organizations and academia in the United States. Three journals representing orthodontics were selected to analyze the author demographics for the years 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008. Inclusion criteria were at least one first or last author with a dental degree whose primary affiliation was in the United States. Female leadership was assessed in three orthodontic organizations as well as orthodontic program directorship. Overall, the percentage of female first authors increased significantly from 0% to 18% in the years studied (P = .004). The change of the percentage of female last authors was not statistically significant (P = .719). The participation of women in leadership roles within orthodontic organizations and in orthodontic program director positions has been limited. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that women are underrepresented in orthodontic authorship and leadership.

  20. Orthodontic treatment in periodontitis‐susceptible subjects: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Lindsten, Rune; Slotte, Christer; Bjerklin, Krister

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim is to evaluate the literature for clinical scientific data on possible effects of orthodontic treatment on periodontal status in periodontitis‐susceptible subjects. A systematic literature review was performed on studies in English using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library central databases (1965‐2014). By manually searching reference lists of selected studies, we identified additional articles; then we searched these publications: Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, and European Journal of Orthodontics. Search terms included randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective clinical studies, case series >5 patients, periodontitis, orthodontics, alveolar bone loss, tooth migration, tooth movement, orthodontic extrusion, and orthodontic intrusion. Only studies on orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised dentitions were included. One randomized controlled clinical trial, one controlled clinical trial, and 12 clinical studies were included. No evidence currently exists from controlled studies and randomized controlled clinical trials, which shows that orthodontic treatment improves or aggravates the status of periodontally compromised dentitions. PMID:29744163

  1. The effect of orthodontic bands or tubes upon periodontal status during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Orthodontic bands cause periodontal inflammation. In theory, the use of a buccal tube (bond) instead of a band should prevent or minimize periodontal changes because the bonds are positioned away from the gingival margins. Objective The primary aim of this study was to investigate the periodontal status of orthodontic bands compared with bonds in the first three months of orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods Twenty-four orthodontic patients (mean age = 12.6 years) were enrolled in this Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Using the cross-mouth technique, bands and bonds were used in opposite quadrants. Periodontal parameters including the presence or absence of Bleeding On Probing (BOP) and Probing Depths (PDs) were taken at the start and three months into treatment. Results Bands caused a statistically significant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P = 0.001 and 0.021) and bonds displayed a statistically insignificant change in the Bleeding On Probing (BOP) (P = 0.125 and 1.00) for the upper and lower arch. The difference in Probing Depths (PDs) between bands and bonds was also statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion Molar bands are associated with greater periodontal inflammation compared with molar bonds in the first three months of fixed orthodontic treatment. PMID:26236124

  2. [Effect of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Minghui, Peng; Jing, Kang; Xiao, Deng

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to probe the psychological factors adolescent orthodontic patients, the role of body image and self-esteem in the whole process of orthodontic treatment and the impact on the efficacy and satisfaction of orthodontic. Five hundred and twenty-eight patients were selected in this study. The Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) , Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Negative Physical Self-General (NPS-G) and other body analysis scale study after orthodontic lasted 18-24 months were used to investigate the role of body image in adolescent orthodontic treatment. Esthetic evaluation of patients teeth after correction had been significantly improved, patient self-evaluation difference IOTN-AC doctor evaluation, Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire-tooth confidence, aesthetic concerns, psychological impact and social function were significantly improved. The improvement of the dental aesthetics component (T2 when doctors evaluate IOTN-AC) was positively correlated with the evaluation of the efficacy, and was significantly negatively correlated with the negative emotions of patients at baseline. Negative body image-dental dissatisfied-cognitive component and the affective component, the overall negative body image and negative emotions can predict patient satisfaction with treatment efficacy. Orthodontic treatment not only improves the self-aesthetic evaluation of adolescent patients, but also has a positive effect on the mental health of adolescent patients.

  3. USE OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT NEEDS INDICES FOR ORAL HEALTH SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority.

  4. [Combined surgical-orthodontic therapy for compound odontoma].

    PubMed

    Dukić, Walter; Kuna, Tihomir; Lapter-Varga, Marina; Jurić, Hrvoje; Lulić-Dukić, Olga

    2007-09-01

    were regularly located in the dental arch. In this case, orthodontic therapy had another objective, i.e. to ensure rotation of the first upper premolar, to provide space for the upper permanent canine eruption and to establish regular intercuspidation after upper second premolar hypodontia. In colclusion, combined operative and orthodontic therapy can be recommended irrespective of the stage of the impacted tooth development because any treatment to precipitate tooth eruption has favorable effects. Impacted teeth should always be provided all treatment options for faster eruption, as demonstrated in our case where a good clinical result was achieved within 2.5 years. The role of regular clinical and x-ray controls for assessment of the impacted tooth eruption should also be emphasized.

  5. Effect of a static magnetic field on orthodontic tooth movement in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tengku, B S; Joseph, B K; Harbrow, D; Taverne, A A; Symons, A L

    2000-10-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement may be enhanced by the application of a magnetic field. Bone remodelling necessary for orthodontic tooth movement involves clastic cells, which are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive and which may also be regulated by growth hormone (GH) via its receptor (GHR). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a static magnetic field (SMF) on orthodontic tooth movement in the rat. Thirty-two male Wistar rats, 9 weeks old, were fitted with an orthodontic appliance directing a mesial force of 30 g on the left maxillary first molar. The appliance incorporated a weight (NM) or a magnet (M). The animals were killed at 1, 3, 7, or 14 days post-appliance insertion, and the maxillae processed to paraffin. Sagittal sections of the first molar were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for TRAP activity or immunohistochemically for GHR. The percentage body weight loss/gain, magnetic flux density, tooth movement, width of the periodontal ligament (PDL), length of root resorption lacunae, and hyalinized zone were measured. TRAP and GHR-positive cells along the alveolar bone, root surface, and in the PDL space were counted. The incorporation of a SMF (100-170 Gauss) into an orthodontic appliance did not enhance tooth movement, nor greatly alter the histological appearance of the PDL during tooth movement. However significantly greater root resorption (P = 0.016), increased width of the PDL (P = 0.017) and greater TRAP activity (P = 0.001) were observed for group M at day 7 on the compression side. At day 14 no differences were observed between the appliance groups.

  6. A nonlocal fluid closure for antiparallel reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, J.; Hakim, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-12-01

    The integration of kinetic effects in fluid models is an important problem in global simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere and space weather modelling. In particular, it has been shown that ion kinetics play an important role in the dynamics of large reconnecting systems, and that fluid models can account of some of these effects[1,2] . Here we introduce a new fluid model and closure for collisionless magnetic reconnection and more general applications. Taking moments of the kinetic equation, we evolve the full pressure tensor for electrons and ions, which includes the off diagonal terms necessary for reconnection. Kinetic effects are recovered by using a nonlocal heat flux closure, which approximates linear Landau damping in the fluid framework [3]. Using the island coalescence problem as a test, we show how the nonlocal ion closure improves on the typical collisional closures used for ten-moment models and circumvents the need for a colllisional free parameter. Finally, we extend the closure to study guide-field reconnection and discuss the implementation of a twenty-moment model.[1] A. Stanier et al. Phys Rev Lett (2015)[2] J. Ng et al. Phys Plasmas (2015)[3] G. Hammett et al. Phys Rev Lett (1990)

  7. Detection of Fusobacterium Nucleatum and fadA Adhesin Gene in Patients with Orthodontic Gingivitis and Non-Orthodontic Periodontal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis. PMID:24416378

  8. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.

  9. White spot lesions: prevention and management during the orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Popovska, Lidija; Kapusevska, Biljana; Stefanovska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions, or enamel demineralization, around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which marks the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors and preventive methods of these orthodontics scars. Preventive programmes must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. The responsibility of an orthodontist is to minimize the risk of the patient having decalcification as a consequence of orthodontic treatment by educating and motivating the patients for excellent oral hygiene practice. Prophylaxis with topical fluoride application should be implemented: high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels and varnishes during and after the orthodontic treatment, especially for patients at high risk of caries.

  10. Orthodontic findings in the deciduous and early mixed dentition--inferences for a preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Franka; Grabowski, Rosemarie

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present epidemiologic study was to obtain representative basic data on the frequency, extent and age-dependence of malocclusions in the deciduous and early mixed dentition. The developmental tendencies of specific malocclusions were investigated from the aspect of orthodontic prevention. The collective comprised 8,864 preschool and school-aged children, of whom 1,225 were in the deciduous dentition (mean age 4.5 years) and 7,639 in the mixed dentition (mean age 8.9 years). The orthodontic data were clinically assessed as sagittal, transversal, or vertical single-arch and occlusal findings. In addition, the malocclusions were classified according to their primary symptoms. Early infantile habits, tongue dysfunctions, speech defects and incompetent lip closure were registered separately. 57% of the children were found to have malocclusions, with the frequency rising statistically significantly in dependence on age from the deciduous to the mixed dentition (p < or = 0.001). The mean extent of excessive overjet increased significantly from the deciduous to the mixed dentition. Crossbite with mandibular midline discrepancies were observed significantly more frequently in the deciduous dentition. Although the frequency of anterior open bite underwent a significant decline from the deciduous to the mixed dentition, open bite was the malocclusion most frequently associated with dysfunction in both groups. The significant increase in traumatic deep bite in the mixed dentition indicates an unfavorable developmental tendency in this anomaly until after the eruption of the permanent incisors. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy and for the intensified application of interceptive and early treatment measures is stressed in view of the high number of malalignments and malocclusions in the deciduous and mixed dentition and the tendency for some forms of malocclusion to deteriorate as the dentition develops.

  11. [Combined orthodontic-orthoganthic surgery to treat asymmetric mandibular excess malocclusions].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Song; Chen, Yang-Xi; Li, Jun

    2005-06-01

    To discuss the skeletal and dentoalveolar characteristics of asymmetric mandibular excess malocclusions and to discuss the procedures of combined orthodontic-orthonganthic surgery treatments of asymmetric mandibular excess malocclusions. 25 cases treated by combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgery treatments were reviewed to find out the specialties of this kind of therapy. The asymmetric of mandible presents anterior and posterior teeth tipped both sagitally and horizontally, as well as upper and lower jaws incompatibility. The pre-surgical orthodontic treatments included decomposition of anterior and posterior teeth, leveling and aligning the teeth etc. The post-surgical orthodontic treatments were to detail the occlusions. The patients all got functional and aesthetic good results after the combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgery treatments. The asymmetric mandibular excess affects the harmony of the face badly, and the correction of it must be carried out by the combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgery treatments. The pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatments are the key stages to make the skeletal corrections stable.

  12. Variations in surface roughness of seven orthodontic archwires: an SEM-profilometry study

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Vahid; Pousti, Maryam; Rahimi, Hajir; Shariati, Mahsa; Aghamohamadi, Bahareh

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness (SR) of 2 types of orthodontic archwires made by 4 different manufacturers. Methods This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 35 specimens of 7 different orthodontic archwires, namely, 1 nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire each from the manufacturers American Orthodontics, OrthoTechnology, All-Star Orthodontics, and Smart Technology, and 1 stainless steel (SS) archwire each from the manufacturers American Orthodontics, OrthoTechnology, and All-Star Orthodontics. After analyzing the composition of each wire by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, the SR of each wire was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profilometry. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α < 0.05). Results The average SR of NiTi wires manufactured by Smart Technology, American Orthodontics, OrthoTechnology, and All-Star Orthodontics were 1,289 ± 915 A°, 1,378 ± 372 A°, 2,444 ± 369 A°, and 5,242 ± 2,832 A°, respectively. The average SR of SS wires manufactured by All-Star Orthodontics, OrthoTechnology, and American Orthodontics were 710 ± 210 A°, 1,831 ± 1,156 A°, and 4,018 ± 2,214 A°, respectively. Similar to the results of profilometry, the SEM images showed more defects and cracks on the SS wire made by American Orthodontics and the NiTi wire made by All-Star Orthodontics than others. Conclusions The NiTi wire manufactured by All-Star Orthodontics and the SS wire made by American Orthodontics were the roughest wires. PMID:23112943

  13. Emotional effects of malocclusion in Nigerian orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, Chukwudi O; Utomi, Ifeoma L; Ibekwe, Titus S

    2005-02-15

    To assess the emotional effects of malocclusion among Nigerian orthodontic patients. A questionnaire survey. A questionnaire was completed by 221 Nigerian orthodontic patients undergoing routine orthodontic care at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Preventive Dentistry, University College Hospital, Ibadan and the Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, both in South-West Nigeria. The participants were comprised of 97 (43%) males and 124 (56.1%) females with age range of 6-40 years (mean age, 13.82 +/- 8.01 SD). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. About 44% of all participants had not yet accepted their malocclusions, while 56.6% of all subjects reported for orthodontic care due to aesthetic reasons. Twenty-seven percent of the subjects were depressed the first time they notice their malocclusions. Over 40% of the participants reported feeling less confident as a result of their malocclusions and about 55% of them felt their malocclusions negatively affected their general facial appearances. Normal activities restricted in some of the subjects due to malocclusion included laughing in public (48.9%), meeting people in public (32%), and forming close relationships (20.4%). The majority (64.7%) of the subjects discussed their malocclusions with their parents, followed by dentists (35.3%). The psychosocial effects of malocclusion in Nigerian orthodontic patients were considerable with no significant gender differences. Considering such factors, professional counseling of Nigerian orthodontic patients is encouraged.

  14. Orthodontic treatment combined with autotransplantation after removal of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Won Hee; Chun, Youn Sic

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the use of indirect skeletal anchorage and autotransplantation in a patient who had an ameloblastoma removed. The mandibular left second and third molars were also extracted. Autogenous bone was grafted after surgical removal of the ameloblastoma, and the mandibular right third permanent molar was transplanted into the extraction space. Orthodontic treatment included a miniscrew to bring the transplanted tooth into good occlusion. Four years after treatment, the patient continued to show good results, with no recurrence of the ameloblastoma.

  15. [Head posture in orthodontics: physiopathology and clinical aspects 2].

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, M; Verzi, P; Scire Scappuzzo, G

    1989-01-01

    The Authors review in orthodontic respects present knowledges about head posture involvement in craniofacial morphogenesis and pathology. Relationships between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical posture, craniomandibular posture, cervical spine curvature, hyoid bone position and posture of whole body in space are shown, in attempt to explain conditions such as "forward head posture", mouth breathing and some occlusal disorders. Main methods to evaluate craniocervical relations on lateral skull radiographs are analysed. Pathogenesis of pain syndromes associated with abnormal craniocervical and craniomandibular mechanics are also briefly treated.

  16. Orthodontic manpower requirements of Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Bourne, C O

    2012-09-01

    A study was done to estimate the orthodontic manpower requirements of Trinidad and Tobago. A questionnaire was administered via e-mail to 9 of 11 orthodontists. Information from a population census, a report on the orthodontic treatment needs of children in Trinidad and Tobago and this questionnaire were used to calculate the number of orthodontists and chairside orthodontic assistants needed in Trinidad and Tobago. On average, 50 per cent of the 289 patients treated by each orthodontist in Trinidad and Tobago annually are children. Approximately, 13 360 patients can be expected to demand orthodontic treatment every year in this country. The number of orthodontists and chairside assistants required to treat these patients was estimated to be 44 and 154, respectively. Currently, Trinidad and Tobago only has a quarter of the number of orthodontists and orthodontic chairside assistants required to treat the number of patients in need. As the demand is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago and the number of orthodontists has increased slowly and inadequately for the past decade, the orthodontists are likely to remain adequately employed and happy with their job unlike dentists who are currently in private practice for less than a year.

  17. Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Yamamoto, Zulham; Zainol Abidin, lntan Zarina; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah

    2011-01-01

    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment. PMID:22125437

  18. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Functional and Periodontal Aspects in Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Tooth Re-Contouring

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Hayacibara, Roberto Massayuki; Silva, Rafael Santos; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate functional and periodontal aspects in patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors, treated with either implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring. The sample consisted of 68 volunteers, divided into 3 groups: SCR - space closure and tooth re-contouring with composite resin (n = 26); SOI – implants placed in the area of agenesis (n = 20); and CG - control group (n = 22). A modified Helkimo questionnaire and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by a single, previously calibrated evaluator to assess signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. The periodontal assessment involved the following aspects: plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth greater than 3 mm, gingival recession, abfraction, periodontal biotype and papilla index. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=.05). No differences in periodontal status were found between treatments. None of the groups were associated with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. Both treatment alternatives for patients with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors were satisfactory and achieved functional and periodontal results similar to those of the control group. PMID:23346262

  19. Duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Häll, Birgitta; Jämsä, Tapio; Soukka, Tero; Peltomäki, Timo

    2008-10-01

    To study the duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment with special reference to patients' age and the type of tooth movements, i.e. extraction vs. non-extraction and intrusion before or extrusion after surgery to level the curve of Spee. The material consisted files of 37 consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients. The files were reviewed and gender, diagnosis, type of malocclusion, age at the initiation of treatment, duration of treatment, type of tooth movements (extraction vs. non-extraction and levelling of the curve of Spee before or after operation) and type of operation were retrieved. For statistical analyses two sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank correlation tests were used. Mean treatment duration of the sample was 26.8 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took on average 17.5 months. Patients with extractions as part of the treatment had statistically and clinically significantly longer treatment duration, on average 8 months, than those without extractions. No other studied variable seemed to have an impact on the treatment time. The present small sample size prevents reliable conclusions to be made. However, the findings suggest, and patients should be informed, that extractions included in the treatment plan increase chances of longer duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

  20. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-containing orthodontic cement

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xian-Ju; Xing, Dan; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin HK

    2017-01-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs), due to enamel demineralization, occur frequently in orthodontic treatment. We recently developed a novel rechargeable dental composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) with long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release and caries-inhibiting capability. The objectives of this study were to develop the first NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement and investigate the effects of recharge duration and frequency on the efficacy of ion re-release. The rechargeable cement consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA). NACP was mixed into the resin at 40% by mass. Specimens were tested for orthodontic bracket shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel, Ca and P ion initial release, recharge and re-release. The new orthodontic cement exhibited an SBS similar to commercial orthodontic cement without CaP release (P>0.1). Specimens after one recharge treatment (e.g., 1 min immersion in recharge solution repeating three times in one day, referred to as “1 min 3 times”) exhibited a substantial and continuous re-release of Ca and P ions for 14 days without further recharge. The ion re-release did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (P>0.1). The ion re-release concentrations at 14 days versus various recharge treatments were as follows: 1 min 3 times>3 min 2 times>1 min 2 times>6 min 1 time>3 min 1 time>1 min 1 time. In conclusion, although previous studies have shown that NACP nanocomposite remineralized tooth lesions and inhibited caries, the present study developed the first orthodontic cement with Ca and P ion recharge and long-term release capability. This NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement is a promising therapy to inhibit enamel demineralization and WSLs around orthodontic brackets. PMID:27811847

  1. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-containing orthodontic cement.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xian-Ju; Xing, Dan; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2017-03-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs), due to enamel demineralization, occur frequently in orthodontic treatment. We recently developed a novel rechargeable dental composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) with long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release and caries-inhibiting capability. The objectives of this study were to develop the first NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement and investigate the effects of recharge duration and frequency on the efficacy of ion re-release. The rechargeable cement consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA). NACP was mixed into the resin at 40% by mass. Specimens were tested for orthodontic bracket shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel, Ca and P ion initial release, recharge and re-release. The new orthodontic cement exhibited an SBS similar to commercial orthodontic cement without CaP release (P>0.1). Specimens after one recharge treatment (e.g., 1 min immersion in recharge solution repeating three times in one day, referred to as "1 min 3 times") exhibited a substantial and continuous re-release of Ca and P ions for 14 days without further recharge. The ion re-release did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (P>0.1). The ion re-release concentrations at 14 days versus various recharge treatments were as follows: 1 min 3 times>3 min 2 times>1 min 2 times>6 min 1 time>3 min 1 time>1 min 1 time. In conclusion, although previous studies have shown that NACP nanocomposite remineralized tooth lesions and inhibited caries, the present study developed the first orthodontic cement with Ca and P ion recharge and long-term release capability. This NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement is a promising therapy to inhibit enamel demineralization and WSLs around orthodontic brackets.

  2. Authorship characteristics of orthodontic randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in non-orthodontic journals with impact factor.

    PubMed

    Alqaydi, Ahlam R; Kanavakis, Georgios; Naser-Ud-Din, Shazia; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2017-12-08

    This study was conducted to explore authorship characteristics and publication trends of all orthodontic randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews (SRs), and meta-analyses (MAs) published in non-orthodontic journals with impact factor (IF). Appropriate research strategies were developed to search for all articles published until December 2015, without restrictions regarding language or publication status. The initial search generated 4524 results, but after application of the inclusion criteria, the final number of articles was reduced to 274 (SRs: 152; MAs: 36; and RCTs: 86). Various authorship characteristics were recorded for each article. Frequency distributions for all parameters were explored with Pearson chi-square for independence at the 0.05 level of significance. More than half of the included publications were SRs (55.5 per cent), followed by RCTs (31.4 per cent) and MAs (13.1 per cent); one hundred seventy-eight (65 per cent) appeared in dental journals and 96 (35 per cent) were published in non-dental journals. The last decade was significantly more productive than the period before 2006, with 236 (86.1 per cent) articles published between 2006 and 2015. European countries produced 51.5 per cent of the total number of publications, followed by Asia (18.6 per cent) and North America (USA and Canada; 16.8 per cent). Studies published in journals without IF were not included. Level-1 evidence orthodontic literature published in non-orthodontic journals has significantly increased during 2006-15. This indicates a larger interest of other specialty journals in orthodontic related studies and a trend for orthodontic authors to publish their work in journals with impact in broader fields of dentistry and medicine. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Iatrogenics in Orthodontics and its challenges.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Gustavo Mattos; Feitosa, Henrique Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontics has gone through remarkable advances for those who practice it with dignity and clinical quality, such as the unprecedented number of patients treated of some type of iatrogenic problems (post-treatment root resorptions; occlusal plane changes; midline discrepancies, asymmetries, etc). Several questions may raise useful reflections about the constant increase of iatrogenics. What is causing it? Does it occur when dentists are properly trained? In legal terms, how can dentists accept these patients? How should they be orthodontically treated? What are the most common problems? This study analyzed and discussed relevant aspects to understand patients with iatrogenic problems and describe a simple and efficient approach to treat complex cases associated with orthodontic iatrogenics.

  4. Iatrogenics in Orthodontics and its challenges

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Gustavo Mattos; Feitosa, Henrique Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Orthodontics has gone through remarkable advances for those who practice it with dignity and clinical quality, such as the unprecedented number of patients treated of some type of iatrogenic problems (post-treatment root resorptions; occlusal plane changes; midline discrepancies, asymmetries, etc). Several questions may raise useful reflections about the constant increase of iatrogenics. What is causing it? Does it occur when dentists are properly trained? In legal terms, how can dentists accept these patients? How should they be orthodontically treated? What are the most common problems? Objective: This study analyzed and discussed relevant aspects to understand patients with iatrogenic problems and describe a simple and efficient approach to treat complex cases associated with orthodontic iatrogenics. PMID:27901237

  5. Children's orthodontic utilization in the United States: Socioeconomic and surveillance considerations.

    PubMed

    Laniado, Nadia; Oliva, Stephanie; Matthews, Gregory J

    2017-11-01

    There has been no epidemiologic study of malocclusion prevalence and treatment need in the United States since the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1991. In this descriptive study, the authors sought to estimate orthodontic treatment prevalence by examining a nationally representative survey to assess current pediatric dental and orthodontic utilization. The 2009 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were used to categorize and compare all types of pediatric dental and orthodontic procedures in children and adolescents up to 20 years old. Descriptive variables included dental insurance, poverty level, and racial/ethnic background. Visits for orthodontic procedures constituted the third largest treatment category (14.5%) and were greatest among the uninsured and higher income populations. Children with public insurance had the fewest orthodontic visits (9.4%). Racial/ethnic disparities were most pronounced among orthodontic visits, with black and Hispanic children receiving the fewest orthodontic procedures (8.89% and 10.56%, respectively). Orthodontic treatment prevalence data suggest that significant disparities exist in orthodontic utilization based on race/ethnicity, poverty level, and insurance status. To establish the burden of malocclusion, describe populations in greatest need of interventions, and craft appropriate programs and policies, an active orthodontic surveillance system is essential. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of orthodontic forces prior to autotransplantation - case reports.

    PubMed

    Cho, J-H; Hwang, H-S; Chang, H-S; Hwang, Y-C

    2013-02-01

    This case report describes the successful autotransplantation of mandibular molars after application of orthodontic forces and discusses the advantages of this technique, that is, pre-application of an orthodontic force for autotransplantation. After clinical and radiographic examination, autotransplantation was planned with the patient's written informed consent. An orthodontic force was applied, and the surgical procedure was performed after tooth mobility had increased. Root canal treatment was performed within 2 weeks of autotransplantation. At the 1-year follow-up, the transplanted teeth revealed asymptomatic and healthy periodontal conditions. Autotransplantation is the surgical movement of a tooth from its original location to another site. The pre-application of orthodontic force technique was recently introduced for autogenous tooth transplantation. Pre-application of an orthodontic force may be a useful treatment option for autotransplantation. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Shang; Jiang, Huan; Lin, Peng; Bao, Xingfu; Zhang, Zhimin; Hu, Min

    2014-02-01

    Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (P<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that LiCl can attenuate orthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant.

  8. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  9. Orthodontic treatment need in a Spanish young adult population

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504

  10. Lasers in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necessary precautions to prevent possible tissue damage when using laser dental systems. Here, we reviewed the main types and characteristics of laser systems used in dental practice and discuss the applications of lasers in orthodontics, harmful effects and laser system safety. PMID:24966719

  11. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  12. Perception of orthodontic treatment need among Swedish children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Salih, Firas Nafi; Lindsten, Rune; Bågesund, Mats

    2017-08-01

    Perceptions of orthodontic treatment need and perceptions of dental aesthetics was investigated among subjects ages 10, 15 and 19. A total of 489 subjects completed a questionnaire after inspecting 10 photographs in the Aesthetic Component scale of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need to (i) reveal the lower limit for orthodontic treatment need and (ii) rate their dental aesthetics by selecting the most similar photo. The mean lower limit for orthodontic treatment need was significantly higher (and closer to literature-based standards) among subjects, age 10 (4.2 ± 1.5), than among subjects, age 15 (3.6 ± 1.2) (p = .0009), and subjects, age 19 (3.5 ± 1.2) (p = .00002). Among subjects ages 15 and 19, the lower limit for orthodontic treatment need was lower in groups with (i) self-perceived orthodontic treatment need (p = .002 and .001, respectively) and (ii) previous orthodontic treatment (p = .005 and .035, respectively). Self-perceived orthodontic treatment need was present in more than one-third of subjects, age 19, who had previously received orthodontic treatment. Subjects of foreign origin reported that their dental aesthetics were worse (p = .002) and those same subjects, age 19, set the lower limit for orthodontic treatment lower (p = .047) than Swedes, age 19. The lower limit for orthodontic treatment need among subjects, age 10, was higher - compared to subjects, ages 15 and 19 - and closer to literature-based standards. Subjects with self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, subjects with previous orthodontic treatment, and subjects age 19 of foreign origin, have higher aesthetic demands.

  13. Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty. PMID:24987645

  14. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... that apply to landfills (§ 264.310). (c)(1) The owner or operator of a waste pile that does not comply...(c) or § 264.251(b), must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the pile under § 264.112 both a plan...

  15. Adult orthodontics: a quality assessment of Internet information.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Siobhán Mary; Millett, Declan T

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the quality, reliability and readability of information on the Internet on adult orthodontics. A quality assessment of adult orthodontic websites. Postgraduate Orthodontic Unit, Cork University Dental School and Hospital, Cork, Ireland. An Internet search using three search engines (Google, Yahoo and Bing) was conducted using the terms ('adult orthodontics' and 'adult braces'). The first 50 websites from each engine and under each search term were screened and exclusion criteria applied. Included websites were then assessed for quality using four methods: the HON seal, JAMA benchmarks, the DISCERN instrument and the LIDA tool. Readability of included websites was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES). Only 13 websites met the inclusion criteria. Most were of US origin (n = 8; 61%). The authors of the websites were dentists (n = 5; 39%), professional organizations (n = 2; 15%), past patients (n = 2; 15%) and unspecified (n = 4; 31%). Only 1 website displayed the HON seal and three websites contained all JAMA benchmarks. The mean overall score for DISCERN was 3.9/5 and the mean total LIDA score was 115/144. The average FRES score was 63.1/100. The number of informative websites on adult orthodontics is low and these are of moderate quality. More accurate, high-quality Internet resources are required on adult orthodontics. Recommendations are made as to how this may be achieved.

  16. 21 CFR 872.5500 - Extraoral orthodontic headgear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extraoral orthodontic headgear. 872.5500 Section 872.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5500 Extraoral orthodontic headgear. (a...

  17. Achieving and documenting closure in plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Sager, John C.; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with its effort to develop a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) that will provide life support to crews during long duration space missions, it must address the question of facility and system closure. The concept of closure as it pertains to CELSS and engineering specifications, construction problems and monitoring procedures used in the development and operation of a closed plant growth facility for the CELSS program are described. A plant growth facility is one of several modules required for a CELSS. A prototype of this module at Kennedy Space Center is the large (7m tall x 3.5m diameter) Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), the central facility of the CELSS Breadboard Project. The BPC is atmospherically sealed to a leak rate of approximately 5 percent of its total volume per 24 hours. This paper will discuss the requirements for atmospheric closure in the facility, present CO2 and trace gas data from initial tests of the BPC with and without plants, and describe how the chamber was sealed atmospherically. Implications that research conducted in this type of facility will have for the CELSS program are discussed.

  18. Iatrogenic orthodontic dental trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gencay, Koray; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Yaman, Duygu; Ozgen, Mehmet; Demirel, Korkud

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic trauma can be defined as any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician or dentist. Orthodontic treatment carries with it the risks of tissue damage and treatment failure. The aim of this article is to present traumatic oral tissue lesions resulting from iatrogenic orthodontic origin with a 2-year follow-up period based on orthodontic intervention followed by periodontal surgery. The management of traumatic injuries is dependent on the severity of the involvement of the periodontal tissues. While, in most cases, the elimination of the offending agent and symptomatic therapy is sufficient, in severe cases, or when the injury resulted in permanent defects, periodontal/regenerative therapy may be necessary. The dentist must be aware of these risks in order to help the patient make a fully informed choice whether to proceed with orthodontic treatment. The skill, experience, and up-to-date knowledge of dentists are the main factors to prevent possible iatrogenic traumas.

  19. A Systematic Review of Individual Motivational Factors in Orthodontic Treatment: Facial Attractiveness as the Main Motivational Factor in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Broukal, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusion, quality of life, smile attractiveness, and perception of malocclusion. Papers selected up to May 2013 included retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies, randomized control trials, cross-sectional studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. Results. 13 articles included in this review identified aesthetics as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment. Children mention teeth crowding, large overbite, missing teeth, and largest maxillary anterior irregularities also as motivational factors. Parents want their children to look nice and worry of being accused of neglecting parental duties. Conclusions. Dissatisfaction with one's appearance, dentist recommendation, interest and worries of parents, and the impact of peers who wear braces rank among the main motivation factors of seeking orthodontic treatment. Understanding these factors allows better planning of resources and better assessment of the requirements and priorities of treatment. PMID:24963296

  20. Torsional Elastic Property Measurements of Selected Orthodontic Archwires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    problem because bracket slot sizes of .019" are not used. It would, however, affect the amount of activation needed to engage the orthodontic bracket for...D-AiB5 669 TORSIONAL ELASTIC PROPERTY MEASUREMENTSO SLECE ORTHODONTIC ARCHWlIRES(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH B E LARSON 1987...Elastic Property Measurements of THESIS/D&&W t Selected Orthodontic Archwires 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s

  1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ODONTOGENIC BACTERAEMIA IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Umeh, O D; Sanu, O O; Utomi, I L; Nwaokorie, F O

    2016-01-01

    Various researches have investigated factors associated with the prevalence and intensity of bacteraemia following oral procedures including orthodontic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender, plaque and gingival indices on the occurrence of odontogenic bacteraemia following orthodontic treatment procedures. Orthodontic Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos , Nigeria. Using the consecutive, convenience sampling method, a total of 100 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study and peripheral blood was collected before and again within 2 minutes of completion of orthodontic procedures for microbiologic analysis using the BACTEC automated blood culture system and the lysis filtration methods of blood culturing. The subjects were randomly placed in one of four orthodontic procedures investigated: alginate impression making (Group I), separator placement (Group II), band cementation (Group III) and arch wire change (Group IV). Plaque and gingival indices were assessed using the plaque component of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) (Greene & Vermillion) and Modified gingival index (Lobene) respectively before blood collection. Spearman Point bi-serial correlations and logistic regression statistics were used for statistical evaluations at p < 0.05 level. An overall baseline prevalence of bacteraemia of 3% and 17% were observed using the BACCTEC and lysis filtration methods respectively. Similarly, overall prevalence of bacteraemia following orthodontic treatment procedures of 16% and 28% were observed respectively using the BACTEC and lysis filtration methods. A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of bateraemia was observed following separator placement (p=0.016). An increase in age, plaque index scores and modified gingival index scores of the subjects were found to be associated with an increase in the prevalence of bacteraemia following orthodontic treatment

  2. Health economic evaluations in orthodontics: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sollenius, Ola; Petrén, Sofia; Björnsson, Liselotte; Norlund, Anders; Bondemark, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic evaluation is assuming increasing importance as an integral component of health services research. To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the evidence from studies presenting orthodontic treatment outcomes and the related costs. The literature review was conducted in four steps, according to Goodman's model, in order to identify all studies evaluating economic aspects of orthodontic interventions. The search covered the databases Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and SCOPUS, for the period from 1966 to September 2014. The inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing at least two different orthodontic interventions, evaluation of both economic and orthodontic outcomes, and study populations of all ages. The quality of each included study was assessed as limited, moderate, or high. The overall evidence was assessed according to the GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). The applied terms for searches yielded 1838 studies, of which 989 were excluded as duplicates. Application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified 26 eligible studies for which the full-text versions were retrieved and scrutinized. At the final analysis, eight studies remained. Three studies were based on cost-effectiveness analyses and the other five on cost-minimization analysis. Two of the cost-minimization studies included a societal perspective, i.e. the sum of direct and indirect costs. The aims of most of the studies varied widely and of studies comparing equivalent treatment methods, few were of sufficiently high study quality. Thus, the literature to date provides an inadequate evidence base for economic aspects of orthodontic treatment. This systematic review disclosed that few orthodontic studies have presented both economic and clinical outcomes. There is currently

  3. Orthodontic management by functional activator treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Ortu, Eleonora; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Pietropaoli, Davide; Giannoni, Mario; Monaco, Annalisa

    2017-12-02

    Managing orthodontic treatment is often very difficult for the orthodontist. Many devices are used during the orthopedic phase of orthodontic treatment, always with different functions. We describe a case of orthodontic management treated with the Equilibrator O.S.A. device (equilibrator designed by Ovidi, Santi, and Aprile for Eptamed SRL; Cesena, Italy; www.eptamed.com ). A healthy 10-year-old white boy presented with a skeletal class II, division 1 malocclusion, molar class II, exhibiting an overjet of 7 mm prior to treatment. For treatment, we only used the Equilibrator O.S.A. device. We successfully treated an orthopedic/orthodontic case with a particular device that we describe here.

  4. Orthodontic view in the diagnoses of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Banabilh, Saeed M

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is an exciting area for orthodontists to be involved. The level of awareness of sleep apnea and related health issues is growing rapidly. The demand of integrating sleep into the orthodontic practice shortly will be driven by the need of the societies as some of our patients will be shortly coming into our offices aware of sleep apnea. However, with our busy clinical orthodontic practice, the need of condense short review become more demanding. Therefore, this review will try to summarize the clinical and orthodontic observation in the diagnoses of adult obstructive sleep apnea with clinical application in orthodontic practice. PMID:28717631

  5. A novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Wu, Junling; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized lesions in tooth enamel around orthodontic brackets are caused by acids from cariogenic biofilm. This study aimed to develop a novel antibacterial orthodontic cement by incorporating a quaternary ammonium monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) into a commercial orthodontic cement, and to investigate the effects on microcosm biofilm response and enamel bond strength. DMADDM, a recently-synthetized antibacterial monomer, was incorporated into orthodontic cement at 0%, 1.5%, 3% and 5% mass fractions. Bond strength of brackets to enamel was measured. A microcosm biofilm model was used to measure metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and colony-forming units (CFU) on orthodontic cements. Shear bond strength was not reduced at 3% DAMDDM (p > 0.1), but was slightly reduced at 5% DMADDM, compared to 0% DMADDM. Biofilm viability was substantially inhibited when in contact with orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM. Biofilm metabolic activity, lactic acid production, and CFU were much lower on orthodontic cement containing DMADDM than control cement (p < 0.05). Therefore, the novel antibacterial orthodontic cement containing 3% DMADDM inhibited oral biofilms without compromising the enamel bond strength, and is promising to reduce or eliminate demineralization in enamel around orthodontic brackets. PMID:25035230

  6. MAGNETIC END CLOSURES FOR PLASMA CONFINING AND HEATING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1963-08-20

    More effective magnetic closure field regions for various open-ended containment magnetic fields used in fusion reactor devices are provided by several spaced, coaxially-aligned solenoids utilized to produce a series of nodal field regions of uniform or, preferably, of incrementally increasing intensity separated by lower intensity regions outwardly from the ends of said containment zone. Plasma sources may also be provided to inject plasma into said lower intensity areas to increase plasma density therein. Plasma may then be transported, by plasma diffusion mechanisms provided by the nodal fields, into the containment field. With correlated plasma densities and nodal field spacings approximating the mean free partl cle collision path length in the zones between the nodal fields, optimum closure effectiveness is obtained. (AEC)

  7. Quantity and quality assessment of randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tatsuo; Takayama, Hisako; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2010-07-01

    To find current high-quality evidence for orthodontic practice within a reasonable time, we tested the performance of a PubMed search. PubMed was searched using publication type randomized controlled trial and medical subject heading term "orthodontics" for articles published between 2003 and 2007. The PubMed search results were compared with those from a hand search of four orthodontic journals to determine the sensitivity of PubMed search. We evaluated the precision of the PubMed search result and assessed the quality of individual randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. Sensitivity and precision were 97.46% and 58.12%, respectively. In PubMed, of the 277 articles retrieved, 161 (58.12%) were randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, and 115 of the 161 articles (71.42%) were published in four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics. Assessment by the Jadad scale revealed 60 high-quality randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, of which 45 (75%) were published in these four journals. PubMed is a highly desirable search engine for evidence-based orthodontic practice. To stay current and get high-quality evidence, it is reasonable to look through four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics.

  8. Orthodontic treatment mediates dental pulp microenvironment via IL17A.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenjing; Zhang, Yueling; Jiang, Chunmiao; He, Wei; Yi, Yating; Wang, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Orthodontic treatment induces dental tissue remodeling; however, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-mediated pulp micro-environmental alteration is still largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we identified elevated interleukin-17A (IL17A) in the dental pulp, which induced the osteogenesis of DPSCs after orthodontic force loading. Tooth movement animal models were established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and samples were harvested at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after orthodontic treatment loading. DPSC self-renewal and differentiation at different time points were examined, as well as the alteration of the microenvironment of dental pulp tissue by histological analysis and the systemic serum IL17A expression level by an ELISA assay. In vitro recombinant IL17A treatment was used to confirm the effect of IL17A on the enhancement of DPSC self-renewal and differentiation. Orthodontic treatment altered the dental pulp microenvironment by activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL17A in vivo. Orthodontic loading significantly promoted the self-renewal and differentiation of DPSCs. Inflammation and elevated IL17A secretion occurred in the dental pulp during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, in vitro recombinant IL17A treatment mimicked the enhancement of the self-renewal and differentiation of DPSCs. Orthodontic treatment enhanced the differentiation and self-renewal of DPSCs, mediated by orthodontic-induced inflammation and subsequent elevation of IL17A level in the dental pulp microenvironment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Study of Patient’s Self-Image during Orthodontic Treatment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    Orthodontic Treatment 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMMER 7. AUTHOR(a) U. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Brian B. Jacobus, Jr. . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND...with a correction of the patient’s malocclusion through orthodontic treatment. A study was done to determine what changes occur in the orthodontic ...patient’s self-image dur S ing orthodontic treatment. A questionnaire requiring re- sponses pertaining to self-image was distributed to three hundred

  10. Treatment of adults with lingual orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Gorman, J C

    1988-07-01

    With the advent of lingual orthodontic treatment, an alternative became available to the adult patient who preferred to avoid the unesthetic appearance of conventional orthodontic appliances. The newer brackets and archwires described in this article, in combination with the proven technique developed by the author and others, has made lingual orthodontic treatment a practical reality. The appliance has been shown to be as effective as labial counterparts in correcting all types of malocclusions. New laboratory and indirect bonding techniques have eliminated the need for intricate wire bending and have reduced patient chair time and overall treatment time. Because of the premature introduction of early lingual appliances, many dental practitioners mistakenly believe that lingual treatment is less effective than labial treatment. As more examples of successful treatment are seen, dental practitioners will be more apt to refer patients to orthodontists proficient in this technique. Many graduate orthodontic programs now are teaching this technique to their residents. About 3000 patients currently are starting treatment with lingual appliances each year. This represents only about 1 per cent of adult patients. It is projected that this slowly will climb to about 10 per cent of adult orthodontic treatment over the next 5 years. The increased cost of this treatment, coupled with the resistance on the part of many orthodontists to learn the new technique, seem to be the limiting factors.

  11. Health economic evaluations in orthodontics: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Petrén, Sofia; Björnsson, Liselotte; Norlund, Anders; Bondemark, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Economic evaluation is assuming increasing importance as an integral component of health services research. Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the evidence from studies presenting orthodontic treatment outcomes and the related costs. Materials/methods: The literature review was conducted in four steps, according to Goodman’s model, in order to identify all studies evaluating economic aspects of orthodontic interventions. The search covered the databases Medline, Cinahl, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, and SCOPUS, for the period from 1966 to September 2014. The inclusion criteria were as follows: randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing at least two different orthodontic interventions, evaluation of both economic and orthodontic outcomes, and study populations of all ages. The quality of each included study was assessed as limited, moderate, or high. The overall evidence was assessed according to the GRADE system (The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Results: The applied terms for searches yielded 1838 studies, of which 989 were excluded as duplicates. Application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified 26 eligible studies for which the full-text versions were retrieved and scrutinized. At the final analysis, eight studies remained. Three studies were based on cost-effectiveness analyses and the other five on cost-minimization analysis. Two of the cost-minimization studies included a societal perspective, i.e. the sum of direct and indirect costs. The aims of most of the studies varied widely and of studies comparing equivalent treatment methods, few were of sufficiently high study quality. Thus, the literature to date provides an inadequate evidence base for economic aspects of orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: This systematic review disclosed that few orthodontic studies have

  12. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Saudi orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Jabaa, Aljazi H; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies and study the association of these anomalies with different types of malocclusion in a random sample of Saudi orthodontic patients. Six hundred and two randomly selected pretreatment records including orthopantomographs (OPG), and study models were evaluated. The molar relationship was determined using pretreatment study models, and OPG were examined to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies among the sample. The most common types of the investigated anomalies were: impaction followed by hypodontia, microdontia, macrodontia, ectopic eruption and supernumerary. No statistical significant correlations were observed between sex and dental anomalies. Dental anomalies were more commonly found in class I followed by asymmetric molar relation, then class II and finally class III molar relation. No malocclusion group had a statistically significant relation with any individual dental anomaly. The prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi orthodontic patients was higher than the general population. Although, orthodontic patients have been reported to have high rates of dental anomalies, orthodontists often fail to consider this. If not detected, dental anomalies can complicate dental and orthodontic treatment; therefore, their presence should be carefully investigated during orthodontic diagnosis and considered during treatment planning.

  13. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Radha; Singh, G K; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Alka

    2010-07-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment option left. One indication for surgery obviously is a malocclusion too severe for orthodontics alone. It is possible now to be at least semiquantitative about the limits of orthodontic treatment, in the context of producing normal occlusion as the diagrams of the "envelope of discrepancy" indicate. In this case report we present orthognathic treatment plan of an adult female patient with skeletal class III malocclusion. Patient's malocclusion was decompensated by orthodontic treatment just before the surgery and then normal jaw relationship achieved by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.

  14. Differences of protein profile before and after orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasri, Farah Amirah Mohd; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical forces in orthodontic treatment used to treat malocclusion can cause inflamed gingival tissue and the process of tooth movement may resorb dental root. Root resorption is an iatrogenic effect of orthodontic treatment but it can be monitored using protein biomarker. This study aims to investigate the differences of protein profile before and after orthodontic treatment using different staining methods. Human gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were collected from orthodontic patients before and after treatment. Protein profile were observed using SDS-PAGE. Our study shows down regulation of proteins after 3 months of treatment. Hence, there are potential values from this study to aid in investigation for specific biomarkers for root resorption.

  15. Patients' expectations of orthodontic treatment: part 2--findings from a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M S; Newton, J T

    2007-03-01

    To describe patients' and their parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment. A questionnaire survey of 100 patients and their primary care-givers attending a new patient orthodontic consultant clinic, at a teaching hospital. GKT Orthodontic Department, King's College Dental Hospital, London, UK. The sample consisted of 100 participants who completed the questionnaire, including 50 patients aged 12-14 years who had been referred to the orthodontic department for treatment. One parent of each patient was also invited to participate. Participants completed a valid questionnaire measure of orthodontic expectations that was tested for reliability and validity. Descriptive analysis of the responses was undertaken, and comparisons of children's and parents' expectations, in addition to ethnicity, were made. Patients and parents have similar expectations of treatment, with the exception of expectations of duration of orthodontic treatment (P<0.01), having a brace fitted at the initial visit (P<0.05), and restrictions with regard to what one can eat and drink as a result of orthodontic treatment (P<0.05). Among the patient participants, different ethnic groups displayed different expectations of the initial orthodontic assessment visit, the likelihood of wearing headgear, the impact of orthodontic treatment on diet, and the reaction of peers to treatment (P<0.05). For patients, ethnic group differences were reported for expectations regarding the initial visit, headgear and dietary restrictions (P<0.05). Patients and their parents share similar expectations of orthodontic treatment for most aspects of care, although parents are more realistic in their estimation of the duration of treatment and the initial visit. The expectations of patients differ from those of their parents with regard to dietary and drink restrictions in relation to orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity significantly influences expectations of orthodontic treatment, and this may relate to differences in

  16. Springback Mechanism Analysis and Experiments on Robotic Bending of Rectangular Orthodontic Archwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jin-Gang; Han, Ying-Shuai; Zhang, Yong-De; Liu, Yan-Jv; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Fixed-appliance technology is the most common and effective malocclusion orthodontic treatment method, and its key step is the bending of orthodontic archwire. The springback of archwire did not consider the movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer. To solve this problem, a springback calculation model for rectangular orthodontic archwire is proposed. A bending springback experiment is conducted using an orthodontic archwire bending springback measurement device. The springback experimental results show that the theoretical calculation results using the proposed model coincide better with the experimental testing results than when movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer was not considered. A bending experiment with rectangular orthodontic archwire is conducted using a robotic orthodontic archwire bending system. The patient expriment result show that the maximum and minimum error ratios of formed orthodontic archwire parameters are 22.46% and 10.23% without considering springback and are decreased to 11.35% and 6.13% using the proposed model. The proposed springback calculation model, which considers the movement of the stress-strain-neutral layer, greatly improves the orthodontic archwire bending precision.

  17. Articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Lierde, K M; Luyten, A; D'haeseleer, E; Van Maele, G; Becue, L; Fonteyne, E; Corthals, P; De Pauw, G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this controlled study is to document articulation and oromyofunctional behavior in children seeking orthodontic treatment. In addition, relations between malocclusions, articulation, and oromyofunctional behavior are studied. The study included 56 children seeking orthodontic treatment. The control group, consisting of 54 subjects matched for age and gender, did not undergo orthodontic intervention. To determine the impact of the occlusion on speech, the Oral Health Impact Profile was used. Speech characteristics, intelligibility and several lip and tongue functions were analyzed using consensus evaluations. A significant impact of the occlusion on speech and more articulation disorders for/s,n,l,t/were found in the subjects seeking orthodontic treatment. Several other phenomena were seen more often in this group, namely more impaired lip positioning during swallowing, impaired tongue function at rest, mouth breathing, open mouth posture, lip sucking/biting, anterior tongue position at rest, and tongue thrust. Moreover, all children with a tongue thrust showed an anterior tongue position at rest. Children seeking orthodontics have articulatory and oromyofunctional disorders. To what extent a combined orthodontic and logopaedic treatment can result in optimal oral health (i.e. perfect dentofacial unit with perfect articulation) is subject for further multidisciplinary research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Body dysmorphic disorder and orthodontics--an overview for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Marshneil Trista; Farella, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often seek aesthetic medical treatment including orthodontics to correct their perceived physical defects. When the disorder pertains to the dentofacial region, it is important for orthodontists to be familiar with this condition. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on BDD and its relationship to orthodontics. PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were searched for publications relating to BDD and orthodontics. Further articles were sourced from the reference lists of the articles identified through the search. The literature recommends that orthodontic patients suspected of having BDD should be referred to a psychiatrist for a definitive diagnosis and subsequent management. However, this may be difficult to implement in clinical practice. Management by a psychiatrist could include pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy. There is still debate as to whether orthodontic treatment should be provided for these patients. As health care workers providing aesthetic treatment to patients, orthodontists should be aware of BDD and its implications. Risks include repeated requests for unnecessary treatment, dissatisfaction with the result and thus potential for litigation. BDD still remains a challenge to diagnose, and further research is needed to determine the appropriate management of orthodontic patients suffering from the disorder.

  19. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  20. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  1. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  2. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  3. Orthodontic uprighting of severely impacted mandibular second molars.

    PubMed

    Lau, Catherine K; Whang, Claudia Z Y; Bister, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of impacted second molars is low, varying from 0% to 2.3%. The etiology of an impaction can involve systemic, local, and periodontal factors, as well as a developmental disruption of the tooth germ. A number of surgical and orthodontic treatment options have been suggested in the literature, including leaving the tooth in situ, removing the impacted second molar, orthodontic uprighting, and autotransplantation. Removal of third molars has been suggested as an adjunct for space creation. This article presents the treatment of a girl with bilateral severely impacted mandibular second molars as well as an ectopic maxillary left canine and severe crowding affecting both the maxillary and mandibular arches. Her treatment was successfully completed with fixed preadjusted edgewise appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in slot size) and MBT prescription (APC precoated Gemini Brackets; 3M Unitek, St. Paul, Minn), along with the removal of 4 first premolars. The maxillary left canine and the mandibular second molars were surgically exposed. The treatment mechanics show that even severely impacted second molars can be uprighted by routine straight-wire techniques, which are easy to apply. The center of rotation of the second molar lies in the bifurcation of the roots of this tooth, and this biomechanical property was used to its full advantage. The techniques applied comprised bracket repositioning, bypass of brackets, conversion of molar tubes to brackets, thermoelastic copper-nickel-titanium archwires, and a push-coil spring. Other orthodontic treatment mechanics, which require complex sectional or segmental techniques, auxiliaries, or artistic wire bending, that have been suggested in the literature were not used here. The third molars were not removed. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gingival enlargement in orthodontic patients: Effect of treatment duration.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun

    2018-01-23

    Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are

  6. [Apical resorption in pre-surgical orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Piasente, M; Merlini, C; Amelotti, C; Antonioli, M; Roghi, M

    1991-07-15

    Apical root resorption is a frequent phenomenon observed in pre-surgical orthodontic; the reason is double: we deal with adult patients and we often move the teeth in the opposite direction compared to the position obtained in previous inefficacious orthodontic treatments. Notwithstanding the amount of apical root resorption we couldn't record an hyper-mobility of the teeth and a long term evaluation of occlusal stability didn't show any significant change.

  7. How patient and carer expectations of orthodontic treatment vary with ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Sarah; Newton, Tim; Sayers, Mark

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if the orthodontic treatment expectations of Black British children and their primary carers vary compared with White British children and their primary carers. A hospital orthodontic department (Queen Mary's Hospital, Sidcup, London, UK). Patients and their accompanying primary carers who had not received fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and were aged between 12 and 14 years old. Informed consent was obtained from 100 patients and their primary carers, who completed a psychometrically validated questionnaire, to measure their expectations before a new patient orthodontic consultation. This cohort consisted of 50 Black British patients and their primary carers and 50 White British patients and their primary carers. Mean responses from patients and their primary carers for each ethnic group were compared using the independent groups t-test. Significant statistical differences were found between the two ethnic groups. The greatest statistical differences occurred between Black British patients and their primary carer and Black British primary carers and White British primary carers. Patients tended to have similar orthodontic expectations. There were no statistical significant differences in expectations between White British children and their primary carers. Differences in expectations of orthodontic treatment were more common between Black British and White British primary carers, than their children. White British primary carers had higher expectations at their child's initial appointment and expected dental extractions to be part of the orthodontic treatment plan. These differences have some implications for the provision of orthodontic care. A clinicians understanding of patients and their primary carer's expectations at the start of treatment can help in the quality and delivery of orthodontic care provided.

  8. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in Nigerian school children.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Emmanuel Olubusayo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment in Nigerian children, and to evaluate distribution of orthodontic treatment need according to gender and age. The sample consisted of 441 randomly selected school children, aged 11-18 years in Benin City, Nigeria. The subjects were further sub-grouped according to gender (229 males and 212 females) and age (246 11-13 years old and 195 14-18 years old). The Dental health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used to assess orthodontic treatment need normatively. Self-perceived need was evaluated by asking the subjects to rate their dental aesthetics on the Aesthetic Component scale of IOTN. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate gender and age differences in distribution of treatment need. A definite need for orthodontic treatment was found among 21.5% (grades 4-5 of DHC) and 6.3% (grades 8-10 of AC) of the subjects; 3.9% of the subjects perceived a definite need for orthodontic treatment (grades 8-10 of AC). There were no statistically significant gender and age differences in distribution of orthodontic treatment need among the subjects (p > 0.05). The study revealed a need for orthodontic treatment in slightly more than one fifth (21.5%) of this sample of Nigerian children. The sample population has a lower need on aesthetic grounds and their normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment needs were not influenced by gender and age.

  9. Surgical–orthodontic treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Radha; Singh, G. K.; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Alka

    2010-01-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment option left. One indication for surgery obviously is a malocclusion too severe for orthodontics alone. It is possible now to be at least semiquantitative about the limits of orthodontic treatment, in the context of producing normal occlusion as the diagrams of the “envelope of discrepancy” indicate. In this case report we present orthognathic treatment plan of an adult female patient with skeletal class III malocclusion. Patient's malocclusion was decompensated by orthodontic treatment just before the surgery and then normal jaw relationship achieved by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. PMID:22442586

  10. Patient's Perceptions Regarding Orthodontic Needs and Satisfactory Level with the Procedure.

    PubMed

    Farishta, Saibel

    2015-09-01

    In order to keep the patients satisfied with Orthodontic treatment and to address the growing concern among new orthodontic patients, this study was undertaken to evaluate patient's perceptions of their orthodontic treatment needs and the satisfactory level with the procedure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 362 patients who had received orthodontic treatment. Questionnaires included information factors that encouraged them to take orthodontic treatment, painful experience of orthodontic therapy, and also to know the effectiveness of the treatment. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used to analyze results at P = 0.05. Most of the participants faced problems due to their dentition (60.2%), followed by mastication 23.6%. It was found that most of the study subjects were motivated by orthodontist to receive the treatment (29.7%). When the participants were asked about the complications faced by them during the procedure and the most common answer was a longer duration of the treatment (23.3%). Pain was also a common factor faced by the participants (15.9%). Significant results were seen according to gender and age. The study concluded that problems in the dentition were the main factor to seek orthodontic treatment and most of the subjects were convinced by the specialist to undergo orthodontic therapy. Many problems faced during the treatment, but still majority gave a positive response to the treatment.

  11. Qualitative evaluation of pretreatment patient concerns in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Twigge, Eugene; Roberts, Rachel M; Jamieson, Lisa; Dreyer, Craig W; Sampson, Wayne J

    2016-07-01

    A discrepancy exists between objective and subjective measures of orthodontic treatment need, highlighting the importance of patients' perceptions. Limited qualitative information is available regarding patients' perceptions and orthodontic concerns. For the first time, patient facial images and qualitative methodology were used to assess patients' orthodontic concerns, which are incorporated into and are important in treatment planning and consent. An interview-based, cross-sectional study of adolescent patients eligible to receive orthodontic treatment in a public dental hospital was conducted with 105 adolescents (42 boys, 63 girls) aged between 12 and 17 years. Each patient's face was video recorded, and 3 images were selected from each recording to assess the patient's orthodontic concerns. The initial chief concerns were compared with concerns articulated after the patients assessed their facial images. In addition, patient concerns were compared with occlusal features visible on smiling using the Dental Aesthetic Index and patient study casts. For 37% of the adolescent patients, smiling images helped to identify additional concerns. For 87%, their smiling images helped them to describe their concerns in more detail. In addition, a few patients did not articulate any concern about features measurable on the Dental Aesthetic Index that were visible on smiling. Showing adolescent patients images of their face and smile helped them to identify and better describe their concerns. Adolescents are not always overly concerned about visible and quantifiable malocclusion features. This might influence orthodontic treatment planning and consent. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Centennial inventory: the changing face of orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability. The most recent technologic advances have buttressed these goals. Cone-beam computed tomography has brought 3-dimensional assessment to daily usage, albeit the original enthusiasm is tempered by the risk of additional radiation. Temporary anchorage devices or miniscrews have revolutionized orthodontic practice and loom as a solid cornerstone of orthodontic science. Decortication and microperforation promise to speed up tooth displacement by stimulating vascularization. The concept of the regional acceleratory phenomenon has touched upon even the timing of orthognathic surgery. The burden of esthetic appliances remains, with the demand for "cosmetic" appliances and clear aligners. Have these developments changed the face of orthodontics? Have we engaged in another turn wherein certain treatment modalities may fade, while others join mainstream applications? These questions are addressed in this essay on the challenges, promises, and limitations of current orthodontic technology, enhancement of biologic response, and personalized treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase in detectable opportunistic bacteria in the oral cavity of orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Kitada, K; de Toledo, A; Oho, T

    2009-05-01

    This study was performed to detect the opportunistic bacteria and fungi from the oral cavities of orthodontic patients and examine the ability of the organisms to adhere to saliva-coated metallic brackets. Opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from 58 patients (orthodontic group: 42; non-orthodontic group: 16) using culture methods and were identified based on their biochemical and enzymatic profiles. Seven opportunistic and four streptococcal strains were tested for their ability to adhere to saliva-coated metallic brackets. More opportunistic bacteria and fungi were detected in the orthodontic group than in the non-orthodontic group (P < 0.05). Opportunistic bacteria adhered to saliva-coated metallic brackets to the same degree as oral streptococci. The isolation frequencies of opportunistic bacteria and fungi increase during orthodontic treatment, suggesting the importance of paying special attention to oral hygiene in orthodontic patients to prevent periodontal disease and the aggravation of systemic disease in immunocompromised conditions.

  14. Effect of fluoride mouthwash on tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah, D. I.; Anggani, H. S.; Ismah, N.

    2017-08-01

    Patients with orthodontic treatment are commonly recommended to use a fluoride mouthwash for maintaining their oral hygiene and preventing dental caries. However, fluoride may affect the characteristics of stainless steel orthodontic archwires used during treatment. The effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to know the effect of fluoride mouthwash on the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Examine the tensile strength of 0.016 inch stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersion in 0.05%, 100 ml fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min. There is no statistically significant difference in the tensile strength of stainless steel orthodontic archwires after immersed in fluoride mouthwash. The p-values on immersion fluoride mouthwash for 30, 60, and 90 min consecutively are 0.790; 0.742; and 0.085 (p > 0.05). The use of fluoride mouthwash did not have an effect on the tensile strength of stainless Steel orthodontic archwires.

  15. Management of gingival recession associated with orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-07-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case.

  16. Evolving concepts of heredity and genetics in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David S

    2015-12-01

    The field of genetics emerged from the study of heredity early in the 20th century. Since that time, genetics has progressed through a series of defined eras based on a number of major conceptual and technical advances. Orthodontics also progressed through a series of conceptual stages over the past 100 years based in part on the ongoing and often circular debate about the relative importance of heredity (nature) and the local environment (nurture) in the etiology and treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities. During the past 20 years, significant advancements in understanding the genomic basis of craniofacial development and the gene variants associated with dentofacial deformities have resulted in a convergence of the principles and concepts in genetics and in orthodontics that will lead to significant advancement of orthodontic treatments. Fundamental concepts from genetics and applied translational research in orthodontics provide a foundation for a new emphasis on precision orthodontics, which will establish a modern genomic basis for major improvements in the treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities as well as many other areas of concern to orthodontists through the assessment of gene variants on a patient-by-patient basis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The orthodontic-periodontic interrelationship in integrated treatment challenges: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gkantidis, N; Christou, P; Topouzelis, N

    2010-05-01

    Orthodontic treatment aims at providing an acceptable functional and aesthetic occlusion with appropriate tooth movements. These movements are strongly related to interactions of teeth with their supportive periodontal tissues. In recent years, because of the increased number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, orthodontists frequently face patients with periodontal problems. Aesthetic considerations, like uneven gingival margins or functional problems resulting from inflammatory periodontal diseases should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. Furthermore, in cases with severe periodontitis, orthodontics may improve the possibilities of saving and restoring a deteriorated dentition. In modern clinical practice, the contribution of the orthodontist, the periodontist and the general dentist is essential for optimized treatment outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review is to highlight the relationship between orthodontics and periodontics in clinical practice and to improve the level of cooperation between dental practitioners. Potentials and limitations that derive from the interdisciplinary approach of complex orthodontic-periodontal clinical problems are discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the requirements... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  19. Bacterial endotoxin adhesion to different types of orthodontic adhesives

    PubMed Central

    ROMUALDO, Priscilla Coutinho; GUERRA, Thaís Rodrigues; ROMANO, Fábio Lourenço; da SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; BRANDÃO, Izaíra Tincani; SILVA, Célio Lopes; da SILVA, Lea Assed Bezerra; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial endotoxin (LPS) adhesion to orthodontic brackets is a known contributing factor to inflammation of the adjacent gingival tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Material and Methods Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component), then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test. Data obtained were scored and subjected to the Chi-square test using a significance level of 5%. Results There was endotoxin adhesion to all materials (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between composites/bonding agents and acrylic resin (p>0.05). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among commercial brands. Affinity of endotoxin was significantly greater for the bonding agents (p=0.0025). Conclusions LPS adhered to both orthodontic adhesive systems. Regardless of the brand, the endotoxin had higher affinity for the bonding agents than for the composites. There is no previous study assessing the affinity of LPS for orthodontic adhesive systems. This study revealed that LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems. Therefore, additional care is recommended to orthodontic applications of these materials. PMID:28877283

  20. Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto

    2017-10-01

    The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal

  1. Resin-bonded restorations: a strategy for managing anterior tooth loss in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Özcan, Mutlu; Scherrer, Susanne S; Bühler, Julia M; Weiger, Roland; Krastl, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    In children or adolescents with anterior tooth loss, space closure with the patient's own teeth should be considered as the first choice to avoid lifelong restorative needs. Thorough diagnostics and treatment planning are required when autotransplantation or orthodontic space closure is considered. If these options are not indicated and a single tooth implant restoration is considered, implant placement should be postponed until adulthood, particularly in young women and in patients with hyperdivergent skeletal growth pattern. A ceramic resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis with 1 retainer is an excellent treatment solution for the interim period; it may also serve as a long-term restoration, providing that sound enamel structure is present, sufficient framework dimensions have been provided, adhesive cementation techniques have been meticulously applied, and functional contacts of the cantilever pontic avoided. In contrast, a resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis with a metal framework and retentive preparation is indicated if the palatal enamel structure is compromised, interocclusal clearance is limited, splinting (such as after orthodontic treatment) is required, or more than 1 tooth has to be replaced. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Who does what' in the orthodontic workforce.

    PubMed

    Hodge, T; Parkin, N

    2015-02-16

    The contraction of the economy in the United Kingdom and constraints on the National Health Service (NHS) together with new opportunities for the delivery of orthodontic treatment has resulted in an increasing number of dental personnel across the different registrant groups. This article focuses on the changes that have taken place in the orthodontic workforce over the past decade. Although others help deliver orthodontic services such as material suppliers, treatment coordinators and those involved in marketing, this article will restrict itself to informing the reader specifically about which dental registrants are doing what at the clinical interface. How health professionals have developed their skills to undertake the role they play within the team and possible threats arising because of these changes are also discussed.

  3. Prevention perspective in orthodontics and dento–facial orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    Teodorescu, E; Badarau, A; Grigore, R; Popa, M

    2008-01-01

    In the present context of the public health directions, considering WHO main objective, that ‘all people of the world could reach the highest possible health level’, in medicine, the accent is put on prevention. In spite of the important progresses achieved in orthodontics field, the treatment still remains a symptomatic one. In this context, we must ask ourselves what are the prevention theoretical and practical coordinates in orthodontics, which measures are available or could be elaborated for preventing the malocclusions development. From the clinical point of view, the most important element of the new perspective is that most of the cases of anomalies which in the present are cured by orthodontics are induced by functional and environmental factors and they can theoretically be prevented. Thus, the identification, control and guidance of the environmental factors which adjust the growing of the maxillaries and of the other cranio-facial structures would be the main target of a prevention program in orthodontics. PMID:20108519

  4. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    During the last three decades there has been an increased influx of refugees and immigrants into Scandinavia. The overall aim of this thesis was primarily to improve our knowledge of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need, both normative and self-perceived, in adolescents of varying geographic origin. A further aim was to determine whether any differences with respect to perception of general appearance and psychosocial well-being were related to geographic origin. Papers I and II concerned self perceived and normative orthodontic treatment need. About 500 12-13 year-old subjects, stratified into different groups: A-Sweden, B-Eastern/Southeastern Europe, C-Asia and D-other countries, answered a questionnaire and underwent clinical examination by the author. In paper III the association between the two variables in papers I and II was investigated. Paper IV was a follow up study, at 18-19 years of age, of the relationship between geographic origin and prevalence of malocclusion, self-perceived treatment need, temporomandibular symptoms and psychosocial wellbeing. In Paper V a qualitative study of 19-20-year-old subjects was conducted, to identify the strategies they had adopted to handle the issue of persisting poor dental aesthetics. The main findings were that at 12-13 years of age, immigrant subjects had a lower perceived orthodontic treatment need than subjects of Swedish background. Girls of Swedish background had the highest self-perceived treatment need, whilst girls of non-Swedish background were most concerned that fixed appliance therapy would be painful. In a few of the clinical variables measured at 12-13 years of age, the Swedish group exhibited the greatest space deficiency and irregularity in both the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments and greater overjet, compared to the Eastern/Southeastern European and Asian groups. The clinical implications were negligible. The orthodontic treatment need according to "Index of Orthodontic Treatment

  5. Clinical application of micro-implant anchorage in initial orthodontic retraction.

    PubMed

    Wahabuddin, Shaji; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Iqbal, Mahamad; Husain, Akhter

    2015-02-01

    Micro-implant is a device that is temporarily fixed to bone for the purpose of enhancing orthodontic anchorage either by supporting the teeth of the reactive unit or by obviating the need for the reactive unit altogether, and which is subsequently removed after use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of micro-implants in reinforcing anchorage during the initial retraction of anterior teeth, check the rate of initial retraction for 8 weeks, and assess the stability of micro-implants during this period. Eighteen micro-implants were placed (10 in the maxilla and 8 in the mandible) and immediately loaded with 200-250 g of force using 9-mm closed coil Nitinol springs. The amount of space closure was measured every 2 weeks until the eighth week. Cephalometric measurements were made at the end of the study to evaluate anchor loss, if any. Micro-implant stability was also assessed. The rate of initial retraction in the maxilla at the end of 8 weeks was 1.65 mm/quadrant and 1.51 mm/quadrant in the mandible. The amount of retraction on the left side of the arches was 1.66 mm/quadrant and 1.49 mm/quadrant on the right side. The average initial retraction for both arches per month was 0.78 mm. An anchor loss of 0.1 mm (0.06%) was observed in the maxilla while no mandibular anchor loss was recorded. The rate of initial retraction observed in the maxilla was more than that achieved in the mandible. Initial retraction was also more on the left side of the arches. There was no anchor loss in the mandible. The micro-implant-reinforced anchorage was helpful in minimizing anchor loss and accepted heavy traction forces but did not bring about a faster rate of retraction.

  6. Digital Thickness Measurement of a Transparent Plastic Orthodontic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Hwan; Rhim, Sung-Han

    2018-05-01

    A transparent orthodontic device is used to move the teeth to the final calibration position to form a proper set of teeth. Because the uniform thickness of the device plays an important role in tooth positioning, the accuracy of the device's thickness profile is important for effective orthodontic treatment. However, due to the complexity of the device's geometry and the transparency of the device's material, measuring the complete thickness profile has been difficult. In the present study, a new optical scanning method to measure the thickness profile of transparent plastic orthodontic devices is proposed and evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The error of the new measurement method is less than ±18 μm. The new method can be used to measure the thickness of non-specific, multi-curved, transparent orthodontic devices.

  7. Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and biofilm formation--a potential public health threat?

    PubMed

    Ren, Yijin; Jongsma, Marije A; Mei, Li; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-09-01

    Orthodontic treatment is highly popular for restoring functional and facial esthetics in juveniles and adults. As a downside, prevalence of biofilm-related complications is high. Objectives of this review are to (1) identify special features of biofilm formation in orthodontic patients and (2) emphasize the need for strong concerted action to prevent biofilm-related complications during orthodontic treatment. Literature on biofilm formation in the oral cavity is reviewed to identify special features of biofilm formation in orthodontic patients. Estimates are made of juvenile and adult orthodontic patient population sizes, and biofilm-related complication rates are used to indicate the costs and clinical workload resulting from biofilm-related complications. Biofilm formation in orthodontic patients is governed by similar mechanisms as common in the oral cavity. However, orthodontic appliances hamper the maintenance of oral hygiene and provide numerous additional surfaces, with properties alien to the oral cavity, to which bacteria can adhere and form a biofilm. Biofilm formation may lead to gingivitis and white spot lesions, compromising facial esthetics. Whereas gingivitis after orthodontic treatment is often transient, white spot lesions may turn into cavities requiring professional restoration. Complications requiring professional care develop in 15 % of all orthodontic patients, implying an annual cost of over US$500,000,000 and a workload of 1,000 full-time dentists in the USA alone. Improved preventive measures and antimicrobial materials are urgently required to prevent biofilm-related complications of orthodontic treatment from overshadowing its functional and esthetic advantages. High treatment demand and occurrence of biofilm-related complications requiring professional care make orthodontic treatment a potential public health threat.

  8. Factors affecting patients' adherence to orthodontic appointments.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Omair M; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Tavares, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Studies show that attendance at orthodontic appointments affects treatment outcomes, treatment duration, and the probability of side effects. The aim of this study was to predict factors that influence patients' attendance at orthodontic appointments. We conducted a face-to-face guided interview survey of 153 participants from orthodontic clinics in the Greater Boston area. Attendance at scheduled orthodontic appointments was self-reported as always, sometimes, or rarely. Participants' characteristics, including demographics, dental insurance, and oral hygiene practices, were self-reported. Moreover, from dental records, we collected the time that the participants spent undergoing active orthodontic treatment. Multivariable ordered logistic regression was used to report proportional odds ratios and attendance probabilities. A likelihood ratio test was performed to ensure that the proportional odds assumption held. For overall appointment attendance, 76% of the participants reported always attending, 16% reported sometimes attending, and 8% reported rarely attending. Based on multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for age, race, and sex), the participants with optimal oral hygiene practices were almost 6 times (5.9) more likely to attend appointments than those who did not (P = 0.002). The odds of attending appointments decreased significantly (by 23%) for every 6-month increase in treatment duration (P = 0.008). Participants covered by non-Medicaid insurance were 4 times (P = 0.018) more likely to attend appointments than were those with Medicaid insurance. Our findings indicate that adherence to orthodontic treatment follow-up visits was strongly correlated to insurance type, treatment duration, and oral hygiene practices. Unlike previous studies, sex was not a significant predictor of adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Evaluation of three dimensional orthodontic force produced by magnet of fix appliance].

    PubMed

    Dai, Xin; Hou, Zhi-ming; Yao, Ge; Wen, Jing-long

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the feature and magnitude of three dimensional orthodontic force produced by the magnet of fix appliance. Forces detected by universal fatigue test system included the attractive and repulsive,the inclined and rotated orthodontic forces of two magnets in different air gaps, and the integrated inclined and rotated orthodontic forces of two magnets and NiTi wire. The attractive and repulsive forces of two magnets were 4.68 to 0.45 N and 3.00 to 0.40 N respectively in the air gaps of 0 to 5 mm. The inclined orthodontic forces were 1.54 to 1.67 N, 0.63 to 0.69 N, 0.47 to 0.54 N when the magnets were vertically inclined 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gaps of 0, 1, 2mm. The rotated orthodontic forces were 0.97 to 1.32 N, 0.53 to 0.59 N, 0.39 to 0.48 N when the magnets were horizontally rotated 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gaps of 0, 1, 2mm. The integrated orthodontic force of two magnets and 0.014-inch NiTi wire was 0.32 to 0.5 N when the magnets was vertically inclined 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gap of 4 mm. The integrated orthodontic force of two magnets and 0.012-inch NiTi wire was 0.32 to 0.39 N when the magnets were horizontally rotated 10 degrees to 40 degrees in the air gap of 3 mm. Magnets made into orthodontic brackets to some extent could replace the mechanical orthodontic force produced by orthodontic wires and elastics.

  10. Invasive cervical resorption following orthodontic treatment: Two cases involving the same patient.

    PubMed

    Yoshpe, Margarita; Kaufman, Arieh; Lin, Shaul; Gabay, Eran; Einy, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR), a destructive form of external root resorption, is characterized by invasion of the fibrovascular tissue. This phenomenon is very rare and appears in 0.02% of the general population where the leading factors are orthodontics in addition to trauma, restorations, and bleaching. Heavy orthodontic force may increase the incidence to 1%. One of the main concerns regarding ICR is that it is often misdiagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. In recent decades, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging technique has become more common and can lead to a more accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. This case report describes a possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR of a 14-year-old male, 18 months post orthodontic treatment. ICR in the mandibular right canine was diagnosed and verified by CBCT, and underwent combined endodontic-periodontal treatment. However, after orthodontic forced eruption was performed on this tooth to improve the bone defect, ICR was diagnosed on the mandibular right second premolar. The possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR is discussed, as ICR was noted following orthodontic treatment on both occasions. This case report stresses the importance of ICR early detection by close attention to periodic radiographic checkups during orthodontic treatment. The use of modern diagnostic tools is highly recommended in suspicious cases. A case is described in which the patient underwent two types of orthodontic treatment in the mandible at different time periods and developed ICR in two different teeth.

  11. The prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs of school children in northern Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Ružica; Cvitanović, Stipo; Mabić, Mirela; Ćorić, Anka; Vukojević, Katarina; Goršeta, Kristina; Glavina, Domagoj

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need based on the Dental Health Component (DHC). 300 students aged 12-15 years were included in this study. The examinations were performed in two elementary schools in the municipality of Prozor-Rama, using standard dental instruments. Children were ranked into five grades according to the DHC. Only 12% of children were found not to have a need for orthodontic treatment. Of the others, 45.33% had a great, and 10% a very great need for orthodontic treatment. The rest of the children were found to have a need for minor or moderate orthodontic treatment. Slightly more girls than boys had a great or a very great need for treatment, although the difference by gender was not statistically significant. Analysis of the level of need by age of children showed no significant difference; children with a great need of orthodontic treatment prevailed in all age groups. About 85% of children with a great and a very great need for orthodontic treatment would agree to orthodontic treatment, while the rate of non-acceptance was about 5%. The high rate of need for orthodontic treatment in the examined students is explained by the lack of programs for this type of health care, the insufficient number of qualified orthodontic specialists, and the very low percentage of allocations from the state budget for oral health. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Rats.

    PubMed

    Dahhas, Feras Y; El-Bialy, Tarek; Afify, Ahmed R; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIRR) in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. Forty-eight 28-d-old female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomized and intact groups. In both groups, animals were left untreated; treated with 50 g mesially directed orthodontic force on the maxillary first molars using nickel-titanium closed-coil springs for 28 d; or treated with the same orthodontic protocol along with a 20-min LIPUS application on alternate days for 28 d. Extent of OTM and amount of OIRR of mesial roots were measured on three-dimensionally reconstructed micro-computed tomography images. Ovariectomy increased OIRR (p < 0.05). LIPUS reduced root volumetric loss regardless of ovariectomy status (p < 0.05); only ovariectomized animals had decreased OTM (p < 0.05). LIPUS normalizes OTM and attenuates OIRR in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats. It may therefore be beneficial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel orthodontic cement containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate with strong antibacterial capability.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Bai, Yuxing; Zhang, Ke

    2017-09-26

    Orthodontic treatments increase the incidence of white spot lesions. The objectives of this study were to develop an antibacterial orthodontic cement to inhibit demineralization, and to evaluate its enamel shear bond strength and anti-biofilm properties. Novel antibacterial monomer dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) was synthesized and incorporated into Transbond XT at 0, 1.5 and 3% by mass. Anti-biofilm activity was assessed using a human dental plaque microcosm biofilm model. Shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index were also tested. Biofilm activity precipitously dropped when contacting orthodontic cement with DMAHDM. Orthodontic cement containing 3% DMAHDM significantly reduced biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production (p<0.05), and decreased biofilm colony-forming unit (CFU) by two log. Water-aging for 90 days had no adverse influence on enamel shear bond strength (p>0.1). By incorporating DMAHDM into Transbond XT for the first time, the modified orthodontic cement obtained a strong antibacterial capability without compromising the enamel bond strength.

  14. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  15. Finance schemes for funding private orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Perks, S

    1997-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a steady increase in the volume of private dental treatment and numerous finance schemes have been developed to help both patients and dentists. Private orthodontic treatment is increasing and the purpose of this article is to summarise the main features of the schemes currently available to fund private orthodontic treatment and to provide a source of reference.

  16. Paresthesia during orthodontic treatment: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Martins, Renato Parsekian; Martins, Isabela Parsekian; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2011-10-01

    Paresthesia of the lower lip is uncommon during orthodontic treatment. In the present case, paresthesia occurred during orthodontic leveling of an extruded mandibular left second molar. It was decided to remove this tooth from the appliance and allow it to relapse. A reanatomization was then performed by grinding. The causes and treatment options of this rare disorder are reviewed and discussed. The main cause of paresthesia during orthodontic treatment may be associated with contact between the dental roots and inferior alveolar nerve, which may be well observed on tomography scans. Treatment usually involves tooth movement in the opposite direction of the cause of the disorder.

  17. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, G.E.; King, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments. PMID:18434571

  18. Orthodontic exposure of multiple lmpactions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Munda-Lacson, Maridin C; Venugopal, Adith

    2014-01-01

    There are rare cases of impacted permanent central incisors with dilacerations, a dental deformity characterized by pronounced angulations of the longitudinal tooth axis. Impaction of maxillary canines is an orthodontic anomaly that causes facial and dentoalveolar system problems, both functional and esthetic. A combination of surgery and orthodontics is important in bringing impacted teeth to their ideal position in the dental arch. This is a case report of a 10-year-old patient with impacted and dilacerated right central incisor and impacted left maxillary canine, following surgical exposure and appropriate orthodontic traction, the impacted teeth were surgically exposed and aligned into the dental arch.

  19. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Valladares Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. A short cranial base led to difficulties in establishing a cephalometric diagnosis. The patient's main complaint comprised esthetics of his smile and difficulties in mastication. The patient did not have the maxillary first premolars and refused orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the treatment chosen was orthodontic camouflage and extraction of mandibular first premolars. For maxillary retraction, the vertical dimension was temporarily increased to avoid obstacles to orthodontic movement. At the end of the treatment, ideal overjet and overbite were achieved. Examination eight years after orthodontic treatment revealed adequate clinical stability. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate.

  20. Closure of colostomy.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, P H; Conklin, H B

    1975-01-01

    We analyzed the records of 77 cases of loop colostomy closure in Vietnam War Casualties. All records were complete from the date of injury to discharge following colostomy closure. Simple of the loop colostomy was performed in 44 patients and resection of the stoma and reanastomosis of bowel segments was performed in 33 patients. Average operating time for simple closure of the loop was 70 minutes compared to 115 minutes for resection and anastomosis. Nasogastric suction was used less frequently and for a shorter time with simple loop closure. The total postoperative complication rate was 9% with simple loop closure as compared to 24% for resection and anastomosis. Simple closure of the loop described in this report is technically easier and as safe as resection of the stoma and reanastomosis. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1094967

  1. Is there a consensus for CBCT use in Orthodontics?

    PubMed

    Garib, Daniela G; Calil, Louise Resti; Leal, Claudia Resende; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to discuss current evidence and recommendations for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Orthodontics. In comparison to conventional radiograph, CBCT has higher radiation doses and, for this reason, is not a standard method of diagnosis in Orthodontics. Routine use of CBCT in substitution to conventional radiograph is considered an unaccepted practice. CBCT should be indicated with criteria only after clinical examination has been performed and when the benefits for diagnosis and treatment planning exceed the risks of a greater radiation dose. It should be requested only when there is a potential to provide new information not demonstrated by conventional scans, when it modifies treatment plan or favors treatment execution. The most frequent indication of CBCT in Orthodontics, with some evidence on its clinical efficacy, includes retained/impacted permanent teeth; severe craniofacial anomalies; severe facial discrepancies with indication of orthodontic-surgical treatment; and bone irregularities or malformation of TMJ accompanied by signs and symptoms. In exceptional cases of adult patients when critical tooth movement are planned in regions with deficient buccolingual thickness of the alveolar ridge, CBCT can be indicated provided that there is a perspective of changes in orthodontic treatment planning.

  2. Is there a consensus for CBCT use in Orthodontics?

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela G.; Calil, Louise Resti; Leal, Claudia Resende; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to discuss current evidence and recommendations for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Orthodontics. In comparison to conventional radiograph, CBCT has higher radiation doses and, for this reason, is not a standard method of diagnosis in Orthodontics. Routine use of CBCT in substitution to conventional radiograph is considered an unaccepted practice. CBCT should be indicated with criteria only after clinical examination has been performed and when the benefits for diagnosis and treatment planning exceed the risks of a greater radiation dose. It should be requested only when there is a potential to provide new information not demonstrated by conventional scans, when it modifies treatment plan or favors treatment execution. The most frequent indication of CBCT in Orthodontics, with some evidence on its clinical efficacy, includes retained/impacted permanent teeth; severe craniofacial anomalies; severe facial discrepancies with indication of orthodontic-surgical treatment; and bone irregularities or malformation of TMJ accompanied by signs and symptoms. In exceptional cases of adult patients when critical tooth movement are planned in regions with deficient buccolingual thickness of the alveolar ridge, CBCT can be indicated provided that there is a perspective of changes in orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:25715727

  3. Frequency of Bolton tooth-size discrepancies among orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J E; Maskeroni, A J; Lorton, L

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of orthodontic patients who present with an interarch tooth-size discrepancy likely to affect treatment planning or results. The Bolton tooth-size discrepancies of 157 patients accepted for treatment in an orthodontic residency program were evaluated for the frequency and the magnitude of deviation from Bolton's mean. Discrepancies outside of 2 SD were considered as potentially significant with regard to treatment planning and treatment results. Although the mean of the sample was nearly identical to that of Bolton's, the range and standard deviation varied considerably with a large percentage of the orthodontic patients having discrepancies outside of Bolton's 2 SD. With such a high frequency of significant discrepancies it would seem prudent to routinely perform a tooth-size analysis and incorporate the findings into orthodontic treatment planning.

  4. Biocompatibility of orthodontic bands following exposure to dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Hornikel, Sandra; Erbe, Christina; Schmidtmann, Irene; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of orthodontic bands following exposure to the human oral environment. Cell adherence and cell morphology of gingival fibroblasts grown on 32 orthodontic bands were tested. The bands were in place intraorally for 6 to 37 months. We observed cell adherence in 76% of the previously plaque-free surfaces. Cell morphology was 50% spherical and 50% elongated. The surfaces that had had plaque attached demonstrated cell adherence in 84% of the given areas; those cells were spherical in 42% and elongated in 58%. We conclude that individual oral hygiene habits during orthodontic treatment seem to have no effect on the biocompatibility of orthodontic bands, as we failed to discern a difference in either cell adherence or cell morphology in areas with and without prior plaque attachment.

  5. Scope of practice and supervision of orthodontic therapists in the United Kingdom: Part 2: a national cross-sectional survey of orthodontic therapists.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farooq; Dugdale, Charlotte; Malik, Ovais; Waring, David

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic therapists (OTs) are the most recent addition to the orthodontic clinical team. The General Dental Council (GDC) and the British Orthodontic Society have formulated guidance and guidelines relating to their scope of practice and level of supervision, however there has been no contemporary UK-based research investigating practice and supervision of OTs. The aim of this study was to investigate the scope of practice and level of supervision of OTs working in the UK. Ethical approval was received from the University of Manchester Research Ethics Committee. An anonymous postal questionnaire was dispatched using postal details acquired through the British Orthodontic Societies mailing list. Three mailings of the questionnaire were conducted. A 74% response rate was achieved. OTs routinely conducted 16 of the 20 procedures from their scope of practice. Uncommon procedures included fitting headgear (24%), lingual appliances (27%), inserting or removing temporary anchorage devices (20%), and taking facebow record (18%). A total of 62% of OTs took patient consent for treatment. 59% were supervised through a written prescription with no direct supervision. OTs were directly supervised for only a quarter of their clinical practice. Orthodontists viewing frequency for OTs varied significantly, and was found to be the following: every 2-4 visits (36%), every other visit (35%), and every visit (26%). OTs mostly carried out the scope of practice as permitted by the GDC. Procedures uncommon to routine orthodontic practice were also uncommon to Orthodontic therapist clinical practice. OTs work mostly through written prescription with no direct supervision.

  6. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  7. Effects of first molar extraction on third molar angulation and eruption space.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Mehmet; Ozer, Mete; Arici, Selim

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of orthodontic treatment with 4 first molar extractions on the angulations and eruption spaces of all third molars and to compare these changes with outcomes of nonextraction samples used as a control group. This study was carried out on standardized panoramic radiographs of 41 subjects (8 male, 33 female) with a mean age of 16.6 years (range 13 to 20 years). Twenty-one of the subjects were orthodontically treated with extraction of the 4 first permanent molars, and 20 had nonextraction treatment. The angulational changes and eruption spaces of third molars were evaluated on the panoramic radiographs taken before treatment and at the end of the observation period. Analysis of the linear variables demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups for all third molar eruption spaces (P < .001). The mean differences in the third molar eruption spaces between the pretreatment and posttreatment values for the first molar extraction group were higher than those of the nonextraction cases. Orthodontic treatment accomplished with extractions of the permanent first molars increases the eruption spaces of third molars and decreases their impaction. In addition, it has greater favorable effect on the angulation of the upper third molars than of the lower third molars.

  8. Role of third molars in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis

    2015-01-01

    The role of third molars in the oral cavity has been extensively studied over the years. Literature includes numerous diagnostic and treatment alternatives regarding the third molars. However, an issue that has not been discussed at the same level is their involvement in orthodontic therapy. The aim of this study is to present a review of the contemporary literature regarding the most broadly discussed aspects of the multifactorial role of third molars in orthodontics and which are of general dental interest too. PMID:25685759

  9. The association of subjective orthodontic treatment need with oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kragt, Lea; Jaddoe, Vincent; Wolvius, Eppo; Ongkosuwito, Edwin

    2017-08-01

    The existing body of evidence reports an inconsistent association between subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. The concept of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) might help to explain the differences in subjective and objective orthodontic treatment need. Our aim was to investigate the association of subjective orthodontic treatment with OHRQoL in children. This cross-sectional study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. OHRQoL and subjective orthodontic treatment need were assessed by parental questionnaires. Questionnaire items were individually compared among children with no, borderline and definite subjective orthodontic need. The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was investigated in multivariate regression analysis with weighted least squares. Differences by sex and levels of objective orthodontic treatment need were evaluated. In total, 3774 children were included in the analysis. Children with borderline subjective orthodontic treatment need and those with definite subjective orthodontic treatment need had significantly poorer OHRQoL based on the fully adjusted model (adjusted regression coefficient (aβ)=-0.49, 95% CI: -0.75, -0.30; (aβ)=-1.58, 95% CI: -1.81, -1.58, respectively). The association between subjective orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL was stronger in girls than in boys and stronger in children with objective orthodontic treatment need than in those with none. Oral health-related quality of life is poorer in children with subjective orthodontic treatment need. This has not been investigated before in such a large-population-based study and clearly offers an explanation for the lack of concurrence between objective and subjective orthodontic treatment need. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Gingival health and esthetics--another aspect of objectives of orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Ai, Dongqing; Xu, Hui; Bai, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Contemporary orthodontic care should be a team approach to achieve health and esthetics of soft and hard tissue. It should be given enough attention that periodontal health provides the foundation for tooth movement, and that distinct esthetic results can be achieved by subtle changes in tooth alignment and gingival contours. Orthodontic treatment planning should include evaluation of gingival health and esthetics to anticipate the need for interdisciplinary approaches. Studies on the effect of orthodontic treatment on gingiva can provides basis for maintaining gingival health and esthetic. This article will focus primarily on the gingival health and esthetic care in orthodontic treatment.

  11. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Valladares Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. A short cranial base led to difficulties in establishing a cephalometric diagnosis. The patient's main complaint comprised esthetics of his smile and difficulties in mastication. Methods The patient did not have the maxillary first premolars and refused orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the treatment chosen was orthodontic camouflage and extraction of mandibular first premolars. For maxillary retraction, the vertical dimension was temporarily increased to avoid obstacles to orthodontic movement. Results At the end of the treatment, ideal overjet and overbite were achieved. Conclusion Examination eight years after orthodontic treatment revealed adequate clinical stability. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate. PMID:24713568

  12. Orthodontic aligners and root resorption: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Qoraich, Halima Saadia; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima

    2017-03-01

    Root resorption is one of the leading problems in orthodontic treatment. Most earlier studies have assessed the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances as well as associated factors. However, few studies have assessed these parameters in the context of orthodontic treatment using thermoplastic splints or aligners. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners and associated factors. A comparative analysis was also made with fixed multi-bracket treatments. The data bases consulted were: Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Our search included meta-analyses, randomized and non-randomized controled trials, cohort studies and descriptive studies published before December 2015 and evidencing a connection with the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners alone or compared with fixed multi-bracket treatments. Among the 93 selected references, only 3 studies met our selection criteria. The incidence of root resorption ranged between 0 and 46%, of which 6% were severe cases. Relative to fixed multi-bracket non-extraction treatments to correct the same malocclusions, the incidence of resorption ranged between 2% and 50%, of which 22% were severe cases. In both techniques, the incidence of resorption was higher for the maxillary incisors and was not influenced by either age or sex. In malocclusion cases not requiring extractions, orthodontic aligner treatment is possibly associated with a lower incidence of resorption than fixed multi-bracket treatment. Further research encompassing extraction cases is needed to better assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following the use of these removable appliances. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Orthodontic treatment of patients medicated with bisphosphonates-a clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Krieger, Elena; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Scheller, Herbert; Jacobs, Collin; Walter, Christian; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are an established medication, e.g., for the prevention/therapy of osteoporosis. The effects of the changed bone metabolism for orthodontic treatments are unknown. A 66-year-old woman underwent a total oral rehabilitation. The therapy included (1) tooth extractions, (2) periodontal treatment, (3) insertion of dental implants, (4) provisional implant restorations, (5) orthodontic treatment, and (6) definite implant restorations. The orthodontic tooth movements were in- and retrusion of the upper frontal teeth, intrusion of the lower front teeth, using the dental implants as skeletal anchorage. After implant insertion and one month before beginning the orthodontic treatment, osteoporosis was diagnosed in this patient and, without notification to our facility, BP treatment was initiated by her general practitioner (alendronate oral, 70 mg/week), with an overall duration of intake of 7 months. After 13 months, the orthodontic treatment was successfully accomplished; however enlarged periodontal gaps, sclerotic bone areas, and mild apical root resorptions of the upper frontal teeth were found in this patient. Currently, there are no recommendations for orthodontic patients undergoing BP therapy. Orthodontic tooth movement in this low-risk patient with a short duration of intake and a low-dose BP medication was possible. Because of the reduced bone metabolism and the higher amount of side effects, the treatment should be performed with extremely light forces and frequent monitoring.

  14. Tilted orthodontic micro implants: a photoelastic stress analysis.

    PubMed

    Çehreli, Seçil; Özçırpıcı, Ayça Arman; Yılmaz, Alev

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine peri-implant stresses around orthodontic micro implants upon torque-tightening and static load application by quasi-three-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis. Self-tapping orthodontic micro implants were progressively inserted into photoelastic models at 30, 45, 70, and 90 degrees and insertion torques were measured. Stress patterns (isochromatic fringe orders) were recorded by the quasi-three-dimensional photoelastic method using a circular polariscope after insertion and 250 g static force application. Torque-tightening of implants generated peri-implant stresses. Upon insertion, 90 degree placed implants displayed the lowest and homogeneous stress distribution followed by 30, 70, and 45 degree tilted implants. Static loading did not dramatically alter stress fields around the implants tested. The highest alteration in stress distribution was observed for the 90 degree placed implant, while 70 degree tilted implant had the lowest stresses among tilted implants. Torque-tightening of orthodontic micro implants creates a stress field that is not dramatically altered after application of static lateral moderate orthodontic loads, particularly at the cervical region of tilted implants.

  15. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups - Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min.

  16. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires made of super engineering plastic.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Minami; Kanno, Zuisei; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance. PEEK and PVDF showed quite low water absorption. Because of recent developments in coloration of PEEK, we conclude that PEEK has many advantageous properties that make it a suitable candidate for use as an esthetic metal-free orthodontic wire.

  17. Evaluation of orthodontically induced external root resorption following orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Samandara, Aikaterini; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ioulia; Kavvadia-Tsatala, Smaragda; Papadopoulos, Moschos A

    2018-05-15

    Orthodontically induced external root resorption (OIRR) is a pathologic consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. However, the limitations of two-dimensional radiography suggest that cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with its three-dimensional capabilities might be more suitable to assess OIRR. The aim of this study was to assess in an evidence-based manner data on linear or volumetric OIRR measurements of permanent teeth by means of CBCT, during and/or after the end of orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and hand searches were performed up to January 2017 in 15 databases. Randomized clinical trials, prospective, and retrospective non-randomized studies assessing OIRR during and/or after orthodontic treatment using CBCT in human patients were included. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk-of-bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed in order to evaluate factors that affect OIRR. A total of 33 studies (30 datasets) were included in the qualitative analysis while data from 27 of them were included in the quantitative analysis. Direct comparisons from randomized trials found little to no influence of appliance-related factors on OIRR. Explorative analyses including non-randomized studies found a pooled OIRR of 0.79 mm based on all included studies and 0.86 mm when OIRR was assessed at the end of orthodontic treatment. Statistically significant differences in OIRR were found according to tooth type or jaw, inclusion of extractions, treatment duration, and diagnostic accuracy of the CBCT. Based on the results of this study, CBCT seems to be a reliable tool to examine OIRR during or at the end of orthodontic treatment. Although the average OIRR measured with CBCT seems to lack clinical relevance, there are certain factors that may affect OIRR following orthodontic treatment. Nevertheless, due to data

  18. [From fundamental research to clinical development: a review of orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-he; Bai, Ding

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion have emerged. The diagnostic and therapeutic techniques of orthodontics have evolved from two dimensions to five dimensions with the development of computer technology, auto-machining and imaging. Furthermore, interdisciplinary study has become the driving force for the advancement of fundamental research in orthodontics. The mechanisms of malocclusion and orthodontic tooth movement have been extensively studied to the details at the level of cells and molecules.

  19. Cone Beam Computed Tomographic imaging in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Scarfe, W C; Azevedo, B; Toghyani, S; Farman, A G

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 15 years, cone beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has emerged as an important supplemental radiographic technique for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, especially in situations which require an understanding of the complex anatomic relationships and surrounding structures of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT imaging provides unique features and advantages to enhance orthodontic practice over conventional extraoral radiographic imaging. While it is the responsibility of each practitioner to make a decision, in tandem with the patient/family, consensus-derived, evidence-based clinical guidelines are available to assist the clinician in the decision-making process. Specific recommendations provide selection guidance based on variables such as phase of treatment, clinically-assessed treatment difficulty, the presence of dental and/or skeletal modifying conditions, and pathology. CBCT imaging in orthodontics should always be considered wisely as children have conservatively, on average, a three to five times greater radiation risk compared with adults for the same exposure. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the operation of CBCT equipment as it relates to image quality and dose, highlight the benefits of the technique in orthodontic practice, and provide guidance on appropriate clinical use with respect to radiation dose and relative risk, particularly for the paediatric patient. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P < 0·001). Female and staff judges tended to give higher attractiveness ratings. Both females and males preferred the OSC images closing in 3 out of 4 paired images. Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  1. A Mini-review on the Effect of Mini-implants on Contemporary Orthodontic Science

    PubMed Central

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Rismanchian, Mansour; Sabzian, Roya; Shadmehr, Elham; Badrian, Hamid; Davoudi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to screen the valuable published articles regarding to the impacts of mini-implants on orthodontic science, briefly. The searching category was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as “dental (mini) implants, orthodontic anchorage procedures, and orthodontic appliances.” After preliminary sketch, they were grouped as follow: Those evaluating (a) common appliances for providing orthodontic anchorage, (b) biomechanical details of mini-implants and their insertion, (c) clinical application of mini-implants for orthognathic treatments, (d) limitations and possible complications. In conclusion, mini-implant evolved the orthodontic treatment plans and compromised the required orthognathic surgery. Malocclusion treatment and pure orthodontic or orthopedic movements in the three-dimensions have become recently possible by using mini-implant to provide skeletal anchorage. PMID:26225113

  2. Adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Perry, John; Johnson, Ilona; Popat, Hashmat; Morgan, Maria Z; Gill, Paul

    2018-04-24

    For effective risk communication, clinicians must understand patients' values and beliefs in relation to the risks of treatment. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information. Five focus groups were carried out with 32 school/college pupils aged 12-18 in Wales, UK. Participants were purposively selected and had all experienced orthodontic treatment. A thematic approach was used for analysis and data collection was completed at the point of data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data; (a) day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment, (b) important orthodontic risk information, (c) engaging with orthodontic risk information and (d) managing the risks of orthodontic treatment. Day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment that were affecting participants "here and now" were of most concern. Information about preventing the risks of treatment was deemed to be important. Participants did not actively seek risk information but engaged passively with information from convenient sources. Perceptions of risk susceptibility influenced participants' management of the risks of orthodontic treatment. This study demonstrates that adolescent patients can understand information about the nature and severity of orthodontic treatment risks. However, adolescent patients can have false perceptions if the risks are unfamiliar, perceived only to have a future impact or if seen as easy to control. Adolescent patients must be provided with timely and easily accessible risk information and with practical solutions to prevent the risks of treatment. The views and experiences gathered in this study can assist clinicians to better understand their young patients' beliefs about treatment risks, facilitate effective risk communication and contribute to improved patient-centred care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoparticles in orthodontics, a review of antimicrobial and anti-caries applications.

    PubMed

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Borzabadi, Ebrahim; Lynch, Edward

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles smaller than 100 nm in size. In order to prevent microbial adhesion or enamel demineralization in orthodontic therapy, two broad strategies have been used. These are incorporating certain NPs into orthodontic adhesives/cements or acrylic resins (nanofillers, silver, TiO2, SiO2, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, fluorohydroxyapatite) and coating surfaces of orthodontic appliances with NPs (i.e. coating bracket surfaces with a thin film of nitrogen-doped TiO2). Although the use of NPs in orthodontics can offer new possibilities, previous studies investigated the antimicrobial or physical characteristic over a short time span, i.e. 24 hours to a few weeks, and the limitations of in vitro studies should be recognized. Information on the long-term performance of orthodontic material using nanotechnology is lacking and necessitates further investigation and so do possible safety issues (toxicity), which can be related to the NP sizes.

  4. Material testing of reconditioned orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Reimann, S; Rewari, A; Keilig, L; Widu, F; Jäger, A; Bourauel, C

    2012-12-01

    While all manufacturers of orthodontic brackets label these products for single use, there are commercial providers offering bracket reconditioning (or "recycling"). We conducted this study to investigate the effects of different recycling techniques on material-related parameters in orthodontic brackets, aiming to derive indications for clinical use and conclusions about the biocompatibility, longevity, and application of recycled brackets. New metal brackets (equilibrium(®); Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) were compared to brackets recycled by different techniques, including direct flaming with a Bunsen burner, chemical reconditioning in an acid bath, a commercial unit (Big Jane; Esmadent, IL, USA), and outsourcing to a company (Ortho Clean, Dellstedt, Germany). Material-related examinations included the following: (1) corrosion behavior by static immersion testing and use of a mass spectrometer to determine nickel-ion concentrations in the corrosive medium, (2) surface features in scanning electron micrographs before and after corrosion testing, (3) Vickers hardness using a hardness testing machine, (4) shear bond strength as defined in DIN 13990-1, (5) dimensional stability of the bracket slots by light microscopy, and (6) frictional loss as assessed by an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Each examination was performed on ten brackets. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Compared to the new brackets, those recycled in an acid bath or by a commercial provider revealed significant dimensional changes (p<0.05). Corrosion on the recycled brackets varied according to the recycling techniques employed. The group of brackets recycled by one company revealed hardness values that differed from those of all the other groups. No significant differences were observed in nickel-ion release, frictional loss, and shear bond strength. Recycling was found to significantly reduce the corrosion resistance and dimensional stability of

  5. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  6. The effect of mechanical vibration on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on orthodontically induced root resorption. Forty male CD1, 12-week-old mice were used for the study. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (baseline)-no spring and no mechanical vibration, group 2-orthodontic spring but no vibration, group 3-orthodontic spring and 5 Hz of vibration applied to the maxillary first molar, group 4-orthodontic spring and 10 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar, and group 5-orthodontic spring and 20 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar. In the different experimental groups, the first molar was moved mesially for 2 weeks using a nickel-titanium coil spring delivering 10 g of force. LFMVs were applied at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography imaging was used to analyze root resorption. Additionally, to understand the mechanism, we applied LFMV to MC3T3 cells, and gene expression analyses were done for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Orthodontic tooth movement leads to decreased root volume (increased root resorption craters). Our in vivo experiments showed a trend toward increase in root volume with different frequencies of mechanical vibration. In vitro gene expression analyses showed that with 20 Hz of mechanical vibration, there was a significant decrease in RANKL and a significant increase in OPG expression. There was a trend toward decreased root resorption with different LFMVs (5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz); however, it was not more statistically significant than the orthodontic-spring-only group.

  7. Biological Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Into the Grafted Alveolar Cleft.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Li, Renmei; Chen, Zhengxi; Huang, Yuanliang; Chen, Zhenqi

    2018-03-01

    Functional stimulus during orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted bone can lead to better alveolar bone grafting outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the biological effects of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area with histologic staining, fluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An animal model of orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar cleft area was established in 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into the experimental group and the control group. Four checkpoints were observed: before orthodontic stimuli, day 1 after orthodontic stimuli, day 3 after orthodontic stimuli, and day 5 after orthodontic stimuli. The cleft bone formation conditions, including the collagen fibers and the activities of the osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were evaluated by histologic staining. The expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 was detected by real-time PCR in both groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the remodeling process of iliac autografts was completed when the orthodontic stress was applied, whereas the bone tissues first showed osteoclastogenesis and then osteogenesis. On the basis of TRAP staining, the osteoclasts increased to the maximal amount on day 3 and decreased thereafter. Evidence from tetracycline fluorescence staining indicated that no obvious changes in osteoblast activity were detected at the early stage; however, it gradually increased, especially in the region close to the root surface. According to real-time PCR, the expression of TRAP increased in both the early and middle stages, that of receptor activator nuclear factor κB ligand increased in the early stage, and that of Runt-related transcription factor 2 increased in the late stage. Moreover, the results showed significant differences between the experimental and control groups

  8. Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation.

    PubMed

    Smuthkochorn, Sorapan; Palomo, J Martin; Hans, Mark G; Jones, Corey S; Palomo, Leena

    2017-07-01

    Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P <0.05). Both markers increased significantly from baseline to 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P <0.05). However, the response to orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Orthodontic Consideration in Patients with Beta-Thalassemia Major: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Einy, Shmuel; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Ben-Barak, Ayelet; Aizenbud, Dror

    Beta Thalassemia (βT) patients present a unique facial appearance and specific craniofacial, jaw and dental patterns. Although this anomaly often requires orthodontic management, βT patients have received scant attention in the orthodontic and dental literature over the past 50 years. The aim of this article is to review the characteristic craniofacial and dental manifestation pattern of βT patients and to emphasize their preferred orthodontic management protocol by presenting a βT orthodontic treated patient. A 10 year old patient presented with a complaint of severe esthetic and functional disorders due to her diagnosis of βT. We initiated orthodontic treatment including a combined orthopedic and functional treatment modality to improve facial appearance. Maxillary restraint and increased mandibular size during treatment along with an increase in the vertical dimension were achieved. The patient presented with Angle class I molar relationship, with reduction of the excessive overjet and deep overbite. Orthodontic treatment comprised of maxillary orthopedic treatment directed especially toward premaxilla with light forces, and mandibular modification by functional appliance along with fixed orthodontic treatment is recommended in βT patients.

  10. Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Salivary Flow, pH and Microbial Count.

    PubMed

    Arab, Sepideh; Nouhzadeh Malekshah, Sepideh; Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Ebrahimi Khanghah, Anita; Naseh, Roya; Imani, Mohammad Moslem

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the changes in saliva properties and oral microbial flora in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Two important saliva properties namely the salivary flow rate and pH as well as oral microbial flora were assessed in 30 orthodontic patients before starting fixed orthodontic treatment and after six, 12 and 18 weeks of treatment. Selective media, Sabouraud dextrose agar, Mitis salivarius agar and Rogosa agar were used for isolation of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using Friedman and Dunn's tests. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. After six, 12 and 18 weeks of commencing fixed orthodontic treatment, the total colony counts of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus showed a significant increase. The saliva pH decreased during the orthodontic treatment (P< 0.05) while the salivary flow did not change significantly. Fixed orthodontic treatment causes major changes in the saliva properties. The changes in oral microflora and saliva properties show the importance of caries preventive measures during orthodontic treatment.

  11. Use of miniplates as a method for orthodontic anchorage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Fernando Gianzanti; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Kluppel, Leandro Eduardo; Albuquerque, Gustavo Calvalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Cesar Ulson; Claudino, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) have been developed to be used as direct adjuncts in orthodontic treatment and have facilitated treatment of more complex orthodontic cases, including patients with dental impaction. Objectives: This clinical case reports the applicability of TADs in the orthodontic treatment of a patient with impacted mandibular second molars. Surgical and orthodontic procedures related to the use of miniplates were also discussed in this study. Conclusions: The use of temporary anchorage devices, such as miniplates, can be suggested as an alternative to treat patients with impacted mandibular second molars. PMID:27901235

  12. Use of miniplates as a method for orthodontic anchorage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Peres, Fernando Gianzanti; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Kluppel, Leandro Eduardo; Albuquerque, Gustavo Calvalcanti; Souza, Paulo Cesar Ulson de; Claudino, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) have been developed to be used as direct adjuncts in orthodontic treatment and have facilitated treatment of more complex orthodontic cases, including patients with dental impaction. This clinical case reports the applicability of TADs in the orthodontic treatment of a patient with impacted mandibular second molars. Surgical and orthodontic procedures related to the use of miniplates were also discussed in this study. The use of temporary anchorage devices, such as miniplates, can be suggested as an alternative to treat patients with impacted mandibular second molars.

  13. Six-axis orthodontic force and moment sensing system for dentist technique training.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Yoshiyuki; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Soga, Kohei; Kamimura, Masao; Suga, Kazuhiro; Wei-Jen Lai; Kanno, Zuisei; Uo, Motohiro

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a sensing system device that measures three-axis orthodontic forces and three-axis orthodontic moments for dentist training. The developed sensing system is composed of six-axis force sensors, action sticks, sliders, and tooth models. The developed system also simulates various types of tooth row shape patterns in orthodontic operations, and measures a 14 × 6 axis orthodontic force and moment from tooth models simultaneously. The average force and moment error per loaded axis were 2.06 % and 2.00 %, respectively.

  14. Psychosocial impact of dental esthetics regulates motivation to seek orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feiou; Ren, Manman; Yao, Linjie; He, Yan; Guo, Jing; Ye, Qingsong

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics for adults seeking orthodontic treatment. The Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) was administered to 393 adults, aged 18 to 30 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups: an intervention group (received orthodontic treatment) and a control group (rejected orthodontic treatment). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no statistically significant difference between the groups for the dental health component (DHC) of the IOTN (P = 0.134). Total and subscale PIDAQ scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group and differed significantly in each group among the 4 IOTN-DHC grades; self-confidence scores in the control group (F = 1.802; P >0.05) were the exception. Correlations between the PIDAQ scores and the IOTN-DHC grades were strong in each group. DHC grades, psychological impact, social impact, and aesthetic concern had significant impacts on patients accepting orthodontic treatment. The psychosocial impact of dental esthetics played an important role in the decision-making process of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. Importantly, participants with low self-awareness of the potential psychosocial impact rejected orthodontic treatment, despite the need for severe normative treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing the orthodontic patient's purchase decision: A novel approach using netnography.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Joseph W; Bennett, M Elizabeth; Koroluk, Lorne D; Robinson, Stacey G; Phillips, Ceib L

    2017-06-01

    A deeper and more thorough characterization of why patients do or do not seek orthodontic treatment is needed for effective shared decision making about receiving treatment. Previous orthodontic qualitative research has identified important dimensions that influence treatment decisions, but our understanding of patients' decisions and how they interpret benefits and barriers of treatment are lacking. The objectives of this study were to expand our current list of decision-making dimensions and to create a conceptual framework to describe the decision-making process. Discussion boards, rich in orthodontic decision-making data, were identified and analyzed with qualitative methods. An iterative process of data collection, dimension identification, and dimension refinement were performed to saturation. A conceptual framework was created to describe the decision-making process. Fifty-four dimensions captured the ideas discussed in regard to a patient's decision to receive orthodontic treatment. Ten domains were identified: function, esthetics, psychosocial benefits, diagnosis, finances, inconveniences, risks of treatment, individual aspects, societal attitudes, and child-specific influences, each containing specific descriptive and conceptual dimensions. A person's desires, self-perceptions, and viewpoints, the public's views on esthetics and orthodontics, and parenting philosophies impacted perceptions of benefits and barriers associated with orthodontic treatment. We identified an expanded list of dimensions, created a conceptual framework describing the orthodontic patient's decision-making process, and identified dimensions associated with yes and no decisions, giving doctors a better understanding of patient attitudes and expectations. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scientific use of the finite element method in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Luegya; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Gandini, Marcia Regina Elisa Aparecida Schiavon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The finite element method (FEM) is an engineering resource applied to calculate the stress and deformation of complex structures, and has been widely used in orthodontic research. With the advantage of being a non-invasive and accurate method that provides quantitative and detailed data on the physiological reactions possible to occur in tissues, applying the FEM can anticipate the visualization of these tissue responses through the observation of areas of stress created from applied orthodontic mechanics. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing and discussing the stages of the finite element method application and its applicability in Orthodontics. RESULTS: FEM is able to evaluate the stress distribution at the interface between periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and the shifting trend in various types of tooth movement when using different types of orthodontic devices. Therefore, it is necessary to know specific software for this purpose. CONCLUSIONS: FEM is an important experimental method to answer questions about tooth movement, overcoming the disadvantages of other experimental methods. PMID:25992996

  17. Orthodontic elastic separator-induced periodontal abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Becker, Talia; Neronov, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic elastic bands were proposed as being the source of gingival abscesses that can rapidly lead to bone loss and teeth exfoliation. We report an adolescent, otherwise, healthy patient whose periodontal status was sound. Shortly after undergoing preparations for orthodontic treatment consisting of orthodontic separators, he presented with a periodontal abscess for which there was no apparent etiology. A non-orthoradial X-ray was inconclusive, but an appropriate one revealed a subgingival orthodontic separator as the cause of the abscess. Removal of the separator and thorough scaling led to complete resolution of the abscess, but there was already residual mild damage to the alveolar bone. Summary. Failure to use appropriate imaging to reveal the cause of gingival abscesses can result in the delay of implementing treatment and halting irreversible alveolar bone loss. An inflammatory process restricted to the gingiva and refractive to conventional therapy should raise the possibility of a foreign body etiology.

  18. Orthodontic Elastic Separator-Induced Periodontal Abscess: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Talia; Neronov, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic elastic bands were proposed as being the source of gingival abscesses that can rapidly lead to bone loss and teeth exfoliation. We report an adolescent, otherwise, healthy patient whose periodontal status was sound. Shortly after undergoing preparations for orthodontic treatment consisting of orthodontic separators, he presented with a periodontal abscess for which there was no apparent etiology. A non-orthoradial X-ray was inconclusive, but an appropriate one revealed a subgingival orthodontic separator as the cause of the abscess. Removal of the separator and thorough scaling led to complete resolution of the abscess, but there was already residual mild damage to the alveolar bone. Summary. Failure to use appropriate imaging to reveal the cause of gingival abscesses can result in the delay of implementing treatment and halting irreversible alveolar bone loss. An inflammatory process restricted to the gingiva and refractive to conventional therapy should raise the possibility of a foreign body etiology. PMID:22567456

  19. Two-unit cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial denture as a substitute for a prosthodontic-orthodontic treatment plan: a 5-year case report.

    PubMed

    Emami, Elham; St-Georges, Annie; de Grandmont, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we describe the successful long-term treatment of a patient with dental agenesis. The initial treatment plan included an orthodontic phase to provide adequate space for replacing missing lateral incisors with implants. However, because of some complications encountered after 2 years of orthodontic treatment, a revised treatment plan was considered to achieve functional and esthetic goals. The patient was completely satisfied 5 years after being treated with two 2-unit cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial dentures supported by the cuspids. This conservative treatment plan was cost-effective without having any significant biological cost.

  20. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Somayeh; Torkan, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field. PMID:25606324

  1. Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric imaging now achieves angular resolutions as fine as ∼10 μas, probing scales that are inaccessible to single telescopes. Traditional synthesis imaging methods require calibrated visibilities; however, interferometric calibration is challenging, especially at high frequencies. Nevertheless, most studies present only a single image of their data after a process of “self-calibration,” an iterative procedure where the initial image and calibration assumptions can significantly influence the final image. We present a method for efficient interferometric imaging directly using only closure amplitudes and closure phases, which are immune to station-based calibration errors. Closure-only imaging provides results that are as noncommittal as possible and allows for reconstructing an image independently from separate amplitude and phase self-calibration. While closure-only imaging eliminates some image information (e.g., the total image flux density and the image centroid), this information can be recovered through a small number of additional constraints. We demonstrate that closure-only imaging can produce high-fidelity results, even for sparse arrays such as the Event Horizon Telescope, and that the resulting images are independent of the level of systematic amplitude error. We apply closure imaging to VLBA and ALMA data and show that it is capable of matching or exceeding the performance of traditional self-calibration and CLEAN for these data sets.

  2. Success rates of a skeletal anchorage system in orthodontics: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond; Goonewardene, Mithran S; Allan, Brent P; Sugawara, Junji

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the premise that skeletal anchorage with SAS miniplates are highly successful and predictable for a range of complex orthodontic movements. This retrospective cross-sectional analysis consisted of 421 bone plates placed by one clinician in 163 patients (95 female, 68 male, mean age 29.4 years ± 12.02). Simple descriptive statistics were performed for a wide range of malocclusions and desired movements to obtain success, complication, and failure rates. The success rate of skeletal anchorage system miniplates was 98.6%, where approximately 40% of cases experienced mild complications. The most common complication was soft tissue inflammation, which was amenable to focused oral hygiene and antiseptic rinses. Infection occurred in approximately 15% of patients where there was a statistically significant correlation with poor oral hygiene. The most common movements were distalization and intrusion of teeth. More than a third of the cases involved complex movements in more than one plane of space. The success rate of skeletal anchorage system miniplates is high and predictable for a wide range of complex orthodontic movements.

  3. Patient and parent preferences for orthodontic practices.

    PubMed

    Walley, E K; Silberman, S L; Tuncay, O C

    1999-08-01

    This study was designed to identify who chooses an orthodontic office and what factors might induce the attraction. Patients and parents from the lists provided by suburban orthodontic offices were contacted. A mail-out survey instrument was used to gather the data. Results revealed that the reputation of the practitioner was most important along with the level of caring attitude the office projected. It was also important that the office is located near home, interestingly, the mother is the most significant decision-maker in the family in choosing an orthodontic office. Moreover, not the cost of treatment but the payment plan was the critical element in the decision process. The higher income families with three or less children were attracted to office characteristics such as excellence of the orthodontist, attention, and convenience. A marketing strategy based on these elements might provide the best return on the investment.

  4. AcceleDent as a Means for Pain Reduction During Orthodontic Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-30

    AcceleDent as a Means for Pain Reduction During Orthodontic Treatment Wendy D. Lobre APPROVED: Brent Callegari, Supervising Pro ssor and Program...entitled: "AcceleDent as a Means for Pain Reduction During Orthodontic Treatment" is appropriately acknowledged and beyond brief excerpts is with the...Those in Harms Way AcceleDent as a Means for Pain Reduction During Orthodontic Treatment TITLE PAGE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of Uniform

  5. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  6. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified. We have only updated the search methods section in this new version. The conclusions of this Cochrane Review remain the same. To evaluate the effects of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 26 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 26 September 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in

  7. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  10. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  11. Implant site development by orthodontic forced extraction: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amato, Francesco; Mirabella, A Davide; Macca, Ugo; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the soft and hard tissue response to orthodontic implant site development (OISD) (ie, forced extraction), to measure the amount of tissue that was regenerated and its relationship to the amount of orthodontic vertical tooth movement, to evaluate the tissue response in teeth with different degrees of periodontal attachment loss, to understand the limits of OISD, and to evaluate the implant survival rate. A total of 32 hopeless teeth were treated with OISD, and 27 implants were placed in 13 patients consecutively. The level of periodontal attachment on the teeth to be extracted, amount of augmented alveolar bone, changes in soft tissue volume, and the rate of orthodontic tooth movement were recorded. Mean values after OISD were as follows: orthodontic extrusive movement, 6.2 ± 1.4 mm; bone augmentation, 4 ± 1.4 mm; coronal movement of the gingival margin, 3.9 ± 1.5 mm; coronal movement of the mucogingival junction, 2.1 ± 1.3 mm; keratinized gingival augmentation, 1.8 ± 1.1 mm; gingival thickness (buccolingual dimension) augmentation, 0.7 ± 0.4 mm; recession, 1.8 ± 1.2 mm; bone augmentation/orthodontic movement ratio (efficacy), 68.9% ± 17.3%; gingival augmentation/orthodontic movement ratio (efficacy), 65.2% ± 19.9%; and pocket depth reduction, 1.8 ± 0.9 mm. The implant survival rate was 96.3%. OISD was a viable treatment for these hopeless teeth to regenerate hard and soft tissues. Its efficacy was about 70% for bone regeneration and 60% for gingival augmentation. The residual attachment level on the tooth was not a limitation. OISD might be a valuable treatment option to regenerate tissues for implant site development in patients in need of conventional orthodontic therapy.

  12. Rapid orthodontic treatment after the ridge-splitting technique--a combined surgical-orthodontic approach for implant site development: case report.

    PubMed

    Amato, Francesco; Mirabella, A Davide; Borlizzi, Diego

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a clinical case of bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible with severe horizontal and moderate vertical bone atrophy. A new technique using rapid orthodontics after ridge splitting is presented. The split-crest technique was carried out using piezosurgical instruments in the first molar and second premolar areas to widen the bone crest and open a channel for tooth movement. Immediately after, orthodontic appliances were used to move the first premolars distally and the second molars mesially into the surgical site. The rationale was to facilitate and accelerate orthodontic movement of the teeth, which is otherwise difficult in a cortical knife-edged ridge. The bone defect was filled with the alveolar bone of the adjacent teeth that were moved into the surgically opened path. Adequate bone volume for implant placement was generated in the first premolar area. Implants were then inserted, and the patient was rehabilitated.

  13. The 100 top-cited articles in orthodontics from 1975 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jifang; Han, Zongkai; Geng, Guannan; Yan, Weijun; Shao, Ping

    2013-05-01

    To identify the 100 top-cited articles published in orthodontics journals and to analyze their characteristics to investigate the achievement and development of orthodontics research in past decades. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge Database and the 2011 Journal Citation Report Science Editions were used to retrieve the 100 top-cited articles published in orthodontics journals since 1975. Some basic information was collected by the Analyze Tool on the Web of Science, including citation time, publication title, journal name, publication year, and country and institution of origin. A further study was then performed to determine authorship, article type, field of study, study design, and level of evidence. The 100 target articles were retrieved from three journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (n  =  74), The Angle Orthodontist (n = 15), and European Journal of Orthodontics (n  =  11). Since 1975, the articles cited 89 to 545 times mainly originated from the United States, and the overwhelming majority of articles were clinical. The most common study design was case series; 40 articles were classified as level IV and 12 as level V evidence. The 100 top-cited articles in orthodontics are generally old articles, rarely possessing high-level evidence.

  14. Origins of the extraction controversey in American orthodontics (1880-1910).

    PubMed

    Zweihorn, Chaninah L

    2003-07-01

    Extraction of permanent teeth in the course of orthodontic treatment remains controversial. Today, opinions vary widely as to how frequently such extractions are necessary. Many dentists appreciate, however, that in the 1920s and 1930s, orthodontists virtually never prescribed extraction. The movement to abolish extraction therapy in orthodontics really began in the late Nineteenth Century. Led by Edward H. Angle, this "New School of Orthodontics," despite an explosion of activity during the first decade of the Twentieth Century, did not rapidly succeed in its mission. During the period considered in this study, dentists continued to extract teeth to treat orthodontic problems and even many experts in orthodontics continued to vociferously defend this practice. Claims of the extremists, whether in favor of or against extraction, did not benefit from true scientific evidence. Dentists based their theories on experience or mere conjecture. The situation today is not very different. Before taking an unqualified stand on the issue of extraction, one should realize that, historically, such stands have proven unconvincing. The fashion of a period may favor one side over the other only for the situation to reverse in the next period.

  15. Media advertising effects on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Daenya T; Shroff, Bhavna; Lindauer, Steven J; Fowler, Chad E; Tufekci, Eser

    2008-09-01

    To determine the effect of media advertising on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. A survey instrument was designed to evaluate factors influencing consumer selection of an orthodontist and consumer perception of different forms of media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboard) by orthodontic practices. The surveys were distributed by eight orthodontic offices in and around the Richmond, Virginia area. The survey return rate was 97%. Respondents most often cited dentist and patient referrals as how they learned of the orthodontic practices they visited (50% to 57%). A caring attitude and good practitioner reputation were the top reasons influencing actual selection of an orthodontist (53% and 49%, respectively). Of respondents, 14% to 24% felt that advertising orthodontists would offer a lower quality of care than nonadvertising orthodontists. Newspaper, magazine, and direct mail advertisements were viewed more favorably than radio, television, and billboard advertisements. Chi-square analyses revealed few statistically significant differences in perception between different income and education groups. The majority of patients do not perceive advertising to reflect poorly on the quality of orthodontic care. However, patients with different income and education levels perceive media advertising differently.

  16. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm(2) continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected.

  17. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little’s Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little’s Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little’s Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. PMID:24470774

  18. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  19. Temperature Changes of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments

    PubMed Central

    İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside temperature changes to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. Temperature variation was determined as the change from baseline temperature to the highest temperature was recorded during welding. The recorded temperature changes were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714

  20. Microscopic morphological changes of the tooth surface in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; NiŢoi, Dan Florin; Preoteasa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment has, as any other medical intervention, in addition to its benefits, side effects, some of them being perceived as unavoidable. The aim of this case series was to microscopically evaluate the changes of the tooth surface in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment. A case series study was implemented by the usage of four extracted first maxillary premolars, from patients with previous orthodontic treatment, of 12 and 23 months. Analysis was performed using the high precision stereomicroscope (Axiovert, Carl Zeiss, Germany), at magnifications from 10× to 50×. The tooth surface corresponding to the bracket bonding area registered numerous disorderly grooves and cracks, with various directions and depths, and was flattened, having lower convexity compared to teeth surfaces where brackets were not bonded. Root resorption lacunae were more frequently observed in teeth under orthodontic treatment, these having various depths, and sizes considerably larger than those observed in teeth without orthodontic treatment. Following orthodontic treatment, teeth exhibit changes that can be perceived as being directly linked to this medical intervention. These teeth changes usually have low or moderate severity, which can be influenced at some degree by the clinical conduct of the orthodontic treatment. The stereomicroscope proved to be a high sensitivity tool for the analysis of morphological changes of teeth in relation to the fixed orthodontic treatment.

  1. A novel biomechanical model assessing continuous orthodontic archwire activation

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Christopher; Larson, Matthew; Grauer, Dan; Sheats, Rose; Stevens, Clarke; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The biomechanics of a continuous archwire inserted into multiple orthodontic brackets is poorly understood. The purpose of this research was to apply the birth-death technique to simulate insertion of an orthodontic wire and consequent transfer of forces to the dentition in an anatomically accurate model. Methods A digital model containing the maxillary dentition, periodontal ligament (PDL), and surrounding bone was constructed from human computerized tomography data. Virtual brackets were placed on four teeth (central and lateral incisors, canine and first premolar), and a steel archwire (0.019″ × 0.025″) with a 0.5 mm step bend to intrude the lateral incisor was virtually inserted into the bracket slots. Forces applied to the dentition and surrounding structures were simulated utilizing the birth-death technique. Results The goal of simulating a complete bracket-wire system on accurate anatomy including multiple teeth was achieved. Orthodontic force delivered by the wire-bracket interaction was: central incisor 19.1 N, lateral incisor 21.9 N, and canine 19.9 N. Loading the model with equivalent point forces showed a different stress distribution in the PDL. Conclusions The birth-death technique proved to be a useful biomechanical simulation method for placement of a continuous archwire in orthodontic brackets. The ability to view the stress distribution throughout proper anatomy and appliances advances understanding of orthodontic biomechanics. PMID:23374936

  2. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  3. A Novel Method of Coating Orthodontic Archwires with Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Shibli S; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Todkar, Rohit; Bagul, Ravikiran S; Parekh, Kreena; Bhujbal, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major hazard to the orthodontic tooth movement is the friction developing at the bracket wire interface. In the past, there have been various attempts to reduce this friction. We believe that coating the commercially available orthodontic wires with nanoparticles can result in a successful reduction of this friction. The objective of this study is to develop a novel method of coating orthodontic archwires with nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel (Ormco, CA, USA), titanium molybdenum alloy (Ormco, CA, USA) and nickel-titanium (G and H Wire Company, USA) orthodontic wires with a rectangular cross-section dimension of 0.019”× 0.025”, were selected. The wires were later coated with a uniform and smooth nanoparticle film using 100 ml nanocremics. The coating procedure described in this article is a sol-gel thin film dip coating method. Results: The coating procedure was verified by comparing the surface topography of nanocoated archwires with the commercially available archwires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The ESEM images prove that the surface topography of the coated wires was found to be smoother with less surface deteriorations as compared to the commercially available wires. Conclusion: Commercially available orthodontic wires can be successfully coated using a novel method of sol-gel thin film dip coating method. PMID:26028899

  4. An introduction to dento-legal issues and risks in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ireland, A J; Willmot, D; Hunt, N P

    2015-02-16

    Orthodontic treatment is not without risk. This article aims to look at some of the dento-legal issues surrounding orthodontic treatment, the risks to both the clinician and the patient, and how some of these risks can be mitigated.

  5. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  6. Histological evaluation of oral maintenance programs upon gingival condition in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Hănţoiu, Tudor Alexandru; Hănţoiu, Liana Georgiana; Monea, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a histological evaluation of gingival condition in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygiene maintenance programs. We performed a randomized prospective study on 36 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age) divided in three study groups. The investigations were represented by measurements of plaque index and sulcular bleeding index, followed by pathological examination of specimens from gingival tissue. Treatment of orthodontic patients must follow an interdisciplinary approach. All modalities of oral hygiene procedures and their effect on the periodontal tissues must be explained to the patient prior to fixed orthodontic treatment. Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.

  7. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in a Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Omer, Yassir Talal; Bouserhal, Joseph; Hawas, Nuha; Abdel Moneim El Sayed, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the association between normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need in a Lebanese population and the effect of sociodemographic status on orthodontic treatment need. A prospective cross-sectional clinical study was designed using a sample of 150 subjects (81 males and 69 females) aged 11-18years seeking dental treatment at Beirut Arab University. Normative orthodontic treatment need was scored using the two components of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC). Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated by scoring the AC of the IOTN. A total of 31.3% of the sample were in great need of orthodontic treatment according to the DHC of the IOTN. On the other hand, only 9% of the sample perceived their need to be definite. A significant positive but weak correlation was found between the normative and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. There was also a significant association between age and normative treatment need. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis attending public versus private dental practices in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. Materials and methods This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13–21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Results Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics (P=0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics (P<0.0001). Conclusion Young Saudis receiving free orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics. PMID:27843351

  9. Orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis attending public versus private dental practices in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M

    2016-01-01

    To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13-21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics ( P =0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics ( P <0.0001). Young Saudis receiving free orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics.

  10. Gestalt concept of closure: a construct without closure.

    PubMed

    Wasserstein, Jeanette

    2002-12-01

    This comment reviews the original Gestalt literature which introduced the concept of 'closure'. It is argued that the meaning of 'closure' was confounded in the source literature and, thus, the term connotes more than it denotes. Research based on different measures of this ambiguous construct inevitably may not always converge.

  11. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P < 0.001), but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P < 0.05). We suggest that practitioners arrange female patients to receive initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Port closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaher, Z

    2007-08-01

    Laparoscopic trocars do create wounds. This article aims to review and list different techniques used for closure of the fascia incision at trocar sites. A literature search was performed for articles dealing with closure techniques. The author searched this subject in English on Medline by combining the words "trocar" and "hernia," as well as "Deschamps" and "Reverdin." All articles reporting techniques with their references were reviewed. The articles described many techniques in addition to classical closure using curved needles, including Grice needle, Maciol needles, Endoclose device, Carter-Thomason device, Tahoe ligature device, Endo-Judge device, eXit puncture closure device, Lowsley retractor, spinal cord needles, dual hemostat, suture carrier, Riverdin and Deschamps needles, and Gore-Tex closure device. Three main groups of techniques were found with favor of extracorporeal manipulations under direct visualization. Old methods are sufficient and cost-effective.

  13. Experience of Orthodontic Treatment and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Joint in South Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sang-Hee; Park, Shin-Goo

    2018-01-01

    No epidemiological studies have targeted the association between experience of orthodontic treatment and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a large adult population. In this study, we investigated whether experience of orthodontic treatment is associated with symptoms of TMJ in adults. We used data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V), conducted in 2011. Trained dentists asked subjects to report their experience of orthodontic treatment and symptoms of TMJ. Overall, 5936 subjects aged over 19 yr were included in this study (2528 males). The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression tests. The group with experience of orthodontic treatment had more symptoms of TMJ than the group without orthodontic experience. After adjusting for all covariates (i.e., age, sex, marital status, income, education, stress, teeth injury, and occupation), the adjusted odds ratio was 2.53 (95%CI 1.74-3.67). Experience of orthodontic treatment could be related to increased symptoms of TMJ.

  14. Anchorage in Orthodontics: Three-dimensional Scanner Input.

    PubMed

    Nabbout, Fidele; Baron, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to re-evaluate anchorage coefficient values in orthodontics and their influence in the treatment decision through the usage of three-dimensional (3D) scanner. A sample of 80 patients was analyzed with the 3D scanner using the C2000 and Cepha 3DT softwares (CIRAD Montpellier, France). Tooth anatomy parameters (linear measurements, root, and crown volumes) were then calculated to determine new anchorage coefficients based on root volume. Data were collected and statistically evaluated with the StatView software (version 5.0). The anchorage coefficient values found in this study are compared to those established in previous studies. These new values affect and modify our approach in orthodontic treatment from the standpoint of anchorage. The use of new anchorage coefficient values has significant clinical implications in conventional and in microimplants-assisted orthodontic mechanics through the selection and delivery of the optimal force system (magnitude and moment) for an adequate biological response.

  15. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need: a comparison of study models and facial photographs.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Joseph M; Cobourne, Martyn T; McDonald, Fraser

    2008-02-01

    The current study aims to examine how orthodontic treatment need is prioritized depending upon whether dental study models or facial photographs are used as the means of assessment. A group of three orthodontists and three postgraduate orthodontic students assessed: (i) dental attractiveness; and (ii) need for orthodontic treatment in 40 subjects (19 males, 21 females). The 40 subjects displayed a range of malocclusions. Separate assessments were made from study models and facial photographs. There was a bias towards higher scores for dental attractiveness from facial photographs compared with assessment of study casts, for all examiners. This was statistically significant for five of the six examiners (P = 0.001-0.101). The need for orthodontic treatment was rated as 20% higher from study models compared with facial photographs (P < 0.001); overall the level of need for orthodontic treatment was rated as 18.9% higher from study models compared with facial photographs (P < 0.001). Reproducibility analyses showed that there was a considerable variation in the intra- and inter-examiner agreement. This study shows that a group of three orthodontists and three postgraduate students in orthodontics: (i) rated orthodontic treatment need higher from study models compared with facial photographs and; (ii) rated dental attractiveness higher from facial photographs compared with study models. It is suggested that the variable intra-examiner agreement may result from the assessment of orthodontic treatment need and dental attractiveness in the absence of any specific assessment criteria. The poor reproducibility of assessment of orthodontic treatment need and dental attractiveness in the absence of strict criteria may suggest the need to use an appropriate index.

  16. Efficient free-form surface representation with application in orthodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamany, Sameh M.; El-Bialy, Ahmed M.

    1999-03-01

    Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the study of growth of the craniofacial complex. The detection and correction of malocclusion and other dental abnormalities is one of the most important and critical phases of orthodontic diagnosis. This paper introduces a system that can assist in automatic orthodontics diagnosis. The system can be used to classify skeletal and dental malocclusion from a limited number of measurements. This system is not intended to deal with several cases but is aimed at cases more likely to be encountered in epidemiological studies. Prior to the measurement of the orthodontics parameters, the position of the teeth in the jaw model must be detected. A new free-form surface representation is adopted for the efficient and accurate segmentation and separation of teeth from a scanned jaw model. THe new representation encodes the curvature and surface normal information into a 2D image. Image segmentation tools are then sued to extract structures of high/low curvature. By iteratively removing these structures, individual teeth surfaces are obtained.

  17. Craniomandibular Disorders and Mandibular Reference Position in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bourzgui, Farid; Aghoutan, Hakima; Diouny, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD), we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system. PMID:24101929

  18. Analysis of the Influence of Food Colorings in Esthetic Orthodontic Elastomeric Ligatures.

    PubMed

    Dias da Silva, Vanessa; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Dias, Caroline; Osório, Leandro Berni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the color changes of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of different shades when exposed to four food colorings commonly found in the diet of patients. The sample consisted of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in the colors pearl, pearl blue, pearl white and colorless, which were immersed for 72 hours in five different solutions: distilled water (control group), coffee, tea, Coca-Cola ® and wine. The color changes of the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were measured with the aid of a spectrophotometer, at T1 - as provided by the manufacturer; and T2 - after colorings process. The results indicated that the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of all initial hues are susceptible to pigmentation. Among the evaluated colors, all changed the finished look and the color of the samples tested. In ascending order, the color of the samples was as follows: distilled water, Coca-Cola ® , black tea, wine and coffee. The substances that have a greater potential for pigmentation in esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were black tea, wine and coffee, respectively. All shades of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures are susceptible to color change.

  19. [Application and prospect of digital technology in the field of orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y H

    2016-06-01

    The three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has brought a revolutionary change in diagnostic planning and treatment strategy of orthodontics. Acquisition of 3D image data of the hard and soft tissues of the patients, diagnostic analysis and treatment prediction, and ultimately the individualized orthodontic appliance, will become the development trend and workflow of the 3D orthodontics. With the development of 3D digital technology, the traditional plaster model has been gradually replacing by 3D digital models. Meanwhile, 3D facial soft tissue scan and cone-beam CT scan have been gradually applied to clinical orthodontics, making it possible to get 3D virtual anatomical structure for patients. With the help of digital technology, the diagnostic process is much easier for orthodontist. However how to command the whole digital workflow and put it into practice in the daily work is still a long way to go. The purpose of this article is to enlighten the orthodontists interested in digital technology and discuss the future of digital orthodontics in China.

  20. [Pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment of mandibular asymmetry and prognathism].

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Chen, Yang-xi; Hu, Jing

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the pre- and post surgical orthodontic treatment of mandibular asymmetry and prognathism in our hospital, and to summarize some helpful experiences for future clinical work. The data were derived from 21 adults aged from 19 - 28 years who had severe mandibular asymmetry and prognathism. The ANB angle of all patients is from -3 degrees to -8 degrees. The value of wits of all patients is from -7 mm to -14 mm. The deviation of chin point of all patients is from 3 mm to 7 mm. The duration of pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment was 10-20 months (mean 18 months) and 5-10 months (mean 7.5 months), respectively. The keys in pre-surgical orthodontic treatment include (1) three dimensional dental decompensation; (2) arch form and transverse discrepancy correction; (3) model surgery and the splint making. The main objective of post surgical orthodontic treatment is to detail the occlusion. Pre- and post surgical orthodontic treatment is essential for the orthognathic treatment of patients with mandibular asymmetry and prognathism.

  1. Monitoring early phases of orthodontic treatment by means of Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Perillo, Letizia; Delfino, Ines; Portaccio, Marianna; Lepore, Maria; Camerlingo, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a site-specific exudate in the gingival sulcus. GCF composition changes in response to diseases or mechanical stimuli, such as those occurring during orthodontic treatments. Raman microspectroscopy (μ-RS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were adopted for a GCF analysis during different initial phases of orthodontic force application. GCF samples were pooled from informed patients using paper cones. SERS spectra were obtained from GCF extracted from these cones, whereas μ-RS spectra were directly acquired on paper cones without any manipulation. The spectral characteristics of the main functional groups and the changes in cytochrome, amide III, and amide I contributions were highlighted in the different phases of orthodontic treatment with both SERS and μ-RS analysis. μ-RS directly performed on the paper cones together with proper statistical methods can offer an effective approach for the development of a tool for monitoring the processes occurring during orthodontic treatments, which may help the clinician in the choice of type of treatment individually for each patient and accelerate and improve the orthodontic therapy.

  2. The Neglected Educative Function of Public Space on Preadolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardiello, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The crisis of public spaces implies a closure to the private sphere and, as a consequence, the inanity of the education processes. Space privatization involves the supremacy of the "?????" (house) on the "a???a" (public space), so that the house assumes the role of an enclosed community. The effect of this closure is a…

  3. Preventive effect of fluoridated orthodontic resins subjected to high cariogenic challenges.

    PubMed

    Passalini, Paula; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Caldeira, Erika Machado; Gleiser, Rogerio; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro caries preventive effect of fluoridated orthodontic resins under pH cycling with two types of acid demineralizing saliva. Brackets were bonded to 60 bovine incisors, using either Transbond Plus Color Change (n=30) or Orthodontic Fill Magic (n=30) orthodontic resins. Each group of resin was divided into 3 subgroups (n=10): immersion in remineralizing artificial saliva for 14 days, pH cycling with high cariogenic challenge in acid saliva with pH 5.5, and acid saliva with pH 4.5. After 14 days of pH cycling, the caries preventive effect on the development of white spot lesion was evaluated considering the presence of inhibition zones to white spot lesions using two scores: 0= absence and 1= presence. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (a=0.05) were used. Formation of white spot lesions was observed only under pH cycling using acid saliva with pH 4.5; with Transbond Plus Color Change being significantly more effective (p<0.05) in preventing the appearance of white spot lesions effect than Orthodontic Fill Magic. The acidity of the demineralizing solution influenced the formation of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets under highly cariogenic conditions. Transbond Plus Color Change resin presented higher caries preventive effect than Orthodontic Fill Magic.

  4. Nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets: in vivo antibacterial properties and ion release.

    PubMed

    Metin-Gürsoy, Gamze; Taner, Lale; Akca, Gülçin

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are currently utilized in the fields of dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties and ion release of nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets compared to conventional brackets. Nanosilver coating process was applied to standard orthodontic brackets placed on the mandibular incisors of Wistar Albino rats in the study group and conventional brackets in the control group. Dental plaque, mucosal vestibular smears, saliva, and blood samples were collected from rats at various days. The amounts of nanosilver ions in blood and saliva were measured and microbiological evaluation was made for Streptococcus mutans. For testing cariogenicity, all rats were sacrificed at the end of 75 days under anaesthesia. Teeth were stained using a caries indicator, then the caries ratio was assessed. Nanosilver coated orthodontic bracket favoured the inhibition of S.mutans on Day 30 and reduction of caries on the smooth surfaces. The nanosilver amounts in the saliva and serum samples were significantly higher in the study group on Day 7. It is suggested that nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets, as an antibacterial agent without patient compliance, could be helpful for the prevention of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Patient/parent expectations of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Obilade, Omolara Abiodun; da Costa, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Sanu, Oluwatosin Oluyemi

    2017-03-01

    Expectations of orthodontic treatment may differ between the patient and their parents, as the parents' expectations may not reflect those of the child. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the expectations of patients and their parents. This was a clinic-based, comparative, cross-sectional study involving 110 patients aged between 10 and 19 years, as well as their accompanying parents or guardians. The expectations of both patients and parents were determined using a questionnaire developed by Sayers and Newton. Results showed that the expectations of the patients and parents differed significantly in a number of areas with the parents' expectations often exceeding those of the patients. Both patients and parents were found to be ignorant about some aspects of orthodontic treatment, with 47.3% of patients and 39.1% of parents unaware of the duration of orthodontic treatment and, as such, requiring information from their clinicians. The results highlight the importance of patient education and counseling as well as the need to focus on the individual patient and not assume that their expectations mirror those of the accompanying parent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... as hazardous waste, unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure activities...

  7. Comparison of Two Methods of Obtaining Digital Orthodontic Models: Direct vs. Indirect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-17

    companies whose materials are discussed in this article. DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR FORCE POST GRADUATE DENTAL SCHOOL ORTHODONTIC FLIGHT 2133...Orthodontic Residency Program Air Force Post Graduate Dental School Date: 06/06/13 Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Manuscript...Science in Oral Biology 3. School/Department/Center: Air Force Postgraduate Dental School (AFPDS), Tri- Service Orthodontic Dental School 4. Phone: (210

  8. History of Orthodontic Treatment, Treatment Needs and Influencing Factors in Adolescents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Špalj, Stjepan; Katić, Višnja; Vidaković, Renata; Šlaj, Martina; Šlaj, Mladen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, in relation to their orthodontic treatment history, caries experience and socio-demographic parameters. The study sample comprised 1,289 adolescents from 12 randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia. The subjects were 15-18 years old (mean age 16.3±1.4), and 51% of them were girls. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the sum of the numbers of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT index), and a questionnaire (covering socio-demographic issues, oral health-related attitudes and behaviours) were employed in this study. The data was analyzed by means of Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression models. The DMFT score was higher in adolescents with no orthodontic history (5.2±3.7) than in those who were under orthodontic treatment at the time of the research (4.5±3.2; p=0.043). More than 60% of the adolescents have never undergone any orthodontic treatment, around 24% previously undergone treatment and 15% were under treatment at the time of the research. Overall, 85% of the adolescents' orthodontic appliances were removable, and the girls were more often under orthodontic treatment. One fifth of the studied population had severe or very severe malocclusion. Adolescents with previous orthodontic treatment were more often interested in better teeth alignment, changes in their teeth positioning and continuing orthodontic treatment. Multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that previously treated adolescents, in comparison with their untreated peers, were on average older (p=0.002), were less satisfied with the appearance of their teeth (p=0.001), they had higher malocclusion severity (p=0.046), and fewer dental caries (p<0.001), changed toothbrushes more often (p=0.012), and their mothers attained higher education (p<0.001). Although many adolescents received orthodontic treatment, the severity of their malocclusion was

  9. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  10. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    PubMed

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  11. Systemic levels of metallic ions released from orthodontic mini-implants.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Liliane Siqueira; Serra, Glaucio Guimarães; Albuquerque Palermo, Elisabete Fernandes; Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Müller, Carlos Alberto; Meyers, Marc André; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2009-04-01

    Orthodontic mini-implants are a potential source of metallic ions to the human body because of the corrosion of titanium (Ti) alloy in body fluids. The purpose of this study was to gauge the concentration of Ti, aluminum (Al), and vanadium (V), as a function of time, in the kidneys, livers, and lungs of rabbits that had Ti-6Al-4V alloy orthodontic mini-implants placed in their tibia. Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Four orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the left proximal tibia of 18 rabbits. Five control rabbits had no orthodontic mini-implants. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, the rabbits were killed, and the selected tissues were extracted and prepared for analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Low amounts of Ti, Al, and V were detectable in the 1-week, 4-weeks, and 12-weeks groups, confirming that release of these metals from the mini-implants occurs, with diffusion and accumulation in remote organs. Despite the tendency of ion release when using the Ti alloy as orthodontic mini-implants, the amounts of metals detected were significantly below the average intake of these elements through food and drink and did not reach toxic concentrations.

  12. A novel method to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, S. Kutalmış; Yavuz, Mustafa C.; Genc, Esra; Sunar, Oguzhan

    2018-01-01

    This clinical case report presents fixed orthodontic treatment of a patient with moderately crowded teeth. It was performed with a new technique called ‘discision’. Discision method that was described for the first time by the present authors yielded predictable outcomes, and orthodontic treatment was completed in a short period of time. The total duration of orthodontic treatment was 4 months. Class I molar and canine relationships were established at the end of the treatment. Moreover, crowding in the mandible and maxilla was corrected, and optimal overjet and overbite were established. No scar tissue was observed in any gingival region on which discision was performed. The discision technique was developed as a minimally invasive alternative method to piezocision technique, and the authors suggest that this new method yields good outcomes in achieving rapid tooth movement. PMID:29436571

  13. Analysis of dental supportive structures in orthodontic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pavicin, Ivana Savić; Ivosević-Magdalenić, Natasa; Badel, Tomislav; Basić, Kresimir; Keros, Jadranka

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to define the impact of orthodontic appliances on the density of the underlying dental bone tissue. Radiographic images of teeth were made in 27 study subjects before and twelve months after fixed orthodontic appliances were carried. The radiographs were digitalized and the levels of gray at sites where the greatest bone resorption was expected were transformed into optic density. In the standardization and comparison of values from the first and the second measurements the copper calibration wedge--a stepwedge--was used. Optic densities in the observed sites were compared with optic densities of the calibration wedge and expressed as their thickness equivalent. The study results showed no statistically significant difference in bone densities, indicating that the orthodontic therapy was properly planned and carried out and that excessive forces were not used in the applied correctional procedures.

  14. Experimental evidence of pharmacological management of anchorage in Orthodontics: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Felipe José; Cañigral, Aránzazu; Balbontín-Ayala, Felipe; Gonzalo-Orden, José Manuel; de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Vázquez, Jose Pedro; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed. Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage. Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed. Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs). Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements. PMID:26560822

  15. Experimental evidence of pharmacological management of anchorage in Orthodontics: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Felipe José; Cañigral, Aránzazu; Balbontín-Ayala, Felipe; Gonzalo-Orden, José Manuel; Carlos, Felix de; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Vázquez, Jose Pedro; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Vega, José Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed. The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage. The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed. Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs). Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements.

  16. Failure of mesenteric defect closure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hope, William W; Sing, Ronald F; Chen, Albert Y; Lincourt, Amy E; Gersin, Keith S; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bowel obstructions following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are a significant issue often caused by internal herniation. Controversy continues as to whether mesenteric defect closure is necessary to decrease the incidence of internal hernias after RYGB. Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of closing the mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy in patients who underwent RYGB by examining this potential space at reoperation for any reason. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients undergoing surgery after RYGB from August 1999 to October 2008 to determine the status of the mesentery at the jejunojejunostomy. Eighteen patients underwent surgery 2 to 19 months after open (n=8) or laparoscopic (n=10) RYGB. All patients had documented suture closure of their jejunojejunostomy at the time of RYGB. Permanent (n=12) or absorbable (n=6) sutures were used for closures. Patients lost 23.6 kg to 62.1 kg before a reoperation was required for a ventral hernia (n=8), cholecystectomy (n=4), abdominal pain (n=4), or small bowel obstruction (n=2). Fifteen of the 18 patients had open mesenteric defects at the jejunojejunostomy despite previous closure; none were the cause for reoperation. Routine suture closure of mesenteric defects after RYGB may not be an effective permanent closure likely due to the extensive fat loss and weight loss within the mesentery.

  17. Postgraduate training in orthodontics in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly describes the postgraduate pathways in orthodontics in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that this will assist potential trainees who want to pursue postgraduate training to understand the different career pathways available to them. It may also add to the knowledge of some senior colleagues who can explain these career opportunities to their students, as not all potential trainees will have the opportunity to read this article. In the following pages we will discuss the different pathways leading to specialist qualification in orthodontics, in the United Kingdom. PMID:23960517

  18. Root resorption after orthodontic treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B M; Kiran, Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Root resorption that occurs in permanent teeth is an unwanted process and is considered pathologic. Although apical root resorption occurs in individuals who have never experienced orthodontic tooth movement, the incidence among treated individuals is seen to be significantly higher. Some resorption occurs in most orthodontic patients, but because of repair the changes are difficult to detect with radiographic examination and therefore are clinically insignificant. This article gives a review of the various types of root resorption, the etiological factors, the biology and the identification of root resorption.

  19. Effect of the vertical position of the canine on the frictional/orthodontic force ratio of Ni-Ti archwires during the levelling phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kato, Moeko; Namura, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2018-05-31

    This study investigated the effect of the vertical position of the canine on changes in the frictional/orthodontic (F/O) force ratio of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires during the initial levelling phase of orthodontic treatment. Frictional and orthodontic forces were measured by using low-friction brackets and Ni-Ti archwires with three different cross-sectional sizes and force types. To simulate canine malocclusion (first premolar extraction case), the upper right canine was displaced gingivally by 1 to 3 mm and the inter-bracket distance between the upper right lateral incisor and second premolar was set at 15 mm or 20 mm. A three-point bending test was performed to measure the orthodontic force of each Ni-Ti archwire. Frictional forces were measured with a universal testing machine and dental arch models by pulling parallel to the end of the archwire at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. F/O force ratio was calculated and analysed statistically. At a displacement of 3 mm, few archwires had F/O force ratios of less than 1.0, at which orthodontic force overcame frictional force, thus ensuring extrusion of the canine. For effective tooth movement, orthodontists should use Ni-Ti archwires with an F/O force ratio of less than 1.0.

  20. Dental Hygiene and Orthodontics: Effect of Ultrasonic Instrumentation on Bonding Efficacy of Different Lingual Orthodontic Brackets.

    PubMed

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Collesano, Vittorio; Tovt, Gaia; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Gandini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. 200 bovine incisors were divided into 10 groups. Four different lingual (STB, Ormco; TTR, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; Idea, Leone; 2D, Forestadent) and vestibular control (Victory, 3M) brackets were bonded. UI was performed in half of specimens, whereas the other half did not receive any treatment. All groups were tested with a universal testing machine. SBS and ARI values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed (significance: P = 0.05). TTR, Idea, and 2D lingual brackets significantly lowered SBS after UI, whereas for other braces no effect was recorded. Appliances with lower mesh area significantly reduced their adhesion capacity after UI. Moreover groups subjected to UI showed higher ARI scores than controls. UI lowered SBS of lingual appliances of small dimensions so particular care should be posed avoiding prolonged instrumentation around bracket base during plaque removal. Moreover, UI influenced also ARI scores.

  1. Dental Hygiene and Orthodontics: Effect of Ultrasonic Instrumentation on Bonding Efficacy of Different Lingual Orthodontic Brackets

    PubMed Central

    Collesano, Vittorio; Tovt, Gaia; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Gandini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Dental hygienists are often faced with patients wearing lingual orthodontic therapy, as ultrasonic instrumentation (UI) is crucial for oral health. As the application of external forces can lead to premature bonding failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UI on shear bond strength (SBS) and on adhesive remnant index (ARI) of different lingual orthodontic brackets. 200 bovine incisors were divided into 10 groups. Four different lingual (STB, Ormco; TTR, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; Idea, Leone; 2D, Forestadent) and vestibular control (Victory, 3M) brackets were bonded. UI was performed in half of specimens, whereas the other half did not receive any treatment. All groups were tested with a universal testing machine. SBS and ARI values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed (significance: P = 0.05). TTR, Idea, and 2D lingual brackets significantly lowered SBS after UI, whereas for other braces no effect was recorded. Appliances with lower mesh area significantly reduced their adhesion capacity after UI. Moreover groups subjected to UI showed higher ARI scores than controls. UI lowered SBS of lingual appliances of small dimensions so particular care should be posed avoiding prolonged instrumentation around bracket base during plaque removal. Moreover, UI influenced also ARI scores. PMID:28904955

  2. Postsurgical Orthodontic Treatment Planning: a Case Report with 20 Years Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Garagiola, Umberto; Carletti, Vera; Cressoni, Paolo; Mortellaro, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, maxillofacial deformities are corrected surgically after an initial orthodontic treatment phase. However in, this article, the authors emphasize the postsurgical therapeutic protocol which is extremely important for determining the final and permanent retention of the corrected occlusion. A 55 year old female with severe skeletal Class II malocclusion is presented. Combined surgical and orthodontic correction of the malocclusion was used. : The step-by-step procedure the authors followed for the postsurgical therapy is described. The goals of the postoperative therapy were to restore and rehabilitate neuromuscular function, obtain occlusal stabilization, grind teeth selectively, and final occlusion retention. The importance of a surgical occlusal splint for rehabilitating stomatognathic neuromuscular function postoperatively was demonstrated. Furthermore, the orthodontic-prosthodontic treatment ensured occlusion stability after the surgical correction. The long-term results confirmed the efficacy of the treatment protocol presented here from both functional and aesthetical perspectives. Postsurgical orthodontic treatment is an important step in the surgical and orthodontic therapy of maxillofacial deformities.

  3. Recolonization of mutans steptococci on teeth with orthodontic appliances after antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Attin, R; Thon, C; Schlagenhauf, U; Werner, C; Wiegand, A; Hannig, C; Attin, T

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the recolonization pattern of mutans streptococci on densely colonized teeth with and without fixed orthodontic appliances after treatment with a 40 per cent chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (EC 40, Explore). Healthy subjects free of carious lesions requiring fixed orthodontic appliance treatment but with high bacterial mutans streptococci saliva counts were recruited (n = 10). For baseline registration, plaque from buccal sites was sampled and cultivated on Dentocult strips. Following professional tooth cleaning, CHX varnish was applied to all teeth for 8 minutes. Subsequently, orthodontic brackets and bands were inserted in either the upper or lower arch. Eight weeks after varnish application the degree of recolonization with mutans streptococci was reassessed on the buccal sites. Statistical analysis showed that recolonization with mutans streptococci was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on teeth with orthodontic appliances. The results indicate that the use of fixed orthodontic appliances creates artificial environments suitable for the proliferation of mutans streptococci after CHX varnish suppression.

  4. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  5. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence. PMID:28566845

  6. [Can orthodontic treatment generate temporomandibular disorders and pain? A review].

    PubMed

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Robin, Olivier; Messaoudi, Yassine; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    While considered for years to play the primary role in the etiology of temporo-mandibular joint disturbances (TMD), occlusal discrepancies are now considered to be just one causative factor among many. Recent studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, and longitudinal studies with follow-up of children treated for many years all conclude that there is no risk of orthodontic treatment giving rise to episodes of temporo-mandibular disorders. The signs of TMD appearing during the course of orthodontic treatment should be considered in the context of the epidemiology of the disorder, which is characterized by a strong increase in its occurrence during adolescence. In conclusion, it should be stated that if orthodontic treatment can no longer be considered as one of the etiopathogenic factors in the TMD complex, there are no scientific arguments to justify the converse, that there are indications for orthodontic treatment whose sole goal would be the treatment of TMD. EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2010.

  7. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic bands.

    PubMed

    Millett, Declan T; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Mattick, Rye Cr; Hickman, Joy; Mandall, Nicky A

    2016-10-25

    Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment. Brackets are usually attached to the front and side teeth, whereas bands (metal rings that go round the teeth) are more commonly used on the back teeth (molars). A number of adhesives are available to attach bands to teeth and it is important to understand which group of adhesives bond most reliably, as well as reducing or preventing dental decay during the treatment period. To evaluate the effectiveness of the adhesives used to attach bands to teeth during fixed appliance treatment, in terms of:(1) how often the bands come off during treatment; and(2) whether they protect the banded teeth against decay during fixed appliance treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 2 June 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 5) in the Cochrane Library (searched 2 June 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 2 June 2016) and EMBASE Ovid (1980 to 2 June 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised and controlled clinical trials (RCTs and CCTs) (including split-mouth studies) of adhesives used to attach orthodontic bands to molar teeth were selected. Patients with full arch fixed orthodontic appliance(s) who had bands attached to molars were included. All review authors

  8. The Erasmus programme for postgraduate education in orthodontics in Europe: an update of the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Huggare, J; Derringer, K A; Eliades, T; Filleul, M P; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A; Martina, R; Pirttiniemi, P; Ruf, S; Schwestka-Polly, R

    2014-06-01

    In 1989, the ERASMUS Bureau of the European Cultural Foundation of the Commission of the European Communities funded the development of a new 3-year curriculum for postgraduate education in orthodontics. The new curriculum was created by directors for orthodontic education representing 15 European countries. The curriculum entitled 'Three years Postgraduate Programme in Orthodontics: the Final Report of the Erasmus Project' was published 1992. In 2012, the 'Network of Erasmus Based European Orthodontic Programmes' developed and approved an updated version of the guidelines. The core programme consists of eight sections: general biological and medical subjects; basic orthodontic subjects; general orthodontic subjects; orthodontic techniques; interdisciplinary subjects; management of health and safety; practice management, administration, and ethics; extramural educational activities. The programme goals and objectives are described and the competencies to be reached are outlined. These guidelines may serve as a baseline for programme development and quality assessment for postgraduate programme directors, national associations, and governmental bodies and could assist future residents when selecting a postgraduate programme.

  9. Effectiveness and efficiency of a CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew W; Koroluk, Lorne; Ko, Ching-Chang; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Mengqi; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-12-01

    The first straight-wire appliance was introduced over 40 years ago to increase the consistency and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. More recently, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has been used to create individualized orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and efficiency of CAD/CAM customized orthodontic appliances compared with direct and indirect bonded stock orthodontic brackets. This retrospective study included 3 treatment groups: group 1 patients were direct bonded with self-ligating appliances, group 2 patients were indirect bonded with self-ligating appliances, and group 3 patients were indirect bonded with CAD/CAM self-ligating appliances. Complete pretreatment and posttreatment records were obtained for all patients. The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) Discrepancy Index was used to evaluate the pretreatment records, and the posttreatment outcomes were analyzed using the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation. All data collection and analysis were completed by 1 evaluator. There were no statistically significant differences in the ABO Discrepancy Index or the ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation among the groups. Treatment times for the 3 groups were significantly different; the CAD/CAM group was the shortest at 13.8 ± 3.4 months, compared with 21.9 ± 5.0 and 16.9 ± 4.1 months for the direct bonded and indirect bonded groups, respectively. The number of treatment appointments for the CAD/CAM group was significantly fewer than for the direct bonded group. The CAD/CAM orthodontic bracket system evaluated in this study was as effective in treatment outcome measures as were standard brackets bonded both directly and indirectly. The CAD/CAM appliance was more efficient in regard to treatment duration, although the decrease in total archwire appointments was minimal. Further investigation is needed to better quantify the clinical benefits of CAD/CAM orthodontic

  10. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactivemore » material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.« less

  11. Data-driven non-Markovian closure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, Dmitri; Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Ghil, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper has two interrelated foci: (i) obtaining stable and efficient data-driven closure models by using a multivariate time series of partial observations from a large-dimensional system; and (ii) comparing these closure models with the optimal closures predicted by the Mori-Zwanzig (MZ) formalism of statistical physics. Multilayer stochastic models (MSMs) are introduced as both a generalization and a time-continuous limit of existing multilevel, regression-based approaches to closure in a data-driven setting; these approaches include empirical model reduction (EMR), as well as more recent multi-layer modeling. It is shown that the multilayer structure of MSMs can provide a natural Markov approximation to the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) of the MZ formalism. A simple correlation-based stopping criterion for an EMR-MSM model is derived to assess how well it approximates the GLE solution. Sufficient conditions are derived on the structure of the nonlinear cross-interactions between the constitutive layers of a given MSM to guarantee the existence of a global random attractor. This existence ensures that no blow-up can occur for a broad class of MSM applications, a class that includes non-polynomial predictors and nonlinearities that do not necessarily preserve quadratic energy invariants. The EMR-MSM methodology is first applied to a conceptual, nonlinear, stochastic climate model of coupled slow and fast variables, in which only slow variables are observed. It is shown that the resulting closure model with energy-conserving nonlinearities efficiently captures the main statistical features of the slow variables, even when there is no formal scale separation and the fast variables are quite energetic. Second, an MSM is shown to successfully reproduce the statistics of a partially observed, generalized Lotka-Volterra model of population dynamics in its chaotic regime. The challenges here include the rarity of strange attractors in the model's parameter

  12. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  13. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  14. [Effectiveness of Paradontax toothpaste in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Silin, A V; Satygo, E A; Reutskaya, K V

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of toothpaste Parodontax in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The results showed that fixed orthodontic appliances deteriorated oral hygiene, increased the viscosity of saliva and reduced mineralizing capacity of saliva (MCS). Use of Parodontax toothpaste based on sodium bicarbonate improved OHI-S, reduced the viscosity of saliva, increased MCS and normalized oral microbiota.

  15. A Survey of Orthodontic Treatment in Team Care for Patients With Syndromic Craniosynostosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Susami, Takafumi; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Sakamoto, Teruo; Morishita, Tadashi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kinno, Yoshiaki; Kurata, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Keiichiro; Asahito, Toshikazu; Saito, Isao

    2018-04-01

    To understand the actual condition of orthodontic treatment in team care for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS) in Japan. A nationwide collaborative survey. Twenty-four orthodontic clinics in Japan. A total of 246 patients with SCS. Treatment history was examined based on orthodontic records using common survey sheets. Most patients first visited the orthodontic clinic in the deciduous or mixed dentition phase. Midface advancement was performed without visiting the orthodontic clinic in about a quarter of the patients, and more than a half of the patients underwent "surgery-first" midface advancement. First-phase orthodontic treatment was carried out in about a half of the patients, and maxillary expansion and protraction were performed. Tooth extraction was required in about two-thirds of patients, and the extraction of maxillary teeth was required in most patients. Tooth abnormalities were found in 37.8% of patients, and abnormalities of maxillary molars were frequently (58.3%) found in patients who had undergone midface surgery below the age of 6 years. Many patients underwent "surgery-first" midface advancement, and visiting the orthodontic clinic at least before advancement was considered desirable. First-phase orthodontic treatment should be performed considering the burden of care. Midface advancement below the age of 6 years had a high risk of injury to the maxillary molars. This survey is considered useful for improving orthodontic treatment in team care of patients with SCS.

  16. [3D imaging benefits in clinical pratice of orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Frèrejouand, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    3D imaging possibilities raised up in the last few years in the orthodontic field. In 2016, it can be used for diagnosis improvement and treatment planning by using digital set up combined to CBCT. It is relevant for orthodontic mechanic updating by creating visible or invisible customised appliances. It forms the basis of numerous scientific researches. The author explains the progress 3D imaging brings to diagnosis and clinics but also highlights the requirements it creates. The daily use of these processes in orthodontic clinical practices needs to be regulated regarding the benefit/risk ratio and the patient satisfaction. The command of the digital work flow created by these technics requires habits modifications from the orthodontist and his staff. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  17. [White spot lesions and orthodontic treatment. Prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Morrier, Jean-Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Decalcification of the enamel surface adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances, in the form of white spot lesions, is a common and frequent well-known side-effect of orthodontic treatment. Fixed appliances and the bonding materials increase the retention of biofilm and encourage the formation of white spot lesions. Management of these lesions begins with a good oral hygiene regime and needs to be associated with use of fluoride agents (fluoridated toothpaste, fluoride containing mouth rinse, gel, varnish, bonding materials, elastic ligature), CPP-ACP, antiseptics, LASER, tooth whitening, resin infiltration, micro-abrasion. The purpose of this review is to access the direct evidence regarding the prevention and management of white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  18. [Dental health maintenance of military personnel under orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Soldatova, L N; Horoshilkina, F Ya; Iordanishvili, A K

    The aim of the study was to estimate dental health of servicemen of young and middle age using PMA index, Schiller-Pisarev assay, iodic number of Svrakov, OHI-S. Hundred and six servicemen were enrolled in the study: control group (n=35) with no orthodontic treatment and groups 2 (n=34) and 3 (n=37) group undergoing orthodontic treatment with bracket-systems. All patients had professional oral hygiene and received standard oral care recommendations. Group 3 participants additionally used dental foam (Splat, Russia) after meal. All patients were examined at baseline and 12 months later. In the presence of orthodontic appliances standard oral care products were not enough to maintain proper oral health. Dental foam improved both periodontal condition and OHI-S.

  19. Correlates of the Orthodontic Aspects of the General Dentist's Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse, Robert J.; Dooley, Raynard J.

    1980-01-01

    A study undertaken to determine the extent of orthodontic referrals and treatment performed by general dentists is discussed. Results indicate that general practitioners who graduated after 1945 tend to make more referrals, and general practitioners who had treated patients orthodontically in their predoctoral training tend to continue in…

  20. Comparison of Orthodontic Medicaid Funding in the United States 2006 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Minick, Gerald; Tilliss, Terri; Shellhart, W Craig; Newman, Sheldon M; Carey, Clifton M; Horne, Andrew; Whitt, Susan; Oesterle, Larry J

    2017-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is reimbursed by Medicaid based on orthodontic and financial need with qualifiers determined by individual states. Changes in Medicaid-funded orthodontic treatment following the "Great Recession" in 2007 and the enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 were compared for the 50 United States and the District of Columbia to better understand disparities in access to care. The results from this 2015 survey were compared to data gathered in 2006 (1). Medicaid officials were contacted by email, telephone, or postal mail regarding the age limit for treatment, practitioner type who can determine eligibility and provide treatment, records required for case review, and rate and frequency of reimbursement. When not attained by direct contact, the information was gleaned from online websites, provider manuals, and state orthodontists. Information gathered from 50 states and the District of Columbia documents that Medicaid program characteristics and expenditures continue to vary by state. Expenditures and reimbursement rates have decreased since 2006 and vary widely by geographic region. Some states have tightened restrictions on qualifiers and increased submission requirements by providers. The variation and lack of uniformity that still exists among Medicaid orthodontic programs in different states creates disparities in orthodontic care for US citizens. Barriers to care for Medicaid-funded orthodontic treatment have increased since 2006.

  1. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.280 Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 264.278, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last application...

  2. Experimental investigation of the fracture torque of orthodontic anchorage screws.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Susanne; Ayubi, Mustafa; McDonald, Fraser; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to dental implants that remain in the bone, orthodontic anchorage screws serve as temporary anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement and are removed after completion of treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the stability of various commercially available orthodontic anchorage screws against torsion. The torsional deflection of ten different orthodontic anchorage screws from different manufacturers [Ortho Easy Pin (Forestadent), Benefit, quattro (both PSM Medical Solutions), Vector TAS (Ormco), AbsoAnchor(®) (DENTOS Inc.), OrthoLox, Dual-Top JA (both Promedia Medizintechnik), TAD (3M Unitek), INFINITAS (ODS) and tomas(®) (Dentaurum)] was tested in vitro in relation to the rotation angle using a self-developed set-up. The screws were positioned in a resin model with bone-like material properties. Shear tests were performed using the manufacturers' own screwdrivers. Ten screws each were turned manually until a sudden drop in the measured torque occurred. At this point, the screw head was twisted off. Fracture torque and the torque at which the screws deformed plastically were evaluated. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated. According to the German industrial standard, the torque of orthodontic anchorage screws should reach at least 20 Ncm. The majority of the screws reached this nominal torque; however, a few screws fractured before reaching this value. Five screw types displayed plastic deformation below the threshold, at approximately 16 Ncm. The results suggest that orthodontic anchorage screws generally meet the requirements of the standard and ensure safe clinical use. However, according to the present data, it may be assumed that a portion of the screws will be plastically deformed upon removal.

  3. Correlation coefficients of three self-perceived orthodontic treatment need indices.

    PubMed

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Riahi, Farnaz Tajmir; Etemadi, Milad; Riahi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    To determine patient orthodontic treatment need, appropriate self-perceived indices are required. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of esthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN), oral esthetic subjective index scale (OASIS), and visual analog scale (VAS) through dental health component (DHC) IOTN as a normative index to determine the more appropriate self-perceived index among young adults. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 993 was randomly selected from freshman students of Isfahan University. Those with a history of orthodontic treatment or current treatment were excluded. DHC was evaluated by two inter- and intra-calibrated examiners. Data for AC, OASIS, and VAS were collected through a questionnaire completed by students. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman correlation test, were used for data analyses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of self-perceived indices were calculated through DHC. Sensitivity of AC, OASIS, and VAS for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 15.4%, 22.3%, and 44.6%, respectively. Specificity of these indices for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 92.7%, 90.5%, and 76.2% percent, respectively. All self-perceived indices had a significant correlation with together and with DHC ( P < 0.01). Among demographic factors, there was weak but significant correlation only between mother's educational level and VAS ( P < 0.01). Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the three self-perceived indices, these indices are not recommended for population screening and should be used as adjuncts to a normative index for decision-making in orthodontic treatment planning.

  4. Management of orthodontic emergencies in primary care - self-reported confidence of general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Popat, H; Thomas, K; Farnell, D J J

    2016-07-08

    Objective To determine general dental practitioners' (GDPs) confidence in managing orthodontic emergencies.Design Cross-sectional study.Setting Primary dental care.Subjects and methods An online survey was distributed to dentists practicing in Wales. The survey collected basic demographic information and included descriptions of ten common orthodontic emergency scenarios.Main outcome measure Respondents' self-reported confidence in managing the orthodontic emergency scenarios on a 5-point Likert scale. Differences between the Likert responses and the demographic variables were investigated using chi-squared tests.Results The median number of orthodontic emergencies encountered by respondents over the previous six months was 1. Overall, the self-reported confidence of respondents was high with 7 of the 10 scenarios presented scoring a median of 4 indicating that GDPs were 'confident' in their management. Statistical analysis revealed that GDPs who saw more orthodontic emergencies in the previous six months were more confident when managing the presented scenarios. Other variables such as age, gender, geographic location of practice and number of years practising dentistry were not associated with self-reported confidence.Conclusions Despite GDPs encountering very few orthodontic emergencies in primary care, they appear to be confident in dealing with commonly arising orthodontic emergency situations.

  5. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Suttorp, Christiaan M; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, "fast" and "slow" tooth movers during orthodontic treatment.

  6. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  7. Orthodontic Forces Induce the Cytoprotective Enzyme Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp, Christiaan M.; Xie, Rui; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Uijttenboogaart, Jasper Tom; Van Rheden, René; Maltha, Jaap C.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, “fast” and “slow” tooth movers during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27486402

  8. Antibacterial and remineralization effects of orthodontic bonding agents containing bioactive glass

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Song, Chang Weon; Yoon, Seog-Young; Kim, Se-Yeon; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and biological properties of orthodontic bonding agents containing silver- or zinc-doped bioactive glass (BAG) and determine the antibacterial and remineralization effects of these agents. Methods BAG was synthesized using the alkali-mediated solgel method. Orthodontic bonding agents containing BAG were prepared by mixing BAG with flowable resin. Transbond™ XT (TXT) and Charmfil™ Flow (CF) were used as controls. Ion release, cytotoxicity, antibacterial properties, the shear bond strength, and the adhesive remnant index were evaluated. To assess the remineralization properties of BAG, micro-computed tomography was performed after pH cycling. Results The BAG-containing bonding agents showed no noticeable cytotoxicity and suppressed bacterial growth. When these bonding agents were used, demineralization after pH cycling began approximately 200 to 300 µm away from the bracket. On the other hand, when CF and TXT were used, all surfaces that were not covered by the adhesive were demineralized after pH cycling. Conclusions Our findings suggest that orthodontic bonding agents containing silver- or zinc-doped BAG have stronger antibacterial and remineralization effects compared with conventional orthodontic adhesives; thus, they are suitable for use in orthodontic practice. PMID:29732302

  9. Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel: a prospective biomaterial for esthetic orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Manu; Tiwari, Brijesh; Seema, Saraswathy; Kalra, Namitha; Biswas, Papiya; Rajeswari, Kotikalapudi; Suresh, Madireddy Buchi; Johnson, Roy; Gokhale, Nitin M; Iyer, Satish R; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal; Tripathi, Rajendra P

    2014-11-01

    Adult orthodontics is recently gaining popularity due to its importance in esthetics, oral and general health. However, none of the currently available alumina or zirconia based ceramic orthodontic brackets meet the esthetic demands of adult patients. Inherent hexagonal lattice structure and associated birefringence limits the visible light transmission in polycrystalline alumina and make them appear white and non transparent. Hence focus of the present study was to assess the feasibility of using magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel; a member of the transparent ceramic family for esthetic orthodontic brackets. Transparent spinel specimens were developed from commercially available white spinel powder through colloidal shaping followed by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing at optimum conditions of temperature and pressure. Samples were characterized for chemical composition, phases, density, hardness, flexural strength, fracture toughness and optical transmission. Biocompatibility was evaluated with in-vitro cell line experiments for cytotoxicity, apoptosis and genotoxicity. Results showed that transparent spinel samples had requisite physico-chemical, mechanical, optical and excellent biocompatibility for fabricating orthodontic brackets. Transparent spinel developed through this method demonstrated its possibility as a prospective biomaterial for developing esthetic orthodontic brackets.

  10. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  11. [Application of straight wire appliance for pre- and post-surgical orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Heng; Sun, Yan-Nan; Hu, Wei; Fu, Min-Kui

    2004-11-01

    To analyze the surgical patients treated with straight wire appliance for guidelines of clinical using of the appliance. Totally 51 patients from Joint Clinic of Orthodontic Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology with dentofacial deformities treated with straight wire appliance were analyzed. The patients were aged from 15 years to 34 years 5 months, average 18 years 9 months. Among whom, 16 are males, while the other 35 are females. Eighteen patients were treated with extraction of teeth, while other 33 cases were nonextraction case. The duration of average presurgical orthodontic treatment was 13.3 months, and 10.4 months was for postsurgical orthodontic treatment, totally active treatment time was 25.5 months. Straight wire appliance would benefit a lot for three dimensional control of teeth when doing pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Good results could be achieved without wire bending.

  12. Anchorage in Orthodontics: Three-dimensional Scanner Input

    PubMed Central

    Nabbout, Fidele; Baron, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this article is to re-evaluate anchorage coefficient values in orthodontics and their influence in the treatment decision through the usage of three-dimensional (3D) scanner. Materials and Methods: A sample of 80 patients was analyzed with the 3D scanner using the C2000 and Cepha 3DT softwares (CIRAD Montpellier, France). Tooth anatomy parameters (linear measurements, root, and crown volumes) were then calculated to determine new anchorage coefficients based on root volume. Data were collected and statistically evaluated with the StatView software (version 5.0). Results: The anchorage coefficient values found in this study are compared to those established in previous studies. These new values affect and modify our approach in orthodontic treatment from the standpoint of anchorage. Conclusion: The use of new anchorage coefficient values has significant clinical implications in conventional and in microimplants-assisted orthodontic mechanics through the selection and delivery of the optimal force system (magnitude and moment) for an adequate biological response. PMID:29629323

  13. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  14. [Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy in cleidocranial dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Balaton, Gergely; Tarján, Ildikó; Balaton, Péter; Barabási, Zoltán; Gyulai Gál, Szabolcs; Nagy, Katalin; Vajó, Zoltán

    2007-02-01

    A cleidocranial dysplasia is an autosomal dominant inherited condition consisting of generalized skeletal disorder. Associated dental signs are present in 93,5%; failure of tooth eruption with multiple supernumerary teeth, dilaceration of roots, crown germination, microdontia, high arched palate, midface hypoplasia, high gonion angle. The molecular- genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation in the CBFA1 gene located on chromosome 6p21, which is considered to be etiological factor for CCD. Orthodontic and oral surgery therapy of a 13 year-old child with CCD was performed due to aesthetic and functional problems. The supernumerary germs were removed and the teeth were aligned with orthodontic appliances. Temporary functional rehabilitation was solved with partial denture. The presented case and the literature data support the importance of early diagnosis of CCD. The good collaboration of the orthodontic and maxillo-facial surgery specialists help achieve the correct rehabilitation of the patient.

  15. Setting the stage for the AJO-DO: the haphazard times before orthodontic specialty journals.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    The professional distinction of "surgeon-dentist," created in France in the 18th century, stimulated dentistry's early advance as a learned profession. By 1841, Pierre-Joachim Lefoulon coined the term "orthodontosie," which was the root of "orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics" as a distinct academic field and a specialty. In 1907, the American Orthodontist became the first scientific journal in the world completely devoted to orthodontics. Its failure after 5 years of publication prompted former editor Martin Dewey to find a new publisher for an orthodontic specialty journal. In 1915, the International Journal of Orthodontia was created with Dewey as editor. After some years, its name was changed to the American Journal of Orthodontics, which later became the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, or AJO-DO. Today, the AJO-DO at 100 years is a mainstay of scientific advancement in orthodontics. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: evaluation based on public health

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina Vieira; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system. PMID:25769190

  17. Profile preferences of Korean American orthodontic patients and orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon S; Evans, Carla A; Viana, Grace; Anderson, Nina K; Giddon, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in preference for Korean American facial profiles among Korean American orthodontic patients with 2 levels of acculturation, Asian American orthodontists, and Caucasian orthodontists. Images of 1 male and 1 female Korean American adult were animated to move parts of the faces from an extreme retrusive position to an extreme protrusive position by using the Perceptometrics computer program. Three movies were created of the nose, lips, and chin for each image. Three groups of judges, ie, 18 Korean American orthodontic patients, 17 Asian orthodontists, and 18 Caucasian orthodontists selected the most pleasing position and the zone of acceptability as a measure of tolerance. Statistically significant differences were found between Caucasian orthodontists and Korean American orthodontic patients for the most pleasing and midpoint of acceptability positions of female nose and male chin, with no differences in the zone of acceptability position among the groups. In general, the Korean American orthodontic patients preferred a more protrusive nose on the female image and more retrusive chin on the male image than Caucasian orthodontists for the most pleasing and midpoint of acceptability positions, with similar zone of acceptability for all 3 groups.

  18. Stump closure of a thick pancreas using stapler closure increases pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Manabu; Tani, Masaji; Okada, Ken-ichi; Hirono, Seiko; Miyazawa, Motoki; Shimizu, Astusi; Kitahata, Yuji; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate surgical stump closure after distal pancreatectomy (DP) is still controversial. This study investigated the benefits and risks of stapler closure during DP. The risk factors of pancreatic fistulas were investigated in 122 DPs among 3 types of stump closure: hand-sewn suture (n = 32), bipolar scissors (n = 45), and stapler closure (n = 45). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pancreatic fistula between the 3 types of stump closure (hand-sewn suture [44%] vs bipolar scissors [37.7%] vs stapler closure [35.5%]). By using receiver operating characteristics curves, 12 mm was the best cutoff value of the thickness of the pancreas for pancreatic fistulas after DP using stapler closure. Three factors (ie, male sex, body mass index >25 kg/m(2), and stapler closure) were independent risk factors of pancreatic fistulas after DP with a pancreas thicker than 12 mm. A pancreas thicker than 12 mm significantly increased the incidence of pancreatic fistulas after DP using stapler closure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Design on tester of pull-out force for orthodontic micro implant].

    PubMed

    Su, He; Wu, Pei; Wang, Huiyuan; Chen, Yan; Bao, Xuemei

    2013-09-01

    A special device for measuring the pull-out force of orthodontic micro implant was designed, which has the characteristics of simple construction and easy operation, and can be used to detect the pull-out-force of orthodontic micro implant. The tested data was stored and analyzed by a computer, and as the results, the pull-out-force curve, maximum pull-out force as well as average pull-out force were outputted, which was applied in analyzing or investigating the initial stability and immediate loading property of orthodontic micro implant.

  20. Racial Disparities in Orthodontic Service Utilization for Medicaid-Enrolled Children: An Evaluation of the Washington Medicaid Program

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Jantraveus M.; Greenlee, Geoffrey; Bollen, Anne Marie; Scott, JoAnna M.; Chi, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assess the relationship between race and orthodontic service utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children. Methods This cross-sectional study focused on 570,364 Washington Medicaid-enrolled children ages 6-19 years. The main predictor variable was self-reported race (White versus non-White). The outcome variable was orthodontic service utilization, defined as children who were pre-authorized for orthodontic treatment by Medicaid in 2012 and subsequently received orthodontic records and initiated treatment. Logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesis that non-Whites would be less likely to utilize orthodontic care than Whites. Results A total of 8,223 children were approved by Medicaid for orthodontic treatment and 7,313 received records and initiated treatment. Non-Whites were significantly more likely to utilize orthodontic care than Whites (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02, 1.36; p=.031). Hispanic non-White children were more likely to utilize orthodontic care than non-Hispanic White children (OR=1.42; 95% CI=1.18, 1.70; p<.001). Conclusion In 2012, non-White children in Washington Medicaid were significantly more likely to utilize orthodontic care than White children. The Washington Medicaid program demonstrates a potential model for addressing racial disparities in orthodontic service utilization. Future research should identify mechanisms underlying these findings and continue to monitor orthodontic service utilization for minority children in Medicaid. PMID:27021456

  1. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya-Masamba, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2013-10-22

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. In May 2013, for this first update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours of injury.

  3. Condition-specific Quality of Life Assessment at Each Stage of Class III Surgical Orthodontic Treatment -A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tachiki, Chie; Nishii, Yasushi; Takaki, Takashi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Surgical orthodontic treatment has been reported to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). Such treatment comprises three stages: pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; orthognathic surgery; and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Most studies have focused on change in OHRQL between before and after surgery. However, it is also necessary to evaluate OHRQL at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage, as it may be negatively affected by dental decompensation compared with at pre-treatment. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on QOL by assessing change in condition-specific QOL at each stage of treatment in skeletal class III cases. Twenty skeletal class III patients requiring surgical orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. Each patient completed the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), which was developed for patients with dentofacial deformity. Its items are grouped into 4 domains: "social aspects of dentofacial deformity"; "facial esthetics"; "oral function"; and "awareness of dentofacial esthetics". The questionnaire was completed at the pre-treatment, pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, and post-surgical orthodontic treatment stages. The results revealed a significant worsening in scores between at pre-treatment and pre-surgical orthodontic treatment in the domains of facial esthetics and oral function (p<0.01), and between at pre-surgical orthodontic and post-surgical orthodontic treatment in all domains except awareness of dentofacial esthetics (p<0.05, p<0.01). A significant correlation was observed between a negative change in overjet and worsening OQLQ scores at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. Significant correlations were also observed between improvement in upper and lower lip difference, soft tissue pogonion protrusion, and ANB angle and improvement in OQLQ scores at the post-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. These results

  4. The reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lempesi, Evangelia; Koletsi, Despina; Fleming, Padhraig S; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2014-06-01

    Accurate trial reporting facilitates evaluation and better use of study results. The objective of this article is to investigate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in leading orthodontic journals, and to explore potential predictors of improved reporting. The 50 most recent issues of 4 leading orthodontic journals until November 2013 were electronically searched. Reporting quality assessment was conducted using the modified CONSORT statement checklist. The relationship between potential predictors and the modified CONSORT score was assessed using linear regression modeling. 128 RCTs were identified with a mean modified CONSORT score of 68.97% (SD = 11.09). The Journal of Orthodontics (JO) ranked first in terms of completeness of reporting (modified CONSORT score 76.21%, SD = 10.1), followed by American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) (73.05%, SD = 10.1). Journal of publication (AJODO: β = 10.08, 95% CI: 5.78, 14.38; JO: β = 16.82, 95% CI: 11.70, 21.94; EJO: β = 7.21, 95% CI: 2.69, 11.72 compared to Angle), year of publication (β = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.67 for each additional year), region of authorship (Europe: β = 5.19, 95% CI: 1.30, 9.09 compared to Asia/other), statistical significance (significant: β = 3.10, 95% CI: 0.11, 6.10 compared to non-significant) and methodologist involvement (involvement: β = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.66, 9.54 compared to non-involvement) were all significant predictors of improved modified CONSORT scores in the multivariable model. Additionally, median overall Jadad score was 2 (IQR = 2) across journals, with JO (median = 3, IQR = 1) and AJODO (median = 3, IQR = 2) presenting the highest score values. The reporting quality of RCTs published in leading orthodontic journals is considered suboptimal in various CONSORT areas. This may have a bearing in trial result interpretation and use in clinical decision making and evidence- based orthodontic treatment interventions. Copyright

  5. The quality of orthodontic practice websites.

    PubMed

    Parekh, J; Gill, D S

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate orthodontic practice websites for the reliability of information presented, accessibility, usability for patients and compliance to General Dental Council (GDC) regulations on ethical advertising. World Wide Web. The term 'orthodontic practice' was entered into three separate search engines. The 30 websites from the UK were selected and graded according to the LIDA tool (a validated method of evaluating healthcare websites) for accessibility, usability of the website and reliability of information on orthodontic treatment. The websites were then evaluated against the GDC's Principles for ethical advertising in nine different criteria. On average, each website fulfilled six out of nine points of the GDC's criteria, with inclusion of a complaints policy being the most poorly fulfilled criteria. The mean LIDA score (a combination of usability, reliability and accessibility) was 102/144 (standard deviation 8.38). The websites scored most poorly on reliability (average 43% SD 11.7), with no single website reporting a clear, reliable method of content production. Average accessibility was 81% and usability 73%. In general, websites did not comply with GDC guidelines on ethical advertising. Furthermore, practitioners should consider reporting their method of information production, particularly when making claims about efficiency and speed of treatment in order to improve reliability.

  6. Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy is not inferior to other closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Chaer, Rabih A; Naddaf, Abdallah; El-Shazly, Omar M; Marone, Luke; Makaroun, Michel S

    2016-09-01

    Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been much maligned as an inferior technique with worse outcomes than in patch closure. Our purpose was to compare perioperative and long-term results of different CEA closure techniques in a large institutional experience. A consecutive cohort of CEAs between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. Closure technique was used to divide patients into three groups: primary longitudinal arteriotomy closure (PRC), patch closure (PAC), and eversion closure (EVC). End points were perioperative events, long-term strokes, and restenosis ≥70%. Multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of baseline predictors. There were 1737 CEA cases (bilateral, 143; mean age, 71.4 ± 9.3 years; 56.2% men; 35.3% symptomatic) performed during the study period with a mean clinical follow-up of 49.8 ± 36.4 months (range, 0-155 months). More men had primary closure, but other demographic and baseline symptoms were similar between groups. Half the patients had PAC, with the rest evenly distributed between PRC and EVC. The rate of nerve injury was 2.7%, the rate of reintervention for hematoma was 1.5%, and the length of hospital stay was 2.4 ± 3.0 days, with no significant differences among groups. The combined stroke and death rate was 2.5% overall and 3.9% and 1.7% in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cohort, respectively. Stroke and death rates were similar between groups: PRC, 11 (2.7%); PAC, 19 (2.2%); EVC, 13 (2.9%). Multivariate analysis showed baseline symptomatic disease (odds ratio, 2.4; P = .007) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.1; P = .003) as predictors of perioperative stroke and death, but not the type of closure. Cox regression analysis demonstrated, among other risk factors, no statin use (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .008) as a predictor of ipsilateral stroke and severe (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 2.6; P

  7. Orthodontic treatment need of 9, 12 and 15 year-old children according to the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and the Dental Aesthetic Index.

    PubMed

    Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Montiel-Company, José María; Catalá-Pizarro, Montserrat; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    To assess the differences in occlusal features in three cohorts at 9, 12 and 15 years of age, and compare orthodontic treatment need measured by the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Cross-sectional study. School of Dentistry, University of Valencia. A total of 1086 children: 321 aged 9, 397 aged 12 and 368 aged 15. Children were examined to measure their orthodontic treatment need according to IOTN and DAI. The main outcome measure was orthodontic treatment need according to the DAI and IOTN indices. Overbite and inter-incisal diastema were the occlusal features that presented significant differences between the three groups, diminishing with age. Treatment need according to the IOTN was 15.4% at 9 years, 20.9% at 12 years and 12.8% at 15 years. Treatment need according to DAI was 44.8% at 9 years, 21.7% at 12 years and 14.1% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the two indices on the treatment need by age group was very low at 9 years (Kappa 0.18) and moderate at 12 and 15 years (Kappa 0.451 and 0.405, respectively). Orthodontic treatment need is greater in the mixed dentition and falls slightly as the child grows. The greatest variation in results between 9 and 15 years were found in relation to the DAI, which is consequently not recommended for use in the mixed dentition.

  8. Comparative evaluation of anchorage reinforcement between orthodontic implants and conventional anchorage in orthodontic management of bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S S; Mukherjee, Manish; Mitra, Rajat; Kochar, Gagan Deep; Kadu, Abhijeet

    2017-04-01

    Increased upper lip procumbency is commonly associated with maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion with the major goal of reducing maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion. The treatment plan usually includes extraction of the maxillary first premolars, followed by retraction of anterior teeth with maximum anchorage. Dental implants have been widely accepted as successful adjuncts for obtaining maximum anchorage in orthodontic treatment. 50 subjects between the ages of 13 and 17 years having bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Both groups received treatment with 0.022″ MBT prescription preadjusted edgewise appliance system. In addition, subjects of Group 'I' received the Nance button and lingual arch as anchorage reinforcement in the upper and lower arches, respectively. Subjects of Group 'II' received self-drilling titanium OI for anchorage reinforcement. Significant retraction was achieved in all cases with good vertical control. Anchor loss was observed in both groups. Anchor loss was much higher in Group I compared to Group II, and an intergroup comparison for anchor loss was highly significant. Implants as anchorage, for en masse retraction, can be incorporated into orthodontic practice. The use of orthodontic implants for anchorage is a viable alternative to conventional molar anchorage.

  9. [Resin infiltration of white spot lesions during the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy].

    PubMed

    Ogodescu, A; Ogodescu, Emilia; Talpoş, S; Zetu, Irina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of resin infiltrated white spot lesions (WSLs) during 10 month of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy using the photographic examination method. Twelve patients with mild decalcifications prior to the orthodontic treatment were examined once each month. At aggravation of the WSLs, by patients who fail to maintain good oral hygiene, the brackets were taken down, the lesions were infiltrated with resin (ICON) and the brackets were bonded in place. WSLs were evaluated from intraoral photographs taken before and during the treatment. 35.2% of existing lesions aggravated in the first 6 months of treatment. 41.2 % of the W.S.L. were considered severe and were infiltrated. In the next 10 month of orthodontic treatment 92.5% of the infiltrated WSLs were clinically stable. This clinical study showed a positive evolution of the resin infiltrated WSLs during the fixed orthodontic therapy. This is especially important for patients with long periods of treatment like interdisciplinary orthodontic-orthognathic surgery cases or patients that are refractory to oral hygiene measures.

  10. How home care is essential to ensuring successful orthodontic treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-09-01

    Patients can significantly affect the outcome of their orthodontic treatment. A practice committed to developing the right systems, scripts, and educational materials will experience a more satisfied patient, increased efficiencies, and higher profits. Educating and motivating patients to maintain their oral health and providing recommendations or dispensing of home care tools such as a power toothbrush increases patient compliance, positively impacts treatment outcomes, enhances customer service, and generates a new revenue stream for the practice. In a tight economy and a highly competitive orthodontic market, a power toothbrush can positively impact your marketing and case close rate. Treatment and fees being relatively equal, patients will tend to accept treatment from a practice that can demonstrate concern for the patients' overall oral health and greater value-added components to the orthodontic case. Power toothbrushes as part of a comprehensive orthodontic treatment provide a great differentiating marketing strategy.

  11. Orthodontic treatment in patient with idiopathic root resorption: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rey, Diego; Smit, Rosana Martínez; Gamboa, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results.

  12. Racial disparities in orthodontic service use for Medicaid-enrolled children: An evaluation of the Washington Medicaid program.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Jantraveus M; Greenlee, Geoffrey; Bollen, Anne Marie; Scott, JoAnna M; Chi, Donald L

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the relationship between race and orthodontic service use for Medicaid-enrolled children. This cross-sectional study focused on 570,364 Medicaid-enrolled children in Washington state, ages 6 to 19 years. The main predictor variable was self-reported race (white vs nonwhite). The outcome variable was orthodontic service use, defined as children who were preauthorized for orthodontic treatment by Medicaid in 2012 and subsequently received orthodontic records and initiated treatment. Logistic regression models were used to test the hypothesis that nonwhites are less likely to use orthodontic care than are whites. A total of 8223 children were approved by Medicaid for orthodontic treatment, and 7313 received records and began treatment. Nonwhites were significantly more likely to use orthodontic care than were whites (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.36; P = 0.031). Hispanic nonwhite children were more likely to use orthodontic care than were non-Hispanic white children (OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.18, 1.70; P <0.001). In 2012, nonwhite children in the Washington Medicaid program were significantly more likely to use orthodontic care than were white children. The Washington Medicaid program demonstrates a potential model for addressing racial disparities in orthodontic service use. Future research should identify mechanisms underlying these findings and continue to monitor orthodontic service use for minority children in Medicaid. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-11-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases.

  14. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases. PMID:27808251

  15. Treatment outcomes in 4 modes of orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Donald; Vlaskalic, Vicki; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2005-03-01

    This study is a continuation of a previously published report on the outcome of orthodontic treatment provided in offices representing different modes of practice. The sample consisted of duplicate pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) dental casts of 348 patients from traditional private orthodontic practices (5 offices, 134 patients), company-owned practices (5 offices, 107 patients), offices associated with practice-management organizations (2 offices, 60 patients), and general dental practices (2 offices, 47 patients). Methods were used to obtain random, representative samples from each office, starting with lists of patients who were treated consecutively with full fixed orthodontic appliances. The dental casts were measured by 2 independent judges who used the unweighted PAR score. Good interjudge agreement was shown on the initial casts, but the agreement was not as strong on the final casts. The measurements showed that treatment outcomes were generally satisfactory, although some significant differences between offices and management modes were shown.

  16. The role of parents in motivation for orthodontic treatment for children.

    PubMed

    Karasiunok, Anna Ye; Smahliuk, Liubov V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main features of orthodontic treatment is the cooperation of the doctor with the patient. Active growth of a child's organism at the age from 6 to 12 has not only physiological but also psychological aspects of development. Motivation for orthodontic treatment is absent during mixed dentition. Only taking into account the somato-psychological status and the psycho-emotional condition of the patient during the orthodontic treatment allows to choose an optimal treatment option and to predict its effectiveness. The aim: The aim of our study was to increase the motivation for orthodontic treatment for children during the period of mixed dentition by using informative and accessible psychological methods to raise awareness and the role of parents. Materials and methods: 30 patients at the age from 6 to 12 received orthodontic treatment. The treatment contains targeted psychological training, aimed at activating, strengthening and reinforcing the motivation for treatment for children and their parents. Results: The proposed method gives a significant reduction in the percentage of treatment interruption - according to the literature up to 35.7%, in our study - up to 13.4%. The active treatment period decreased by 1.6 times, and the patient's lack of discipline - by 4 times compared with the control group. There were 2.5 times less undisciplined patients in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusions: The obtained results testify to the necessity of using psychological methods to increase the motivation for orthodontic treatment for children during the period of mixed dentition.

  17. Zoledronic acid and alendronate sodium and the implications in orthodontic movement.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, J S; Soares, F M P; Zaniboni, E; Vedovello Filho, M; Santamaria, M P; Dos Santos, G M T; Esquisatto, M A M; Felonato, M; Mendonca, F A S; Franzini, C M; Santamaria, M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats treated with two types of bisphosphonates (BPs), alendronate sodium (A) and zoledronic acid (Z). In all, 15 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group OTM+A: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of alendronate sodium (2.5 mg/kg); Group OTM+Z: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of zoledronic acid (0.02 mg/kg), and Group OTM: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous injection of saline. The BPs were administered once a day during 25 days before OTM started and during 10 days of OTM. The left upper first molar was moved with a stainless-steel closed coil spring which delivered an initial force of 0.4N. OTM was measured with a digital caliper comparing the moved and the contralateral side. The histomorphometric analysis counted the number of osteoclasts, inflammatory cells, blood vessels and fibroblasts (n/10 4  m 2 ) in periodontal ligament (PDL) of the distobuccal root. A reduction of 58.3% of OTM was found in Group OTM+A and 99.6% in Group OTM+Z, when compared with Group OTM. There was a significant decrease of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells in BP-treated groups. Blood vessels and fibroblastic cells decreased mainly in Group OTM+Z. Alendronate sodium and zoledronic acid have similar effects on the periodontal tissue during orthodontic treatment in rats. Especially, zoledronic acid can affect orthodontic tooth movement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Application of electron closures in extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric; Adair, Brett; Taylor, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    Rigorous closure of the extended MHD equations in plasma fluid codes includes the effects of electron heat conduction along perturbed magnetic fields and contributions of the electron collisional friction and stress to the extended Ohms law. In this work we discuss application of a continuum numerical solution to the Chapman-Enskog-like electron drift kinetic equation using the NIMROD code. The implementation is a tightly-coupled fluid/kinetic system that carefully addresses time-centering in the advance of the fluid variables with their kinetically-computed closures. Comparisons of spatial accuracy, computational efficiency and required velocity space resolution are presented for applications involving growing magnetic islands in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. The reduction in parallel heat conduction due to particle trapping in toroidal geometry is emphasized. Work supported by DOE under Grant Nos. DE-FC02-08ER54973 and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  19. History of imaging in orthodontics from Broadbent to cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Palomo, J Martin; Valiathan, Manish

    2015-12-01

    The history of imaging and orthodontics is a story of technology informing biology. Advances in imaging changed our thinking as our understanding of craniofacial growth and the impact of orthodontic treatment deepened. This article traces the history of imaging in orthodontics from the invention of the cephalometer by B. Holly Broadbent in 1930 to the introduction of low-cost, low-radiation-dose cone-beam computed tomography imaging in 2015. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface Treatment on Physical Properties and Biocompatibility of Orthodontic Power Chains

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H. C.; Chen, M. S.; Peng, B. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Wang, Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional orthodontic power chain, often composed of polymer materials, has drawbacks such as a reduction of elasticity owing to water absorption as well as surface discoloration and staining resulting from food or beverages consumed by the patient. The goal of this study was to develop a surface treatment (nanoimprinting) for orthodontic power chains and to alleviate their shortcomings. A concave template (anodic alumina) was manufactured by anodization process using pure aluminum substrate by employing the nanoimprinting process. Convex nanopillars were fabricated on the surface of orthodontic power chains, resulting in surface treatment. Distinct parameters of the nanoimprinting process (e.g., imprinting temperature, imprinting pressure, imprinting time, and demolding temperature) were used to fabricate nanopillars on the surface of orthodontic power chains. The results of this study showed that the contact angle of the power chains became larger after surface treatment. In addition, the power chains changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The power chain before surface treatment without water absorption had a water absorption rate of approximately 4%, whereas a modified chain had a water absorption rate of approximately 2%–4%. Furthermore, the color adhesion of the orthodontic power chains after surface modification was less than that before surface modification. PMID:28540299

  1. Orthodontic extrusion for pre-implant site enhancement: Principles and clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Alsahhaf, Abdulaziz; Att, Wael

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a concise overview about the principles of pre-implant orthodontic extrusion, describe methods and techniques available and provide the clinicians with guidelines about its application. A number of reports describe orthodontic extrusion as a reliable method for pre-implant site enhancement. However, no standard protocols have been provided about the application of this technique. The literature database was searched for studies involving implant site enhancement by means of orthodontic extrusion. Information about the principles, indications and contraindications of this method, type of anchorage, force and time were obtained from the literature. Despite that the scarce data is largely limited to case reports and case series, implant site enhancement by means of orthodontic extrusion seems to be a promising option to improve soft and hard tissue conditions prior to implant placement. Orthodontic extrusion is being implemented as a treatment alternative to enhance hard and soft tissue prior to implant placement. While the current literature does not provide clear guidelines, the decision making for a specific approach seems to be based on the clinician's preferences. Clinical studies are needed to verify the validity of this treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orthodontic marketing through social media networks: the patient and practitioner's perspective.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristin L; Shroff, Bhavna; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    To (1) assess orthodontic patient and practitioner use of and preferences for social media and (2) investigate the potential benefit of social media in marketing and communication strategies in orthodontic practices. A survey was developed and randomly distributed to orthodontists via the American Association of Orthodontists and to patients/parents via private practices throughout the United States. Participants were asked to answer questions related to their use of social media and their perceptions of the use of social media in the orthodontic practice. Of the participants, 76% of orthodontists and 89% of patients/parents use social media. Furthermore, Facebook was the social media platform that was most preferred. Social media use was more common in female and younger adult participants. Orthodontists posted information more often in the morning (40%) and afternoon (56%), and patients/parents used social media mainly in the evening (76%). The most commonly used marketing strategies in the orthodontic practices were social media (76%) and a practice website (59%). Social media and practice websites were positively related with new patient starts (P  =  .0376, P  =  .0035, respectively). Most orthodontists and patients/parents used social media. Social media may be an effective marketing and communication tool in an orthodontic practice.

  3. The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner.

  4. Apical root resorption due to orthodontic treatment detected by cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Castro, Iury O; Alencar, Ana H G; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2013-03-01

    To determine the frequency of apical root resorption (ARR) due to orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a sample of 1256 roots from 30 patients. All patients had Class I malocclusion with crowding. Of the 30 patients evaluated, 11 were boys and 19 were girls; their mean age was 13 years (11 to 16 years). Orthodontic treatment followed the nonextraction treatment. CBCT images were obtained before and after orthodontic treatment, and ARR was determined using Axial Guided Navigation of CBCT images. All patients had ARR. No statistically significant association was found between resorption frequency, gender, and age. ARR was detected using CBCT in 46% of all roots that underwent orthodontic treatment. CBCT was effective for detecting in vivo even minimal degrees of ARR due to orthodontic treatment and allowed three-dimensional evaluation of dental roots and visualization of palatine roots of maxillary molars. The highest frequencies and the most significant ARR occurred in incisors and distal roots of first maxillary and mandibular molars.

  5. Forced orthodontic extrusion and use of CAD/CAM for reconstruction of grossly destructed crown: A multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Patil, Suvarna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a report of a case where forced orthodontic extrusion and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique was used for reconstruction of right maxillary central incisor with grossly destructed crown. Aesthetic rehabilitation of a fractured maxillary right central incisor was performed employing a multidisciplinary approach i.e. conventional endodontic treatment followed by orthodontic extrusion and final restoration using CAD-CAM and one piece milled zirconia post and core with full coverage zirconia crown. After the procedure being completed, periapical radiographs taken at 3 month follow up period demonstrated that the post and core remained well adapted to post space and there was a complete healing of periapical lesion. This technique can provide a complete aesthetic rehabilitation of a grossly destructed tooth without hampering the biological width and thus has a better prognosis. PMID:22557823

  6. 40 CFR 264.146 - Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance of both closure and post-closure care. 264.146 Section 264.146 Protection of Environment... mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or more...

  7. Localized Piezoelectric Alveolar Decortication for Orthodontic Treatment in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Charavet, C; Lecloux, G; Bruwier, A; Rompen, E; Maes, N; Limme, M; Lambert, F

    2016-08-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the benefits and clinical outcomes of piezocision, which is a minimally invasive approach to corticotomy that is used in orthodontic treatments. Twenty-four adult patients presenting with mild overcrowdings were randomly allocated to either a control group that was treated with conventional orthodontics or a test group that received piezo-assisted orthodontics. The piezocisions were performed 1 wk week after the placement of the orthodontic appliances. Neither grafting material nor sutures were used. All patients were followed every 2 wk, and archwires were changed only when they were no longer active. The periods required for the completion of the overall orthodontic treatments were calculated, and the periodontal parameters were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the orthodontic treatment. Patient-centered outcomes were assessed with a visual analog scale; analgesic use following the procedures was also recorded. The patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The overall treatment time was significantly reduced by 43% in the piezocision group as compared with the control group. In both groups, periodontal parameters (i.e., recession depth, pocket depth, plaque index, and papilla bleeding index) remained unchanged between the baseline and treatment completion time points. No increase in root resorption was observed in either group. Scars were observed in 50% of the patients in the piezocision group. Analgesic consumption was similar following orthodontic appliance placement and piezocision surgery. Patient satisfaction was significantly better in the piezocision group than in the control group. In these conditions, the piezocision technique seemed to be effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. No gingival recessions were observed. The risk of residual scars might limit the indications for piezocision in patients with a high smile line (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02590835).

  8. Meta-Analyses and Orthodontic Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of this systematic review was to assess the orthodontic related issues which currently provide the best evidence as documented by meta-analyses, by critically evaluating and discussing the methodology used in these studies. Material and Methods: Several electronic databases were searched and handsearching was also performed in order to identify the corresponding meta-analyses investigating orthodontic related subjects. In total, 197 studies were retrieved initially. After applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were identified as meta-analyses treating orthodontic-related subjects. Results: Many of these 27 papers presented sufficient quality and followed appropriate meta-analytic approaches to quantitatively synthesize data and presented adequately supported evidence. However, the methodology used in some of them presented weaknesses, limitations or deficiencies. Consequently, the topics in orthodontics which currently provide the best evidence, include some issues related to Class II or Class III treatment, treatment of transverse problems, external apical root resorption, dental anomalies, such as congenital missing teeth and tooth transposition, frequency of severe occlusal problems, nickel hypersensitivity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education. Conclusions: Only a few orthodontic related issues have been so far investigated by means of MAs. In addition, for some of these issues investigated in the corresponding MAs no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to significant methodological deficiencies of these studies. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that at the begin of the 21st century there is evidence for only a few orthodontic related issues as documented by meta-analyses, and more well-conducted high quality research studies are needed to produce strong evidence in order to support evidence-based clinical practice in orthodontics. PMID

  9. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  10. Orthodontic bracket slot dimensions as measured from entire bracket series.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Wagner, Warren; Choi, Hyden

    2015-07-01

    To measure the slot dimensions of an entire series of metal orthodontic brackets. Ten bracket series approximating five complete sets of brackets each were imaged and measured. Descriptive statistics were generated. Slot dimension varied significantly from series to series as well as within the series themselves. About one-third of the brackets would not accommodate a full-size wire, and 15% to 20% are 0.001 inches or larger than the nominal advertised size. The clinician is unlikely to have on hand complete sets (upper and lower 5-5) of ideal brackets and should both expect and be able to be accommodate tooth movement through wire bending in three planes of space to overcome any bracket deficiencies.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of orthodontic devices using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Roriz, P.; Frazão, O.; Marques, M. B.

    2015-04-01

    Cross-bite, as a malocclusion effect, is defined as a transversal changing of the upper dental arch, in relation to the lower arch, and may be classified as skeletal, dental or functional. As a consequence, the expansion of maxilla is an effective clinical treatment used to correct transversal maxillary discrepancy. The maxillary expansion is an ancient method used in orthodontics, for the correction of the maxillary athresia with posterior crossbite, through the opening of the midpalatal suture (disjunction), using orthodontic- orthopaedic devices. Same controversial discussion arises among the clinicians, about the effects of each orthodontic devices as also about the technique to be employed. The objective of this study was to compare the strain field induced by two different orthodontic devices, named disjunctor with and without a connecting bar, in an acrylic model jaw, using fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure the strain patterns. The orthodontic device disjunctor with the bar, in general, transmits higher forces and strain to teeth and maxillae, than with the disjunctor without bar. It was verified that the strain patterns were not symmetric between the left and the right sides as also between the posterior and anterior regions of the maxillae. For the two devices is also found that in addition a displacement in the horizontal plane, particularly in posterior teeth, also occurs a rotation corresponding to a vestibularization of the posterior teeth and their alveolar processes.

  12. 40 CFR 265.146 - Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance of both closure and post-closure care. 265.146 Section 265.146 Protection of Environment... Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or...

  13. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  14. Clinical evaluation of immediate loading of titanium orthodontic implants

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, S.S.; Chakranarayan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skeletal anchorage using dental implants, miniplates, miniscrews and microscrews provides an absolute anchorage for tooth movement. Miniscrew and microscrew implants have many benefits such as ease of placement and removal and immediate orthodontic force application. Methods Fifteen subjects in the permanent dentition with an overjet ≥6 mm received treatment with the 0.018-inch pre-adjusted edgewise appliance system (Roth prescription) and extraction of all first premolars. Titanium orthodontic implants were placed in both the upper quadrants and were immediately loaded with elastic chain from the implant head to the sectional arch wire. Result The overall success rate of immediate loaded titanium orthodontic micro implants (OMI) in the present study was 83.33%, with a mean chairside time of 15.33 min of placing two implants in each patient. Peri-implant inflammation was the only complication observed. Most failures were in the initial part of the study. There was no significant difference in the success rate of implants based on sex, side of placement (right or left) and type of malocclusion. Conclusion The OMIs used in the present study proved to be effective and well tolerated in producing immediate orthodontic anchorage for the retraction. PMID:25859080

  15. Condition of periodontium in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Andjelić, Jasminka; Matijević, Snežana

    2014-10-01

    Orthodontic patients should be familiar with techniques of maintaining oral hygiene as well as with proper methods of checking maintenance of oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between condition of periodontium and techniques of maintaining oral hygiene in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The research population included 100 patients, aged 15-25, treated by the orthodontist from 2005 to 2010. The maintenance of oral hygiene and the condition of periodontium was assessed using the following indices: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index and oral hygiene index. The study was carried out using data obtained from the especially designed questionnaire as well as by objective examination of periodontal condition in accordance with the World Health Organization methodology, using adequate indicators and indices. The results of the study show a significant correlation between condition of periodontium and oral hygiene in those with fixed orthodontic appliances. The use ofinterdental brushes and mouthwash liquid, as well as teeth brushing, were among the most significant predictors of healthy teeth and mouth. Teeth and mouth hygiene determined by frequency of teeth brushing, using of interdental brushes and mouthwash liquid are the basic preconditions for preservation and promotion of tooth and mouth health in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  16. [Ultrastructural changes of human dental hard tissues during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances].

    PubMed

    Antonova, I N; Goncharov, V D; Bobrova, E A

    The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrastructural changes of dental enamel after fixation of orthodontic appliances, initial influence of orthodontic forces and removal of braces. Five intact permanent tooth extracted for orthodontic reasons were included in the experimental study. Scanning probe microscopy was conducted in 4 random enamel points in each tooth (20 points overall) in semi-contact mode with standard 10 nm probes. The study showed ultrastructural enamel changes such as nanofractures up to 1 mm along the braces locks. The changes correlated with surface morphological features and teeth anatomy and may play an important role in dental decay and non-carious lesions occurring in the course of orthodontic treatment.

  17. Tooth loss caused by displaced elastic during simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of “a substantial risk for irreparable damage” from a new trend called “do-it-yourself” orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. PMID:27672645

  18. Microleakage under orthodontic bands cemented with nano-hydroxyapatite-modified glass ionomer.

    PubMed

    Enan, Enas T; Hammad, Shaza M

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the in vivo effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) modification of banding glass-ionomer cement on microleakage under orthodontic bands. Eighty noncarious premolars scheduled for extraction in 20 orthodontic patients were randomly divided into four groups. Grouping was based on the ratio of nano-HA (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% by weight) added to the luting glass-ionomer cement (GIC) Ketac-Cem, which was used for cementation of prefabricated micro-etched orthodontic bands. Dye penetration method was used for microleakage evaluation at the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces. Statistical evaluation was performed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and a Mann-Whitney U-test, and a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level was calculated. Bands cemented with conventional GIC showed the highest microleakage scores in comparison to those cemented with nano-HA-modified GIC. No significant difference was found between teeth banded with 10% and 15% modified GIC. Modification of the banding GIC with 15% nano-HA revealed a positive effect on reducing microleakage around orthodontic bands.

  19. Can orthodontic relapse be blamed on the temporomandibular joint?

    PubMed Central

    Wolford, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    There are many temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conditions that can cause orthodontic treatment instability and relapse. These conditions are often associated with dentofacial deformities, malocclusion, TMJ pain, headaches, myofascial pain, TMJ and jaw functional impairment, ear symptoms, etc., Many of these TMJ conditions can cause progressive and continuous changes in the occlusion and jaw relationships. Patients with these conditions may benefit from corrective orthodontic and surgical intervention. The difficulty for many clinicians may lie in identifying the presence of a TMJ condition, diagnosing the specific TMJ pathology, and selecting the proper treatment for that condition. This paper will discuss the most common TMJ pathologies that can adversely affect orthodontic stability and outcomes as well as present the treatment considerations to correct the specific TMJ conditions and associated jaw deformities to provide stable and predictable treatment results. PMID:25426452

  20. Apical root resorption caused by orthodontic forces: A brief review and a long-term observation.

    PubMed

    Topkara, Ahu; Karaman, Ali I; Kau, Chung H

    2012-10-01

    External apical root resorption (ARR) is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. One of the aims of this article is to present a brief overview of the literature, including; diagnosis and etiology, with emphasis on orthodontic forces to facilitate an understand of the prevention or management of ARR in orthodontic patients. We also present a long-term follow-up observation of severe ARR, including the last obtained cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) records, to demonstrate the effect of orthodontic forces on ARR.

  1. An efficient algorithm for generating diverse microstructure sets and delineating properties closures

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Oliver K.; Kurniawan, Christian

    2018-02-03

    Properties closures delineate the theoretical objective space for materials design problems, allowing designers to make informed trade-offs between competing constraints and target properties. In this paper, we present a new algorithm called hierarchical simplex sampling (HSS) that approximates properties closures more efficiently and faithfully than traditional optimization based approaches. By construction, HSS generates samples of microstructure statistics that span the corresponding microstructure hull. As a result, we also find that HSS can be coupled with synthetic polycrystal generation software to generate diverse sets of microstructures for subsequent mesoscale simulations. Finally, by more broadly sampling the space of possible microstructures, itmore » is anticipated that such diverse microstructure sets will expand our understanding of the influence of microstructure on macroscale effective properties and inform the construction of higher-fidelity mesoscale structure-property models.« less

  2. An efficient algorithm for generating diverse microstructure sets and delineating properties closures

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Oliver K.; Kurniawan, Christian

    Properties closures delineate the theoretical objective space for materials design problems, allowing designers to make informed trade-offs between competing constraints and target properties. In this paper, we present a new algorithm called hierarchical simplex sampling (HSS) that approximates properties closures more efficiently and faithfully than traditional optimization based approaches. By construction, HSS generates samples of microstructure statistics that span the corresponding microstructure hull. As a result, we also find that HSS can be coupled with synthetic polycrystal generation software to generate diverse sets of microstructures for subsequent mesoscale simulations. Finally, by more broadly sampling the space of possible microstructures, itmore » is anticipated that such diverse microstructure sets will expand our understanding of the influence of microstructure on macroscale effective properties and inform the construction of higher-fidelity mesoscale structure-property models.« less

  3. Patients' expectations of orthodontic treatment: part 1 - development of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Sayers, M S; Newton, J T

    2006-12-01

    The development of a questionnaire to measure patients' and their parents' expectations before orthodontic treatment, and to test the reliability and validity of this measure. A two-stage methodology, with open-ended interviews to identify themes and concepts followed by development and testing of the questionnaire. GKT Orthodontic Department, King's College Dental Hospital. The sample consisted of 140 participants, 70 patients aged 12-14 years, who had been referred to the orthodontic department for treatment. One parent of each patient was also recruited. The study was in two phases. In the first phase 30 participants (15 new patients and their 15 parents) participated in open-ended interviews, which were analysed qualitatively. Information from these interviews was used to construct a questionnaire. During the second phase, the questionnaire was piloted on 10 participants, five new consecutive patients and their parents. The questionnaire was then distributed to 174 subjects (87 new patients and their 87 parents). Seventy-eight subjects (39 new patients and their 39 parents) completed the questionnaire before their orthodontic consultation. Another 96 subjects (48 new patients and their 48 parents) were invited to complete the questionnaire prior to and at their orthodontic consultation. Test-retest analysis was conducted on 22 participants (11 patients and their 11 parents), who completed the questionnaire previous to and at their orthodontic consultation, and contributed to the psychometric validation of this questionnaire. A questionnaire was devized using the key themes and concepts identified in the open-ended interviews. As a result, 10 questions, some with sub-questions were constructed using a visual analogue scale as the response format. The questionnaire developed had good face validity. Internal consistency of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha, produced an overall inter-item reliability > 0.7 along with item-total correlations > 0.3 in over 50

  4. Age-related effects on osteoclastic activities after orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Li, M; Lu, J; Hu, Y; Cui, L; Zhang, D; Yang, Y

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the effects of age on the expression levels of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoclasts in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic mechanical loading and post-orthodontic retention. The study included 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats, ten in the young group (aged four to five weeks) and ten in the adult group (aged 18 to 20 weeks). In each rat, the upper-left first molar was subjected to a seven-day orthodontic force loading followed by a seven-day retention period. The upper-right first molar served as a control. The amount of orthodontic tooth movement was measured after seven-day force application and seven-day post-orthodontic retention. The expression levels of RANKL and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts were evaluated on day 7 (end of mechanical force loading) and day 14 (after seven days of post-orthodontic retention). Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, and significance was set at p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between the amount of tooth movement in the young group (0.96, standard deviation (sd) 0.30mm) and that in the adult group (0.80mm, sd 0.28) (p > 0.05) after the seven-day force application. On the compression side, the expression of RANKL and TRAP-positive osteoclasts in both the young and the adult groups increased after the application of force for seven days, and then decreased at the end of the seven-day retention period. However, by the end of the period, the expression of RANKL on the compression side dropped to the control level in the young group (p > 0.05), while it was still higher than that on the control side in the adult group (p < 0.05). The expression of RANKL on the compression side did not show significant difference between the young and the adult groups after seven-day force application (p > 0.05), but it was significantly higher in the adult group than that in the young group after seven-day post-orthodontic

  5. Surgical-orthodontic correction of a Class III dentofacial deformity.

    PubMed

    Devanna, Raghu; Kakkirala, Neelima

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old post-pubertal male patient with a Class III dentofacial deformity. In the pre-surgical orthodontic phase of treatment, a reverse overjet of 5.5 mm was created and arch compatibility was obtained. A mandibualr set back with BSSO was performed during surgery to restore ideal overjet, overbite, occlusion and optimal esthetics. After 1 year of treatment, the results remained stable.

  6. Root perforation associated with the use of a miniscrew implant used for orthodontic anchorage: a case report.

    PubMed

    McCabe, P; Kavanagh, C

    2012-07-01

    To highlight one of the possible complications associated with the inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews. This case report describes the endodontic treatment and surgical repair of an iatrogenic root perforation involving a maxillary first molar tooth following the placement of an orthodontic miniscrew placed for anchorage purposes in the treatment of an adult patient. The orthodontic treatment plan was completed. The long-term follow-up shows a successful treatment outcome. Inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews is a valuable source of anchorage in the treatment of orthodontic patients. Root perforation is a possible complication from inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews. Root perforation can be successfully treated, but may involve apical surgery. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Cytotoxic outcomes of orthodontic bands with and without silver solder in different cell lineages.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Letícia Spinelli; Rodrigues Junior, Valnês da Silva; Campos, Maria Martha; Macedo de Menezes, Luciane

    2017-05-01

    The safety of orthodontic materials is a matter of high interest. In this study, we aimed to assess the in-vitro cytotoxicity of orthodontic band extracts, with and without silver solder, by comparing the viability outcomes of the HaCat keratinocytes, the fibroblastic cell lineages HGF and MRC-5, and the kidney epithelial Vero cells. Sterilized orthodontic bands with and without silver solder joints were added to culture media (6 cm 2 /mL) and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C under continuous agitation. Subsequently, the cell cultures were exposed to the obtained extracts for 24 hours, and an assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability. Copper strip extracts were used as positive control devices. The extracts from orthodontic bands with silver solder joints significantly reduced the viability of the HaCat, MRC-5, and Vero cell lines, whereas the viability of HGF was not altered by this material. Conversely, the extracts of orthodontic bands without silver solder did not significantly modify the viability index of all evaluated cell lines. Except for HGF fibroblasts, all tested cell lines showed decreased viability percentages after exposure to extracts of orthodontic bands containing silver solder joints. These data show the relevance of testing the toxicity of orthodontic devices in different cell lines. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of sterilization, packaging and storage considerations for orthodontic pliers.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    Wrapping dental instruments along with a chemical indicator is considered an essential step of a reliable infection control protocol. Hinged instruments, such as orthodontic pliers, are particular because they must be sterilized in an open position. Different methods to sterilize, package and store orthodontic pliers are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Evaluation of a prevention programme efficiency for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Matić, Sava; Ivanović, Mirjana; Nikolić, Predrag

    2011-03-01