Science.gov

Sample records for orthogonal pulse division

  1. 622-Mbps Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Digital Modem Implemented

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifle, Muli; Bizon, Thomas P.; Nguyen, Nam T.; Tran, Quang K.; Mortensen, Dale J.

    2002-01-01

    Future generation space communications systems feature significantly higher data rates and relatively smaller frequency spectrum allocations than systems currently deployed. This requires the application of bandwidth- and power-efficient signal transmission techniques. There are a number of approaches to implementing such techniques, including analog, digital, mixed-signal, single-channel, or multichannel systems. In general, the digital implementations offer more advantages; however, a fully digital implementation is very difficult because of the very high clock speeds required. Multichannel techniques are used to reduce the sampling rate. One such technique, multicarrier modulation, divides the data into a number of low-rate channels that are stacked in frequency. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), a form of multicarrier modulation, is being proposed for numerous systems, including mobile wireless and digital subscriber link communication systems. In response to this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center's Communication Technology Division has developed an OFDM digital modem (modulator and demodulator) with an aggregate information throughput of 622 Mbps. The basic OFDM waveform is constructed by dividing an incoming data stream into four channels, each using either 16- ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) or 8-phase shift keying (8-PSK). An efficient implementation for an OFDM architecture is being achieved using the combination of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) at the transmitter to digitally stack the individual carriers, inverse DFT at the receiver to perform the frequency translations, and a polyphase filter to facilitate the pulse shaping.

  2. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  3. Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexed Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2015-12-01

    We propose orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), as a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, for quantum key distribution (QKD) at the core of trustednode quantum networks. Two main schemes are proposed and analyzed in detail, considering system imperfections, specifically, time misalignment issues. It turns out that while multiple service providers can share the network infrastructure using the proposed multiplexing techniques, no gain in the total secret key generation rate is obtained if one uses conventional all-optical passive OFDM decoders. To achieve a linear increase in the key rate with the number of channels, an alternative active setup for OFDM decoding is proposed, which employs an optical switch in addition to conventional passive circuits. We show that by using our proposed decoder the bandwidth utilization is considerably improved as compared to conventional wavelength division multiplexing techniques.

  4. Improved orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communications through advanced coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westra, Jeffrey; Patti, John

    2005-08-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a communications technique that transmits a signal over multiple, evenly spaced, discrete frequency bands. OFDM offers some advantages over traditional, single-carrier modulation techniques, such as increased immunity to inter-symbol interference. For this reason OFDM is an attractive candidate for sensor network application; it has already been included in several standards, including Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB); digital television standards in Europe, Japan and Australia; asymmetric digital subscriber line (ASDL); and wireless local area networks (WLAN), specifically IEEE 802.11a. Many of these applications currently make use of a standard convolutional code with Viterbi decoding to perform forward error correction (FEC). Replacing such convolutional codes with advanced coding techniques using iterative decoding, such as Turbo codes, can substantially improve the performance of the OFDM communications link. This paper demonstrates such improvements using the 802.11a wireless LAN standard.

  5. Ultrasound vibrometry using orthogonal- frequency-based vibration pulses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Yao, Aiping; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W; Lin, Haoming; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Chen, Ke; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2013-11-01

    New vibration pulses are developed for shear wave generation in a tissue region with preferred spectral distributions for ultrasound vibrometry applications. The primary objective of this work is to increase the frequency range of detectable harmonics of the shear wave. The secondary objective is to reduce the required peak intensity of transmitted pulses that induce the vibrations and shear waves. Unlike the periodic binary vibration pulses, the new vibration pulses have multiple pulses in one fundamental period of the vibration. The pulses are generated from an orthogonal-frequency wave composed of several sinusoidal signals, the amplitudes of which increase with frequency to compensate for higher loss at higher frequency in tissues. The new method has been evaluated by studying the shear wave propagation in in vitro chicken and swine liver. The experimental results show that the new vibration pulses significantly increase tissue vibration with a reduced peak ultrasound intensity, compared with the binary vibration pulses.

  6. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution in the presence of Raman noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quantum key distribution (OFDM-QKD) in an integrated quantum-classical wavelength-division-multiplexing system. The presence of an intense classical signal alongside the quantum one generates Raman background noise. Noise reduction techniques should, then, be carried out at the receiver to suppress this crosstalk noise. In this work, we show that OFDM-QKD enables efficient filtering, in time and frequency domains, making it an attractive solution for the high-rate links at the core of quantum-classical networks.

  7. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J G

    1996-12-10

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  8. Wavelet packet transform-based optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing transmission using direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Mingliang; Qiu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    As an alternate to fast Fourier transform-based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), wavelet packet transform (WPT)-based OFDM (WPT-OFDM) does not require cyclic prefix to avoid inter-symbol-interference. The wavelet has many varieties and therefore, it can provide more freedom for system design to suit different applications. We propose a real-valued WPT-OFDM that uses intensity modulation/direct detection. We also conduct an experiment to verify its performance through a 75-km standard single-mode fiber.

  9. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based wireless visible light communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lin, Wan-Feng; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed in this paper. The architecture of the proposed system is divided into several VLC cells, which is defined in this paper. The deployment and upgrade of the system involve only simple combination of the VLC cells. Hence it is economically advantageous. To guarantee smooth communication, nearly equal data rate is provided at every location within the system with no concern on the system scale. The user location monitor strategy is also discussed to solve the region division issues. The characteristics of the proposed system are analyzed in detail in this paper. A one-dimensional experiment was demonstrated with 13.6 Mb/s data rate.

  10. Compressed sensing theory-based channel estimation for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Liu, Yuanni; Song, Daiping

    2014-09-01

    Due to the spare multipath property of the channel, a channel estimation method, which is based on partial superimposed training sequence and compressed sensing theory, is proposed for line of sight optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. First, a continuous training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the cyclic prefix of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing symbols at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then the observation matrix of compressed sensing theory is structured by the use of the training symbols at receiver. Finally, channel state information is estimated using sparse signal reconstruction algorithm. Compared to traditional training sequences, the proposed partial superimposed training sequence not only improves the spectral efficiency, but also reduces the influence to information symbols. In addition, compared with classical least squares and linear minimum mean square error methods, the proposed compressed sensing theory based channel estimation method can improve both the estimation accuracy and the system performance. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Improvement of Power Efficiency for Underwater Acoustic Communication Using Orthogonal Signal Division Multiplexing over Multiple Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi

    2013-07-01

    In underwater acoustic (UWA) communication, power efficiency is one of the important characteristics. This paper is about multistream transmission using orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) as a technique to increase power efficiency. In this work, the performance of multistream transmission using OSDM is evaluated both experimentally in a test tank and by numerical simulation. Through this study, it is confirmed that the multistream transmission scheme is effective in enhancing the power efficiency compared with the single-stream transmission using higher order modulation. Moreover, the performance of multistream transmission using OSDM is compared with the existing scheme, multistream transmission using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The obtained results suggest that multistream transmission using OSDM is attractive because it can achieve the same bit-error rate (BER) and the same data rate with less power of the signal, compared with the reference. Although the calculation cost of OSDM in the receiver remains as an issue, multistream transmission using OSDM may contribute to high-speed UWA communication because of its excellent power efficiency.

  12. Channel estimation for asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Wu, Dapeng

    2013-07-01

    The channel estimation problem for asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless communication systems is investigated. In order to resolve the noise-sensitive problem of traditional least squares-based channel estimation method, a new channel estimation method which is based on superimposed training sequence and guarantees the linear minimum mean square error estimate is proposed. Cycle training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the information sequence at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then, statistical average method is employed to separate training and information sequences at the receiver. Simulation results show that the power ratio of training sequence needs to balance between the mean square error (MSE) of estimation and the error bit rate. Moreover, compared with the traditional least squares-based method, the proposed method has significantly improved the estimation performance under the condition of low signal-to-noise ratio, especially, when the MSE of the estimation reduces 1 to 2 orders.

  13. Digital audio broadcasting by satellite utilising Trellis-Coded Quasi-Orthogonal Code Division Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gaudenzi, R.

    This paper introduces trellis-coded quasi-orthogonal code division multiplexing (TCQO-CDM) as a transmission technique for digital audio broadcasting. The proposed technique performs well over the satellite L-band fading channel and also in the terrestrial gap-filter type of transmission. Preliminary satellite link budgets based on extensive computer-simulation results are provided. The capacity achieved by the terrestrial single-frequency gap-filler network by using the same satellite frequency and user receiver is also discussed. Numerical results show that a remarkable overall capacity can be achieved by using HEO satellite orbits complemented by a terrestrial gap-filler. A variety of transmission rates and hence broadcasting services can be realized. It is shown that a geostationary satellite can provide limited service availability and limited capacity to mobile users, but can also be used for experimental purposes.

  14. Study of Doppler Shift Correction for Underwater Acoustic Communication Using Orthogonal Signal Division Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi; Mizutani, Keiichi

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we apply Doppler shift correction schemes for underwater acoustic (UWA) communication with orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) to achieve stable communication in underwater acoustic channels. Three Doppler correction schemes, which exploit the guard interval, are applied to UWA communication with OSDM and evaluated in simulations. Through a simulation in which only the Doppler effect is considered, we confirmed that by adapting schemes to UWA communication with OSDM, we can correct large Doppler shifts, which addresses the usual speed of vehicles and ships. Moreover, by considering both the Doppler effect and channel reverberation, we propose the best possible combination of Doppler correction schemes for UWA communication with OSDM. The results suggest that UWA communication with OSDM may lead to high-quality communication by considering channel reverberation and large Doppler shifts.

  15. Experimental Study of Doppler Effect for Underwater Acoustic Communication Using Orthogonal Signal Division Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi; Mizutani, Keiichi

    2012-07-01

    This paper is about the underwater acoustic (UWA) communication using orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) in shallow water, whose environment is time spread and frequency spread. In this paper, the Doppler effect - Doppler shift and spread - for UWA communication using OSDM is mainly considered. The effects of Doppler shift and Doppler spread are evaluated in a test tank with a moving platform on a stable water surface and with a stable platform with a moving water surface, respectively. Doppler shift correction, which has been considered in simulation-based studies, is found to work effectively. In relation to the effect of Doppler spread, the experimental result well agrees with the simulation result. Through this study, it is confirmed that a smaller frame length is preferable because it enables the measurement of the UWA channel frequently so that it can keep up with channel changes.

  16. Indoor location estimation with optical-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminikashani, Mohammadreza; Gu, Wenjun; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) using light-emitting diodes has been gaining increasing attention in recent years as it is appealing for a wide range of applications such as indoor positioning. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been applied to indoor wireless optical communications in order to mitigate the effect of multipath distortion of the optical channel as well as increasing the data rate. An OFDM VLC system is proposed, which can be utilized for both communications and indoor positioning. A positioning algorithm based on power attenuation is used to estimate the receiver coordinates. We further calculate the positioning errors in all the locations of a room and compare them with those using single-carrier modulation schemes, i.e., on-off keying modulation. We demonstrate that our proposed OFDM positioning system outperforms by 74% its conventional counterpart. Finally, we investigate the impact of different system parameters on the positioning accuracy of the proposed OFDM VLC system.

  17. High-performance TDM demultiplexing of coherent Nyquist pulses using time-domain orthogonality.

    PubMed

    Harako, Koudai; Otuya, David Odeke; Kasai, Keisuke; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We propose a simple and high-performance scheme for demultiplexing coherent Nyquist TDM signals by photo-mixing on a photo-detector with Nyquist LO pulses. This scheme takes advantage of the time-domain orthogonality of Nyquist pulses, which enables high-SNR demultiplexing and homodyne detection simultaneously in spite of a strong overlap with adjacent pulses in the time domain. The feasibility of this scheme is demonstrated through a demultiplexing experiment employing 80 Gbaud, 64 QAM Nyquist pulse OTDM signals. This scheme exhibits excellent demultiplexing performance with a much simpler configuration than a conventional ultrafast all-optical sampling scheme.

  18. An all-digital receiver for satellite audio broadcasting signals using trellis coded quasi-orthogonal code-division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Walter; Eglin, Peter; Abello, Ricard

    1993-02-01

    Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiplex is an attractive scheme for the transmission of multiple signals over a satellite transponder. By using orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal spreading codes the interference between the users can be virtually eliminated. However, the acquisition and tracking of the spreading code phase can not take advantage of the code orthogonality since sequential acquisition and Delay-Locked loop tracking depend on correlation with code phases other than the optimal despreading phase. Hence, synchronization is a critical issue in such a system. A demonstration hardware for the verification of the orthogonal CDM synchronization and data transmission concept is being designed and implemented. The system concept, the synchronization scheme, and the implementation are described. The performance of the system is discussed based on computer simulations.

  19. Underwater acoustic communication using orthogonal signal division multiplexing scheme with time diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Tadashi; Ogasawara, Hanako; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an underwater acoustic (UWA) communication scheme for mobile platforms is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on the orthogonal signal division multiplexing (OSDM) scheme, which offers highly reliable UWA communication. However, OSDM is not suitable for mobile platforms as it is — it requires a receiver array and a large calculation cost for equalization. To establish a reliable link with small communication platforms, we design OSDM that can perform reliable communication without the need for an array and can reduce receiver complexity using the time-diversity technique (TD), and evaluate its performance in experiments. The experimental results suggest that OSDM-TD can simultaneously achieve power-efficient communications and receiver complexity reduction, and can realize small-scale communication platforms. In detail, OSDM-TD achieved almost the same communication quality as conventional OSDM, in exchange for an effective data rate. Moreover, the power efficiency of OSDM-TD was almost the same as that of conventional OSDM with two receiver array elements, although the calculation cost of OSDM-TD was far below that of conventional OSDM. As a result, it was found that OSDM-TD is suitable for UWA communication for mobile nodes whose capacity and computational resources are severely limited.

  20. Improved superimposed training sequence-based timing synchronization for space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruyan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the timing synchronization problem of a space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) communication system. First, based on the good autocorrelation property of generalized chirp-like sequence, a training sequence is constructed to fit the non-negative light intensity signal requirement of the OOFDM system, of which the front and rear portions are cyclical and the whole is mirror-symmetric. No longer a periodic-repetition structure, the mirror-symmetric structure can effectively avoid the side lobe of objective function and reduce the complexity of correlation calculation, and thereby can improve the synchronization performance. Then, the constructed training sequence is superimposed on a complete data symbol for transmission to efficiently utilize transmitting power and spectrum resources of the communication system. At the receiver, the position of timing synchronization is estimated using maximum-likelihood algorithm and the correlation between the local sequence and the received signal. Simulation results show that, compared with several existing methods, the proposed timing synchronization method achieves better synchronization performances under both strong and weak atmospheric turbulence channels.

  1. Polarization-selective vortex-core switching by tailored orthogonal Gaussian-pulse currents

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Young-Sang; Lee, Ki-Suk; Jung, Hyunsung; Choi, Youn-Seok; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Han, Dong-Soo; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2011-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate low-power-consumption vortex-core switching in magnetic nanodisks using tailored rotating magnetic fields produced with orthogonal and unipolar Gaussian-pulse currents. The optimal width of the orthogonal pulses and their time delay are found, from analytical and micromagnetic numerical calculations, to be determined only by the angular eigenfrequency ωD for a given vortex-state disk of polarization p, such that σ=1/ωD and Δt=π/2p/ωD. The estimated optimal pulse parameters are in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, this work lays a foundation for energy-efficient information recording in vortex-core cross-point architecture.

  2. Amplification of stimulated Brillouin scattering of two collinear pulsed laser beams with orthogonal polarizations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinwei; Chen, Xudong; Ouyang, Min; Liu, Juan; Liu, Dahe

    2009-06-10

    A polarization-controlling device was developed based on the fact that there can be a time delay between the seeder and the pumping beams during the amplification of a stimulated Brillouin scattering signal. The device causes two coaxially transmitted pulsed beams with orthogonal polarizations to have the same polarization in order to implement amplification by the pumping effect. An experiment showed that good pumping amplification can be achieved by using this technique. PMID:19516374

  3. Physically secured orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network employing noise-based encryption and signal recovery process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Zhang, Chongfu; Yuan, Weicheng

    2016-02-01

    We propose a physically enhanced secure scheme for direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (DD-OFDM-PON) and long reach coherent detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (LRCO-OFDM-PON), by employing noise-based encryption and channel/phase estimation. The noise data generated by chaos mapping are used to substitute training sequences in preamble to realize channel estimation and frame synchronization, and also to be embedded on variable number of key-selected randomly spaced pilot subcarriers to implement phase estimation. Consequently, the information used for signal recovery is totally hidden as unpredictable noise information in OFDM frames to mask useful information and to prevent illegal users from correctly realizing OFDM demodulation, and thereby enhancing resistance to attackers. The levels of illegal-decryption complexity and implementation complexity are theoretically discussed. Through extensive simulations, the performances of the proposed channel/phase estimation and the security introduced by encrypted pilot carriers have been investigated in both DD-OFDM and LRCO-OFDM systems. In addition, in the proposed secure DD-OFDM/LRCO-OFDM PON models, both legal and illegal receiving scenarios have been considered. These results show that, by utilizing the proposed scheme, the resistance to attackers can be significantly enhanced in DD-OFDM-PON and LRCO-OFDM-PON systems without performance degradations.

  4. Orthogonal on-off control of radar pulses for the suppression of mutual interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Cheol

    1998-10-01

    Intelligent vehicles of the future will be guided by radars and other sensors to avoid obstacles. When multiple vehicles move simultaneously in autonomous navigational mode, mutual interference among car radars becomes a serious problem. An obstacle is illuminated with electromagnetic pulses from several radars. The signal at a radar receiver is actually a mixture of the self-reflection and the reflection of interfering pulses emitted by others. When standardized pulse- type radars are employed on vehicles for obstacle avoidance and so self-pulse and interfering pulses have identical pulse repetition interval, this SI (synchronous Interference) is very difficult to separate from the true reflection. We present a method of suppressing such a synchronous interference. By controlling the pulse emission of a radar in a binary orthogonal ON, OFF pattern, the true self-reflection can be separated from the false one. Two range maps are generated, TRM (true-reflection map) and SIM (synchronous- interference map). TRM is updated for every ON interval and SIM is updated for every OFF interval of the self-radar. SIM represents the SI of interfering radars while TRM keeps a record of a mixture of the true self-reflection and SI. Hence the true obstacles can be identified by the set subtraction operation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional M of N method. Bayesian analysis shows that the probability of false alarm is improved by order of 103 to approximately 106 while the deterioration in the probability of detection is negligible.

  5. Design of DPSS based fiber bragg gratings and their application in all-optical encryption, OCDMA, optical steganography, and orthogonal-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saleh, Alaa H; Küppers, Franko

    2014-05-01

    The future information infrastructure will be affected by limited bandwidth of optical networks, high energy consumption, heterogeneity of network segments, and security issues. As a solution to all problems, we advocate the use of both electrical basis functions (orthogonal prolate spheroidal basis functions) and optical basis functions, implemented as FBGs with orthogonal impulse response in addition to spatial modes. We design the Bragg gratings with orthogonal impulse responses by means of discrete layer peeling algorithm. The target impulse responses belong to the class of discrete prolate spheroidal sequences, which are mutually orthogonal regardless of the sequence order, while occupying the fixed bandwidth. We then design the corresponding encoders and decoders suitable for all-optical encryption, optical CDMA, optical steganography, and orthogonal-division multiplexing (ODM). Finally, we propose the spectral multiplexing-ODM-spatial multiplexing scheme enabling beyond 10 Pb/s serial optical transport networks.

  6. Parameterizing both path amplitude and delay variations of underwater acoustic channels for block decoding of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoka; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Shengli; Wan, Lei

    2012-06-01

    There are no commonly-agreed mathematical models for the input-output relationship of underwater acoustic channels. For each path in a time-varying multipath channel within a short period of time (e.g., one short data block), this paper proposes to use one polynomial to approximate the amplitude variation and another polynomial up to the first order to approximate the delay variation within a block duration. Under such a channel parameterization, the discrete-time channel input- output relationship tailored to zero-padded orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions is then derived, based on which an OFDM receiver is validated using experimental data collected during the 2008 Surface Processes and Acoustic Communications Experiment. For channels with a short coherence time, the numerical results show that incorporating both the amplitude and delay variations improves the system performance.

  7. White light-emitting diode based wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing link with improved transmission capacity using Bayesian compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Seo, Dong-Sun; Yoon, Sang Min

    2016-04-01

    We propose a technique that improves the channel capacity of an optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission, which employs a visible light-emitting diode. An OFDM waveform encoded by quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-quadrature amplitude modulation is compressed and then transformed into a sparse waveform using a proposed advanced systematic sampling. At the optical wireless receiver, the original waveform is recovered by L1-minimization based on a Bayesian compressive sensing. Our experimental results show the significant increase in the channel capacity from 31.12 to 51.87 Mbit/s at forward error correction limit (i.e., error vector magnitude of 32%) in case of QPSK symbols.

  8. Efficient transmission of 1D and 2D chaotic map encrypted images with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasem, Hossam M.; Nasr, Mohamed E.; Sallam, Elsayed A.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2011-10-01

    Image transmission takes place as an important research branch in multimedia broadcasting communication systems in the last decade. Our paper presents image transmission over a FFT-OFDM (Fast Fourier Transform Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). The need for encryption techniques increase with the appearance of the expression which said that our world became small village, and the use of image application such as conference and World Wide Web which increase rapidly in recent years. Encryption is an effective method for protecting the transmitted data by converting it into a form being invisible over transmission path and visible in receiver side. This paper presents a new hybrid encryption technique based on combination of Backer maps and logistic map. This proposed technique aims to increase PSNR and reduce the noise in the received image. The encryption is done by shuffling the positions of a pixel image using two dimensional Baker maps then encrypt using XOR operation with logistic map to generate cipher image over orthogonal frequency multiplexing (OFDM). The encryption approach adopted in this paper is based on chaotic Baker maps because the encoding and decoding steps in this approach are simple and fast enough for HDTV applications. The experimental results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic based image encryption technique using two logistic maps and two dimensional Backer map over normal Backer map.

  9. Performance analysis of long reach colorless wavelength division multiplexed-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network with broadcast capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Goel, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A colorless wavelength division multiplexed-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-OFDM-PON) is presented, which is capable of supporting symmetric 10 Gbps downlink direct detection (DD) OFDM unicast signal, broadcast signal, and uplink on-off keying (OOK) signal up to 60 km that includes both single mode and dispersion compensation fiber. At each optical network unit (ONU), DD has been used to receive downlink unicast and broadcast OFDM data. A delay interferometer (DI) has been used at a central office to achieve 10 Gbps uplink signal transmission over 60 km distance utilizing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (bandwidth=1.5 GHz) at the ONU because DI works as a vestigial sideband filter and an optical equalizer. Broadcast channel does not affect the system performance because it generates a limited interference of the order of 0.1 to 0.28 dB to downlink and uplink channels, and this interference is distributed to every ONU. For bit error rate of 10-9, the receiver sensitivity of -24, -23.1, and -20.14 dBm is achieved by simulating downlink OFDM unicast channels, OFDM broadcast channel, and uplink OOK unicast channels, respectively, for a symmetric data rate of 10 Gbps over 60 km.

  10. Performance analysis of long reach colorless wavelength division multiplexed-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network with broadcast capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Goel, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A colorless wavelength division multiplexed-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-passive optical network (WDM-OFDM-PON) is presented, which is capable of supporting symmetric 10 Gbps downlink direct detection (DD) OFDM unicast signal, broadcast signal, and uplink on-off keying (OOK) signal up to 60 km that includes both single mode and dispersion compensation fiber. At each optical network unit (ONU), DD has been used to receive downlink unicast and broadcast OFDM data. A delay interferometer (DI) has been used at a central office to achieve 10 Gbps uplink signal transmission over 60 km distance utilizing a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (bandwidth=1.5 GHz) at the ONU because DI works as a vestigial sideband filter and an optical equalizer. Broadcast channel does not affect the system performance because it generates a limited interference of the order of 0.1 to 0.28 dB to downlink and uplink channels, and this interference is distributed to every ONU. For bit error rate of 10-9, the receiver sensitivity of -24, -23.1, and -20.14 dBm is achieved by simulating downlink OFDM unicast channels, OFDM broadcast channel, and uplink OOK unicast channels, respectively, for a symmetric data rate of 10 Gbps over 60 km.

  11. Comparative Study of Two Methods of Orthogonal Double-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi, A.; Bahreini, M.; Tavassoli, S. H.

    2016-03-01

    Double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) of aluminum sample is studied experimentally in orthogonal configuration in air. In this configuration, two schemes of reheating and pre-ablation are examined and the results are compared with single pulse one. The effect of delay time between two laser pulses on emission line intensities of plasma is investigated. Some of the parameters that have been involved in different mechanism of signal enhancement such as plasma temperature, sample heating effects, atmospheric effects, and modification of the ablation dynamics are more discussed. Investigation of the effect of laser pulse energy on emission line intensities in single pulse LIBS experiment demonstrate that because of saturation effects the intensities will not increase necessarily by increasing the laser pulse energy. Moreover, the results show that the electron temperature and rate of mass removal in orthogonal configuration of DP-LIBS is higher than that of single pulse with the same total energy. It is suggested that for correct comparison between single and double pulse results, the optimum pulse energy in single pulse should be considered. Overall, our results demonstrate that under optimized conditions the signal enhancement is much more in pre-ablation configuration than re-heating configuration.

  12. Performance analysis of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing wireless system in additive white Gaussian noise and indoor multipath channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjha, Bilal; Zhou, Zhou; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    We have compared the bit error rate (BER) performance of precoding-based asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) and pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) optical wireless (OW) systems in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and indoor multipath frequency selective channel. Simulation and analytical results show that precoding schemes such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, and Zadoff-Chu sequences do not affect the performance of the OW systems in the AWGN channel while they do reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM output signal. However, in a multipath indoor channel, using zero forcing frequency domain equalization precoding-based systems give better BER performance than their conventional counterparts. With additional clipping to further reduce the PAPR, precoding-based systems also show better BER performance compared to nonprecoded systems when clipped relative to the peak of nonprecoded systems. Therefore, precoding-based ACO-OFDM and PAM-DMT systems offer better BER performance, zero signaling overhead, and low PAPR compared to conventional systems.

  13. Impairment assessment of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing over dispersion-managed links in backbone and backhaul networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilarasan, Ilavarasan; Saminathan, Brindha; Murugappan, Meenakshi

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has seen the phenomenal usage of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in the wired as well as wireless communication domains, and it is also proposed in the literature as a future proof technique for the implementation of flexible resource allocation in cognitive optical networks. Fiber impairment assessment and adaptive compensation becomes critical in such implementations. A comprehensive analytical model for impairments in OFDM-based fiber links is developed. The proposed model includes the combined impact of laser phase fluctuations, fiber dispersion, self phase modulation, cross phase modulation, four-wave mixing, the nonlinear phase noise due to the interaction of amplified spontaneous emission with fiber nonlinearities, and the photodetector noises. The bit error rate expression for the proposed model is derived based on error vector magnitude estimation. The performance analysis of the proposed model is presented and compared for dispersion compensated and uncompensated backbone/backhaul links. The results suggest that OFDM would perform better for uncompensated links than the compensated links due to the negligible FWM effects and there is a need for flexible compensation. The proposed model can be employed in cognitive optical networks for accurate assessment of fiber-related impairments.

  14. Compressive sensing-based channel bandwidth improvement in optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing link using visible light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Yoon, Sang Min

    2014-08-25

    A new technique, which can compensate for the lack of channel bandwidth in an optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) link based on a light emitting diode (LED), is proposed. It uses an adaptive sampling and an inverse discrete cosine transform in order to convert an OFDM signal into a sparse waveform so that not only is the important data obtained efficiently but the redundancy one is removed. In compressive sensing (CS), a sparse signal that is sampled below the Nyquist/Shannon limit can be reconstructed successively with enough measurement. This means that the CS technique can increase the data rate of visible light communication (VLC) systems based on LEDs. It is observed that the data rate of the proposed CS-based VLC-OFDM link can be made 1.7 times greater than a conventional VLC-OFDM link (from 30.72 Mb/s to 51.2 Mb/s). We see that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) symbol is 31% (FEC limit: EVM of 32%) at a compression ratio of 40%.

  15. Design of pulse waveform for waveform division multiple access UWB wireless communication system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Wang, Zhirui; Liu, Xiaohui; Wu, Zhilu

    2014-01-01

    A new multiple access scheme, Waveform Division Multiple Access (WDMA) based on the orthogonal wavelet function, is presented. After studying the correlation properties of different categories of single wavelet functions, the one with the best correlation property will be chosen as the foundation for combined waveform. In the communication system, each user is assigned to different combined orthogonal waveform. Demonstrated by simulation, combined waveform is more suitable than single wavelet function to be a communication medium in WDMA system. Due to the excellent orthogonality, the bit error rate (BER) of multiuser with combined waveforms is so close to that of single user in a synchronous system. That is to say, the multiple access interference (MAI) is almost eliminated. Furthermore, even in an asynchronous system without multiuser detection after matched filters, the result is still pretty ideal and satisfactory by using the third combination mode that will be mentioned in the study.

  16. Implementation of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and advanced signal processing for elastic optical networking in accordance with networking and transmission constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stanley

    An increasing adoption of digital signal processing (DSP) in optical fiber telecommunication has brought to the fore several interesting DSP enabled modulation formats. One such format is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has seen great success in wireless and wired RF applications, and is being actively investigated by several research groups for use in optical fiber telecom. In this dissertation, I present three implementations of OFDM for elastic optical networking and distributed network control. The first is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based real-time implementation of a version of OFDM conventionally known as intensity modulation and direct detection (IMDD) OFDM. I experimentally demonstrate the ability of this transmission system to dynamically adjust bandwidth and modulation format to meet networking constraints in an automated manner. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first real-time software defined networking (SDN) based control of an OFDM system. In the second OFDM implementation, I experimentally demonstrate a novel OFDM transmission scheme that supports both direct detection and coherent detection receivers simultaneously using the same OFDM transmitter. This interchangeable receiver solution enables a trade-off between bit rate and equipment cost in network deployment and upgrades. I show that the proposed transmission scheme can provide a receiver sensitivity improvement of up to 1.73 dB as compared to IMDD OFDM. I also present two novel polarization analyzer based detection schemes, and study their performance using experiment and simulation. In the third implementation, I present an OFDM pilot-tone based scheme for distributed network control. The first instance of an SDN-based OFDM elastic optical network with pilot-tone assisted distributed control is demonstrated. An improvement in spectral efficiency and a fast reconfiguration time of 30 ms have been achieved in this experiment. Finally, I

  17. Diffraction of an optical pulse as an expansion in ultrashort orthogonal Gaussian beam modes.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Ronan J; Murphy, J Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam expansion is described as a numerical and physical model of paraxial ultrashort pulse diffraction in the time domain. An overview of the dynamics of higher-order ultrashort planar LG modes is given through numerical simulations, and the finite width of these beams is shown to induce a dispersive-like axial broadening of the fields, which creates related variations in the on-axis amplitude of such pulses. The propagation of a pulsed plane wave scattered at an aperture is then illustrated as a finite weighted sum of individual planar LG pulses, which allows for intuitive illustration of the convergence of this expansion technique. By applying such an expansion to diffraction at a hard aperture, the planar pulsed LG beams are described as the paraxial analogs of the Bessel boundary waves typically observed in such situations, with both exhibiting superluminal group velocities along the optical axis. Numerical results of pulse diffraction at an aperture highlight the suitability of the LG expansion method for efficient and practical simulation of ultrashort fields in the paraxial regime.

  18. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nammoon; Kim, Youngok

    2011-01-01

    In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme. PMID:21970578

  19. Time division multiplexed laser Doppler anemometry using pulsed laser diodes and optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Lockey, R.A.; Tatam, R.P.

    1995-12-31

    Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) is a well established technique for non-invasive measurement of fluid flow, by measuring the frequency shift of light scattered by particles entrained in the flow. A time division multiplexed laser Doppler anemometer is reported, using a single high frequency pulsed laser diode as a source. Time division multiplexing requires a single detector channel, removing the need for multiple detectors and wavelength separation optics found in conventional CW laser Doppler systems. By incorporating optical fibers into the system to distribute the pulses into each channel and impose a delay between channels, the electronic requirements of such an instrument are reduced. Results for a two-dimensional system are presented, measured on a water-seeded air jet. Individual velocity components of up to 16 ms{sup {minus}1} and overall velocities of up to 20 ms{sup {minus}1} have been detected, but the potential range of the instrument is very much greater.

  20. Suppression of optical beat interference-noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network link using self-homodyne balanced detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Jung, Sang-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2014-08-01

    A new technique, which reduces optical beat interference (OBI) noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) links, is proposed. A self-homodyne balanced detection, which uses a single laser for the optical line terminal (OLT) as well as for the optical network unit (ONU), reduces OBI noise and also improves the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the discrete multi-tone (DMT) signal. The proposed scheme is verified by transmitting quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)-modulated DMT signal over a 20-km single mode fiber. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), that is required for BER of 10-5, is reduced by 2 dB in the balanced detection compared with a single channel due to the cancellation of OBI noise in conjunction with the local laser.

  1. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  2. Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; He, Hao; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-05-01

    We propose a physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON). By using the special designed frame head, the receiver within an optical network unit (ONU) can identify the destination of the incoming frame. The receiver only samples at the time when the destination is in agreement with the ONU, while it stays in standby during the rest of the time. We clarify its feasibility through an experiment and analyze the downstream traffic delay by simulation. The results indicate that under limited delay conditions, ˜60% energy can be saved compared with the traditional receiving method in the OFDMA-PON system with 512 ONUs.

  3. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  4. Resolution limitations from detector pulse width and jitter in a linear orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Coles, J N; Guilhaus, M

    1994-08-01

    Recent and ongoing advances in timing electronics together with the development of ionization techniques suited to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) have contributed to renewed interest in this method of mass analysis. Whereas low resolving powers (m/†m < 500) were once an almost unavoidable drawback in TOF-MS, recent developments in instrument geometries have produced much higher resolving powers for many ion sources. The temporal width of detector pulses and jitter in timing electronics, however, lead to contributions to peak widths that are essentially independent of the mass-analyzer ion optics. The effective detector pulse width (†t d ≈ 1-10 ns typically) can be a limiting factor in the development of high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) instruments with modest drift lengths (∼1 m), It also reduces the mass resolution more seriously for light ions. This article presents a method for distinguishing the instrumental "ion arrival-time" resolution (R o) of a linear TOF mass analyzer from that which is locally measured at a particular mass, limited by the broadening of the detector pulse width and electronics. The method also provides an estimate of †t d, that is useful in determining the temporal performance of the detection system. The model developed here is tested with data from a recently constructed orthogonal-acceleration TOF mass spectrometer equipped with a commercially available transient recorder (a LeCroy 400-Msamplejs digital oscilloscope) from which we obtained R o = 4240 ± 100 [full width at half maximum (FWHM)) and †t d = 3.0 ± 0.1 ns (FWHM).

  5. Orthogonally polarized bright-dark pulse pair generation in mode-locked fiber laser with a large-angle tilted fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuxing; Mou, Chengbo; Yan, Zhijun; Sun, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    We report on the generation of orthogonally polarized bright-dark pulse pair in a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a large-angle tilted fiber grating (LA-TFG). The unique polarization properties of the LA-TFG, i.e., polarization-dependent loss and polarization-mode splitting, enable dual-wavelength mode-locking operation. Besides dual-wavelength bright pulses with uniform polarization at two different wavelengths, the bright-dark pulse pair has also been achieved. It is found that the bright-dark pulse pair is formed due to the nonlinear couplings between lights with two orthogonal polarizations and two different wavelengths. Furthermore, harmonic mode-locking of bright-dark pulse pair has been observed. The obtained bright-dark pulse pair could find potential use in secure communication system. It also paves the way to manipulate the generation of dark pulse in terms of wavelength and polarization, using specially designed fiber grating for mode-locking.

  6. Iterative clipping and filtering based on discrete cosine transform/inverse discrete cosine transform for intensity modulator direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangone, Fall; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Fan, Li; Chen, Lin

    2013-06-01

    Iterative clipping and filtering (ICF) is a useful technique to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. However, the classical ICF with Fast Fourier Transform/Inverse Fast Fourier Transform requires much iteration to approach a specified PAPR threshold in the complementary cumulative distribution function. To reduce the nonlinear distortion in both electrical and optical devices and in the optical fiber, we propose a novel ICF based on discrete cosine transform/inverse discrete cosine transform to reduce the PAPR in an intensity modulator and direct detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM system. Furthermore, the new technique considerably improves bit error rate (BER) and reduces the PAPR with just few iterations. The experimental results show that the receiver sensitivity at a BER of 1 for a 2.5-Gbytes/s OFDM signal and after 200-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 1.1, 2.3, and 3.6 dBm with launch powers of 6, 8, and 12 dBm respectively.

  7. Combined peak-to-average power ratio reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2016-07-01

    A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.

  8. A pulse-chase strategy for EdU labelling assay is able to rapidly quantify cell division orientation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaofeng; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of the direction of cell division is an important, yet difficult, task to analyse how a plant organ acquires its final shape from an initially small group of cells. We introduce a method that rapidly and easily quantifies cell division direction and is applicable to all plant species. A pulse-chase strategy for 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labelling assay was established and was shown to be successful for leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Juncus prismatocarpus. By optimization of the pulse and chase periods, most of the signals obtained were sets of daughter nuclei. For Arabidopsis, the optimal time was a 45-min pulse and a 7-h chase. For J. prismatocarpus, the optimal time was a 2-h pulse and a 13.5-h chase. The positions of the daughter nuclei were used to quantify cell division direction in the Arabidopsis leaf primordia. Overall, cell division along the proximal-distal axis was more frequent than along the medial-lateral axis. In petiole, major vein, minor vein and margin areas, the major cell division direction seemed to be coincident with the direction of auxin flow. The advantages of our method over the few methods used previously are discussed. We anticipate that it will provide opportunities to study plant development in the near future.

  9. 40GHz picosecond pulse source based on a cross-phase modulation induced orthogonal focusing in normally dispersive optical fibers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Marin; Nuño, Javier; Guasoni, Massimiliano; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Fatome, Julien

    2016-04-01

    The generation of picosecond pulse trains has become of great interest for many scientific applications. However, even though different techniques of nonlinear compression have been developed for optical fibers in the anomalous dispersion regime, only a few exist for normally dispersive fibers. Here, we describe a new method based on the generation of a strong nonlinear focusing effect induced by the cross phase modulation of a high power 40-GHz beat-signal on its orthogonally polarized interleaved weak replica. More precisely, while the normally dispersive defocusing regime induced a nonlinear reshaping of a high power 40-GHz sinusoidal signal into successively parabolic then broad and sharp square pulses, it also progressively close a singularity at its null point characterized by steeper and steeper edges. Here we show that the cross phase modulation induced by this nonlinear dark structure on a weak interleaved orthogonally polarized replica then turns out the normally dispersive regime into a focusing dynamics. This phenomenon is similar to the polarization domain wall effect for which the energy of a domain is strongly localized and bounded by the commutation of both orthogonally polarized waves. In other words, since a particle in a gradually collapsing potential, the energy contained in the weak interleaved component is found to be more and more bounded and is thus forced to temporally compress along the fiber length, thus reshaping the initial beat-signal into a train of well-separated short pulses. We have experimentally validated the present method by demonstrating the temporal compression of an initial 40-GHz beat-signal into a train of well separated pulses in different types of normally dispersive fibers. To this aim, an initial 40-GHz beat-signal is first split into 2 replica for which one is half-period delayed and 10-dB attenuated before polarization multiplexing in such a way to generate a strongly-unbalanced orthogonally-polarized interleaved

  10. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  11. Design of Orthogonal Filtered Multitone Modulation Systems and Comparison among Efficient Realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret, Nicola; Tonello, Andrea M.

    2010-12-01

    We address the efficient realization of a filtered multitone (FMT) modulation system and its orthogonal design. FMT modulation can be viewed as a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) modulated filter bank (FB). It generalizes the popular orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme by deploying frequency confined subchannel pulses. We compare three realizations that have been described by Cvetković and Vetterli (1998), and Weiss and Stewart (2000), and Tonello (2006). A detailed derivation of them is performed in the time-domain via the exploitation of different FB polyphase decompositions. We then consider the design of an orthogonal FMT system and we exploit the third realization which allows simplifying the orthogonal FB design and obtaining a block diagonal system matrix with independent subblocks. A numerical method is then presented to obtain an orthogonal FB with well frequency confined subchannel pulses for arbitrarily large number of subchannels. Several examples of pulses with minimal length are reported and their performance is evaluated in typical multipath fading channels. Finally, we compare the orthogonal FMT system with a cyclically prefixed OFDM system in the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN channel. In this scenario, FMT with minimal length pulses and single tap subchannel equalization outperforms the OFDM system in achievable rate.

  12. Hybrid polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying and multi-pulse pulse position modulation for free space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenxiao; Wu, Pengxia; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid modulation scheme (PDM-QPSK-MPPM) for free space optical (FSO) communication is proposed in this paper, which is based on the combination of polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) and multi-pulse pulse position modulation (MPPM). We describe the transmitter and receiver block diagram and the decoding scheme of proposed scheme, and derive the formulary expressions for symbol-error rate (SER) and upper bound of bit-error rate (BER) in Gamma-Gamma turbulence channel. Performance evaluations and comparisons are implemented through detailed analysis. The numerical results indicate that, under turbulence channel with average power constraint, the proposed hybrid PDM-QPSK-MPPM always offer better BER performance and SER performance than ordinary BPSK and MPPM. In addition, the proposed scheme offers higher bandwidth-utilization efficiency than conventional modulation formats.

  13. On the output characteristics of a semiconductor optical amplifier driven by an ultrafast optical time division multiplexing pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoiros, K. E.; Chasioti, R.; Koukourlis, C. S.; Houbavlis, T.

    2007-03-01

    A comprehensive theoretical analysis of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) that is subject to an ultrafast optical time division multiplexing pulse stream is presented with the help of a simple but efficient model developed for this purpose. The model combines the necessary set of mathematical equations with the appropriate simplifying assumptions to describe in the time domain gain saturation and recovery for the case of multiple incoming pulses. In this manner, analytical expressions can be obtained for the power and chirp profile of the amplified pulses, essentially extending the work that has been performed for a single pulse only. This allows to identify the critical operational parameters and to investigate and evaluate their effect on these two output characteristics. The derived simulation curves are thoroughly studied to specify the limitations imposed on the SOA small signal gain and carrier lifetime as well as on the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and energy of the input pulses and, based on a series of logical arguments, to extract useful rules concerning their selection so as to achieve improved performance with respect to the practical applications of all-optical switching and pulse compression. The obtained results indicate that due to the continuous insertion of pulses, the requirements for the SOA small signal gain and the input pulse energy are stringent than those for the case of isolated pulse amplification. The combination of these two parameters determines also the regime in which the amplifier must be biased to operate in order to ensure distortionless pulse amplification and enhanced chirp for efficient pulse compression and it has been found that low saturation is necessary for the former case whilst heavy saturation for the latter. The scopes of the corresponding requirements for the carrier lifetime and the FWHM are also tight but to a less extent and can be simply satisfied with the available photonics technology. These results

  14. A Low-Cost 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Direct-Detection-Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing Radio-over-Fiber System Using Low-Cost Direct-Modulation Laser to Generate Optical mm-Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, HoangViet

    2015-07-01

    This article demonstrates a novel scheme to generate 16 quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signals for radio-over-fiber systems using a low-cost direct-modulation laser to generate an optical millimeter-wave. Mathematical analysis of that system is also investigated. The fiber Bragg grating is employed because the repetitive frequency of the radio frequency source and the bandwidth of the optical modulator are largely reduced, and the architecture of the radio-over-fiber system is simpler. Because no expensive broadband external modulator is used, the overall system is considered a low-cost solution. The simple structure and low cost of the radio-over-fiber system is attractive for the future cost-effective systems.

  15. Enhancing the heralded single-photon rate from a silicon nanowire by time and wavelength division multiplexing pump pulses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Jizan, I; He, J; Clark, A S; Choi, D-Y; Chae, C J; Eggleton, B J; Xiong, C

    2015-06-01

    Heralded single photons produced on a silicon chip represent an integrated photon source solution for scalable photonic quantum technologies. The key limitation of such sources is their non-deterministic nature introduced by the stochastic spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) process. Active spatial and temporal multiplexing can improve this by enhancing the single-photon rate without degrading the quantum signal-to-noise ratio. Here, taking advantage of the broad bandwidth of SFWM in a silicon nanowire, we experimentally demonstrate heralded single-photon generation from a silicon nanowire pumped by time and wavelength division multiplexed pulses. We show a 90±5% enhancement on the heralded photon rate at the cost of only 14±2% reduction to the signal-to-noise ratio, close to the performance found using only time division multiplexed pulses. As single-photon events are distributed to multiple wavelength channels, this new scheme overcomes the saturation limit of avalanche single-photon detectors and will improve the ultimate performance of such photon sources. PMID:26030539

  16. Polarization dependence of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry and its suppression method based on orthogonal-state of polarization pulse pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xu, Yemian; Shan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zhenhong; Zhu, Fan; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-07-01

    Phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) has been widely used in various applications for its distributed measurement capability of dynamic disturbance along the entire sensing fiber. Commonly, the sensing system is considered to be only sensitive to the phase change and capable of detecting multiple vibration events. In application, once any of the vibration events leads to a local birefringence change, the polarization evolution of the signal will be disturbed along the following fiber, which will result in the generation of polarization-related noise and the failure of identification for multipoint vibration events. We will reveal the polarization-dependence of Φ-OTDR both theoretically and experimentally. To suppress the polarization-dependence of Φ-OTDR, an orthogonal-state of polarization pulse pair method has been proposed, making the sensing system purely phase-sensitive. The experiment result has shown that maximum noise suppression ratio of 11.2 dB and mean noise suppression ratio of 4.9 dB could be achieved, which confirmed the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Spectral division amplification of a 40 nm bandwidth in a multicore Yb doped fiber and femtosecond pulse synthesis with in-fiber delay line.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Ph; Kermene, V; Bouwmans, G; Bigot, L; Desfarges-Berthelemot, A; Barthélémy, A

    2015-10-19

    A compact multicore ytterbium doped fiber amplifier has been implemented according to the spectral division scheme. It was shown that it allows amplification of pulses with about 40 nm wide spectrum. Compensation of the different spectral bands delay through bending and twist of the multicore ribbon fiber followed by appropriate setting of their phase permitted the synthesis of pulses close to 100 fs duration. PMID:26480405

  18. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2003-04-11

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication is an area of active research. To date several time-division or code-division pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) or pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes have been proposed to separate multiple users in UWB communications. Conventionally, all users employ the same pulse shape and modulate the transmit pulse based on changing amplitude or position. One concern with using the same pulse for all channels is that the multiple access interference (MAI) increases as the number of users increase. This is due to increased cross-correlation between similar pulses of the different channels, raising thus the noise floor in such systems. In this paper we introduce and study the performance of a new MA scheme in the context of multiple orthogonal transmitted-reference (T-R) short duration (nsec) chirp pulses in the presence of multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  19. Design of a pulse-triggered four-channel functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division multiplexing output method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Zong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Xuan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a four-channel pulse-triggered functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division output method is proposed for the research and application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The high-voltage compliance and output impedance is increased by adopting the complementary current source, which can also realize the linear voltage-to-current conversion and high channel isolation. A high-voltage analog switch chip MAX14803, combined with a FIFO queue algorithm in the microprocessor, is used to setup the H-bridge and multiplexers for the four-channel time division multiplexing output. With this method, the size and cost of the key components are reduced greatly. The stimulating core circuit area is 30 × 50 mm(2). According to the experiments, the stimulator can achieve the four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a current range between 0 and 60 mA and a single-phase pulse amplitude up to 60 V.

  20. Photonic time-division multiplexing (OTDM) using ultrashort picosecond pulses in a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, A. M.; Lima, J. L. S.; de Oliveira, R. S.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2002-05-01

    The performance of a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) operating with an ordinary fiber and with a DDF and DIF (dispersion decreasing and increasing fiber) configurations, for three lengths of fiber ( ξ=π/2,2π and 5π) and using soliton and quasi-soliton laser profiles for the control pulse, was studied. The numerical simulations show that the increase of the fiber length leads to the decrease of the power for the first and second demultiplexed pulses and leads to a broadening of these pulses, with the exception of the TOAD operating with the DDF fiber. For the TOAD operating with a basic telecommunication fiber one see that the increase of the power of the control power lead to a strong compression of the demultiplexed pulse. Operating the TOAD using a DDF fiber one can say that the control power necessary to demultiplex the signal pulse is always lower compared with the TOAD with the normal telecommunication fiber. This is a strong suggestion that the use of the DDF fiber will allow the use of less control power. Our simulations considering the TOAD operating with a DDF and DIF with a linear profile conclude that it is possible to operate the TOAD with lower control power using a DDF fiber setup. For this device the demultiplexed pulses will present a compression on time duration and will be insensitive to the time profile of the control pulse. We also did simulations with the TOAD operating with DDF in four different profiles: hyperbolic, exponential, linear and Gaussian. For all the profiles the increase of the length of the fiber also decreases the pump power of the three first peaks for the soliton and quasi-soliton regimes. The first critical power is always lower for the quasi-soliton regime compared to the soliton regime for all profiles under consideration and all lengths of the TOAD under consideration. It was also observed that for all the profiles and lengths of fiber one has pulse compression for the switched pulse. For the ξ=2

  1. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the patient's heart is pumping. ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  2. Coherent orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-08-15

    We discuss a fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials, like the existence of a Lie algebra behind them, which can be added to their other relevant aspects. At the basis of the complete framework for orthogonal polynomials we include thus–in addition to differential equations, recurrence relations, Hilbert spaces and square integrable functions–Lie algebra theory. We start here from the square integrable functions on the open connected subset of the real line whose bases are related to orthogonal polynomials. All these one-dimensional continuous spaces allow, besides the standard uncountable basis (|x〉), for an alternative countable basis (|n〉). The matrix elements that relate these two bases are essentially the orthogonal polynomials: Hermite polynomials for the line and Laguerre and Legendre polynomials for the half-line and the line interval, respectively. Differential recurrence relations of orthogonal polynomials allow us to realize that they determine an infinite-dimensional irreducible representation of a non-compact Lie algebra, whose second order Casimir C gives rise to the second order differential equation that defines the corresponding family of orthogonal polynomials. Thus, the Weyl–Heisenberg algebra h(1) with C=0 for Hermite polynomials and su(1,1) with C=−1/4 for Laguerre and Legendre polynomials are obtained. Starting from the orthogonal polynomials the Lie algebra is extended both to the whole space of the L{sup 2} functions and to the corresponding Universal Enveloping Algebra and transformation group. Generalized coherent states from each vector in the space L{sup 2} and, in particular, generalized coherent polynomials are thus obtained. -- Highlights: •Fundamental characteristic of orthogonal polynomials (OP): existence of a Lie algebra. •Differential recurrence relations of OP determine a unitary representation of a non-compact Lie group. •2nd order Casimir originates a 2nd order differential equation that defines

  3. Orthogonal tensor decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamara G. Kolda

    2000-03-01

    The authors explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multi-dimensional arrays or n-way arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. They present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. They conclude with a counterexample to a tensor extension of the Eckart-Young SVD approximation theorem by Leibovici and Sabatier [Linear Algebra Appl. 269(1998):307--329].

  4. Orthogonal-band-multiplexed offset-QAM optical superchannel generation and coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhennan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Lv, Xin; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhu, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays the Internet not only has fast growing data traffic, but also has a fast growing number of on-line devices. This leads to high demand of capacity and flexibility of the future networks. The conventional Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Nyquist pulse shaping signals have the advantage of high spectral efficiency when consisting of superchannels in the Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing (WDM) way. However, they face a cost issue when the spectral granularity of the superchannel is decreased to support more users. This paper proposes for the first time the scheme of Orthogonal-band-multiplexed offset-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (OBM-OQAM) superchannel. OBM-OQAM superchannel provides large capacity and high spectral efficiency. Furthermore, it has the advantage of offering subbands of variable symbol rate without changing the system configuration. We provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of OBM-OQAM superchannel transmission. In our experiment, 400 Gbps 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) OBM-OQAM superchannel transmission over 400 km Standard Single Mode Fiber (SSMF) is conducted. The experimental results show that the OBM-OQAM signal has low penalty in multi-band aggregation.

  5. Orthogonal-band-multiplexed offset-QAM optical superchannel generation and coherent detection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhennan; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Lv, Xin; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhu, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the Internet not only has fast growing data traffic, but also has a fast growing number of on-line devices. This leads to high demand of capacity and flexibility of the future networks. The conventional Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Nyquist pulse shaping signals have the advantage of high spectral efficiency when consisting of superchannels in the Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing (WDM) way. However, they face a cost issue when the spectral granularity of the superchannel is decreased to support more users. This paper proposes for the first time the scheme of Orthogonal-band-multiplexed offset-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (OBM-OQAM) superchannel. OBM-OQAM superchannel provides large capacity and high spectral efficiency. Furthermore, it has the advantage of offering subbands of variable symbol rate without changing the system configuration. We provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of OBM-OQAM superchannel transmission. In our experiment, 400 Gbps 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) OBM-OQAM superchannel transmission over 400 km Standard Single Mode Fiber (SSMF) is conducted. The experimental results show that the OBM-OQAM signal has low penalty in multi-band aggregation. PMID:26644162

  6. Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-division-multiplexed Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; An, Xinliang; Sanders, Scott T; Schauer, Frederick R; Gord, James R

    2013-04-20

    Hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy is being used to monitor gas temperature, velocity, pressure, and H(2)O mole fraction in a research-grade pulsed-detonation combustor (PDC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The hyperspectral source employed is termed the TDM 3-FDML because it consists of three time-division-multiplexed (TDM) Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers. This optical-fiber-based source monitors sufficient spectral information in the H(2)O absorption spectrum near 1350 nm to permit measurements over the wide range of conditions encountered throughout the PDC cycle. Doppler velocimetry based on absorption features is accomplished using a counterpropagating beam approach that is designed to minimize common-mode flow noise. The PDC in this study is operated in two configurations: one in which the combustion tube exhausts directly to the ambient environment and another in which it feeds an automotive-style turbocharger to assess the performance of a detonation-driven turbine. Because the enthalpy flow [kilojoule/second] is important in assessing the performance of the PDC in various configurations, it is calculated from the measured gas properties. PMID:23669701

  7. Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-division-multiplexed Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; An, Xinliang; Sanders, Scott T; Schauer, Frederick R; Gord, James R

    2013-04-20

    Hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy is being used to monitor gas temperature, velocity, pressure, and H(2)O mole fraction in a research-grade pulsed-detonation combustor (PDC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The hyperspectral source employed is termed the TDM 3-FDML because it consists of three time-division-multiplexed (TDM) Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers. This optical-fiber-based source monitors sufficient spectral information in the H(2)O absorption spectrum near 1350 nm to permit measurements over the wide range of conditions encountered throughout the PDC cycle. Doppler velocimetry based on absorption features is accomplished using a counterpropagating beam approach that is designed to minimize common-mode flow noise. The PDC in this study is operated in two configurations: one in which the combustion tube exhausts directly to the ambient environment and another in which it feeds an automotive-style turbocharger to assess the performance of a detonation-driven turbine. Because the enthalpy flow [kilojoule/second] is important in assessing the performance of the PDC in various configurations, it is calculated from the measured gas properties.

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Quadrant Receiver for 4-ary Pulse Position Modulation/Optical Code Division Multiple Access (4-ary PPM/O-CDMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2006-12-29

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) is an alternative to on-off-keying (OOK) that transmits multiple bits as a single symbol occupying a frame of M slots. PPM does not require thresholding as in OOK signaling, instead performing a comparison test among all slots in a frame to make the slot decision. Combining PPM with optical code division multiple access (PPM/O-CDMA) adds the benefit of supporting multiple concurrent, asynchronous bursty PPM users. While the advantages of PPM/O-CDMA are well known, implementing a receiver that performs comparison test can be difficult. This paper describes the design of a novel array receiver for M-ary PPM/O-CDMA (M = 4) where the received signal is mapped onto an xy-plane whose quadrants define the PPM slot decision by means of an associated control law. The receiver does not require buffering or nonlinear operations. In this paper we describe a planar lightwave circuit (PLCs) implementation of the receiver. We give detailed numerical simulations that test the concept and investigate the effects of multi-access interference (MAI) and optical beat interference (OBI) on the slot decisions. These simulations provide guidelines for subsequent experimental measurements that will be described.

  9. Orthogonal tandem catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-06-01

    Tandem catalysis is a growing field that is beginning to yield important scientific and technological advances toward new and more efficient catalytic processes. 'One-pot' tandem reactions, where multiple catalysts and reagents, combined in a single reaction vessel undergo a sequence of precisely staged catalytic steps, are highly attractive from the standpoint of reducing both waste and time. Orthogonal tandem catalysis is a subset of one-pot reactions in which more than one catalyst is used to promote two or more mechanistically distinct reaction steps. This Perspective summarizes and analyses some of the recent developments and successes in orthogonal tandem catalysis, with particular focus on recent strategies to address catalyst incompatibility. We also highlight the concept of thermodynamic leveraging by coupling multiple catalyst cycles to effect challenging transformations not observed in single-step processes, and to encourage application of this technique to energetically unfavourable or demanding reactions.

  10. Reengineering orthogonally selective riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Neil; Duncan, John N; Geerlings, Torsten; Dunstan, Mark S; McCarthy, John E G; Leys, David; Micklefield, Jason

    2010-02-16

    The ability to independently control the expression of multiple genes by addition of distinct small-molecule modulators has many applications from synthetic biology, functional genomics, pharmaceutical target validation, through to gene therapy. Riboswitches are relatively simple, small-molecule-dependent, protein-free, mRNA genetic switches that are attractive targets for reengineering in this context. Using a combination of chemical genetics and genetic selection, we have developed riboswitches that are selective for synthetic "nonnatural" small molecules and no longer respond to the natural intracellular ligands. The orthogonal selectivity of the riboswitches is also demonstrated in vitro using isothermal titration calorimetry and x-ray crystallography. The riboswitches allow highly responsive, dose-dependent, orthogonally selective, and dynamic control of gene expression in vivo. It is possible that this approach may be further developed to reengineer other natural riboswitches for application as small-molecule responsive genetic switches in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:20133756

  11. Some discrete multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvesú, J.; Coussement, J.; van Assche, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we extend the theory of discrete orthogonal polynomials (on a linear lattice) to polynomials satisfying orthogonality conditions with respect to r positive discrete measures. First we recall the known results of the classical orthogonal polynomials of Charlier, Meixner, Kravchuk and Hahn (T.S. Chihara, An Introduction to Orthogonal Polynomials, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1978; R. Koekoek and R.F. Swarttouw, Reports of the Faculty of Technical Mathematics and Informatics No. 98-17, Delft, 1998; A.F. Nikiforov et al., Classical Orthogonal Polynomials of a Discrete Variable, Springer, Berlin, 1991). These polynomials have a lowering and raising operator, which give rise to a Rodrigues formula, a second order difference equation, and an explicit expression from which the coefficients of the three-term recurrence relation can be obtained. Then we consider r positive discrete measures and define two types of multiple orthogonal polynomials. The continuous case (Jacobi, Laguerre, Hermite, etc.) was studied by Van Assche and Coussement (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 127 (2001) 317-347) and Aptekarev et al. (Multiple orthogonal polynomials for classical weights, manuscript). The families of multiple orthogonal polynomials (of type II) that we will study have a raising operator and hence a Rodrigues formula. This will give us an explicit formula for the polynomials. Finally, there also exists a recurrence relation of order r+1 for these multiple orthogonal polynomials of type II. We compute the coefficients of the recurrence relation explicitly when r=2.

  12. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  13. Orthogonal Regression: A Teaching Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A well-known approach to linear least squares regression is that which involves minimizing the sum of squared orthogonal projections of data points onto the best fit line. This form of regression is known as orthogonal regression, and the linear model that it yields is known as the major axis. A similar method, reduced major axis regression, is…

  14. DIVISIBLE AUDITORIUMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    BUILDING DESIGNS WHICH HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIVISIBLE AUDITORIUM AND THEATER AND THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THE MULTI-PURPOSE FACILITY WERE REVIEWED. WHILE NOT A COMPREHENSIVE COLLECTION OF DIVISIBLE FACILITIES, THE INSTALLATIONS REPORTED ON ARE THOSE THAT APPEAR TO BE LANDMARKS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE MULTI-USE…

  15. Divisible Auditoriums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

    Building designs which have been significant in the development of the divisible auditorium and theater and the fundamental concepts of the multi-purpose facility were reviewed. While not a comprehensive collection of divisible facilities, the installations reported on are those that appear to be landmarks in the evolution of the multi-use…

  16. Peptidoglycan architecture can specify division planes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert D; Ratcliffe, Emma C; Wheeler, Richard; Golestanian, Ramin; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Division in Staphylococci occurs equatorially and on specific sequentially orthogonal planes in three dimensions, resulting, after incomplete cell separation, in the 'bunch of grapes' cluster organization that defines the genus. The shape of Staphylococci is principally maintained by peptidoglycan. In this study, we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy with vancomycin labelling to examine purified peptidoglycan architecture and its dynamics in Staphylococcus aureus and correlate these with the cell cycle. At the presumptive septum, cells were found to form a large belt of peptidoglycan in the division plane before the centripetal formation of the septal disc; this often had a 'piecrust' texture. After division, the structures remain as orthogonal ribs, encoding the location of past division planes in the cell wall. We propose that this epigenetic information is used to enable S. aureus to divide in sequentially orthogonal planes, explaining how a spherical organism can maintain division plane localization with fidelity over many generations. PMID:20975691

  17. Compact orthogonal NMR field sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2009-02-03

    A Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor for emitting two orthogonal electro-magnetic fields in a common space. More particularly, a replacement inductor for existing NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) sensors to allow for NMR imaging. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor has a conductive coil and a central conductor electrically connected in series. The central conductor is at least partially surrounded by the coil. The coil and central conductor are electrically or electro-magnetically connected to a device having a means for producing or inducing a current through the coil and central conductor. The Compact Orthogonal Field Sensor can be used in NMR imaging applications to determine the position and the associated NMR spectrum of a sample within the electro-magnetic field of the central conductor.

  18. "Orthogonality" in Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David

    2014-01-01

    This chapter proposes a simple framework, "orthogonality," to help clarify what stakeholders think about learning in college, how we assess outcomes, and how clear assessment methods might help increase confidence in returns on investment.

  19. Orthogonal polynomials and deformed oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, V. V.; Damaskinsky, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    In the example of the Fibonacci oscillator, we discuss the construction of oscillator-like systems associated with orthogonal polynomials. We also consider the question of the dimensions of the corresponding Lie algebras.

  20. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in materials science. In addition, this report describes development work on accelerators and on instrumentation for plasma diagnostics, nitrogen exchange rates in tissue, and breakdown in gases by microwave pulses.

  1. Plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, Kevin Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Plastids undergo a process of binary fission in order to replicate. Plastid replication is required at two distinct stages of plant growth: during cell division to ensure correct plastid segregation, and during cell expansion and development to generate large populations of functional plastids, as in leaf mesophyll cells. This review considers some of the recent advances in the understanding of how plastids undergo binary fission, a process which uses several different proteins, both internal and external to the plastid, which have been derived from the original endosymbiont's genome as well as new proteins that have been recruited from the host genome. Key points Several of the proteins currently used in this process in higher plants have homologues in modern-day bacteria. An alternative mode of replication by a budding-type mechanism also appears to be used in some circumstances. The review also highlights how most of our knowledge of plastid division is centred on the chloroplast developing in leaf mesophyll cells and a role for plastid division during the development of other plastid types is poorly understood. Whilst models for a protein-based mechanism have been devised, exactly how the division process is controlled at the plastid level and at the plastid population level is poorly understood. PMID:22476074

  2. Gravity and the orientation of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel culture system for mammalian cells was used to investigate division orientations in populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the influence of gravity on the positioning of division axes. The cells were tethered to adhesive sites, smaller in diameter than a newborn cell, distributed over a nonadhesive substrate positioned vertically. The cells grew and divided while attached to the sites, and the angles and directions of elongation during anaphase, projected in the vertical plane, were found to be random with respect to gravity. However, consecutive divisions of individual cells were generally along the same axis or at 90 degrees to the previous division, with equal probability. Thus, successive divisions were restricted to orthogonal planes, but the choice of plane appeared to be random, unlike the ordered sequence of cleavage orientations seen during early embryo development.

  3. Adaptive integrand decomposition in parallel and orthogonal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Peraro, Tiziano; Primo, Amedeo

    2016-08-01

    We present the integrand decomposition of multiloop scattering amplitudes in parallel and orthogonal space-time dimensions, d = d ∥ + d ⊥, being d ∥ the dimension of the parallel space spanned by the legs of the diagrams. When the number n of external legs is n ≤ 4,thecorrespondingrepresentationofmultiloopintegralsexposesasubsetofintegration variables which can be easily integrated away by means of Gegenbauer polynomials orthogonality condition. By decomposing the integration momenta along parallel and orthogonal directions, the polynomial division algorithm is drastically simplified. Moreover, the orthogonality conditions of Gegenbauer polynomials can be suitably applied to integrate the decomposed integrand, yielding the systematic annihilation of spurious terms. Consequently, multiloop amplitudes are expressed in terms of integrals corresponding to irreducible scalar products of loop momenta and external ones. We revisit the one-loop decomposition, which turns out to be controlled by the maximum-cut theorem in different dimensions, and we discuss the integrand reduction of two-loop planar and non-planar integrals up to n = 8 legs, for arbitrary external and internal kinematics. The proposed algorithm extends to all orders in perturbation theory.

  4. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2015-09-18

    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  5. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  6. Truncations of random orthogonal matrices.

    PubMed

    Khoruzhenko, Boris A; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-10-01

    Statistical properties of nonsymmetric real random matrices of size M, obtained as truncations of random orthogonal N×N matrices, are investigated. We derive an exact formula for the density of eigenvalues which consists of two components: finite fraction of eigenvalues are real, while the remaining part of the spectrum is located inside the unit disk symmetrically with respect to the real axis. In the case of strong nonorthogonality, M/N=const, the behavior typical to real Ginibre ensemble is found. In the case M=N-L with fixed L, a universal distribution of resonance widths is recovered.

  7. Truncations of random orthogonal matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoruzhenko, Boris A.; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-10-01

    Statistical properties of nonsymmetric real random matrices of size M , obtained as truncations of random orthogonal N×N matrices, are investigated. We derive an exact formula for the density of eigenvalues which consists of two components: finite fraction of eigenvalues are real, while the remaining part of the spectrum is located inside the unit disk symmetrically with respect to the real axis. In the case of strong nonorthogonality, M/N=const , the behavior typical to real Ginibre ensemble is found. In the case M=N-L with fixed L , a universal distribution of resonance widths is recovered.

  8. Numerical analysis of the orthogonal descent method

    SciTech Connect

    Shokov, V.A.; Shchepakin, M.B.

    1994-11-01

    The author of the orthogonal descent method has been testing it since 1977. The results of these tests have only strengthened the need for further analysis and development of orthogonal descent algorithms for various classes of convex programming problems. Systematic testing of orthogonal descent algorithms and comparison of test results with other nondifferentiable optimization methods was conducted at TsEMI RAN in 1991-1992 using the results.

  9. Orthogonality catastrophe in quantum sticking.

    PubMed

    Clougherty, Dennis P; Zhang, Yanting

    2012-09-21

    We show that the orthogonality catastrophe can dramatically affect the probability with which an ultralow energy atom or ion will stick to a surface. We predict new energy-dependent scaling laws for the sticking probability in this low-energy regime. We provide numerical results of this theory for the case of ultracold electrons sticking to the surface of highly porous silicon and show that the sticking probability can differ substantially from that calculated with perturbation theory. We then generalize our results for finite surface temperatures and find surprisingly that the sticking probability can change sharply, vanishing below a critical incident energy that varies with the surface temperature. We describe in detail this superreflective surface phase for ultralow energy matter waves where the reflection coefficient is strictly equal to one. PMID:23005925

  10. Orthogonality Catastrophe in Quantum Sticking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clougherty, Dennis P.; Zhang, Yanting

    2012-09-01

    We show that the orthogonality catastrophe can dramatically affect the probability with which an ultralow energy atom or ion will stick to a surface. We predict new energy-dependent scaling laws for the sticking probability in this low-energy regime. We provide numerical results of this theory for the case of ultracold electrons sticking to the surface of highly porous silicon and show that the sticking probability can differ substantially from that calculated with perturbation theory. We then generalize our results for finite surface temperatures and find surprisingly that the sticking probability can change sharply, vanishing below a critical incident energy that varies with the surface temperature. We describe in detail this superreflective surface phase for ultralow energy matter waves where the reflection coefficient is strictly equal to one.

  11. Non-orthogonal subband/transform coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a simplified digital subband coder/decoder. In the present invention a signal is fed into a coder. The coder uses a non-orthogonal algorithm that is simply implemented in the coder hardware. The simple non-orthogonal design is then used in the implementation of the decoder to decode the signal.

  12. Depolarization remote sensing by orthogonality breaking.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi

    2012-07-27

    A new concept devoted to sensing the depolarization strength of materials from a single measurement is proposed and successfully validated on a variety of samples. It relies on the measurement of the orthogonality breaking between two orthogonal states of polarization after interaction with the material to be characterized. Due to orthogonality preservation between the two states after propagation in birefringent media, this measurement concept is shown to be perfectly suited to depolarization remote sensing through fibers, opening the way to real-time depolarization endoscopy.

  13. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-01

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  14. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd

    2015-05-15

    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  15. Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L. Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D.; Ohki, T.; Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2014-05-07

    We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12 K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6 ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

  16. Gaussian quadrature for multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, Jonathan; van Assche, Walter

    2005-06-01

    We study multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II, which have orthogonality conditions with respect to r measures. These polynomials are connected by their recurrence relation of order r+1. First we show a relation with the eigenvalue problem of a banded lower Hessenberg matrix Ln, containing the recurrence coefficients. As a consequence, we easily find that the multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II satisfy a generalized Christoffel-Darboux identity. Furthermore, we explain the notion of multiple Gaussian quadrature (for proper multi-indices), which is an extension of the theory of Gaussian quadrature for orthogonal polynomials and was introduced by Borges. In particular, we show that the quadrature points and quadrature weights can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalue problem of Ln.

  17. Ultrafast laser orthogonal alignment and patterning of carbon nanotube-polymer composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Abere, Michael J.; Zhang, Huanan; Sun, Haiping; Torralva, Ben; Mansfield, John F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2012-11-01

    Dual orthogonal alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within the plane and perpendicular to a substrate is essential for many applications but difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible using a combination of layer-by-layer deposition and ultrafast laser irradiation. Single-wall CNT-polymer composites preferentially aligned within the plane are irradiated with ultrafast laser pulses. After irradiation with distinct fluences at ambient conditions, morphology is seen where CNTs are formed into bundled CNTs with some orthogonal alignment. A model is presented to account for thermal expansion of the polymer and the formation of CNT bundles.

  18. HNCA+, HNCO+, and HNCACB+ experiments: improved performance by simultaneous detection of orthogonal coherence transfer pathways.

    PubMed

    Gil-Caballero, Sergio; Favier, Adrien; Brutscher, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Three experiments, BEST-TROSY HNCA+, HNCO+ and HNCACB+ are presented for sequential backbone resonance assignment of (13)C, (15)N labelled proteins. The novelty of these experiments with respect to conventional pulse sequences is the detection of additional orthogonal coherence transfer pathways that results in enhanced sensitivity for sequential correlations without significantly compromising the intensity of intra-residue correlation peaks. In addition, a 2-step phase cycle separates peaks originating from the orthogonal coherence transfer pathways in 2 sub-spectra, thus providing similar information as obtained from performing a pair of sequential and intra-residue correlation experiments. PMID:25056271

  19. Orthogonality and distinguishability: Criterion for local distinguishability of arbitrary orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2003-12-01

    We consider the relation between the orthogonality and the distinguishability of a set of arbitrary states (including multipartite states). It is shown that if a set of arbitrary states can be distinguished by local operations and classical communication (LOCC), each of the states can be written as a linear combination of product vectors such that all product vectors of one of the states are orthogonal to the other states. With this result we then prove a simple necessary condition for LOCC distinguishability of a class of orthogonal states. These conclusions may be useful in discussing the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states further, understanding the essence of nonlocality and discussing the distillation of entanglement.

  20. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  1. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  2. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  3. Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Of Bipolar Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, Ronnie D.; Ubele, John L., II

    1994-01-01

    In system, bipolar digital data transmitted by use of wavelength-division multiplexing on single optical fiber. Two different wavelengths used to transmit pulses signifying "positive" or "negative" bipolar digital data. Simultaneous absence of pulses at both wavelengths signifies digital "zero."

  4. An Evolved Orthogonal Enzyme/Cofactor Pair.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Evan W; McHenry, Matthew W; Cannac, Fabien; Gober, Joshua G; Snow, Christopher D; Brustad, Eric M

    2016-09-28

    We introduce a strategy that expands the functionality of hemoproteins through orthogonal enzyme/heme pairs. By exploiting the ability of a natural heme transport protein, ChuA, to promiscuously import heme derivatives, we have evolved a cytochrome P450 (P450BM3) that selectively incorporates a nonproteinogenic cofactor, iron deuteroporphyrin IX (Fe-DPIX), even in the presence of endogenous heme. Crystal structures show that selectivity gains are due to mutations that introduce steric clash with the heme vinyl groups while providing a complementary binding surface for the smaller Fe-DPIX cofactor. Furthermore, the evolved orthogonal enzyme/cofactor pair is active in non-natural carbenoid-mediated olefin cyclopropanation. This methodology for the generation of orthogonal enzyme/cofactor pairs promises to expand cofactor diversity in artificial metalloenzymes.

  5. Nonlinear aerodynamic modeling using multivariate orthogonal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1993-01-01

    A technique was developed for global modeling of nonlinear aerodynamic coefficients using multivariate orthogonal functions based on the data. Each orthogonal function retained in the model was decomposed into an expansion of ordinary polynomials in the independent variables, so that the final model could be interpreted as selectively retained terms from a multivariable power series expansion. A predicted squared-error metric was used to determine the orthogonal functions to be retained in the model; analytical derivatives were easily computed. The approach was demonstrated on the Z-body axis aerodynamic force coefficient (Cz) wind tunnel data for an F-18 research vehicle which came from a tabular wind tunnel and covered the entire subsonic flight envelope. For a realistic case, the analytical model predicted experimental values of Cz very well. The modeling technique is shown to be capable of generating a compact, global analytical representation of nonlinear aerodynamics. The polynomial model has good predictive capability, global validity, and analytical differentiability.

  6. Orthogonal wavelet moments and their multifractal invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchaev, Dm. V.; Uchaev, D. V.; Malinnikov, V. A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a new family of moments, namely orthogonal wavelet moments (OWMs), which are orthogonal realization of wavelet moments (WMs). In contrast to WMs with nonorthogonal kernel function, these moments can be used for multiresolution image representation and image reconstruction. The paper also introduces multifractal invariants (MIs) of OWMs which can be used instead of OWMs. Some reconstruction tests performed with noise-free and noisy images demonstrate that MIs of OWMs can also be used for image smoothing, sharpening and denoising. It is established that the reconstruction quality for MIs of OWMs can be better than corresponding orthogonal moments (OMs) and reduces to the reconstruction quality for the OMs if we use the zero scale level.

  7. Nonlinear Submodels Of Orthogonal Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Gordon G.

    1973-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to suggest the orthogonal analysis of variance as a device for simplifying either the analytic or iterative problem of finding LS (least squares) estimates for the parameters of particular nonlinear models. (Author/RK)

  8. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  9. Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization by Gauss Elimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pursell, Lyle; Trimble, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Described is the hand-calculation method for the orthogonalization of a given set of vectors through the integration of Gaussian elimination with existing algorithms. Although not numerically preferable, this method adds increased precision as well as organization to the solution process. (JJK)

  10. Secure quantum communication with orthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Banerjee, Anindita; Pathak, Anirban; Srikanth, R.

    2016-08-01

    In majority of protocols of secure quantum communication (such as, BB84, B92, etc.), the unconditional security of the protocols are obtained by using conjugate coding (two or more mutually unbiased bases (MUBs)). Initially, all the conjugate-coding-based protocols of secure quantum communication were restricted to quantum key distribution (QKD), but later on they were extended to other cryptographic tasks (such as, secure direct quantum communication and quantum key agreement). In contrast to the conjugate-coding-based protocols, a few completely orthogonal-state-based protocols of unconditionally secure QKD (such as, Goldenberg-Vaidman and N09) were also proposed. However, till the recent past, orthogonal-state-based protocols were only a theoretical concept and were limited to QKD. Only recently, orthogonal-state-based protocols of QKD are experimentally realized and extended to cryptographic tasks beyond QKD. This paper aims to briefly review the orthogonal-state-based protocols of secure quantum communication that are recently introduced by our group and other researchers.

  11. The Rigid Orthogonal Procrustes Rotation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Berge, Jos M. F.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of rotating a matrix orthogonally to a best least squares fit with another matrix of the same order has a closed-form solution based on a singular value decomposition. The optimal rotation matrix is not necessarily rigid, but may also involve a reflection. In some applications, only rigid rotations are permitted. Gower (1976) has…

  12. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics. PMID:26676997

  13. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  14. Multipartite invariant states. II. Orthogonal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-06-15

    We construct a class of multipartite states possessing orthogonal symmetry. This new class contains multipartite states which are invariant under the action of local unitary operations introduced in our preceding paper [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062314 (2006)]. We study basic properties of multipartite symmetric states: separability criteria and multi-PPT conditions.

  15. Orthogonal and Non-Orthogonal Tight Binding Parameters for III-V Semiconductors Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, A. S.; Fellows, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    A simulated annealing (SA) approach is employed in the determination of different tight binding (TB) sets of parameters for the nitride semiconductors AlN, GaN and InN, as well their limitations and potentialities are also discussed. Two kinds of atomic basis set are considered: (i) the orthogonal sp 3 s∗ with interaction up to second neighbors and (ii) a spd non-orthogonal set, with the Hamiltonian matrix elements calculated within the Extended Hückel Theory (EHT) prescriptions. For the non-orthogonal method, TB parameters are given for both zincblend and wurtzite crystalline structures.

  16. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  17. Multi-pulse frequency shifted (MPFS) multiple access modulation for ultra wideband

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid U.

    2012-01-24

    The multi-pulse frequency shifted technique uses mutually orthogonal short duration pulses o transmit and receive information in a UWB multiuser communication system. The multiuser system uses the same pulse shape with different frequencies for the reference and data for each user. Different users have a different pulse shape (mutually orthogonal to each other) and different transmit and reference frequencies. At the receiver, the reference pulse is frequency shifted to match the data pulse and a correlation scheme followed by a hard decision block detects the data.

  18. Orthogonal gradient networks via post polymerization reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnayan Kannan, Pandiyarajan; Genzer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel synthetic route to generate orthogonal gradient networks through post polymerization reaction using pentaflurophenylmethacrylate (PFPMAc) active ester chemistry. These chemoselective monomers were successfully copolymerized with 5 mole% of the photo (methacryloyloxybenzophenone) and thermal (styrenesulfonylazide) crosslinkers. Subsequently, the copolymers were modified by a series of amines having various alkyl chain lengths. The conversion of post polymerization reaction was monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and noticed that almost all pentaflurophenyl moieties are substituted by amines within in an hour without affecting the crosslinkers. In addition, the incorporation of photo and thermal crosslinkers in the polymer enabled us to achieve stable and covalently surface-bound polymer gradient networks (PGN) in an orthogonal manner, i.e. complete control over the crosslink density of the network in two opposite directions (i.e. heat vs photo). The network properties such as wettability, swelling and tensile modulus of the gradient coatings are studied and revealed in the paper.

  19. Orthogonal photoswitching in a multifunctional molecular system

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; Velema, Willem A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    The wavelength-selective, reversible photocontrol over various molecular processes in parallel remains an unsolved challenge. Overlapping ultraviolet-visible spectra of frequently employed photoswitches have prevented the development of orthogonally responsive systems, analogous to those that rely on wavelength-selective cleavage of photo-removable protecting groups. Here we report the orthogonal and reversible control of two distinct types of photoswitches in one solution, that is, a donor–acceptor Stenhouse adduct (DASA) and an azobenzene. The control is achieved by using three different wavelengths of irradiation and a thermal relaxation process. The reported combination tolerates a broad variety of differently substituted photoswitches. The presented system is also extended to an intramolecular combination of photoresponsive units. A model application for an intramolecular combination of switches is presented, in which the DASA component acts as a phase-transfer tag, while the azobenzene moiety independently controls the binding to α-cyclodextrin. PMID:27401266

  20. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  1. Orthogonal nilpotent superfields from linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Karlsson, Anna; Mosk, Benjamin; Murli, Divyanshu

    2016-05-01

    We derive supersymmetry/supergravity models with constrained orthogonal nilpotent superfields from the linear models in the formal limit where the masses of the sgoldstino, inflatino and sinflaton tend to infinity. The case where the sinflaton mass remains finite leads to a model with a `relaxed' constraint, where the sinflaton remains an independent field. Our procedure is equivalent to a requirement that some of the components of the curvature of the moduli space tend to infinity.

  2. Smallest zeros of some types of orthogonal polynomials: asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Balcazar, Juan Jose

    2005-07-01

    We establish Mehler-Heine-type formulas for orthogonal polynomials related to rational modifications of Hermite weight on the real line and for Hermite-Sobolev orthogonal polynomials. These formulas give us the asymptotic behaviour of the smallest zeros of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. Furthermore, we solve a conjecture posed in a previous paper about the asymptotics of the smallest zeros of the Hermite-Sobolev polynomials as well as an open problem concerning the asymptotics of these Sobolev orthogonal polynomials.

  3. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  4. Functional systems with orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam; Gasparini, Giulio; Matile, Stefan

    2014-03-21

    This review summarizes the use of orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds to build functional systems. Dynamic covalent bonds are unique because of their dual nature. They can be as labile as non-covalent interactions or as permanent as covalent bonds, depending on conditions. Examples from nature, reaching from the role of disulfides in protein folding to thioester exchange in polyketide biosynthesis, indicate how dynamic covalent bonds are best used in functional systems. Several synthetic functional systems that employ a single type of dynamic covalent bonds have been reported. Considering that most functional systems make simultaneous use of several types of non-covalent interactions together, one would expect the literature to contain many examples in which different types of dynamic covalent bonds are similarly used in tandem. However, the incorporation of orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds into functional systems is a surprisingly rare and recent development. This review summarizes the available material comprehensively, covering a remarkably diverse collection of functions. However, probably more revealing than the specific functions addressed is that the questions asked are consistently quite unusual, very demanding and highly original, focusing on molecular systems that can self-sort, self-heal, adapt, exchange, replicate, transcribe, or even walk and "think" (logic gates). This focus on adventurous chemistry off the beaten track supports the promise that with orthogonal dynamic covalent bonds we can ask questions that otherwise cannot be asked. The broad range of functions and concepts covered should appeal to the supramolecular organic chemist but also to the broader community. PMID:24287608

  5. Spectral face recognition using orthogonal subspace bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimberly, Andrew; Robila, Stefan A.; Peplau, Tansy

    2010-04-01

    We present an efficient method for facial recognition using hyperspectral imaging and orthogonal subspaces. Projecting the data into orthogonal subspaces has the advantage of compactness and reduction of redundancy. We focus on two approaches: Principal Component Analysis and Orthogonal Subspace Projection. Our work is separated in three stages. First, we designed an experimental setup that allowed us to create a hyperspectral image database of 17 subjects under different facial expressions and viewing angles. Second, we investigated approaches to employ spectral information for the generation of fused grayscale images. Third, we designed and tested a recognition system based on the methods described above. The experimental results show that spectral fusion leads to improvement of recognition accuracy when compared to regular imaging. The work expands on previous band extraction research and has the distinct advantage of being one of the first that combines spatial information (i.e. face characteristics) with spectral information. In addition, the techniques are general enough to accommodate differences in skin spectra.

  6. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  7. Nested Krylov methods and preserving the orthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desturler, Eric; Fokkema, Diederik R.

    1993-01-01

    Recently the GMRESR inner-outer iteraction scheme for the solution of linear systems of equations was proposed by Van der Vorst and Vuik. Similar methods have been proposed by Axelsson and Vassilevski and Saad (FGMRES). The outer iteration is GCR, which minimizes the residual over a given set of direction vectors. The inner iteration is GMRES, which at each step computes a new direction vector by approximately solving the residual equation. However, the optimality of the approximation over the space of outer search directions is ignored in the inner GMRES iteration. This leads to suboptimal corrections to the solution in the outer iteration, as components of the outer iteration directions may reenter in the inner iteration process. Therefore we propose to preserve the orthogonality relations of GCR in the inner GMRES iteration. This gives optimal corrections; however, it involves working with a singular, non-symmetric operator. We will discuss some important properties, and we will show by experiments that, in terms of matrix vector products, this modification (almost) always leads to better convergence. However, because we do more orthogonalizations, it does not always give an improved performance in CPU-time. Furthermore, we will discuss efficient implementations as well as the truncation possibilities of the outer GCR process. The experimental results indicate that for such methods it is advantageous to preserve the orthogonality in the inner iteration. Of course we can also use iteration schemes other than GMRES as the inner method; methods with short recurrences like GICGSTAB are of interest.

  8. Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F

    2016-04-19

    Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly.

  9. Orthogonal NGS for High Throughput Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Chennagiri, Niru; White, Eric J.; Frieden, Alexander; Lopez, Edgardo; Lieber, Daniel S.; Nikiforov, Anastasia; Ross, Tristen; Batorsky, Rebecca; Hansen, Sherry; Lip, Va; Luquette, Lovelace J.; Mauceli, Evan; Margulies, David; Milos, Patrice M.; Napolitano, Nichole; Nizzari, Marcia M.; Yu, Timothy; Thompson, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is a transformative technology for discovering and diagnosing genetic disorders. However, high-throughput sequencing remains error-prone, necessitating variant confirmation in order to meet the exacting demands of clinical diagnostic sequencing. To address this, we devised an orthogonal, dual platform approach employing complementary target capture and sequencing chemistries to improve speed and accuracy of variant calls at a genomic scale. We combined DNA selection by bait-based hybridization followed by Illumina NextSeq reversible terminator sequencing with DNA selection by amplification followed by Ion Proton semiconductor sequencing. This approach yields genomic scale orthogonal confirmation of ~95% of exome variants. Overall variant sensitivity improves as each method covers thousands of coding exons missed by the other. We conclude that orthogonal NGS offers improvements in variant calling sensitivity when two platforms are used, better specificity for variants identified on both platforms, and greatly reduces the time and expense of Sanger follow-up, thus enabling physicians to act on genomic results more quickly. PMID:27090146

  10. Physics Division research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollen, G. Y.; Schappert, G. T.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses its following topics: Recent Weapons-Physics Experiments on the Pegasus II Pulsed Power Facility; Operation of a Large-Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation Experiment; Production of Charm and Beauty Mesons at Fermilab Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; P-Division's Essential Role in the Redirected Inertial Confinement Fusion Program; Trident Target Physics Program; Comparative Studies of Brain Activation with Magnetocephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cellular Communication, Interaction of G-Proteins, and Single-Photon Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Oxygen-doped La2CuO(4+delta) Thermoacoustic Engines; A Shipborne Raman Water-Vapor Lidar for the Central Pacific Experiment; Angara-5 Pinch Temperature Verification with Time-resolved Spectroscopy; Russian Collaborations on Megagauss Magnetic Fields and Pulsed-Power Applications; Studies of Energy Coupling from Underground Explosions; Trapping and Cooling Large Numbers of Antiprotons: A First Step Toward the Measurement of Gravity on Antimatter; and Nuclear-Energy Production Without a Long-Term High-Level Waste Stream.

  11. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  12. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  13. Ultrafast Switching in Magnetic Tunnel Junction based Orthogonal Spin Transfer Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlong; Bedau, Daniel; Backes, Dirk; Katine, Jordan; Langer, Jürgen; Kent, Andrew; New York University, New York, NY 10003 USA Team; Hitachi-GST, San Jose, California 95135 USA Team; Singulus, 63796 Kahl am Main, Germany Team

    2011-03-01

    Orthogonal spin-transfer magnetic random access memory (OST-MRAM) uses a spin-polarizing layer magnetized perpendicularly to the free layer to achieve large spin-transfer torques and ultrafast energy efficient switching. We have fabricated and studied OST-MRAM devices that incorporate a perpendicularly magnetized polarizer and a magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of an in-plane magnetized free layer and synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer. A switching probability of 100% is observed for 500 ps pulses, requiring an energy of 250 fJ. The fast switching process indicates there is no incubation delay of several nanoseconds as observed in conventional collinear magnetized devices. Due to the perpendicular polarizer switching is possible for both pulse polarities. There is also evidence for precessional switching in the non-monotonic dependence of the switching probability versus pulse amplitude. This work was supported by Spin Transfer Technologies.

  14. Noncommutative Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Artamonov, Dmitrii V; Golubeva, Valentina A

    2012-12-31

    Commutators of Pfaffians associated with the orthogonal algebra are found in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N}. A generating function of Pfaffians is proved to satisfy the reflection equation. A relation between Pfaffians in skew-symmetric and root realizations of o{sub N} is established. Using these results we construct an integrable equation of Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type using the Capelli central elements in U(o{sub N}), which are sums of squares of the considered Pfaffians. A classical limit of the obtained Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov type equation turns out to be a very specific system of equations of isomonodromic deformations. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  15. Magnetization reversal in orthogonal spin transfer magnetic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Georg; Kent, Andrew D.; Kardasz, Bartek; Pinarbasi, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    Orthogonal spin transfer (OST) magnetic devices have distinct magnetization dynamics and switching characteristics compared to conventional collinearly magnetized devices. A perpendicular magnetized layer provides a large initial spin torque on the free layer magnetization and thus initiates magnetization dynamics. In order to read out the information stored in the OST device, the free layer forms a magnetic tunnel junction with an in plane magnetized reference layer, which also exerts a spin torque on the free layer. The combination of those two spin torques leads to different switching dynamics of the free layer. Quasistatic and fast pulsed measurements have been conducted to explore the state diagram and magnetization dynamics of such devices. The absolute value of the switching current Is is in general smaller for the antiparallel (AP) to parallel (P) transition, due to the angular dependence of the reference layer torque. Is also has a weak field dependence for this transition, indicating that the reference layer torque governs this transition. On the other hand, the P to AP transition shows a stronger field dependence of Is and occurs for both current polarities. Both these features denote the influence of the spin-torque generated from the perpendicular polarizer. Supported by STT Inc.

  16. Rhythm analysis of orthogonal signals from human walking.

    PubMed

    Ekimov, Alexander; Sabatier, James M

    2011-03-01

    In physical terms, periodic movements of a human body resulting from walking produce a pulse sequence with repetition time T(1) (instant cadence frequency, 1/T(1)) and duration time T(2). Footstep forces generate periodic T(1) broadband seismic and sound signals due to the dynamic forces between the foot and the ground/floor with duration time T(2), which is equal to the time interval for a single footstep from heel strike to toe slap and weight transfer. In a human gait study (for normal speeds of walking), T(1) was detected as 0.5-0.69 s and double limb support takes up about 12% of the gait cycle (2T(1)), so T(2) is greater than 0.12-0.17 s. Short range (of about 50 m) signatures for 30 humans were recorded simultaneously by four orthogonal sensor types at two locations. The sensor types were active Doppler sonar/radar and passive seismic/acoustics. Analysis of signals from these four sensors collected for walking humans showed temporal synchronization and stability of the cadence frequencies, and the cadence frequency from each sensor was equivalent. The time delay between signals from these sensors due to the differences in speeds of propagation for seismic, sound, and electromagnetic waves allows calculation of the distance from a walker to the sensor suite. PMID:21428494

  17. Rhythm analysis of orthogonal signals from human walking.

    PubMed

    Ekimov, Alexander; Sabatier, James M

    2011-03-01

    In physical terms, periodic movements of a human body resulting from walking produce a pulse sequence with repetition time T(1) (instant cadence frequency, 1/T(1)) and duration time T(2). Footstep forces generate periodic T(1) broadband seismic and sound signals due to the dynamic forces between the foot and the ground/floor with duration time T(2), which is equal to the time interval for a single footstep from heel strike to toe slap and weight transfer. In a human gait study (for normal speeds of walking), T(1) was detected as 0.5-0.69 s and double limb support takes up about 12% of the gait cycle (2T(1)), so T(2) is greater than 0.12-0.17 s. Short range (of about 50 m) signatures for 30 humans were recorded simultaneously by four orthogonal sensor types at two locations. The sensor types were active Doppler sonar/radar and passive seismic/acoustics. Analysis of signals from these four sensors collected for walking humans showed temporal synchronization and stability of the cadence frequencies, and the cadence frequency from each sensor was equivalent. The time delay between signals from these sensors due to the differences in speeds of propagation for seismic, sound, and electromagnetic waves allows calculation of the distance from a walker to the sensor suite.

  18. Extended Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (EEOT) Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, R.; Wu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Earth System Science (ESS) is particularly concerned with understanding coupled earth systems. With the advent of the Earth Observing System, empirical analysis of coupled systems is now greatly facilitated. However, the conventional means of spectral decomposition through Extended EOF (EEOF) is highly susceptible to the determination of components that mix the character of underlying factors. In this paper we present Extended Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection (EEOT) analysis as a means to address this issue. EEOT is an extension of Empirical Orthogonal Teleconnection analysis - a regression-based form of spectral decomposition that offers the advantage of a natural and automatic form of rotation. In this extended form where multiple image times series are analyzed simultaneously, EEOT provides an opportunity to search for coupled sources of variability. The technique is illustrated through an analysis of the relationship between anomalies in detrended sea surface temperature, middle tropospheric temperature and lower stratospheric temperature for the 30-year period from 1982-2011. One of the predominant patterns found is a pan-tropical Atmospheric Bridge effect whereby ENSO ocean forcing is propagated throughout the tropical troposphere with feedbacks to the Atlantic and Indian ocean basins.

  19. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  20. Cooperative pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Michael; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the concept of cooperative (COOP) pulses which are designed to compensate each other's imperfections. In multi-scan experiments, COOP pulses can cancel undesired signal contributions, complementing and generalizing phase cycles. COOP pulses can be efficiently optimized using an extended version of the optimal-control-based gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) algorithm. The advantage of the COOP approach is experimentally demonstrated for broadband and band-selective pulses.

  1. Ultrashort pulse propagation in multiple-grating fiber structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, L R; Benjamin, S D; Smith, P W; Sipe, J E; Juma, S

    1997-03-15

    We propose a multiple-grating fiber structure that decomposes an ultrashort broadband optical pulse simultaneously in both wavelength and time. As an initial demonstration, we used a transform-limited 1-ps Gaussian pulse centered at 1.55 mu;m as the ultrashort broadband input into a three-grating fiber structure and generated three output pulses separated in wavelength and time with good correlation between experimental results and simulations. This device structure can be used to generate a multiwavelength train of pulses for use in wavelength-division-multiplexed systems or to implement frequency-domain encoding of coherent pulses for optical code-division multiple access.

  2. Beta-integrals and finite orthogonal systems of Wilson polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Neretin, Yu A

    2002-08-31

    The integral is calculated and the system of orthogonal polynomials with weight equal to the corresponding integrand is constructed. This weight decreases polynomially, therefore only finitely many of its moments converge. As a result the system of orthogonal polynomials is finite. Systems of orthogonal polynomials related to {sub 5}H{sub 5}-Dougall's formula and the Askey integral is also constructed. All the three systems consist of Wilson polynomials outside the domain of positiveness of the usual weight.

  3. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  4. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. The Problem with Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Of the "big four", division is likely to regarded by many learners as "the odd one out", "the difficult one", "the one that is complicated", or "the scary one". It seems to have been that way "for ever", in the perception of many who have trodden the learning pathways through the world of number. But, does it have to be like this? Clearly the…

  6. Division XII Business Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Genova, Francoise; Anderson, Johannes; Federman, Steven R.; Gilmore, Alan C.; Nha, Il-Seong; Norris, Raymond P.; Robson, Ian E.; Stavinschi, Magda G.; Trimble, Virginia L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2010-05-01

    Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of:

  7. Ag Division States Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The discussion which took place during the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Agriculture Division meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention is summarized, and the statement of vo-ag education philosophy (including 13 key concepts), which was passed during the convention, is presented. (AJ)

  8. Cell division in Corynebacterineae

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Catriona; Bramkamp, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cells must coordinate a number of events during the cell cycle. Spatio-temporal regulation of bacterial cytokinesis is indispensable for the production of viable, genetically identical offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, precise midcell assembly of the division machinery relies on inhibitory systems such as Min and Noc. In rod-shaped Actinobacteria, for example Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the divisome assembles in the proximity of the midcell region, however more spatial flexibility is observed compared to Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Actinobacteria represent a group of bacteria that spatially regulate cytokinesis in the absence of recognizable Min and Noc homologs. The key cell division steps in E. coli and B. subtilis have been subject to intensive study and are well-understood. In comparison, only a minimal set of positive and negative regulators of cytokinesis are known in Actinobacteria. Nonetheless, the timing of cytokinesis and the placement of the division septum is coordinated with growth as well as initiation of chromosome replication and segregation. We summarize here the current knowledge on cytokinesis and division site selection in the Actinobacteria suborder Corynebacterineae. PMID:24782835

  9. Orthogonal patterns in binary neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baram, Yoram

    1988-01-01

    A binary neural network that stores only mutually orthogonal patterns is shown to converge, when probed by any pattern, to a pattern in the memory space, i.e., the space spanned by the stored patterns. The latter are shown to be the only members of the memory space under a certain coding condition, which allows maximum storage of M=(2N) sup 0.5 patterns, where N is the number of neurons. The stored patterns are shown to have basins of attraction of radius N/(2M), within which errors are corrected with probability 1 in a single update cycle. When the probe falls outside these regions, the error correction capability can still be increased to 1 by repeatedly running the network with the same probe.

  10. Confocal imaging with orthogonally polarized illumination beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-03-01

    In confocal microscopy the polarization of the illumination beam plays an important role in determining the orientation of the fluorescent molecules being illuminated. The efficiency of the excitation depends on the angle between the excitation electric field and the direction of the molecular dipole. In order to determine the orientation of the fluorescent molecules in the focal plane the molecules are to be excited using two mutually orthogonal electric fields. In this paper we show how a computer generated holography technique can be implemented using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator to conveniently obtain two images of the same target once with an X polarized illumination beam and another with a Y polarized illumination beam.

  11. Helicopter tail rotor orthogonal blade vortex interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coton, F. N.; Marshall, J. S.; Galbraith, R. A. McD.; Green, R. B.

    2004-10-01

    The aerodynamic operating environment of the helicopter is particularly complex and, to some extent, dominated by the vortices trailed from the main and tail rotors. These vortices not only determine the form of the induced flow field but also interact with each other and with elements of the physical structure of the flight vehicle. Such interactions can have implications in terms of structural vibration, noise generation and flight performance. In this paper, the interaction of main rotor vortices with the helicopter tail rotor is considered and, in particular, the limiting case of the orthogonal interaction. The significance of the topic is introduced by highlighting the operational issues for helicopters arising from tail rotor interactions. The basic phenomenon is then described before experimental studies of the interaction are presented. Progress in numerical modelling is then considered and, finally, the prospects for future research in the area are discussed.

  12. Measuring the orthogonality error of coil systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilig, B.; Csontos, A.; Pajunpää, K.; White, Tim; St. Louis, B.; Calp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a simple method was proposed for the determination of pitch angle between two coil axes by means of a total field magnetometer. The method is applicable when the homogeneous volume in the centre of the coil system is large enough to accommodate the total field sensor. Orthogonality of calibration coil systems used for calibrating vector magnetometers can be attained by this procedure. In addition, the method can be easily automated and applied to the calibration of delta inclination–delta declination (dIdD) magnetometers. The method was tested by several independent research groups, having a variety of test equipment, and located at differing geomagnetic observatories, including: Nurmijärvi, Finland; Hermanus, South Africa; Ottawa, Canada; Tihany, Hungary. This paper summarizes the test results, and discusses the advantages and limitations of the method.

  13. The symplectic-orthogonal Penner models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalabeeh, Mohammad; Chair, Noureddine

    2010-11-01

    The generating function for the orbifold Euler characteristic of the moduli space of real algebraic curves of genus 2g (locally orientable surfaces) with n marked points \\chi ^r(\\mathfrak {M}_{2g,n}) is identified with a simple formula. It is shown that the free energies in the continuum limit of both the symplectic and the orthogonal Penner models are almost identical, with the structure F^{SP/SO}(\\mu )=\\frac{1}{2}F(\\mu )\\mp F^{NO}(\\mu ), where F(μ) is the Penner free energy and FNO(μ) is the free energy contributions from the non-orientable surfaces. Both of these models have the same critical point as of the Penner model.

  14. Multifunctional Surface Manipulation Using Orthogonal Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Karson; Yatvin, Jeremy; McNitt, Christopher D; Reese, R Alexander; Jung, Calvin; Popik, Vladimir V; Locklin, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Polymer brushes are excellent substrates for the covalent immobilization of a wide variety of molecules due to their unique physicochemical properties and high functional group density. By using reactive microcapillary printing, poly(pentafluorophenyl acrylate) brushes with rapid kinetic rates toward aminolysis can be partially patterned with other click functionalities such as strained cyclooctyne derivatives and sulfonyl fluorides. This trireactive surface can then react locally and selectively in a one pot reaction via three orthogonal chemistries at room temperature: activated ester aminolysis, strain promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, and sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange, all of which are tolerant of ambient moisture and oxygen. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these reactions can also be used to create areas of morphologically distinct surface features on the nanoscale, by inducing buckling instabilities in the films and the grafting of nanoparticles. This approach is modular, and allows for the development of highly complex surface motifs patterned with different chemistry and morphology. PMID:27280689

  15. Inverse solutions for tilting orthogonal double prisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Bian, Yongming; Liu, Liren

    2014-06-10

    An analytical reverse solution and actual examples are given to show how to direct a laser beam from a pair of orthogonal prisms to given targets in free space. Considering the influences of double-prism structural parameters, a lookup table method to seek the numerical reverse solution of each prism's tilting angle is also proposed for steering the double-prism orientation to track a target position located in the near field. Some case studies, as well as a specified elliptical target trajectory scanned by the cam-based driving double prisms, exhibit the significant application values of the theoretical derivation. The analytic reverse and numerical solutions can be generalized to investigate the synthesis of scanning patterns and the controlling strategy of double-prism tilting motion, the potentials of which can be explored to perform the orientation and position tracking functions in applications of precision engineering fields.

  16. Orthogonal collocation of the nonlinear Boltzman equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, T. J.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-07-01

    A numerical solution to the nonlinear Boltzmann equation for Maxwell molecules, including the momentum conserving kernel by the method of orthogonal collocation, is presented and compared with the similarity solution of Krupp (1967), Bobylev (1975), Krook and Wu (1976) (KBKW). Excellent agreement is found between the two for KBKW initial values. The calculations of the evolution of a distribution function from nonKBKW initial conditions are examined. The correlation of the nonKBKW trajectories to the presence of a robust unstable manifold in the eigenspace of the linearized Boltzmann equation is considered. The results of a linear analysis are compared with the work of Wang Chang and Uhlenbeck (1952). The implications of the results for the relaxation of nonequilibrium distribution functions are discussed.

  17. Response Surface Modeling Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; DeLoach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear modeling technique was used to characterize response surfaces for non-dimensional longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, based on wind tunnel data from a commercial jet transport model. Data were collected using two experimental procedures - one based on modem design of experiments (MDOE), and one using a classical one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. The nonlinear modeling technique used multivariate orthogonal functions generated from the independent variable data as modeling functions in a least squares context to characterize the response surfaces. Model terms were selected automatically using a prediction error metric. Prediction error bounds computed from the modeling data alone were found to be- a good measure of actual prediction error for prediction points within the inference space. Root-mean-square model fit error and prediction error were less than 4 percent of the mean response value in all cases. Efficacy and prediction performance of the response surface models identified from both MDOE and OFAT experiments were investigated.

  18. Fast deterministic switching in orthogonal spin torque devices via the control of the relative spin polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer and an in-plane polarizer. Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, CP = PIPP/POPP, results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360° rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective PIPP, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices in parallel to anti-parallel switching. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum CP required to attain deterministic switching, while retaining low critical switching current, Ip ˜ 500 μA.

  19. Modeling multipulsing transition in ring cavity lasers with proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Edwin; Shlizerman, Eli; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2010-08-15

    A low-dimensional model is constructed via the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to characterize the multipulsing phenomenon in a ring cavity laser mode locked by a saturable absorber. The onset of the multipulsing transition is characterized by an oscillatory state (created by a Hopf bifurcation) that is then itself destabilized to a double-pulse configuration (by a fold bifurcation). A four-mode POD analysis, which uses the principal components, or singular value decomposition modes, of the mode-locked laser, provides a simple analytic framework for a complete characterization of the entire transition process and its associated bifurcations. These findings are in good agreement with the full governing equation.

  20. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310

  1. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of (2k+i) ⊗ (2l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.'s construction and Zhang et al.'s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only (2k) ⊗ (2l) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l) but also (2k) ⊗ (2l+1) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l+1). We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of (2k) ⊗ (2l) in Wang et al.'s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310

  2. LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun

    2016-07-05

    We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of (2k+i) ⊗ (2l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.'s construction and Zhang et al.'s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only (2k) ⊗ (2l) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l) but also (2k) ⊗ (2l+1) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l+1). We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of (2k) ⊗ (2l) in Wang et al.'s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement.

  3. PULSE SORTER

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-07-29

    An apparatus is described for counting and recording the number of electrical pulses occurring in each of a timed sequence of groups of pulses. The particular feature of the invention resides in a novel timing circuit of the univibrator type which provides very accurately timed pulses for opening each of a series of coincidence channels in sequence. The univibrator is shown incorporated in a pulse analyzing system wherein a series of pulse counting channels are periodically opened in order, one at a time, for a predetermtned open time interval, so that only one channel will be open at the time of occurrence of any of the electrical pulses to be sorted.

  4. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

  5. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  6. Pulse Oximetry

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.thoracic.org amount of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) that are in your blood. To get an ... Also, a pulse oximeter does not measure your carbon dioxide level. How accurate is the pulse oximeter? The ...

  7. Least-Squares Adaptive Control Using Chebyshev Orthogonal Polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Burken, John; Ishihara, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive control approach using Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials as basis functions in a least-squares functional approximation. The use of orthogonal basis functions improves the function approximation significantly and enables better convergence of parameter estimates. Flight control simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control approach.

  8. On multiple orthogonal polynomials for discrete Meixner measures

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, Vladimir N

    2010-12-07

    The paper examines two examples of multiple orthogonal polynomials generalizing orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable, meaning thereby the Meixner polynomials. One example is bound up with a discrete Nikishin system, and the other leads to essentially new effects. The limit distribution of the zeros of polynomials is obtained in terms of logarithmic equilibrium potentials and in terms of algebraic curves. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  9. Determination of cell division axes in the early embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The establishment of cell division axes was examined in the early embryonic divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans. It has been shown previously that there are two different patterns of cleavage during early embryogenesis. In one set of cells, which undergo predominantly determinative divisions, the division axes are established successively in the same orientation, while division axes in the other set, which divide mainly proliferatively, have an orthogonal pattern of division. We have investigated the establishment of these axes by following the movement of the centrosomes. Centrosome separation follows a reproducible pattern in all cells, and this pattern by itself results in an orthogonal pattern of cleavage. In those cells that divide on the same axis, there is an additional directed rotation of pairs of centrosomes together with the nucleus through well-defined angles. Intact microtubules are required for rotation; rotation is prevented by inhibitors of polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules. We have examined the distribution of microtubules in fixed embryos during rotation. From these and other data we infer that microtubules running from the centrosome to the cortex have a central role in aligning the centrosome-nuclear complex. PMID:3680373

  10. Cell Growth and Division

    PubMed Central

    Bell, George I.

    1968-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a model in which the volume growth rate and probability of division of a cell were assumed to be determined by the cell's age and volume. Some further mathematical implications of the model are here explored. In particular we seek properties of the growth and division functions which are required for the balanced exponential growth of a cell population. Integral equations are derived which relate the distribution of birth volumes in successive generations and in which the existence of balanced exponential growth can be treated as an eigenvalue problem. The special case in which all cells divide at the same age is treated in some detail and conditions are derived for the existence of a balanced exponential solution and for its stability or instability. The special case of growth rate proportional to cell volume is seen to have neutral stability. More generally when the division probability depends on age only and growth rate is proportional to cell volume, there is no possibility of balanced exponential growth. Some comparisons are made with experimental results. It is noted that the model permits the appearance of differentiated cells. A generalization of the model is formulated in which cells may be described by many state variables instead of just age and volume. PMID:5643273

  11. Ultrafast switching in magnetic tunnel junction based orthogonal spin transfer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Backes, D.; Katine, J. A.; Langer, J.; Kent, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    Orthogonal spin-transfer magnetic random access memory (OST-MRAM) uses a spin-polarizing layer magnetized perpendicularly to a free layer to achieve large spin-transfer torques and ultrafast energy efficient switching. We have fabricated and studied OST-MRAM devices that incorporate a perpendicularly magnetized spin-polarizing layer and a magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of an in-plane magnetized free layer and synthetic antiferromagnetic reference layer. Reliable switching is observed at room temperature with 0.7 V amplitude pulses of 500 ps duration. The switching is bipolar, occurring for positive and negative polarity pulses, consistent with a precessional reversal mechanism, and requires an energy of less than 450 fJ.

  12. Streaking temporal double-slit interference by an orthogonal two-color laser field.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martin; Kunitski, Maksim; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar P H; Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-04-10

    We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme, these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore, the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

  13. Streaking Temporal Double-Slit Interference by an Orthogonal Two-Color Laser Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Martin; Kunitski, Maksim; Schöffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt, Lothar P. H.; Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    We investigate electron momentum distributions from single ionization of Ar by two orthogonally polarized laser pulses of different color. The two-color scheme is used to experimentally control the interference between electron wave packets released at different times within one laser cycle. This intracycle interference pattern is typically hard to resolve in an experiment. With the two-color control scheme, these features become the dominant contribution to the electron momentum distribution. Furthermore, the second color can be used for streaking of the otherwise interfering wave packets establishing a which-way marker. Our investigation shows that the visibility of the interference fringes depends on the degree of the which-way information determined by the controllable phase between the two pulses.

  14. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  15. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  16. Experimental quantum cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Since, in general, non-orthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a Quantum Communication scheme using non-orthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in Quantum Cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (7), pp. 12391243, 1995] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets which travel along separate channels, i.e. two different paths inside a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.

  17. Analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Auteliano A.; Hobeck, Jared D.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of orthogonal spiral structures (OSS), a promising option for small-scale energy harvesting applications. This unique multi-beam structure is analyzed using a distributed parameter approach with Euler–Bernoulli assumptions. First, an aluminum substrate is evaluated to determine if the proposed design can be used to capture vibration energy in the desired frequency range using a twelve beam OSS. Finite element calculations are used to validate the analytical model. This model is then modified to include the electromechanical effects of a piezoelectric layer added to the aluminum substrate. Lastly, the effects of the beam width and the number of beams is analyzed for a particular surface area of the OSS. Results show that increasing the number of beams causes a reduction in the first natural frequency. From those results, it is possible to conclude that OSS can be used as an alternative to current energy harvesting systems for MEMS applications, allowing the capture of environmental energy in the frequency range of common mechanical systems.

  18. Genuinely multipartite entangled states and orthogonal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-08-01

    A pure quantum state of N subsystems with d levels each is called k-multipartite maximally entangled state, which we call a k-uniform state, if all its reductions to k qudits are maximally mixed. These states form a natural generalization of N-qudit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states which belong to the class 1-uniform states. We establish a link between the combinatorial notion of orthogonal arrays and k-uniform states and prove the existence of several classes of such states for N-qudit systems. In particular, known Hadamard matrices allow us to explicitly construct 2-uniform states for an arbitrary number of N >5 qubits. We show that finding a different class of 2-uniform states would imply the Hadamard conjecture, so the full classification of 2-uniform states seems to be currently out of reach. Furthermore, we establish links between the existence of k-uniform states and classical and quantum error correction codes and provide a graph representation for such states.

  19. Unsupervised orthogonalization neural network for image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lurng-Kuo; Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, we present a unsupervised orthogonalization neural network, which, based on Principal Component (PC) analysis, acts as an orthonormal feature detector and decorrelation network. As in the PC analysis, this network involves extracting the most heavily information- loaded features that contained in the set of input training patterns. The network self-organizes its weight vectors so that they converge to a set of orthonormal weight vectors that span the eigenspace of the correlation matrix in the input patterns. Therefore, the network is applicable to practical image transmission problems for exploiting the natural redundancy that exists in most images and for preserving the quality of the compressed-decompressed image. We have applied the proposed neural model to the problem of image compression for visual communications. Simulation results have shown that the proposed neural model provides a high compression ratio and yields excellent perceptual visual quality of the reconstructed images, and a small mean square error. Generalization performance and convergence speed are also investigated.

  20. Nonambipolarity, orthogonal conductivity, poloidal flow, and torque

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, G.W.; Perkins, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    Nonambipolar processes, such as neutral injection onto trapped orbits or ripple-diffusion loss of ..cap alpha..-particles, act to charge a plasma. A current j/sub r/ across magnetic surfaces must arise in the bulk plasma to maintain charge neutrality. An axisymmetric, neoclassical model of the bulk plasma shows that these currents are carried by the ions and exert a j/sub r/B/sub theta/R/c torque in the toroidal direction. A driven poloidal flow V/sub theta/ = E/sub r/'c/B must also develop. The average current density is related to the radial electric field E/sub r/' = E/sub r/ + v/sub /phi//B/sub theta//c in a frame moving with the plasma via the orthogonal conductivity = sigma/sub /perpendicular//E/sub r/', which has the value sigma/sub /perpendicular// = (1.65epsilon/sup 1/2/)(ne/sup 2/..nu../sub ii//M..cap omega../sub theta//sup 2/) in the banana regime. If an ignited plasma loses an appreciable fraction ..delta.. of its thermonuclear ..cap alpha..-particles by banana ripple diffusion, then the torque will spin the plasma to sonic rotation in a time /tau//sub s/ approx. 2/tau//sub E//..delta.., /tau//sub E/ being the energy confinement time. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  1. An orthogonal oriented quadrature hexagonal image pyramid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An image pyramid has been developed with basis functions that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The pyramid operates on a hexagonal sample lattice. The set of seven basis functions consist of three even high-pass kernels, three odd high-pass kernels, and one low-pass kernel. The three even kernels are identified when rotated by 60 or 120 deg, and likewise for the odd. The seven basis functions occupy a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors on a hexagonal sample lattice. At the lowest level of the pyramid, the input lattice is the image sample lattice. At each higher level, the input lattice is provided by the low-pass coefficients computed at the previous level. At each level, the output is subsampled in such a way as to yield a new hexagonal lattice with a spacing sq rt 7 larger than the previous level, so that the number of coefficients is reduced by a factor of 7 at each level. The relationship between this image code and the processing architecture of the primate visual cortex is discussed.

  2. Anatomy of lithosphere necking during orthogonal rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Yago; Cavozzi, Cristian; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of lithosphere necking is a fundamental parameter controlling the structural architecture and thermal-state of rifted margin. The necking shape depends on several parameters, including the extensional strain-rate and thermal layering of the lithosphere. Despite a large number of analogue and numerical modelling studies on lithosphere extension, a quantitative description of the evolution of necking through time is still lacking. We used analogue modelling to simulate in three-dimension the progression of lithosphere thinning and necking during orthogonal rifting. In our models we simulated a typical "cold and young" 4-layer lithosphere stratigraphy: brittle upper crust (loose quartz sand), ductile lower crust (silicon-barite mixture), brittle upper mantle (loose quartz sand), and ductile lower mantle (silicon-barite mixture). The experimental lithosphere rested on a glucose syrup asthenosphere. We monitored model evolution by periodic and coeval laser scanning of both the surface topography and the lithosphere base. After model completion, each of the four layers was removed and the top of the underlying layer was scanned. This technical approach allowed us to quantify the evolution in space and time of the thinning factors for both the whole lithosphere (βz) and the crust (γ). The area of incremental effective stretching (βy) parallel to the extensional direction was obtained from the βz maps.

  3. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  4. Ocean Models and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-de-Leon, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The increasing computational developments and the better understanding of mathematical and physical systems resulted in an increasing number of ocean models. Long time ago, modelers were like a secret organization and recognize each other by using secret codes and languages that only a select group of people was able to recognize and understand. The access to computational systems was reduced, on one hand equipment and the using time of computers were expensive and restricted, and on the other hand, they required an advance computational languages that not everybody wanted to learn. Now a days most college freshman own a personal computer (PC or laptop), and/or have access to more sophisticated computational systems than those available for research in the early 80's. The resource availability resulted in a mayor access to all kind models. Today computer speed and time and the algorithms does not seem to be a problem, even though some models take days to run in small computational systems. Almost every oceanographic institution has their own model, what is more, in the same institution from one office to the next there are different models for the same phenomena, developed by different research member, the results does not differ substantially since the equations are the same, and the solving algorithms are similar. The algorithms and the grids, constructed with algorithms, can be found in text books and/or over the internet. Every year more sophisticated models are constructed. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is a technique that allows the reduction of the number of variables to solve keeping the model properties, for which it can be a very useful tool in diminishing the processes that have to be solved using "small" computational systems, making sophisticated models available for a greater community.

  5. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed.

  6. d-Orthogonality of Humbert and Jacobi type polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamiri, I.; Ouni, A.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we treat three questions related to the d-orthogonality of the Humbert polynomials. The first one consists to determinate the explicit expression of the d-dimensional functional vector for which the d-orthogonality holds. The second one is the investigation of the components of Humbert polynomial sequence. That allows us to introduce, as far as we know, new d-orthogonal polynomials generalizing the classical Jacobi ones. The third one consists to solve a characterization problem related to a generalized hypergeometric representation of the Humbert polynomials.

  7. Subjective ranking of concert halls substantiated through orthogonal objective parameters.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Salvador; Giménez, Alicia; Cibrián, Rosa; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global subjective assessment, obtained from mean values of the results of surveys addressed to members of the audience of live concerts in Spanish auditoriums, through the mean values of the three orthogonal objective parameters (Tmid, IACCE3, and LEV), expressed in just noticeable differences (JNDs), regarding the best-valued hall. Results show that a linear combination of the relative variations of orthogonal parameters can largely explain the overall perceived quality of the sample. However, the mean values of certain orthogonal parameters are not representative, which shows that an alternative approach to the problem is necessary. Various possibilities are proposed. PMID:25697992

  8. Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 4: Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In the final article of a series of four, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written division. The approach to division is divided into five stages: (1) mental division using partition; (2) short division of TU / U; (3) "expanded" method for HTU / U; (4) short division of HTU / U; and (5) long division. [For part…

  9. Pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.

    1994-05-03

    Apparatus for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse is disclosed. The apparatus uses a White cell having a plurality of optical delay paths of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror and the objective mirrors. A pulse from a laser travels through a multi-leg reflective path between a beam splitter and a totally reflective mirror to the laser output. The laser pulse is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter to the input mirrors of the optical delay paths. The pulses from the output mirrors of the optical delay paths go simultaneously to the laser output and to the input mirrors of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output. 6 figures.

  10. Synchronized self-mode-locked 1061-nm and 1064-nm monolithic Nd:YAG laser at cryogenic temperatures with two orthogonally polarized emissions: generation of 670 GHz beating.

    PubMed

    Huang, T L; Sung, C L; Cheng, H P; Cho, C Y; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2016-09-19

    A dual-wavelength self-mode-locked monolithic Nd:YAG laser at 1061 and 1064 nm is realized at cryogenic temperatures. At an incident pump power of 5.5 W, the total output power can reach 2.5 W and the mode-locked pulse width is 29 ps at a pulse repetition rate of 7.75 GHz. The synchronization of the dual-wavelength emissions leads to a beat frequency of 670 GHz in the individual mode-locked pulse. It is further discovered that the laser output consists of two orthogonally polarized components with a central frequency difference of 127 MHz. The central frequency difference between two orthogonal polarizations mainly arises from the external mechanical stress introduced by the copper holder for the laser crystal. PMID:27661953

  11. Orthogonally dual-polarization passively mode-locking operation of Nd:La0.25Gd0.75VO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Honghao; Tang, Dingyuan; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrated in an a-cut Nd:La0.25Gd0.75VO4 mixed crystal the passively mode locking laser of two different wavelengths in orthogonal polarization states with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). Due to the special anisotropic gain feature of the mixed crystal, through careful controlling on the cavity loss anisotropy, the simultaneous orthogonal polarization states laser were also achieved. In σ polarization states, the pulse width of 2.2 ps was close to the shortest pulse width obtained with Nd-doped vanadate crystal to my knowledge. What's more, dual-wavelength synchronized mode locking and bound-soliton-like pulse mode locking was also experimentally observed.

  12. Pulse Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojek, Zbigniew

    The idea of imposing potential pulses and measuring the currents at the end of each pulse was proposed by Barker in a little-known journal as early as in 1958 [1]. However, the first reliable trouble-free and affordable polarographs offering voltammetric pulse techniques appeared on the market only in the 1970s. This delay was due to some limitations on the electronic side. In the 1990s, again substantial progress in electrochemical pulse instrumentation took place. This was related to the introduction of microprocessors, computers, and advanced software.

  13. Parameter-based Fisher's information of orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehesa, J. S.; Olmos, B.; Yanez, R. J.

    2008-04-01

    The Fisher information of the classical orthogonal polynomials with respect to a parameter is introduced, its interest justified and its explicit expression for the Jacobi, Laguerre, Gegenbauer and Grosjean polynomials found.

  14. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  15. 13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Credit JTL: Detail, orthogonal view of Egyptian Revivial decorative motifs used typically at midpoints of diagonals - Reading-Halls Station Bridge, U.S. Route 220, spanning railroad near Halls Station, Muncy, Lycoming County, PA

  16. Expansion and orthogonalization of measured modes for structure identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate a new simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method in comparison with two previously published expansion methods and a widely used orthogonalization technique. Each expansion method uses data from an analytical model of the structure to complete the estimate of the mode shape vectors. Berman and Nagy used Guyan expansion in their work with improving analytical models. In this method, modes are expanded one at a time, producing a set not orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix. Baruch and Bar Itzhack's optimal orthogonalization procedure was used to subsequently adjust the expanded modes. A second expansion technique was presented by O'Callahan, Avitabile, and Reimer and separately by Kammer. Again, modes are expanded individually and orthogonalized after expansion with the same optimal technique as above. Finally, a simultaneous expansion/orthogonalization method was developed from the orthogonal Procrustes problem of computational mathematics. In this method modes are optimally expanded as a set and orthogonal with respect to the mass matrix as a result. Two demonstation problems were selected for the comparison of the methods described. The first problem is an 8 degree of freedom spring-mass problem first presented by Kabe. Several conditions were examined for expansion method including the presence of errors in the measured data and in the analysis models. As a second demonstration problem, data from tests of laboratory scale model truss structures was expanded for system identification. Tests with a complete structure produced a correlated analysis model and the stiffness and mass matrices. Tests of various damaged configurations produced measured data for 6 modes at 14 dof locations.

  17. Local unitary equivalence of quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yang, Min; Zhao, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The correspondence between local unitary equivalence of bipartite quantum states and simultaneous orthogonal equivalence is thoroughly investigated and strengthened. It is proved that local unitary equivalence can be studied through simultaneous similarity under projective orthogonal transformations, and four parametrization independent algorithms are proposed to judge when two density matrices on ℂd1 ⊗ ℂd2 are locally unitary equivalent in connection with trace identities, Kronecker pencils, Albert determinants and Smith normal forms.

  18. The division "Synergistes".

    PubMed

    Vartoukian, Sonia R; Palmer, Richard M; Wade, William G

    2007-01-01

    The "Synergistes" group of organisms are a phylogenetic cluster of Gram-negative anaerobes related to Synergistes jonesii, sufficiently distinct from all other phyla to be considered a distinct phylum or Division. They are widely distributed in nature although normally only a minor constituent of the bacterial community in each habitat. They have evolved to adapt to each habitat, and therefore exhibit a wide range of physiological and biochemical characteristics, although all cultivable taxa so far studied have the ability to degrade amino acids. They are found in the human mouth where they appear to be more numerous in tooth and gum disease than health. They have also been found in the human gut and soft tissue infections. Their role in human disease has yet to be established but improved knowledge of the characteristics that enable their identification should increase the likelihood of their recognition when present at diseased sites. PMID:17631395

  19. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  20. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  1. Expeditious oligosaccharide synthesis via selective, semi-orthogonal, and orthogonal activation

    PubMed Central

    Kaeothip, Sophon; Demchenko, Alexei V.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional strategies for oligosaccharide synthesis often require extensive protecting and/or leaving group manipulations between each glycosylation step, thereby increasing the total number of synthetic steps while decreasing the efficiency of the synthesis. In contrast, expeditious strategies allow for the rapid chemical synthesis of complex carbohydrates by minimizing extraneous chemical manipulations. Oligosaccharide synthesis by selective activation of one leaving group over another is one such expeditious strategy. Herein, the significant improvements that have recently emerged in the area of the selective activation are discussed. The development of orthogonal strategy further expands the scope of the selective activation methodology. Surveyed in this article, are representative examples wherein these excellent innovations have been applied to the synthesis of various oligosaccharide sequences. PMID:21663897

  2. Structuring waveguide-grating-based wavelength-division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access network codecs over topology of concentric circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Nieh, Ta-Chun; Chen, Kai-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The cyclic period and free spectral range of arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG) in a wavelength-division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access optical code division multiple access network are exploited. The total optical network unit (ONU) of network capacity is partitioned into groups of different wavelength in accordance with the geographical location of subscribers based on the radial distance of the ONU to the optical line terminal. Combining concentric circles round by round for ONU groups enables a fixed round-trip time in the data transmission and a significant increase in system performance. Using AWG router, the proposed topology of concentric circles retains signature orthogonality and minimizes wavelength collisions on the photo-detector. Furthermore, the adoption of extended M-sequence codes corresponding to the AWG codec provides a simpler, more efficient coding procedure and accommodates more users in a single group.

  3. The Division of Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Julia A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the marital role division between couples, in the Philadelphia area, concentrating on the division of household tasks, child care, and paid employment. Data support a marital power model with husband's income negatively related and wife's education positively related to shared roles. Blacks are more likely to share roles. (Author)

  4. 78 FR 17431 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  5. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack S.

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  6. Auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution based on orthogonal linear CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yu-ye; Ding, Hong-yi

    2010-10-01

    The resolution of aerial camera lens is one of the most important camera's performance indexes. The measurement and calibration of resolution are important test items in in maintenance of camera. The traditional method that is observing resolution panel of collimator rely on human's eyes using microscope and doing some computing. The method is of low efficiency and susceptible to artificial factors. The measurement results are unstable, too. An auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution, which uses orthogonal linear CCD sensor as the detector to replace reading microscope, is introduced. The system can measure automatically and show result real-timely. In order to measure the smallest diameter of resolution panel which could be identified, two orthogonal linear CCD is laid on the imaging plane of measured lens and four intersection points are formed on the orthogonal linear CCD. A coordinate system is determined by origin point of the linear CCD. And a circle is determined by four intersection points. In order to obtain the circle's radius, firstly, the image of resolution panel is transformed to pulse width of electric signal which is send to computer through amplifying circuit and threshold comparator and counter. Secondly, the smallest circle would be extracted to do measurement. The circle extraction made using of wavelet transform which has character of localization in the domain of time and frequency and has capability of multi-scale analysis. Lastly, according to the solution formula of lens' resolution, we could obtain the resolution of measured lens. The measuring precision on practical measurement is analyzed, and the result indicated that the precision will be improved when using linear CCD instead of reading microscope. Moreover, the improvement of system error is determined by the pixel's size of CCD. With the technique of CCD developed, the pixel's size will smaller, the system error will be reduced greatly too. So the auto

  7. Physics Division computer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division maintains several computer systems for data analysis, general-purpose computing, and word processing. While the VMS VAX clusters are still used, this past year saw a greater shift to the Unix Cluster with the addition of more RISC-based Unix workstations. The main Divisional VAX cluster which consists of two VAX 3300s configured as a dual-host system serves as boot nodes and disk servers to seven other satellite nodes consisting of two VAXstation 3200s, three VAXstation 3100 machines, a VAX-11/750, and a MicroVAX II. There are three 6250/1600 bpi 9-track tape drives, six 8-mm tapes and about 9.1 GB of disk storage served to the cluster by the various satellites. Also, two of the satellites (the MicroVAX and VAX-11/750) have DAPHNE front-end interfaces for data acquisition. Since the tape drives are accessible cluster-wide via a software package, they are, in addition to replay, used for tape-to-tape copies. There is however, a satellite node outfitted with two 8 mm drives available for this purpose. Although not part of the main cluster, a DEC 3000 Alpha machine obtained for data acquisition is also available for data replay. In one case, users reported a performance increase by a factor of 10 when using this machine.

  8. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  9. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Steven William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-05-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  10. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2011-09-06

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  11. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyltRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2010-05-11

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  12. Orthogonal rotation-invariant moments for digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huibao; Si, Jennie; Abousleman, Glen P

    2008-03-01

    Orthogonal rotation-invariant moments (ORIMs), such as Zernike moments, are introduced and defined on a continuous unit disk and have been proven powerful tools in optics applications. These moments have also been digitized for applications in digital image processing. Unfortunately, digitization compromises the orthogonality of the moments and, therefore, digital ORIMs are incapable of representing subtle details in images and cannot accurately reconstruct images. Typical approaches to alleviate the digitization artifact can be divided into two categories: 1) careful selection of a set of pixels as close approximation to the unit disk and using numerical integration to determine the ORIM values, and 2) representing pixels using circular shapes such that they resemble that of the unit disk and then calculating ORIMs in polar space. These improvements still fall short of preserving the orthogonality of the ORIMs. In this paper, in contrast to the previous methods, we propose a different approach of using numerical optimization techniques to improve the orthogonality. We prove that with the improved orthogonality, image reconstruction becomes more accurate. Our simulation results also show that the optimized digital ORIMs can accurately reconstruct images and can represent subtle image details. PMID:18270118

  13. Pulse Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands On!, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity using computer software to investigate the role of the heart and blood, how the blood system responds to exercise, and how pulse rate is a good measure of physical condition. (ASK)

  14. Precessional reversal in orthogonal spin transfer magnetic random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Backes, D.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Single-shot time-resolved resistance measurements have been used to determine the magnetization reversal mechanisms of orthogonal spin transfer magnetic random access memory (OST-MRAM) devices at nanosecond time scales. There is a strong asymmetry between antiparallel (AP) to parallel (P) and P to AP transitions under the same pulse conditions. P to AP transitions are shown to occur by precession of the free layer magnetization, while the AP to P transition is typically direct, occurring in less than 200 ps. We associate the asymmetry with spin torques perpendicular to the plane of the free layer, an important characteristic of OST-MRAM bit cells that can be used to optimize device performance.

  15. Coulomb effect on photoelectron momentum distributions in orthogonal two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, ShaoGang; Wang, YanLan; Lai, XuanYang; Huang, YiYi; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron momentum distributions in orthogonally polarized two-color pulses with the Coulomb-Volkov distorted-wave approximation (CVA) theory and focus on the role of the Coulomb potential in the electron momentum distributions by comparing the CVA results with the strong-field approximation (SFA) simulations. Our results show that in comparison with the SFA simulations, the electron momentum distributions in CVA are in better agreement with the experimental observations and the time-dependent Schrödinger equation calculations. By analyzing the phase of the dipole moment, we find that the change of the electron momentum distributions in CVA can be ascribed to the different Coulomb corrections of the phases, which give rise to an enhanced contribution from the forward-rescattering electron and, on the other hand, a decrease of the contribution from the direct electron in the presence of the Coulomb potential.

  16. Pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus (20) for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse. The apparatus (20) uses a White cell (10) having a plurality of optical delay paths (18a-18d) of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror (13) and the objective mirrors (11 and 12). A pulse (26) from a laser (27) travels through a multi-leg reflective path (28) between a beam splitter (21) and a totally reflective mirror (24) to the laser output (37). The laser pulse (26) is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter (21) to the input mirrors (14a-14d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d). The pulses from the output mirrors (16a-16d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d) go simultaneously to the laser output (37) and to the input mirrors ( 14b-14d) of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter (21) is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output (37).

  17. Physics division annual report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  18. Standardization of Rocket Engine Pulse Time Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larin, Max E.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Rauer, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Plumes of bipropellant thrusters are a source of contamination. Small bipropellant thrusters are often used for spacecraft attitude control and orbit correction. Such thrusters typically operate in a pulse mode, at various pulse lengths. Quantifying their contamination effects onto spacecraft external surfaces is especially important for long-term complex-geometry vehicles, e.g. International Space Station. Plume contamination tests indicated the presence of liquid phase contaminant in the form of droplets. Their origin is attributed to incomplete combustion. Most of liquid-phase contaminant is generated during the startup and shutdown (unsteady) periods of thruster pulse. These periods are relatively short (typically 10-50 ms), and the amount of contaminant is determined by the thruster design (propellant valve response, combustion chamber size, thruster mass flow rate, film cooling percentage, dribble volume, etc.) and combustion process organization. Steady-state period of pulse is characterized by much lower contamination rates, but may be lengthy enough to significantly conh'ibute to the overall contamination effect. Because there was no standard methodology for thruster pulse time division, plume contamination tests were conducted at various pulse durations, and their results do not allow quantifying contaminant amounts from each portion of the pulse. At present, the ISS plume contamination model uses an assumption that all thrusters operate in a pulse mode with the pulse length being 100 ms. This assumption may lead to a large difference between the actual amounts of contaminant produced by the thruster and the model predictions. This paper suggests a way to standardize thruster startup and shutdown period definitions, and shows the usefulness of this approach to better quantify thruster plume contamination. Use of the suggested thruster pulse time-division technique will ensure methodological consistency of future thruster plume contamination test programs

  19. Orthogonal arrays in normal and injured respiratory airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R E

    1985-02-01

    Orthogonal arrays are found on plasma membranes of glial cells, in the central nervous system, on muscle plasma membranes at neuromuscular junctions, and on a variety of epithelial cells. These structures have been correlated with ion flux. With the aid of freeze fracture technique, orthogonal particle arrays were found on plasma membranes on airway epithelial cells of rats and hamsters. They have been found in abundance at the base of secretory cells throughout normal airway epithelium. These structures were found to increase in number during regeneration in response to injury and they were found in great numbers on plasma membranes of all airway cells in response to acute and chronic NO2 exposure. The lateral and basal plasma membranes of the respiratory epithelium are a new source for studying orthogonal arrays. The normal number and distribution of these arrays can be perturbed in response to mechanical and chemical injury. PMID:3968185

  20. Locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    As we know, unextendible product basis (UPB) is an incomplete basis whose members cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. However, very little is known about those incomplete and locally indistinguishable product bases that are not UPBs. In this paper, we first construct a series of orthogonal product bases that are completable but not locally distinguishable in a general m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3) quantum system. In particular, we give so far the smallest number of locally indistinguishable states of a completable orthogonal product basis in arbitrary quantum systems. Furthermore, we construct a series of small and locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3). All the results lead to a better understanding of the structures of locally indistinguishable product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system.

  1. Investigation of formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, W.

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the formation mechanisms of chips in orthogonal cutting of mild steel and the transformation conditions between various morphology chips. It is supposed that the modeling material follows the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. In orthogonal cutting process, both the plastic flow and the instability behaviors of chip materials are caused by the plane strain loadings. Therefore, the general instability behaviors of materials in plane strain state are first analyzed with linear perturbation method and a universal instability criterion is established. Based on the analytical results, the formation mechanisms of chips and the transformation conditions between continuous and serrated chips are further studied by instability phase diagram method. The results show that the chip formation strongly depends on the intensity ratios between shear and normal stresses. The ratios of dissipative rates of plastic work done by compression and shear stresses govern the transformation from continuous to serrated chips. These results are verified by the numerical simulations on the orthogonal cutting process.

  2. Locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As we know, unextendible product basis (UPB) is an incomplete basis whose members cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. However, very little is known about those incomplete and locally indistinguishable product bases that are not UPBs. In this paper, we first construct a series of orthogonal product bases that are completable but not locally distinguishable in a general m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3) quantum system. In particular, we give so far the smallest number of locally indistinguishable states of a completable orthogonal product basis in arbitrary quantum systems. Furthermore, we construct a series of small and locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3). All the results lead to a better understanding of the structures of locally indistinguishable product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system. PMID:27503634

  3. Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1239 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.

  4. Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states

    SciTech Connect

    Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo

    2010-12-15

    Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.

  5. Measurement matrix optimization method based on matrix orthogonal similarity transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of the measurement matrix is one of the important research aspects of compressive sensing theory. A measurement matrix optimization method is presented based on the orthogonal similarity transformation of the information operator's Gram matrix. In terms of the fact that the information operator's Gram matrix is a singular symmetric matrix, a simplified orthogonal similarity transformation is deduced, and thus the simplified diagonal matrix that is orthogonally similar to it is obtained. Then an approximation of the Gram matrix is obtained by letting all the nonzero diagonal entries of the simplified diagonal matrix equal their average value. Thus an optimized measurement matrix can be acquired according to its relationship with the information operator. Results of experiments show that the optimized measurement matrix compared to the random measurement matrix is less coherent with dictionaries. The relative signal recovery error also declines when the proposed measurement matrix is utilized.

  6. Locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Yang, Ying-Hui; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As we know, unextendible product basis (UPB) is an incomplete basis whose members cannot be perfectly distinguished by local operations and classical communication. However, very little is known about those incomplete and locally indistinguishable product bases that are not UPBs. In this paper, we first construct a series of orthogonal product bases that are completable but not locally distinguishable in a general m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3) quantum system. In particular, we give so far the smallest number of locally indistinguishable states of a completable orthogonal product basis in arbitrary quantum systems. Furthermore, we construct a series of small and locally indistinguishable orthogonal product bases in m ⊗ n (m ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3). All the results lead to a better understanding of the structures of locally indistinguishable product bases in arbitrary bipartite quantum system. PMID:27503634

  7. Semi-orthogonal wavelets for elliptic variational problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.P.; Roach, D.W.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper the authors give a construction of wavelets which are (a) semi-orthogonal with respect to an arbitrary elliptic bilinear form a({center_dot},{center_dot}) on the Sobolev space H{sub 0}{sup 1}((0, L)) and (b) continuous and piecewise linear on an arbitrary partition of [0, L]. They illustrate this construction using a model problem. They also construct alpha-orthogonal Battle-Lemarie type wavelets which fully diagonalize the Galerkin discretized matrix for the model problem with domain IR. Finally they describe a hybrid basis consisting of a combination of elements from the semi-orthogonal wavelet basis and the hierarchical Schauder basis. Numerical experiments indicate that this basis leads to robust scalable Galerkin discretizations of the model problem which remain well-conditioned independent of {epsilon}, L, and the refinement level K.

  8. Calculation on flux-MMF relationship of orthogonal-core

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, K.; Kaga, A.; Anazawa, Y. ); Ichinokura, O. )

    1993-03-01

    Orthogonal-cores have various potential applications, for instance in parametric transformers and dc-ac converters. The operating characteristics of the devices can be calculated on the basis of the measured relationship of flux to MMF of the orthogonal-core. To achieve optimal design of the applied device, the relationship of flux to MMF must be determined; however, this involves solving a three dimensional nonlinear problem. In this paper, the authors calculate the flux-MMF relationship based on a magnetic circuit model for the orthogonal-core. The computed results agree well with experiment. The method of this study is shown to be valid for calculation of characteristics and useful for optimal design of application devices.

  9. Unpacking Division to Build Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huinker, DeAnn; Hedges, Melissa; Steinmeyer, Meghan

    2005-01-01

    The unpacking of the mathematical knowledge necessary for teaching division is examined. A core task for surfacing and unpacking one's division knowledge is presented and the understandings that might comprise a package of teacher knowledge for division is discussed.

  10. Induced dark solitary pulse in an anomalous dispersion cavity fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guodong; Song, Yufeng; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Luming; Shen, Deyuan; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-11-01

    We report on the formation of induced dark solitary pulses in a net anomalous dispersion cavity fiber laser. In a weak birefringence cavity fiber laser simultaneous laser oscillation along the two orthogonal polarization directions of the cavity could be achieved. Under suitable conditions bright cavity solitons could be formed along one polarization direction while CW emission occurs along the orthogonal polarization direction. In a previous paper we have shown that under incoherent polarization coupling a bright soliton always induces a broad dark pulse on the CW beam. In the paper we further show that under coherent polarization coupling a bright soliton could further induce either a weak bright or a dark solitary pulse on the bottom of the broad dark pulse. Numerical simulations have also well reproduced the experimental observations, and further show whether a weak dark or bright solitary pulse is induced is determined by the presence or absence of a phase jump in the induced pulse.

  11. Orthogonality of decision boundaries in complex-valued neural networks.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    This letter presents some results of an analysis on the decision boundaries of complex-valued neural networks whose weights, threshold values, input and output signals are all complex numbers. The main results may be summarized as follows. (1) A decision boundary of a single complex-valued neuron consists of two hypersurfaces that intersect orthogonally, and divides a decision region into four equal sections. The XOR problem and the detection of symmetry problem that cannot be solved with two-layered real-valued neural networks, can be solved by two-layered complex-valued neural networks with the orthogonal decision boundaries, which reveals a potent computational power of complex-valued neural nets. Furthermore, the fading equalization problem can be successfully solved by the two-layered complex-valued neural network with the highest generalization ability. (2) A decision boundary of a three-layered complex-valued neural network has the orthogonal property as a basic structure, and its two hypersurfaces approach orthogonality as all the net inputs to each hidden neuron grow. In particular, most of the decision boundaries in the three-layered complex-valued neural network inetersect orthogonally when the network is trained using Complex-BP algorithm. As a result, the orthogonality of the decision boundaries improves its generalization ability. (3) The average of the learning speed of the Complex-BP is several times faster than that of the Real-BP. The standard deviation of the learning speed of the Complex-BP is smaller than that of the Real-BP. It seems that the complex-valued neural network and the related algorithm are natural for learning complex-valued patterns for the above reasons.

  12. Fast Deterministic Bipolar Switching in Orthogonal Spin Torque Devices via the Control of the Relative Spin Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Ralph, Daniel C.; Buhrman, Robert A.

    2014-03-01

    We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer (OPP) and an in-plane polarizer (IPP). Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, CP =PIPP /POPP , results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360 degree rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective PIPP, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum CP required to attain deterministic bipolar switching, while retaining low critical switching current, Ip = 500 μA.

  13. Structure relations for monic orthogonal polynomials in two discrete variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodal, J.; Area, I.; Godoy, E.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, extensions of several relations linking differences of bivariate discrete orthogonal polynomials and polynomials themselves are given, by using an appropriate vector-matrix notation. Three-term recurrence relations are presented for the partial differences of the monic polynomial solutions of admissible second order partial difference equation of hypergeometric type. Structure relations, difference representations as well as lowering and raising operators are obtained. Finally, expressions for all matrix coefficients appearing in these finite-type relations are explicitly presented for a finite set of Hahn and Kravchuk orthogonal polynomials.

  14. Characterisation of a Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, L. J.; Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sweeney, A.; Beau, J.; Lampert, M.; Pirard, B.; Zuvic, M.

    2013-10-01

    A Compton camera composed of an orthogonal-strip Si(Li) detector and an orthogonal-strip HPGe SmartPET detector is under investigation at the University of Liverpool. To optimise the performance of the system, it is essential to quantify the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation. Such measurements have previously been reported for the SmartPET detector and in this work we report on the experimental characterisation of the Si(Li) detector. Precision scans of the detector have been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma-ray source to determine the uniformity and charge collection properties of the detector.

  15. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1984-07-01

    E (Experimental Physics) Division carries out basic and applied research in atomic and nuclear physics, in materials science, and in other areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Some of the activities are cooperative efforts with other divisions of the Laboratory, and, in a few cases, with other laboratories. Many of the experiments are directly applicable to problems in weapons and energy, some have only potential applied uses, and others are in pure physics. This report presents abstracts of papers published by E (Experimental Physics) Division staff members between July 1983 and June 1984. In addition, it lists the members of the scientific staff of the division, including visitors and students, and some of the assignments of staff members on scientific committees. A brief summary of the budget is included.

  16. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  17. Mitochondrial division in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gandre, Shilpa; van der Bliek, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial division proteins has largely focused on yeast and mammalian cells. We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model for studying mitochondrial division, taking advantage of the many wonderful resources provided by the C. elegans community. Our methods are largely based on manipulation of gene expression using classic and molecular genetic techniques combined with fluorescence microscopy. Some biochemical methods are also included. As antibodies become available, these biochemical methods are likely to become more sophisticated. PMID:18314747

  18. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in material science. In addition this report describes work on accelerators, microwaves, plasma diagnostics, determination of atmospheric oxygen and of nitrogen in tissue.

  19. Multi-input multi-output frequency-modulated continuous wave synthetic aperture radar system using beat-frequency division waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Long-yong; Liang, Xing-dong; Ding, Chi-biao; Hong, Wen; Zhou, Liang-jiang; Dong, Yong-wei; Li, Kun

    2013-07-01

    Attention has been paid to lightweight, cost-effective frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in recent years. Though FMCW SAR can operate at high altitude, it is still impracticable for wide swath or high Doppler bandwidth remote sensing because of the dramatic losses of range resolution and processing gain. Moreover, the system sampling rate is too high for real-time processing. All these restrictions caused by the bandwidth loss of the dechirp operation can be relieved by expanding the system sweep cycle. However, the broadening of the sweep cycle decreases the system pulse repetition frequency with azimuth ambiguity, which can be suppressed by exploiting the spatial diversity of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. This paper reports a MIMO-FMCW SAR system using beat-frequency division waveforms. There is a small frequency interval and a large overlap (in frequency) between the orthogonal waveforms. As the frequency interval is much smaller than the signal bandwidth, the echoes that come from different transmitters can be separated by bandpass filtering with little intrapulse interference. Consequently, the applications of FMCW SAR systems can be extended for wider swath or higher Doppler bandwidth remote sensing. Theoretical analysis and simulation results illustrate the feasibility of this system.

  20. Pulse shortening of an ultrafast VECSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldburger, D.; Alfieri, C. G. E.; Link, S. M.; Gini, E.; Golling, M.; Mangold, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Keller, U.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast, optically pumped, passively modelocked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) are excellent sources for industrial and scientific applications that benefit from compact semiconductor based high-power ultrafast lasers with gigahertz repetition rates and excellent beam quality. Applications such as self-referenced frequency combs and multi-photon imaging require sub-200-fs pulse duration combined with high pulse peak power. Here, we present a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) modelocked VECSEL with a pulse duration of 147 fs and 328 W of pulse peak power. The average output power was 100 mW with a repetition rate of 1.82 GHz at a center wavelength of 1034 nm. The laser has optimal beam quality operating in a fundamental transverse mode with a M2 value of <1.05 in both orthogonal directions. The VECSEL was grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with five pairs of strain-compensated InGaAs quantum wells (QWs). The QWs are placed symmetrical around the antinodes of the standing electric field at a reduced average field enhancement in the QWs of ≈ 0.5 (normalized to 4 outside the structure). These results overcome the trade-off between pulse duration and peak power of the state-of-the-art threshold values of 4.35 kW peak power for a pulse duration of 400 fs and 3.3 W peak power for a pulse duration of 107 fs.

  1. Pseudo-orthogonal frequency coded wireless SAW RFID temperature sensor tags.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Nancy; Malocha, Donald C

    2012-08-01

    SAW sensors are ideal for various wireless, passive multi-sensor applications because they are small, rugged, radiation hard, and offer a wide range of material choices for operation over broad temperature ranges. The readable distance of a tag in a multi-sensor environment is dependent on the insertion loss of the device and the processing gain of the system. Single-frequency code division multiple access (CDMA) tags that are used in high-volume commercial applications must have universal coding schemes and large numbers of codes. The use of a large number of bits at the common center frequency to achieve sufficient code diversity in CDMA tags necessitates reflector banks with >30 dB loss. Orthogonal frequency coding is a spread-spectrum approach that employs frequency and time diversity to achieve enhanced tag properties. The use of orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW tags reduces adjacent reflector interactions for low insertion loss, increased range, complex coding, and system processing gain. This work describes a SAW tag-sensor platform that reduces device loss by implementing long reflector banks with optimized spectral coding. This new pseudo-OFC (POFC) coding is defined and contrasted with the previously defined OFC coding scheme. Auto- and cross-correlation properties of the chips and their relation to reflectivity per strip and reflector length are discussed. Results at 250 MHz of 8-chip OFC and POFC SAW tags will be compared. The key parameters of insertion loss, cross-correlation, and autocorrelation of the two types of frequency-coded tags will be analyzed, contrasted, and discussed. It is shown that coded reflector banks can be achieved with near-zero loss and still maintain good coding properties. Experimental results and results predicted by the coupling of modes model are presented for varying reflector designs and codes. A prototype 915-MHz POFC sensor tag is used as a wireless temperature sensor and the results are shown.

  2. Phase-coherent orthogonally polarized optical single sideband modulation with arbitrarily tunable optical carrier-to-sideband ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Mei, Hai Kuo; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2016-01-11

    We propose and experimentally verify a novel approach to achieve phase-coherence orthogonally polarized optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation with a tunable optically carrier-to-sideband ratio (OCSR). In our scheme, the orthogonally polarized OSSB signal is achieved using a dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator without an optical band-pass filter (OBPF). Therefore, the proposed method is wavelength independent. The DP-QPSK modulator includes two parallel QPSK modulators locating on its two arms. The upper QPSK modulator of the DP-QPSK modulator is driven by two quadrature sinusoidal microwave signals and works at the frequency shifting condition whose bias voltages are optimized to suppress the optical. The lower QPSK modulator of that works at the maximum transmission point and the optical carrier is not modulated. The OCSR is continuously tunable by simply adjusting the bias voltages of the lower modulator. The frequency shifting optical signal from the upper QPSK modulator and the optical carrier from the lower QPSK modulator are combined together at the output of the DP-QPSK modulator. The optical carrier and sideband are polarized orthogonally. The generated OSSB signals could be used to shift and code the phase of the microwave signal and generate ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave pulse. The proposed method is analyzed and experimental demonstrated.

  3. Connection coefficients between orthogonal polynomials and the canonical sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroni, P.; Da Rocha, Z.

    2008-03-01

    We deal with the problem of obtaining closed formulas for the connection coefficients between orthogonal polynomials and the canonical sequence. We use a recurrence relation fulfilled by these coefficients and symbolic computation with the Mathematica language. We treat the cases of Gegenbauer, Jacobi and a new semi-classical sequence.

  4. Orthogonal basis functions in discrete least-squares rational approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, A.; van Barel, M.; van Gucht, P.

    2004-03-01

    We consider a problem that arises in the field of frequency domain system identification. If a discrete-time system has an input-output relation Y(z)=G(z)U(z), with transfer function G, then the problem is to find a rational approximation for G. The data given are measurements of input and output spectra in the frequency points zk: {U(zk),Y(zk)}k=1N together with some weight. The approximation criterion is to minimize the weighted discrete least squares norm of the vector obtained by evaluating in the measurement points. If the poles of the system are fixed, then the problem reduces to a linear least-squares problem in two possible ways: by multiplying out the denominators and hide these in the weight, which leads to the construction of orthogonal vector polynomials, or the problem can be solved directly using an orthogonal basis of rational functions. The orthogonality of the basis is important because if the transfer function is represented with respect to a nonorthogonal basis, then this least-squares problem can be very ill conditioned. Even if an orthogonal basis is used, but with respect to the wrong inner product (e.g., the Lebesgue measure on the unit circle) numerical instability can be fatal in practice. We show that both approaches lead to an inverse eigenvalue problem, which forms the common framework in which fast and numerically stable algorithms can be designed for the computation of the orthonormal basis.

  5. Crossover ensembles of random matrices and skew-orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Santosh; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We study crossover ensembles of Jacobi family of random matrices. > We consider correlations for orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers. > We use the method of skew-orthogonal polynomials and quaternion determinants. > We prove universality of spectral correlations in crossover ensembles. > We discuss applications to quantum conductance and communication theory problems. - Abstract: In a recent paper (S. Kumar, A. Pandey, Phys. Rev. E, 79, 2009, p. 026211) we considered Jacobi family (including Laguerre and Gaussian cases) of random matrix ensembles and reported exact solutions of crossover problems involving time-reversal symmetry breaking. In the present paper we give details of the work. We start with Dyson's Brownian motion description of random matrix ensembles and obtain universal hierarchic relations among the unfolded correlation functions. For arbitrary dimensions we derive the joint probability density (jpd) of eigenvalues for all transitions leading to unitary ensembles as equilibrium ensembles. We focus on the orthogonal-unitary and symplectic-unitary crossovers and give generic expressions for jpd of eigenvalues, two-point kernels and n-level correlation functions. This involves generalization of the theory of skew-orthogonal polynomials to crossover ensembles. We also consider crossovers in the circular ensembles to show the generality of our method. In the large dimensionality limit, correlations in spectra with arbitrary initial density are shown to be universal when expressed in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter. Applications of our crossover results to communication theory and quantum conductance problems are also briefly discussed.

  6. Trusted materials using orthogonal testing. 2015 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to prove (or disprove) that a reasonable number of simple tests can be used to provide a unique data signature for materials, changes in which could serve as a harbinger of material deviation, prompting further evaluations. The routine tests are mutually orthogonal to any currently required materials specification tests.

  7. Response Surface Model Building Using Orthogonal Arrays for Computer Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Braun, Robert D.; Moore, Arlene A.; Lepsch, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates response surface methods for computer experiments and discusses some of the approaches available. Orthogonal arrays constructed for computer experiments are studied and an example application to a technology selection and optimization study for a reusable launch vehicle is presented.

  8. Wave Propagation in Isotropic Media with Two Orthogonal Fracture Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    Orthogonal intersecting fracture sets form fracture networks that affect the hydraulic and mechanical integrity of a rock mass. Interpretation of elastic waves propagated through orthogonal fracture networks is complicated by guided modes that propagate along and between fractures, by multiple internal reflections, as well as by scattering from fracture intersections. The existence of some or all of these potentially overlapping modes depends on local stress fields that can preferentially close or open either one or both sets of fractures. In this study, an acoustic wave front imaging system was used to examine the effect of bi-axial loading conditions on acoustic wave propagation in isotropic media containing two orthogonal fracture sets. From the experimental data, orthogonal intersecting fracture sets support guided waves that depend on fracture spacing and fracture-specific stiffnesses. In addition, fracture intersections have stronger effects on propagating wave fronts than merely the superposition of the effects of two independent fractures because of energy partitioning among transmitted/reflected waves, scattered waves and guided modes. Interpretation of the properties of fractures or fracture sets from seismic measurements must consider non-uniform fracture stiffnesses within and among fracture sets, as well as considering the striking effects of fracture intersections on wave propagation.

  9. Remote beating of parallel or orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength optical carriers for 5G millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber link.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Yung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-08-01

    A novel millimeter-wave radio over fiber (MMW-RoF) link at carrier frequency of 35-GHz is proposed with the use of remotely beating MMW generation from reference master and injected slave colorless laser diode (LD) carriers at orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength injection-locking. The slave colorless LD supports lasing one of the dual-wavelength master modes with orthogonal polarizations, which facilitates the single-mode direct modulation of the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data. Such an injected single-carrier encoding and coupled dual-carrier transmission with orthogonal polarization effectively suppresses the cross-heterodyne mode-beating intensity noise, the nonlinear modulation (NLM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) sidemodes during injection locking and fiber transmission. In 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) based wireline system, the dual-carrier under single-mode encoding provides baseband 24-Gbit/s 64-QAM OFDM transmission with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 8.8%, a bit error rate (BER) of 3.7 × 10-3, a power penalty of <1.5 dB. After remotely self-beating for wireless transmission, the beat MMW carrier at 35 GHz can deliver the passband 16-QAM OFDM at 4 Gbit/s to show corresponding EVM and BER of 15.5% and 1.4 × 10-3, respectively, after 25-km SMF and 1.6-m free-space transmission.

  10. Remote beating of parallel or orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength optical carriers for 5G millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber link.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Yung; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-08-01

    A novel millimeter-wave radio over fiber (MMW-RoF) link at carrier frequency of 35-GHz is proposed with the use of remotely beating MMW generation from reference master and injected slave colorless laser diode (LD) carriers at orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength injection-locking. The slave colorless LD supports lasing one of the dual-wavelength master modes with orthogonal polarizations, which facilitates the single-mode direct modulation of the quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data. Such an injected single-carrier encoding and coupled dual-carrier transmission with orthogonal polarization effectively suppresses the cross-heterodyne mode-beating intensity noise, the nonlinear modulation (NLM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) sidemodes during injection locking and fiber transmission. In 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) based wireline system, the dual-carrier under single-mode encoding provides baseband 24-Gbit/s 64-QAM OFDM transmission with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 8.8%, a bit error rate (BER) of 3.7 × 10-3, a power penalty of <1.5 dB. After remotely self-beating for wireless transmission, the beat MMW carrier at 35 GHz can deliver the passband 16-QAM OFDM at 4 Gbit/s to show corresponding EVM and BER of 15.5% and 1.4 × 10-3, respectively, after 25-km SMF and 1.6-m free-space transmission. PMID:27505734

  11. Chemical Bonding: The Orthogonal Valence-Bond View

    PubMed Central

    Sax, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bonding is the stabilization of a molecular system by charge- and spin-reorganization processes in chemical reactions. These processes are said to be local, because the number of atoms involved is very small. With multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave functions, these processes can be calculated, but the local information is hidden by the delocalized molecular orbitals (MO) used to construct the wave functions. The transformation of such wave functions into valence bond (VB) wave functions, which are based on localized orbitals, reveals the hidden information; this transformation is called a VB reading of MCSCF wave functions. The two-electron VB wave functions describing the Lewis electron pair that connects two atoms are frequently called covalent or neutral, suggesting that these wave functions describe an electronic situation where two electrons are never located at the same atom; such electronic situations and the wave functions describing them are called ionic. When the distance between two atoms decreases, however, every covalent VB wave function composed of non-orthogonal atomic orbitals changes its character from neutral to ionic. However, this change in the character of conventional VB wave functions is hidden by its mathematical form. Orthogonal VB wave functions composed of orthonormalized orbitals never change their character. When localized fragment orbitals are used instead of atomic orbitals, one can decide which local information is revealed and which remains hidden. In this paper, we analyze four chemical reactions by transforming the MCSCF wave functions into orthogonal VB wave functions; we show how the reactions are influenced by changing the atoms involved or by changing their local symmetry. Using orthogonal instead of non-orthogonal orbitals is not just a technical issue; it also changes the interpretation, revealing the properties of wave functions that remain otherwise undetected. PMID:25906476

  12. PULSE COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Trumbo, D.E.

    1959-02-10

    A transistorized pulse-counting circuit adapted for use with nuclear radiation detecting detecting devices to provide a small, light weight portable counter is reported. The small size and low power requirements of the transistor are of particular value in this instance. The circuit provides an adjustable count scale with a single transistor which is triggered by the accumulated charge on a storage capacitor.

  13. Beyond Cookies: Understanding Various Division Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Cindy; Magruder, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of division derived from multiple models is of great importance for teachers and students. For example, students will benefit from a greater understanding of division contexts as they study long division, fractions, and division of fractions. The purpose of this article is to build on teachers' and students'…

  14. Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on orthogonally-polarized four-tone probe wave.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Wenqiao; Yang, Zhisheng; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of the non-local effect in the BOTDA method using a dual-tone probe wave with fixed frequency separation is theoretically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The presented analysis points out that when the sensing fiber consists of two long fiber segments with large BFS difference (> 100 MHz), there will always be only one probe tone interacting with the pump pulse in the front fiber segment. Therefore, although the pulse distortion problem can still be overcome in this case, the conventional non-local effect would impose systematic error on the estimated BFS of the hotspot located at the end of the front fiber segment. For the purpose of avoiding the impact of non-local effect and eliminating the pump distortion problem simultaneously when using high probe power, a novel method based on a four-tone probe wave is proposed, in which the probe light consists of two pairs of orthogonally-polarized dual-tone probe waves with opposite frequency scanning direction. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of realizing 2 m spatial resolution over 104-km-long sensing fiber without the impact of non-local effect.

  15. Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on orthogonally-polarized four-tone probe wave.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Wenqiao; Yang, Zhisheng; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of the non-local effect in the BOTDA method using a dual-tone probe wave with fixed frequency separation is theoretically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The presented analysis points out that when the sensing fiber consists of two long fiber segments with large BFS difference (> 100 MHz), there will always be only one probe tone interacting with the pump pulse in the front fiber segment. Therefore, although the pulse distortion problem can still be overcome in this case, the conventional non-local effect would impose systematic error on the estimated BFS of the hotspot located at the end of the front fiber segment. For the purpose of avoiding the impact of non-local effect and eliminating the pump distortion problem simultaneously when using high probe power, a novel method based on a four-tone probe wave is proposed, in which the probe light consists of two pairs of orthogonally-polarized dual-tone probe waves with opposite frequency scanning direction. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of realizing 2 m spatial resolution over 104-km-long sensing fiber without the impact of non-local effect. PMID:27607708

  16. Multiple Access in Ultra-Wideband Communications Using Multiple Pulses and the Use of Least Squares Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F

    2003-06-19

    Multiple access (MA) in UWB communication has recently been studied in the context of multiple transmitted-reference short duration chirp pulses in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The transmitted-reference (TR) receiver was extended in previous studies using multiple orthogonal pulses. Improved performance was observed in simulations by sampling the receiver autocorrelation function (ACF) at both zero- and non-zero lags. Sampling of non-zero ACF lags of orthogonal pulses is a novel approach. Method of using least squares filtering techniques for further tolerance against noise and interference for the TR method is proposed.

  17. Compositions of orthogonal glutamyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J Christopher [San Francisco, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Santoro, Stephen [Cambridge, MA

    2009-05-05

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include glutamyl orthogonal tRNAs, glutamyl orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of glutamyl tRNAs/synthetases are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins using these orthogonal pairs.

  18. Pulsed hydrojet

    DOEpatents

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Torrey, M.D.

    1986-06-10

    An underwater pulsed hydrojet propulsion system is provided for accelerating and propelling a projectile or other vessel. A reactant, such as lithium, is fluidized and injected into a water volume. The resulting reaction produces an energy density in a time effective to form a steam pocket. Thrust flaps or baffles direct the pressure from the steam pocket toward an exit nozzle for accelerating a water volume to create thrust. A control system regulates the dispersion of reactant to control thrust characteristics.

  19. CVS Decomposition of 3D Homogeneous Turbulence Using Orthogonal Wavelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai; Pellegrino, Giulio; Wray, A. A.; Rogallo, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the filtering used in Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) decomposition with an orthogonal wavelet basis, with the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) or Fourier filtering. Both methods are applied to a field of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data of 3D forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence at microscale Reynolds number R(sub lambda) = 168. We show that, with only 3%N retained modes, CVS filtering separates the coherent vortex tubes from the incoherent background flow. The latter is structureless, has an equipartition energy spectrum, and has a Gaussian velocity probability distribution function (PDF) and an exponential vorticity PDF. On the other hand, the Fourier basis does not extract the coherent vortex tubes cleanly and leaves organized structures in the residual high wavenumber modes whose PDFs are stretched exponentials for both the velocity and the vorticity.

  20. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-26

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  1. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  2. Unambiguously determining the orthogonality of multiple quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we study an opposite problem of universal quantum state comparison, that is unambiguously determining whether multiple unknown quantum states from a Hilbert space are orthogonal or not. We show that no unambiguous quantum measurement can accomplish this task with a nonzero probability. Moreover, we extend the problem to a more general case, that is to compare how orthogonal multiple unknown quantum states are with a threshold, and it turns out that given any threshold this extended task is also impossible by any unambiguous quantum measurement except for a trivial case. It will be seen that the impossibility revealed in our problem is stronger than that in the universal quantum state comparison problem and distinct from those in the existing “no-go” theorems.

  3. Orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions for resettable electronic logic gates

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced electronic functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular transport junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable electronic logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design. PMID:24394717

  4. Sensitive analysis of a finite element model of orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocail, J.; Watremez, M.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional finite element model of orthogonal cutting. The proposed model has been developed with Abaqus/explicit software. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation is used to predict chip formation, temperature, chip-tool contact length, chip thickness, and cutting forces. This numerical model of orthogonal cutting will be validated by comparing these process variables to experimental and numerical results obtained by Filice et al. [1]. This model can be considered to be reliable enough to make qualitative analysis of entry parameters related to cutting process and frictional models. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on the main entry parameters (coefficients of the Johnson-Cook law, and contact parameters) with the finite element model. This analysis is performed with two levels for each factor. The sensitivity analysis realised with the numerical model on the entry parameters has allowed the identification of significant parameters and the margin identification of parameters.

  5. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-07-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality.

  6. Evaluation of chemometric techniques to select orthogonal chromatographic systems.

    PubMed

    Van Gyseghem, E; Dejaegher, B; Put, R; Forlay-Frick, P; Elkihel, A; Daszykowski, M; Héberger, K; Massart, D L; Heyden, Y Vander

    2006-04-11

    Several chemometric techniques were compared for their performance to determine the orthogonality and similarity between chromatographic systems. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) based color maps earlier were used to indicate selectivity differences between systems. These maps, in which the systems were ranked according to decreasing or increasing dissimilarities observed in the weighted-average-linkage dendrogram, were now applied as reference method. A number of chemometric techniques were evaluated as potential alternative (visualization) methods for the same purpose. They include hierarchical clustering techniques (single, complete, unweighted-average-linkage, centroid and Ward's method), the Kennard and Stone algorithm, auto-associative multivariate regression trees (AAMRT), and the generalized pairwise correlation method (GPCM) with McNemar's statistical test. After all, the reference method remained our preferred technique to select orthogonal and identify similar systems.

  7. Entanglement as a resource to distinguish orthogonal product states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Cao, Tian-Qing; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are many sets of orthogonal product states which cannot be distinguished perfectly by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). However, these discussions have left the following open question: What entanglement resources are necessary and/or sufficient for this task to be possible with LOCC? In m ⊗ n, certain classes of unextendible product bases (UPB) which can be distinguished perfectly using entanglement as a resource, had been presented in 2008. In this paper, we present protocols which use entanglement more efficiently than teleportation to distinguish some classes of orthogonal product states in m ⊗ n, which are not UPB. For the open question, our results offer rather general insight into why entanglement is useful for such tasks, and present a better understanding of the relationship between entanglement and nonlocality. PMID:27458034

  8. Orthogonal polarization Mirau interferometer using reflective-type waveplate.

    PubMed

    Tapilouw, Abraham Mario; Chen, Liang-Chia; Jen, Yi-Jun; Lin, Shyh-Tsong; Yeh, Sheng-Lih

    2013-07-15

    This work proposes an orthogonal polarization Mirau interferometry using a reflective-type waveplate to generate different polarization orientations for broadband white light interferometry. The reflective-type half-waveplate is employed as the reference arm of the Mirau interferometer to convert polarization and it generates a reference light with an orientation orthogonal to the object light. An advantage of the proposed interferometer is its ability to control the ratio of light intensity between the object and reference arms to maximize the interferometric fringe contrast. Better, more accurate calibration of standard step height has been achieved by the developed interferometer, which also can measure solder bumps that traditional Mirau interferometers usually cannot measure. PMID:23939094

  9. Multi-frequency orthogonality sampling for inverse obstacle scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesmaier, Roland

    2011-08-01

    We discuss a simple non-iterative method to reconstruct the support of a collection of obstacles from the measurements of far-field patterns of acoustic or electromagnetic waves corresponding to plane-wave incident fields with one or few incident directions at several frequencies. The method is a variant of the orthogonality sampling algorithm recently studied by Potthast (2010 Inverse Problems 26 074015). Our theoretical analysis of the algorithm relies on an asymptotic expansion of the far-field pattern of the scattered field as the size of the scatterers tends to zero with respect to the wavelength of the incident field that holds not only at a single frequency, but also across appropriate frequency bands. This expansion suggests some modifications to the original orthogonality sampling algorithm and yields a theoretical motivation for its multi-frequency version. We illustrate the performance of the reconstruction method by numerical examples.

  10. Analog compound orthogonal neural network control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ye

    2005-12-01

    An analog compound orthogonal neural network is presented which is based on digital compound orthogonal neural networks. The compound neural network's control performance was investigated as applied to a robot control problem. The analog neural network is a Chebyshev neural network with a high speed-learning rate in an on-line manner. Its control algorithm does not relate to controlled plant models. The analog neural network is used as the feedforward controller, and PD is used as the feedback controller in the control system of robots. The excellent performance in system response, tracking accuracy, and robustness was verified through a simulation experiment applied to a robotic manipulator with friction and nonlinear disturbances. The trajectory tracking control showed results in satisfactory effectiveness. This analog neural controller provides a novel approach for the control of uncertain or unknown systems.

  11. Orthogonal Fabry-Pérot sensors for photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, R.; Ogunlade, O.; Zhang, E. Z.; Beard, P. C.; Cox, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    Fabry-Pérot (FP) sensors have been used to produce in-vivo photoacoustic images of exquisite quality. However, for simplicity of construction FP sensors are produced in a planar form. Planar sensors suffer from a limited detection aperture, due to their planarity. We present a novel sensor geometry that allowed a greater field of view by placing a second sensor orthogonal to the first. This captured data from the deeper lying regions of interest and mitigated the limited view.

  12. A general boundary capability embedded in an orthogonal mesh

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D.W.; Yu-Jiuan Chen

    1995-07-01

    The authors describe how they hold onto orthogonal mesh discretization when dealing with curved boundaries. Special difference operators were constructed to approximate numerical zones split by the domain boundary; the operators are particularly simple for this rectangular mesh. The authors demonstrated that this simple numerical approach, termed Dynamic Alternating Direction Implicit, turned out to be considerably more efficient than more complex grid-adaptive algorithms that were tried previously.

  13. Representation of Signals as Series of Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristidi, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the theory of orthogonal projection of functions or signals. Several kinds of decomposition are explored: Fourier, Fourier-Legendre, Fourier-Bessel series for 1D signals, and Spherical Harmonic series for 2D signals. We show how physical conditions and/or geometry can guide the choice of the base of functions for the decomposition. The paper is illustrated with several numerical examples.

  14. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  15. The Trouble with Long Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The fourth graders were ready to learn long division; however, their teachers were hesitant to begin the unit--just as they are every year. In a grade-level meeting with the school's math consultant, the teachers voiced their typical concerns. The math consultant was a university mathematics education professor spending a semester of sabbatical…

  16. The Goal of Long Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The advance of technology has caused many educators to question the time and energy expended for students to master the pencil-and-paper computation skills embodied in the long-division algorithm. In today's world, this mastery is truly a questionable goal. But understanding the conceptual infrastructure of the algorithm will add to students…

  17. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  18. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

  19. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  20. 78 FR 17430 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 4, 2003 (68 FR 16552). The last notification was filed with... Section 6(b) of the Act on March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17095). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  1. Manpower Division Looks at CETA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Manpower Division at the American Vocational Association (AVA) convention in Houston was concerned about youth unemployment and about the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)--its problems and possibilities. The panel discussion reported here reveals some differing perspectives and a general consensus--that to improve their role in…

  2. 77 FR 54611 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the... on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34067). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division..., Titusville, FL; and JAK Tool and Model LLC, Cranberry, NJ, have been added as parties to this venture....

  3. Parsimonious extreme learning machine using recursive orthogonal least squares.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Er, Meng Joo; Han, Min

    2014-10-01

    Novel constructive and destructive parsimonious extreme learning machines (CP- and DP-ELM) are proposed in this paper. By virtue of the proposed ELMs, parsimonious structure and excellent generalization of multiinput-multioutput single hidden-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) are obtained. The proposed ELMs are developed by innovative decomposition of the recursive orthogonal least squares procedure into sequential partial orthogonalization (SPO). The salient features of the proposed approaches are as follows: 1) Initial hidden nodes are randomly generated by the ELM methodology and recursively orthogonalized into an upper triangular matrix with dramatic reduction in matrix size; 2) the constructive SPO in the CP-ELM focuses on the partial matrix with the subcolumn of the selected regressor including nonzeros as the first column while the destructive SPO in the DP-ELM operates on the partial matrix including elements determined by the removed regressor; 3) termination criteria for CP- and DP-ELM are simplified by the additional residual error reduction method; and 4) the output weights of the SLFN need not be solved in the model selection procedure and is derived from the final upper triangular equation by backward substitution. Both single- and multi-output real-world regression data sets are used to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the CP- and DP-ELM in terms of parsimonious architecture and generalization accuracy. Innovative applications to nonlinear time-series modeling demonstrate superior identification results. PMID:25291736

  4. Orthogonality breaking through few-mode optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Parnet, Francois; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Polarization sensing and imaging through optical fibers is a technological challenge motivated by promising applications for in vivo, in situ polarimetric endoscopy for biomedical diagnosis. Among the recent approaches proposed to solve this issue, the depolarization/dichroism sensing by polarization orthogonality breaking (DSOB) technique was shown to perform remotely through single-mode optical fibers for depolarization/diattenuation measurements. In this article, we investigate the applicability of such a technique in slightly multimode waveguides. Through theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, we evidence the conditions required for the polarization orthogonality to be preserved after propagation in a few-mode fiber, notably in terms of detection geometry of the spatial modes. Original experiments realized in few-mode fibers both in transmission and reflection configurations are also reported and validate the theoretical predictions. These results allow us to analyze the influence of the experimental parameters, such as detection geometry, sample tilt, or fiber length, on orthogonality preservation and on the measurement dynamics of the DSOB technique in slightly multimode waveguides.

  5. Time-resolved proper orthogonal decomposition of liquid jet dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arienti, Marco; Soteriou, Marios C.

    2009-11-01

    New insight into the mechanism of liquid jet in crossflow atomization is provided by an analysis technique based on proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. Data are provided in the form of high-speed videos of the jet near field from experiments over a broad range of injection conditions. For each condition, proper orthogonal modes (POMs) are generated and ordered by intensity variation relative to the time average. The feasibility of jet dynamics reduction by truncation of the POM series to the first few modes is then examined as a function of crossflow velocity for laminar and turbulent liquid injection. At conditions where the jet breaks up into large chunks of liquid, the superposition of specific orthogonal modes is observed to track long waves traveling along the liquid column. The temporal coefficients of these modes can be described as a bandpass spectrum that shifts toward higher frequencies as the crossflow velocity is increased. The dynamic correlation of these modes is quantified by their cross-power spectrum density. Based on the frequency and wavelength extracted from the videos, the observed traveling waves are linked to the linearly fastest growing wave of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The gas boundary layer thickness at the gas-liquid shear layer emerges at the end of this study as the dominant length scale of jet dynamics at moderate Weber numbers.

  6. Parallel and orthogonal stimulus in ultradiluted neural networks.

    PubMed

    Sobral, G A; Vieira, V M; Lyra, M L; da Silva, C R

    2006-10-01

    Extending a model due to Derrida, Gardner, and Zippelius, we have studied the recognition ability of an extreme and asymmetrically diluted version of the Hopfield model for associative memory by including the effect of a stimulus in the dynamics of the system. We obtain exact results for the dynamic evolution of the average network superposition. The stimulus field was considered as proportional to the overlapping of the state of the system with a particular stimulated pattern. Two situations were analyzed, namely, the external stimulus acting on the initialization pattern (parallel stimulus) and the external stimulus acting on a pattern orthogonal to the initialization one (orthogonal stimulus). In both cases, we obtained the complete phase diagram in the parameter space composed of the stimulus field, thermal noise, and network capacity. Our results show that the system improves its recognition ability for parallel stimulus. For orthogonal stimulus two recognition phases emerge with the system locking at the initialization or stimulated pattern. We confront our analytical results with numerical simulations for the noiseless case T = 0. PMID:17155143

  7. Limited-memory adaptive snapshot selection for proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Oxberry, Geoffrey M.; Kostova-Vassilevska, Tanya; Arrighi, Bill; Chand, Kyle

    2015-04-02

    Reduced order models are useful for accelerating simulations in many-query contexts, such as optimization, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis. However, offline training of reduced order models can have prohibitively expensive memory and floating-point operation costs in high-performance computing applications, where memory per core is limited. To overcome this limitation for proper orthogonal decomposition, we propose a novel adaptive selection method for snapshots in time that limits offline training costs by selecting snapshots according an error control mechanism similar to that found in adaptive time-stepping ordinary differential equation solvers. The error estimator used in this work is related to theory bounding the approximation error in time of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, and memory usage is minimized by computing the singular value decomposition using a single-pass incremental algorithm. Results for a viscous Burgers’ test problem demonstrate convergence in the limit as the algorithm error tolerances go to zero; in this limit, the full order model is recovered to within discretization error. The resulting method can be used on supercomputers to generate proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order models, or as a subroutine within hyperreduction algorithms that require taking snapshots in time, or within greedy algorithms for sampling parameter space.

  8. Animation of orthogonal texture patterns for vector field visualization.

    PubMed

    Bachthaler, Sven; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces orthogonal vector field visualization on 2D manifolds: a representation by lines that are perpendicular to the input vector field. Line patterns are generated by line integral convolution (LIC). This visualization is combined with animation based on motion along the vector field. This decoupling of the line direction from the direction of animation allows us to choose the spatial frequencies along the direction of motion independently from the length scales along the LIC line patterns. Vision research indicates that local motion detectors are tuned to certain spatial frequencies of textures, and the above decoupling enables us to generate spatial frequencies optimized for motion perception. Furthermore, we introduce a combined visualization that employs orthogonal LIC patterns together with conventional, tangential streamline LIC patterns in order to benefit from the advantages of these two visualization approaches. In addition, a filtering process is described to achieve a consistent and temporally coherent animation of orthogonal vector field visualization. Different filter kernels and filter methods are compared and discussed in terms of visualization quality and speed. We present respective visualization algorithms for 2D planar vector fields and tangential vector fields on curved surfaces, and demonstrate that those algorithms lend themselves to efficient and interactive GPU implementations. PMID:18467751

  9. Minimal parameter solution of the orthogonal matrix differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baritzhack, Itzhack Y.; Markley, F. Landis

    1988-01-01

    As demonstrated in this work, all orthogonal matrices solve a first order differential equation. The straightforward solution of this equation requires n sup 2 integrations to obtain the element of the nth order matrix. There are, however, only n(n-1)/2 independent parameters which determine an orthogonal matrix. The questions of choosing them, finding their differential equation and expressing the orthogonal matrix in terms of these parameters are considered. Several possibilities which are based on attitude determination in three dimensions are examined. It is shown that not all 3-D methods have useful extensions to higher dimensions. It is also shown why the rate of change of the matrix elements, which are the elements of the angular rate vector in 3-D, are the elements of a tensor of the second rank (dyadic) in spaces other than three dimensional. It is proven that the 3-D Gibbs vector (or Cayley Parameters) are extendable to other dimensions. An algorithm is developed employing the resulting parameters, which are termed Extended Rodrigues Parameters, and numerical results are presented of the application of the algorithm to a fourth order matrix.

  10. Minimal parameter solution of the orthogonal matrix differential equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Markley, F. Landis

    1990-01-01

    As demonstrated in this work, all orthogonal matrices solve a first order differential equation. The straightforward solution of this equation requires n sup 2 integrations to obtain the element of the nth order matrix. There are, however, only n(n-1)/2 independent parameters which determine an orthogonal matrix. The questions of choosing them, finding their differential equation and expressing the orthogonal matrix in terms of these parameters are considered. Several possibilities which are based on attitude determination in three dimensions are examined. It is shown that not all 3-D methods have useful extensions to higher dimensions. It is also shown why the rate of change of the matrix elements, which are the elements of the angular rate vector in 3-D, are the elements of a tensor of the second rank (dyadic) in spaces other than three dimensional. It is proven that the 3-D Gibbs vector (or Cayley Parameters) are extendable to other dimensions. An algorithm is developed emplying the resulting parameters, which are termed Extended Rodrigues Parameters, and numerical results are presented of the application of the algorithm to a fourth order matrix.

  11. Regression analysis of correlated ordinal data using orthogonalized residuals.

    PubMed

    Perin, J; Preisser, J S; Phillips, C; Qaqish, B

    2014-12-01

    Semi-parametric regression models for the joint estimation of marginal mean and within-cluster pairwise association parameters are used in a variety of settings for population-averaged modeling of multivariate categorical outcomes. Recently, a formulation of alternating logistic regressions based on orthogonalized, marginal residuals has been introduced for correlated binary data. Unlike the original procedure based on conditional residuals, its covariance estimator is invariant to the ordering of observations within clusters. In this article, the orthogonalized residuals method is extended to model correlated ordinal data with a global odds ratio, and shown in a simulation study to be more efficient and less biased with regards to estimating within-cluster association parameters than an existing extension to ordinal data of alternating logistic regressions based on conditional residuals. Orthogonalized residuals are used to estimate a model for three correlated ordinal outcomes measured repeatedly in a longitudinal clinical trial of an intervention to improve recovery of patients' perception of altered sensation following jaw surgery.

  12. Modular and Orthogonal Synthesis of Hybrid Polymers and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Dicker, Kevin T.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials scientists strive to develop polymeric materials with distinct chemical make-up, complex molecular architectures, robust mechanical properties and defined biological functions by drawing inspirations from biological systems. Salient features of biological designs include (1) repetitive presentation of basic motifs; and (2) efficient integration of diverse building blocks. Thus, an appealing approach to biomaterials synthesis is to combine synthetic and natural building blocks in a modular fashion employing novel chemical methods. Over the past decade, orthogonal chemistries have become powerful enabling tools for the modular synthesis of advanced biomaterials. These reactions require building blocks with complementary functionalities, occur under mild conditions in the presence of biological molecules and living cells and proceed with high yield and exceptional selectivity. These chemistries have facilitated the construction of complex polymers and networks in a step-growth fashion, allowing facile modulation of materials properties by simple variations of the building blocks. In this review, we first summarize features of several types of orthogonal chemistries. We then discuss recent progress in the synthesis of step growth linear polymers, dendrimers and networks that find application in drug delivery, 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Overall, orthogonal reactions and modulular synthesis have not only minimized the steps needed for the desired chemical transformations but also maximized the diversity and functionality of the final products. The modular nature of the design, combined with the potential synergistic effect of the hybrid system, will likely result in novel hydrogel matrices with robust structures and defined functions. PMID:25572255

  13. Multilayer block copolymer meshes by orthogonal self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli K. G., Amir; Nicaise, Samuel M.; Gadelrab, Karim R.; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Ross, Caroline A.; Berggren, Karl K.

    2016-01-01

    Continued scaling-down of lithographic-pattern feature sizes has brought templated self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) into the forefront of nanofabrication research. Technologies now exist that facilitate significant control over otherwise unorganized assembly of BCP microdomains to form both long-range and locally complex monolayer patterns. In contrast, the extension of this control into multilayers or 3D structures of BCP microdomains remains limited, despite the possible technological applications in next-generation devices. Here, we develop and analyse an orthogonal self-assembly method in which multiple layers of distinct-molecular-weight BCPs naturally produce nanomesh structures of cylindrical microdomains without requiring layer-by-layer alignment or high-resolution lithographic templating. The mechanisms for orthogonal self-assembly are investigated with both experiment and simulation, and we determine that the control over height and chemical preference of templates are critical process parameters. The method is employed to produce nanomeshes with the shapes of circles and Y-intersections, and is extended to produce three layers of orthogonally oriented cylinders. PMID:26796218

  14. Physics division annual report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.

    2001-10-04

    This report summarizes the research performed in 2000 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory and medium energy physics research, and accelerator research and development. As the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee and the nuclear science community create a new long range plan for the field in 2001, it is clear that the research of the Division is closely aligned with and continues to help define the national goals of our field. The NSAC 2001 Long Range Plan recommends as the highest priority for major new construction the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), a bold step forward for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The accelerator R&D in the Physics Division has made major contributions to almost all aspects of the RIA design concept and the community was convinced that this project is ready to move forward. 2000 saw the end of the first Gammasphere epoch at ATLAS, One hundred Gammasphere experiments were completed between January 1998 and March 2000, 60% of which used the Fragment Mass Analyzer to provide mass identification in the reaction. The experimental program at ATLAS then shifted to other important research avenues including proton radioactivity, mass measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap and measurements of high energy gamma-rays in nuclear reactions with the MSU/ORNL/Texas A&M BaF{sub 2} array. ATLAS provided 5460 beam-research hours for user experiments and maintained an operational reliability of 95%. Radioactive beams accounted for 7% of the beam time. ATLAS also provided a crucial test of a key RIA concept, the ability to accelerate multiple charge states in a superconducting heavy-ion linac. This new capability was immediately used to increase the performance for a scheduled experiment. The medium energy program continued to make strides in examining how the quark-gluon structure of matter

  15. Why do electromagnetic pulses enhance bone growth?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Samuel P; Mancini, Jay D; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Grabiner, Mark

    2008-02-01

    The excitation probability of substrate molecules involved in the production of growth factors influencing the division of chondrocytes in the growth layer of bone under the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields is studied theoretically in a quantum mechanical model calculation. In this model matrix elements and anti-bonding energy levels are assumed known and the dynamics of the interaction with pulsed electromagnetic fields is derived. The derivation makes it clear that continuous pulsing or large driving currents can overwhelm local diffusive transport to the growth plane resulting in a loss of its enhancement properties. Optimal locations within a pair of Helmholtz coils for enhancement of bone growth are also investigated and found to be close to the coils. The work presented here is believed to be the first derivation in a model calculation of a physical basis for the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone growth and fusion.

  16. Interference Resilient Sigma Delta-Based Pulse Oximeter.

    PubMed

    Shokouhian, Mohsen; Morling, Richard; Kale, Izzet

    2016-06-01

    Ambient light and optical interference can severely affect the performance of pulse oximeters. The deployment of a robust modulation technique to drive the pulse oximeter LEDs can reduce these unwanted effects and increases the resilient of the pulse oximeter against artificial ambient light. The time division modulation technique used in conventional pulse oximeters can not remove the effect of modulated light coming from surrounding environment and this may cause huge measurement error in pulse oximeter readings. This paper presents a novel cross-coupled sigma delta modulator which ensures that measurement accuracy will be more robust in comparison with conventional fixed-frequency oximeter modulation technique especially in the presence of pulsed artificial ambient light. Moreover, this novel modulator gives an extra control over the pulse oximeter power consumption leading to improved power management.

  17. Interference Resilient Sigma Delta-Based Pulse Oximeter.

    PubMed

    Shokouhian, Mohsen; Morling, Richard; Kale, Izzet

    2016-06-01

    Ambient light and optical interference can severely affect the performance of pulse oximeters. The deployment of a robust modulation technique to drive the pulse oximeter LEDs can reduce these unwanted effects and increases the resilient of the pulse oximeter against artificial ambient light. The time division modulation technique used in conventional pulse oximeters can not remove the effect of modulated light coming from surrounding environment and this may cause huge measurement error in pulse oximeter readings. This paper presents a novel cross-coupled sigma delta modulator which ensures that measurement accuracy will be more robust in comparison with conventional fixed-frequency oximeter modulation technique especially in the presence of pulsed artificial ambient light. Moreover, this novel modulator gives an extra control over the pulse oximeter power consumption leading to improved power management. PMID:26742140

  18. Operational Characterization of Divisibility of Dynamical Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joonwoo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we show the operational characterization to the divisibility of dynamical maps in terms of the distinguishability of quantum channels. It is proven that the distinguishability of any pair of quantum channels does not increase under divisible maps, in which the full hierarchy of divisibility is isomorphic to the structure of entanglement between system and environment. This shows that (i) channel distinguishability is the operational quantity signifying (detecting) divisibility (indivisibility) of dynamical maps and (ii) the decision problem for the divisibility of maps is as hard as the separability problem in entanglement theory. We also provide the information-theoretic characterization to the divisibility of maps with conditional min-entropy.

  19. Colorless beat interference cancellation receiver for the orthogonally polarized SSB-OOFDM signal with reduced guard band.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Jianxin

    2016-09-10

    In the paper, we have proposed a novel optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) link scheme with the colorless beat interference cancellation receiver (BICR) structure for the single-sideband OOFDM (SSB-OOFDM) signal with an orthogonally polarized optical carrier and sideband, which is generated by using a polarization modulator and an optical band-pass filter. The BICR, employing only a polarization beam splitter and a balanced photodiode pair, can colorlessly mitigate the signal-signal beat interference (SSBI) induced by the square-law detection in a photodiode and thus the spectral efficiency (SE) is improved by reducing the guard band (GB) between the optical carrier and OOFDM signal. A simulation link for the 40  Gbit/s 16-QAM SSB-OOFDM signal with a reduced GB is built to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed scheme. The simulation results indicate that the link has a higher SE compared to the conventional intensity modulation and direction detection scheme and the BICR exhibits a better performance in suppressing SSBI according to the error vector magnitude and the constellation diagrams. PMID:27661376

  20. Fully Parallel Electrical Impedance Tomography Using Code Division Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Tšoeu, M S; Inggs, M R

    2016-06-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been dominated by the use of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) as methods of achieving orthogonal injection of excitation signals. Code Division Multiplexing (CDM), presented in this paper is an alternative that eliminates temporal data inconsistencies of TDM for fast changing systems. Furthermore, this approach eliminates data inconsistencies that arise in FDM when frequency bands of current injecting electrodes are chosen over frequencies that have large changes in the imaged object's impedance. To the authors knowledge no fully functional wideband system or simulation platform using simultaneous injection of Gold codes currents has been reported. In this paper, we formulate, simulate and develop a fully functional pseudo-random (Gold) code driven EIT system with 15 excitation currents and 16 separate voltage measurement electrodes. In the work we verify the use of CDM as a multiplexing modality in simultaneous injection EIT, using a prototype system with an overall bandwidth of 15 kHz, and attainable speed of 462 frames/s using codes with a period of 31 chips. Simulations and experiments are performed using the Electrical Impedance and Diffuse Optics Reconstruction Software (EIDORS). We also propose the use of image processing on reconstructed images to establish their quality quantitatively without access to raw reconstruction data. The results of this study show that CDM can be successfully used in EIT, and gives results of similar visual quality to TDM and FDM. Achieved performance shows average position error of 3.5% and size error of 6.2%. PMID:26731774

  1. PULSE COLUMN

    DOEpatents

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  3. Code division in optical memory devices based on photon echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalachev, Alexey A.; Vlasova, Daria D.

    2006-03-01

    The theory of multi-channel optical memory based on photon echo is developed. It is shown that under long-lived photon echo regime the writing and reading of information with code division is possible using phase modulation of reference and reading pulses. A simple method for construction of a system of noise-like signals, which is based on the segmentation of Frank sequence is proposed. It is shown that in comparison to the system of random biphase signals this system leads to the efficient decreasing of mutual influence of channels and increasing of random/noise ratio under reading of information.

  4. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  5. Electronics Division research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacRoberts, M. D. J.; Courtney, E. J.

    1984-03-01

    The status of the research development activities in the Electronics Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. Much of the work described is sponsored by the Laboratory; however, other topics are included for completeness. The Fuels Cells for Transportation Applications and the majority of the electrochemistry research are reported separately in LA-9787-PR. The Thermionic Integrated Circuits are being reported separately. The following topics are continuations of articles reported in Electronics Division Research and Development, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982 (LA-9726-PR): Photoconductive Circuit Elements, Photoconductive Materials for Far-Infrared Detector Applications, Saturable Ferromagnetic Elements, Repetitive Opening Switches, Capacitor Test Facility, Fast Gating of Microchannel-Plate Image Intensifiers, and Oxygen-Reduction Reaction - Electrode Kinetics and Electrocatalysis. The following topics are new work or were included for completeness: Photoconductive Power Switches, Ion Beam Analysis, Link Access Control and Encryption System, Coded Aperture Imaging of Gamma-Ray Sources, and Multilayer Printed Wiring Boards.

  6. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  7. Circadian clocks and cell division

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has selected a system of two intertwined cell cycles: the cell division cycle (CDC) and the daily (circadian) biological clock. The circadian clock keeps track of solar time and programs biological processes to occur at environmentally appropriate times. One of these processes is the CDC, which is often gated by the circadian clock. The intermeshing of these two cell cycles is probably responsible for the observation that disruption of the circadian system enhances susceptibility to some kinds of cancer. The core mechanism underlying the circadian clockwork has been thought to be a transcription and translation feedback loop (TTFL), but recent evidence from studies with cyanobacteria, synthetic oscillators and immortalized cell lines suggests that the core circadian pacemaking mechanism that gates cell division in mammalian cells could be a post-translational oscillator (PTO). PMID:20890114

  8. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  9. Integrated, Dual Orthogonal Antennas for Polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Mario; Wiesbeck, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar systems are mostly equipped with single polarized antennas, for example with single linear polarization or with circular polarization. The radiated waves are partly reflected at the ground surface and very often the penetrating waves are distorted in their polarization. The distortion depends on the ground homogeneity and the orientation of the antennas relative to the ground structure. The received signals from the reflecting objects may most times only be classified according to their coverage and intensity. This makes the recognition of the objects difficult or impossible. In airborne and spaceborne Remote Sensing the systems are meanwhile mostly equipped with front ends with dual orthogonal polarized antennas for a full polarimetric operation. The received signals, registered in 2x2 scattering matrices according to co- and cross polarization, are processed for the evaluation of all features of the targets. Ground penetrating radars could also profit from the scientific results of Remote Sensing. The classification of detected objects for their structure and orientation requires more information in the reflected signal than can be measured with a single polarization [1, 2]. In this paper dual linear, orthogonal polarized antennas with a common single, frequency independent phase center, are presented [3]. The relative bandwidth of these antennas can be 1:3, up to 1:4. The antenna is designed to work in the frequency range between 3 GHz and 11 GHz, but can be easily adapted to the GPR frequency range by scaling. The size of the antenna scaled for operation in typical GPR frequencies would approximately be 20 by 20 cm2. By the implementation in a dielectric carrier it could be reduced in size if required. The major problem for ultra wide band, dual polarized antennas is the frequency independent feed network, realizing the required phase shifts. For these antennas a network, which is frequency independent over a wide range, has been

  10. Cell division intersects with cell geometry.

    PubMed

    Moseley, James B; Nurse, Paul

    2010-07-23

    Single-celled organisms monitor cell geometry and use this information to control cell division. Such geometry-sensing mechanisms control both the decision to enter into cell division and the physical orientation of the chromosome segregation machinery, suggesting that signals controlling cell division may be linked to the mechanisms that ensure proper chromosome segregation.

  11. Take a Bite out of Fraction Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Rathouz, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Division of fractions is often considered the most mechanical and least understood topic in elementary school. Enacting fraction division tasks in meaningful ways requires that teachers know not only "how" fraction division works but also "why" it works. The authors have created materials to help preservice teachers develop that knowledge. To…

  12. 7 CFR 29.132 - Division investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division investigations. 29.132 Section 29.132... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.132 Division investigations. An inspector, sampler, or weigher, when authorized by the Division, may of his own initiative, or upon the request of...

  13. 25 CFR 213.29 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division orders. 213.29 Section 213.29 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Rents and Royalties § 213.29 Division orders. (a) Lessees... avail themselves of this privilege, division orders should be executed by the lessee and forwarded...

  14. 7 CFR 11.8 - Division hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division hearings. 11.8 Section 11.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION National Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.8 Division hearings. (a) General rules. (1) The Director, the Hearing Officer, and...

  15. 7 CFR 29.16 - Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division. 29.16 Section 29.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.16 Division. Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  16. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... request for comments in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12245 on the request of Lockheed Martin Corp. to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division... licenses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of...

  17. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrefai, Ahmed L.; Sasada, Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the advantages of cost, size, and weight reduction as compared to contamination detection systems using superconducting quantum interference device sensor. The detection system can be used to detect metallic contamination in foods or lithium ion battery production lines. The system has been investigated numerically to optimize various design parameters of the system. Experimental setup has been developed to evaluate some of the numerically predicted results. Steel balls were successfully detected down to the diameter of 50 μm.

  18. Variability in GRB light curves: Introducing Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, Husne; Bégué, Damien; Ryde, Felix

    2016-07-01

    Constraining the variability of GRBs is important as it is one of the few keys to estimate many unknown parameters, such as the emission radius, the Lorentz factor, the size of the progenitor. In this work, we introduced the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) method to study GRB light curves and to compute the minimum time variability of GRBs. Commonly used in medical sciences, this method reconstructs a signal by choosing among predefined functional shapes. We will discuss the implementation of the code, and compare its performances with those of other dedicated methods (Haar wavelet analysis, peak finding algorithm and step wise filter correlation).

  19. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Elrefai, Ahmed L. Sasada, Ichiro

    2015-05-07

    A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the advantages of cost, size, and weight reduction as compared to contamination detection systems using superconducting quantum interference device sensor. The detection system can be used to detect metallic contamination in foods or lithium ion battery production lines. The system has been investigated numerically to optimize various design parameters of the system. Experimental setup has been developed to evaluate some of the numerically predicted results. Steel balls were successfully detected down to the diameter of 50 μm.

  20. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  1. Capillary-Driven Flow in Liquid Filaments Connecting Orthogonal Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary phenomena plays an important role in the management of product water in PEM fuel cells because of the length scales associated with the porous layers and the gas flow channels. The distribution of liquid water within the network of gas flow channels can be dramatically altered by capillary flow. We experimentally demonstrate the rapid movement of significant volumes of liquid via capillarity through thin liquid films which connect orthogonal channels. The microfluidic experiments discussed provide a good benchmark against which the proper modeling of capillarity by computational models may be tested. The effect of surface wettability, as expressed through the contact angle, on capillary flow will also be discussed.

  2. On the dimensions of oscillator algebras induced by orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnouvo, G.; Thirulogasanthar, K.

    2014-09-01

    There is a generalized oscillator algebra associated with every class of orthogonal polynomials lbrace Ψ _n(x)rbrace _{n = 0}^{infty }, on the real line, satisfying a three term recurrence relation xΨn(x) = bnΨn+1(x) + bn-1Ψn-1(x), Ψ0(x) = 1, b-1 = 0. This note presents necessary and sufficient conditions on bn for such algebras to be of finite dimension. As examples, we discuss the dimensions of oscillator algebras associated with Hermite, Legendre, and Gegenbauer polynomials. Some remarks on the dimensions of oscillator algebras associated with multi-boson systems are also presented.

  3. Optimal approximation of harmonic growth clusters by orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, Razvan

    2008-01-01

    Interface dynamics in two-dimensional systems with a maximal number of conservation laws gives an accurate theoreticaI model for many physical processes, from the hydrodynamics of immiscible, viscous flows (zero surface-tension limit of Hele-Shaw flows), to the granular dynamics of hard spheres, and even diffusion-limited aggregation. Although a complete solution for the continuum case exists, efficient approximations of the boundary evolution are very useful due to their practical applications. In this article, the approximation scheme based on orthogonal polynomials with a deformed Gaussian kernel is discussed, as well as relations to potential theory.

  4. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  5. Dendron avidity platforms with orthogonal focal point coupling site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNerny, Daniel Quinn

    This thesis explores the design and synthesis of bifunctional or modular platforms from poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrons. PAMAM dendrons with an orthogonal focal point are evaluated, testing several click chemistry reactions for high conversion and mild conditions. The orthogonal reaction chemistry used at the dendron focal point gives a precise 1:1 ratio of the attachment of multiple functionalities to a small molecular weight, chemically stable high avidity molecule. In the first component of the thesis, dendrons were synthesized with c(RGDyK) peptide on the surface to create a scaffold for cellular targeting and multivalent binding. Binary dendron-RGD conjugates were synthesized with a single imaging agent, therapeutic drug, or additional functionalized dendron at the focal point after a copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. The targeted-dendron platform was shown to specifically target alphaVbeta3 integrin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human glioblastoma cells (U87MG) in vitro via flow cytometry. Specific targeting of the dendron-RGD platform was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Biological activity of the targeted drug conjugate was confirmed via XTT assay. The remainder of the thesis explores click chemistry reactions that do not require a metal catalyst, which may cause undesired toxicity for some biological applications. Thiol-based click chemistry, specifically the thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, is explored on dendron platforms. The thiol click reactions provide an improved efficiency, compared to CuAAC, by reaching quantitative conversion of the focal point in most cases. The thiol click reactions suffer from some setbacks: the need for a thermal or photoinitiator may prevent the conjugation of some functional ligands and the thiol chemistry is more prone to side reactions. Finally, strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions are examined. The ring-strain click chemistry

  6. A 3D Wavelet Fusion Approach for the Reconstruction of Isotropic-Resolution MR Images from Orthogonal Anisotropic-Resolution Scans

    PubMed Central

    Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Yacoub, Essa; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Hardware constraints, scanning time limitations, patient movement, and SNR considerations, restrict the slice-selection and the in-plane resolutions of MRI differently, generally resulting in anisotropic voxels. This non-uniform sampling can be problematic, especially in image segmentation and clinical examination. To alleviate this, the acquisition is divided into (two or) three separate scans, with higher in-plane resolutions and thick slices, yet orthogonal slice-selection directions. In this work, a non-iterative wavelet-based approach for combining the three orthogonal scans is adopted, and its advantages compared to other existing methods, such as Fourier techniques, are discussed, including the consideration of the actual pulse response of the MRI scanner, and its lower computational complexity. Experimental results are shown on simulated and real 7T MRI data. PMID:21761448

  7. Time resolved transport studies of magnetization reversal in orthogonal spin transfer magnetic tunnel junction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Georg; Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel; Kent, Andrew D.; Kardasz, Bartek; Watts, Steve; Pinarbasi, Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    In this work we report on time resolved magnetization reversal driven by spin transfer torque in an orthogonal spin transfer (OST) magnetic tunnel junction device. We focus on the transitions from parallel (P) to antiparallel (AP) states and the reverse transitions (AP to P) under the influence of 10 ns voltage pulses. The electrical response is monitored with a fast real-time oscilloscope and thus timing information of the reversal process is obtained. The P to AP transition switching time decreases with increasing current and shows only direct switching behavior. The AP to P transition shows similar behavior, but has a broader distribution of switching times at high currents. The rare AP to P switching events that occur at later times are due to the occurrence of a pre-oscillation, which could be identified in time resolve voltage traces. A possible origin of these pre-oscillations is seen in micromagnetic simulations, where they are associated with the breakdown of the uniform precession of the magnetization, and lead to reversal of the magnetization at later times.

  8. Orthogonal Cherenkov sound in spin-orbit coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    Conventionally the Cherenkov sound is governed by orbital degrees of freedom and is excited by supersonic particles. Additionally, it usually has a forward nature with a conic geometry known as the Cherenkov cone whose axis is oriented along the supersonic particle motion. Here we predict Cherenkov sound of a unique nature entirely resulting from the electronic spin degree of freedom and demonstrate a fundamentally distinct Cherenkov effect originating from essentially subsonic electrons in two-dimensional gases with both Bychkov-Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Specifically, we show that the axis of the conventional forward Cherenkov cone gets a nontrivial quarter-turn and at the same time the sound distribution strongly localizes around this rotated axis being now orthogonal to the subsonic particle motion. Apart from its fundamentally appealing nature, the orthogonal Cherenkov sound could have applications in planar semiconductor technology combining spin and acoustic phenomena to develop, e.g., acoustic amplifiers or sound sources with a flexible spin dependent orientation of the sound propagation.

  9. Supervised orthogonal discriminant subspace projects learning for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new linear dimension reduction method called supervised orthogonal discriminant subspace projection (SODSP) is proposed, which addresses high-dimensionality of data and the small sample size problem. More specifically, given a set of data points in the ambient space, a novel weight matrix that describes the relationship between the data points is first built. And in order to model the manifold structure, the class information is incorporated into the weight matrix. Based on the novel weight matrix, the local scatter matrix as well as non-local scatter matrix is defined such that the neighborhood structure can be preserved. In order to enhance the recognition ability, we impose an orthogonal constraint into a graph-based maximum margin analysis, seeking to find a projection that maximizes the difference, rather than the ratio between the non-local scatter and the local scatter. In this way, SODSP naturally avoids the singularity problem. Further, we develop an efficient and stable algorithm for implementing SODSP, especially, on high-dimensional data set. Moreover, the theoretical analysis shows that LPP is a special instance of SODSP by imposing some constraints. Experiments on the ORL, Yale, Extended Yale face database B and FERET face database are performed to test and evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SODSP.

  10. Texel-based image classification with orthogonal bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal-Degante, Erik; Nava, Rodrigo; Olveres, Jimena; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Kybic, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Periodic variations in patterns within a group of pixels provide important information about the surface of interest and can be used to identify objects or regions. Hence, a proper analysis can be applied to extract particular features according to some specific image properties. Recently, texture analysis using orthogonal polynomials has gained attention since polynomials characterize the pseudo-periodic behavior of textures through the projection of the pattern of interest over a group of kernel functions. However, the maximum polynomial order is often linked to the size of the texture, which implies in many cases, a complex calculation and introduces instability in higher orders leading to computational errors. In this paper, we address this issue and explore a pre-processing stage to compute the optimal size of the window of analysis called "texel." We propose Haralick-based metrics to find the main oscillation period, such that, it represents the fundamental texture and captures the minimum information, which is sufficient for classification tasks. This procedure avoids the computation of large polynomials and reduces substantially the feature space with small classification errors. Our proposal is also compared against different fixed-size windows. We also show similarities between full-image representations and the ones based on texels in terms of visual structures and feature vectors using two different orthogonal bases: Tchebichef and Hermite polynomials. Finally, we assess the performance of the proposal using well-known texture databases found in the literature.

  11. Improved analytical model for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxu; Li, Bin; Xiong, Liangshan

    2014-09-01

    The analytical model of residual stress in orthogonal cutting proposed by Jiann is an important tool for residual stress prediction in orthogonal cutting. In application of the model, a problem of low precision of the surface residual stress prediction is found. By theoretical analysis, several shortages of Jiann's model are picked out, including: inappropriate boundary conditions, unreasonable calculation method of thermal stress, ignorance of stress constraint and cyclic loading algorithm. These shortages may directly lead to the low precision of the surface residual stress prediction. To eliminate these shortages and make the prediction more accurate, an improved model is proposed. In this model, a new contact boundary condition between tool and workpiece is used to make it in accord with the real cutting process; an improved calculation method of thermal stress is adopted; a stress constraint is added according to the volumeconstancy of plastic deformation; and the accumulative effect of the stresses during cyclic loading is considered. At last, an experiment for measuring residual stress in cutting AISI 1045 steel is conducted. Also, Jiann's model and the improved model are simulated under the same conditions with cutting experiment. The comparisons show that the surface residual stresses predicted by the improved model is closer to the experimental results than the results predicted by Jiann's model.

  12. SpyAvidin Hubs Enable Precise and Ultrastable Orthogonal Nanoassembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The capture of biotin by streptavidin is an inspiration for supramolecular chemistry and a central tool for biological chemistry and nanotechnology, because of the rapid and exceptionally stable interaction. However, there is no robust orthogonal interaction to this hub, limiting the size and complexity of molecular assemblies that can be created. Here we combined traptavidin (a streptavidin variant maximizing biotin binding strength) with an orthogonal irreversible interaction. SpyTag is a peptide engineered to form a spontaneous isopeptide bond to its protein partner SpyCatcher. SpyTag or SpyCatcher was successfully fused to the C-terminus of Dead streptavidin subunits. We were able to generate chimeric tetramers with n (0 ≤ n ≤ 4) biotin binding sites and 4-n SpyTag or SpyCatcher binding sites. Chimeric SpyAvidin tetramers bound precise numbers of ligands fused to biotin or SpyTag/SpyCatcher. Mixing chimeric tetramers enabled assembly of SpyAvidin octamers (8 subunits) or eicosamers (20 subunits). We validated assemblies using electrophoresis and native mass spectrometry. Eicosameric SpyAvidin was used to cluster trimeric major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I:β2-microglobulin:peptide complexes, generating an assembly with up to 56 components. MHC eicosamers surpassed the conventional MHC tetramers in acting as a powerful stimulus to T cell signaling. Combining ultrastable noncovalent with irreversible covalent interaction, SpyAvidins enable a simple route to create robust nanoarchitectures. PMID:25111182

  13. Xylonucleic acid: synthesis, structure, and orthogonal pairing properties

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Mohitosh; Maiti, Munmun; Knies, Christine; Dumbre, Shrinivas; Lescrinier, Eveline; Rosemeyer, Helmut; Ceulemans, Arnout; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-01-01

    There is a common interest for studying xeno-nucleic acid systems in the fields of synthetic biology and the origin of life, in particular, those with an engineered backbone and possessing novel properties. Along this line, we have investigated xylonucleic acid (XyloNA) containing a potentially prebiotic xylose sugar (a 3′-epimer of ribose) in its backbone. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of four XyloNA nucleotide building blocks and the assembly of XyloNA oligonucleotides containing all the natural nucleobases. A detailed investigation of pairing and structural properties of XyloNAs in comparison to DNA/RNA has been performed by thermal UV-melting, CD, and solution state NMR spectroscopic studies. XyloNA has been shown to be an orthogonal self-pairing system which adopts a slightly right-handed extended helical geometry. Our study on one hand, provides understanding for superior structure-function (-pairing) properties of DNA/RNA over XyloNA for selection as an informational polymer in the prebiotic context, while on the other hand, finds potential of XyloNA as an orthogonal genetic system for application in synthetic biology. PMID:26175047

  14. Statistical benchmarking for orthogonal electrostatic quantum dot qubit devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John; Frees, Adam; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor systems have emerged as attractive candidates for the implementation of quantum information processors because of the promise of scalability, manipulability, and integration with existing classical electronics. A limitation in current devices is that the electrostatic gates used for qubit manipulation exhibit strong cross-capacitance, presenting a barrier for practical scale-up. Here, we introduce a statistical framework for making precise the notion of orthogonality. We apply our method to analyze recently implemented designs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that exhibit much increased orthogonal control than was previously possible. We then use our statistical modeling to future device designs, providing practical guidelines for devices to have robust control properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressly or implied, of the US Government. This work was supported in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories, by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), and by the United States Department of Defense.

  15. Orthogonal Cherenkov sound in spin-orbit coupled systems

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally the Cherenkov sound is governed by orbital degrees of freedom and is excited by supersonic particles. Additionally, it usually has a forward nature with a conic geometry known as the Cherenkov cone whose axis is oriented along the supersonic particle motion. Here we predict Cherenkov sound of a unique nature entirely resulting from the electronic spin degree of freedom and demonstrate a fundamentally distinct Cherenkov effect originating from essentially subsonic electrons in two-dimensional gases with both Bychkov-Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Specifically, we show that the axis of the conventional forward Cherenkov cone gets a nontrivial quarter-turn and at the same time the sound distribution strongly localizes around this rotated axis being now orthogonal to the subsonic particle motion. Apart from its fundamentally appealing nature, the orthogonal Cherenkov sound could have applications in planar semiconductor technology combining spin and acoustic phenomena to develop, e.g., acoustic amplifiers or sound sources with a flexible spin dependent orientation of the sound propagation. PMID:26083355

  16. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  17. Orthogonal least squares learning algorithm for radial basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Cowan, C N; Grant, P M

    1991-01-01

    The radial basis function network offers a viable alternative to the two-layer neural network in many applications of signal processing. A common learning algorithm for radial basis function networks is based on first choosing randomly some data points as radial basis function centers and then using singular-value decomposition to solve for the weights of the network. Such a procedure has several drawbacks, and, in particular, an arbitrary selection of centers is clearly unsatisfactory. The authors propose an alternative learning procedure based on the orthogonal least-squares method. The procedure chooses radial basis function centers one by one in a rational way until an adequate network has been constructed. In the algorithm, each selected center maximizes the increment to the explained variance or energy of the desired output and does not suffer numerical ill-conditioning problems. The orthogonal least-squares learning strategy provides a simple and efficient means for fitting radial basis function networks. This is illustrated using examples taken from two different signal processing applications.

  18. Orthogonal Protein Assembly on DNA Nanostructures Using Relaxases

    PubMed Central

    Sagredo, Sandra; Pirzer, Tobias; Aghebat Rafat, Ali; Goetzfried, Marisa A.; Moncalian, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA‐binding proteins are promising reagents for the sequence‐specific modification of DNA‐based nanostructures. Here, we investigate the utility of a series of relaxase proteins—TrwC, TraI, and MobA—for nanofunctionalization. Relaxases are involved in the conjugative transfer of plasmids between bacteria, and bind to their DNA target sites via a covalent phosphotyrosine linkage. We study the binding of the relaxases to two standard DNA origami structures—rodlike six‐helix bundles and flat rectangular origami sheets. We find highly orthogonal binding of the proteins with binding yields of 40–50 % per binding site, which is comparable to other functionalization methods. The yields differ for the two origami structures and also depend on the position of the binding sites. Due to their specificity for a single‐stranded DNA target, their orthogonality, and their binding properties, relaxases are a uniquely useful addition to the toolbox available for the modification of DNA nanostructures with proteins. PMID:26915475

  19. Orthogonal Ambipolar Semiconductor Nanostructures for Complementary Logic Gates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiguo; Markwart, Jens C; Briseno, Alejandro L; Hayward, Ryan C

    2016-09-27

    We report orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors that exhibit hole and electron transport in perpendicular directions based on aligned films of nanocrystalline "shish-kebabs" containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and N,N'-di-n-octyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as p- and n-type components, respectively. Polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements reveal a high degree of in-plane alignment. Relying on the orientation of interdigitated electrodes to enable efficient charge transport from either the respective p- or n-channel materials, we demonstrate semiconductor films with high anisotropy in the sign of charge carriers. Films of these aligned crystalline semiconductors were used to fabricate complementary inverter devices, which exhibited good switching behavior and a high noise margin of 80% of 1/2 Vdd. Moreover, complementary "NAND" and "NOR" logic gates were fabricated and found to exhibit excellent voltage transfer characteristics and low static power consumption. The ability to optimize the performance of these devices, simply by adjusting the solution concentrations of P3HT and PDI, makes this a simple and versatile method for preparing ambipolar organic semiconductor devices and high-performance logic gates. Further, we demonstrate that this method can also be applied to mixtures of PDI with another conjugated polymer, poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene]) (PBTTT), with better hole transport characteristics than P3HT, opening the door to orthogonal ambipolar semiconductors with higher performance.

  20. Orthogonal Connectivity Factorization: Interpretable Decomposition of Variability in Correlation Matrices.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Aapo; Hirayama, Jun-ichiro; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kawanabe, Motoaki

    2016-03-01

    In many multivariate time series, the correlation structure is nonstationary, that is, it changes over time. The correlation structure may also change as a function of other cofactors, for example, the identity of the subject in biomedical data. A fundamental approach for the analysis of such data is to estimate the correlation structure (connectivities) separately in short time windows or for different subjects and use existing machine learning methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), to summarize or visualize the changes in connectivity. However, the visualization of such a straightforward PCA is problematic because the ensuing connectivity patterns are much more complex objects than, say, spatial patterns. Here, we develop a new framework for analyzing variability in connectivities using the PCA approach as the starting point. First, we show how to analyze and visualize the principal components of connectivity matrices by a tailor-made rank-two matrix approximation in which we use the outer product of two orthogonal vectors. This leads to a new kind of transformation of eigenvectors that is particularly suited for this purpose and often enables interpretation of the principal component as connectivity between two groups of variables. Second, we show how to incorporate the orthogonality and the rank-two constraint in the estimation of PCA itself to improve the results. We further provide an interpretation of these methods in terms of estimation of a probabilistic generative model related to blind separation of dependent sources. Experiments on brain imaging data give very promising results. PMID:26735746

  1. Strong pulsed excitations using circularly polarized fields for ultra-low field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seong-Joo; Yu, Kwon-Kyu; Hwang, Seong-Min; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-02-01

    A pulse, which is produced by a single coil and thereby has a linear polarization, cannot coherently drive nuclear spins if the pulse is stronger than the static field B0. The inaccuracy of the pulse, which arises from the failure of the rotating wave approximation, has been an obstacle in adopting multiple pulse techniques in ultra-low field NMR where B0 is less than a few μT. Here, we show that such a limitation can be overcome by applying pulses of circular polarization using two orthogonal coils. The sinusoidal nutation of the nuclear spins was experimentally obtained, which indicates that coherent and precise controls of the nuclear spins can be achieved with circularly polarized pulses. Additional demonstration of the Carl-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence verifies the feasibility of adopting multiple pulse sequences to ultra-low field NMR studies.

  2. Beamline pulsing system for cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkinen, Jouko; Gustafsson, Jouni; Kivikoski, Markku; Liukkonen, Esko; Nieminen, Veikko

    A beamline pulsing system for cyclotrons is presented. The function of this system is to modify the structure of a cyclotron ion beam guided to the desired research target by a beamline. In some in-beam experiments, an adjustment of the time structure of the beam is sometimes needed. This kind of situation occurs if, for example, the life time of the target material is longer than the period corresponding to the beam frequency. In this case, the frequency of the ion pulses hitting the target is 10-21 MHz depending on the frequency of the acceleration voltage. The adjustment of the ion beam pulse frequency is carried out by a beamline deflector. Deflection is achieved by feeding a high-amplitude (10-15 kV) RF-signal between the deflection plates positioned into the beamline. This signal is generated from the cyclotron reference signal by frequency division, phase adjustment and amplification. Simulation and test results indicate that the specified deflection signal level is achieved with 1 kW of RF-power.

  3. Pulsed response of a TWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The consequence of frequency domain multiple access channelization in a satellite communications system is that the ground- and space-based components often are required to operate in a linear region to prevent the generation of distortion signals. Components of a time division multiple access (TDMA) satellite system, such as a traveling-wave tube (TWT), can operate in the highest output power state because the channelization technique is relatively insensitive to the distortions resulting from saturated operation. A 30 GHz TWT was tested to determine the suitability of such a device in a TDMA system. Testing was focused on the ability of the TWT's output signal to rise up to full power at the leading edge of TDMA bursts, simulated by a pulse train. A peak power meter was used to display and measure the pulsed signal waveform. Measurements on the TWT output pulse rise time indicate that the TWT lengthened the rise time by 10 to 20 ns. Imposing modulator turn on timing that precedes the data burst by the TWT rise time is a logical approach to coordination of the two subsystem specification.

  4. Emerging facets of plastid division regulation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Indranil; Møller, Simon Geir

    2013-02-01

    Plastids are complex organelles that are integrated into the plant host cell where they differentiate and divide in tune with plant differentiation and development. In line with their prokaryotic origin, plastid division involves both evolutionary conserved proteins and proteins of eukaryotic origin where the host has acquired control over the process. The plastid division apparatus is spatially separated between the stromal and the cytosolic space but where clear coordination mechanisms exist between the two machineries. Our knowledge of the plastid division process has increased dramatically during the past decade and recent findings have not only shed light on plastid division enzymology and the formation of plastid division complexes but also on the integration of the division process into a multicellular context. This review summarises our current knowledge of plastid division with an emphasis on biochemical features, the functional assembly of protein complexes and regulatory features of the overall process. PMID:22965912

  5. Emerging facets of plastid division regulation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Indranil; Møller, Simon Geir

    2013-02-01

    Plastids are complex organelles that are integrated into the plant host cell where they differentiate and divide in tune with plant differentiation and development. In line with their prokaryotic origin, plastid division involves both evolutionary conserved proteins and proteins of eukaryotic origin where the host has acquired control over the process. The plastid division apparatus is spatially separated between the stromal and the cytosolic space but where clear coordination mechanisms exist between the two machineries. Our knowledge of the plastid division process has increased dramatically during the past decade and recent findings have not only shed light on plastid division enzymology and the formation of plastid division complexes but also on the integration of the division process into a multicellular context. This review summarises our current knowledge of plastid division with an emphasis on biochemical features, the functional assembly of protein complexes and regulatory features of the overall process.

  6. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  7. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2006-08-01

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  8. Methods and composition for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2012-05-08

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  9. Methods and compositions for the production of orthogonal tRNA-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter G.; Wang, Lei; Anderson, John Christopher; Chin, Jason W.; Liu, David R.; Magliery, Thomas J.; Meggers, Eric L.; Mehl, Ryan Aaron; Pastrnak, Miro; Santoro, Stephen William; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2015-10-20

    This invention provides compositions and methods for generating components of protein biosynthetic machinery including orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases. Methods for identifying orthogonal pairs are also provided. These components can be used to incorporate unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo.

  10. [Hospital infection control in 21st century, the importance of networking with each division and clinical laboratory in the hospital. 1. From the aspect of clinical laboratory division].

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, T

    2001-08-01

    Clinical laboratory division plays an important roll for the management of nosocomial infection. Staff from clinical laboratory division including technologist and/or medical doctor can work as a part of infection control team. Since the bacterial surveillance data from clinically isolated strains accumulates in the clinical laboratory division, these staff have a chance to notice outbreak in hospital at first time. While handling information from each strain, we need to feedback these data with additional information for physicians. From June, 2000, a national project started. That was a surveillance program for drag-resistant bacteria. We can compare information from local isolates and nation-wide isolates by this project. Genotypic methods especially pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE) is suitable for the identification of infection route in the hospital environment. And PFGE analysis for pathogenic strains works effective in our hospital.

  11. Coherent vorticity extraction in resistive drift-wave turbulence: Comparison of orthogonal wavelets versus proper orthogonal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Futatani, S.; Bos, W.J.T.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Schneider, Kai; Benkadda, S.; Farge, Marie

    2011-01-01

    We assess two techniques for extracting coherent vortices out of turbulent flows: the wavelet based Coherent Vorticity Extraction (CVE) and the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). The former decomposes the flow field into an orthogonal wavelet representation and subsequent thresholding of the coefficients allows one to split the flow into organized coherent vortices with non-Gaussian statistics and an incoherent random part which is structureless. POD is based on the singular value decomposition and decomposes the flow into basis functions which are optimal with respect to the retained energy for the ensemble average. Both techniques are applied to direct numerical simulation data of two-dimensional drift-wave turbulence governed by Hasegawa Wakatani equation, considering two limit cases: the quasi-hydrodynamic and the quasi-adiabatic regimes. The results are compared in terms of compression rate, retained energy, retained enstrophy and retained radial flux, together with the enstrophy spectrum and higher order statistics. (c) 2010 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Academie des sciences.

  12. The generation of arbitrary vector beams using a division of a wavefront-based setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Ranjan; Gaffar, Md; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce an arbitrary vector-beam-forming scheme using a simple arrangement involving only one liquid crystal spatial light modulator. An arbitrary vector beam can be obtained by overlapping two orthogonally polarized beams. In most of the existing vector-beam-forming schemes the two orthogonally polarized beams are essentially copies of a single incident wavefront. However, in the proposed scheme the two orthogonally polarized beams correspond to two separated parts of a single incident wavefront. Taking a cue from the two-beam interference phenomenon, the present scheme can be referred to as a division of a wavefront-based scheme. The proposed setup offers certain important advantages and is more suitable for the generation of higher average-power vector beams. We demonstrate the working of the vector-beam-forming scheme by generating various vector beams such as radially polarized, azimuthally polarized, and Bessel-Gauss beams and also a boat-shaped beam in the focal volume of a low-numerical-aperture focusing lens. The boat-shaped beam comprises a dark center surrounded by intense light from all but one direction. The beam is realized at the focus of an azimuthally polarized beam in the presence of a moderate amount of coma in the beam. The experimental results obtained using the proposed setup are verified by comparing them with the theoretical results.

  13. Three Dimensional Wind Speed and Flux Measurement over a Rain-fed Soybean Field Using Orthogonal and Non-orthogonal Sonic Anemometer Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Suyker, A.; Burba, G. G.; Billesbach, D.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method for estimating fluxes of trace gases, energy and momentum in the constant flux layer above a plant canopy fundamentally relies on accurate measurements of the vertical wind speed. This wind speed is typically measured using a three dimensional ultrasonic anemometer. These anemometers incorporate designs with transducer sets that are aligned either orthogonally or non-orthogonally. Previous studies comparing the two designs suggest differences in measured 3D wind speed components, in particular vertical wind speed, from the non-orthogonal transducer relative to the orthogonal design. These differences, attributed to additional flow distortion caused by the non-orthogonal transducer arrangement, directly affect fluxes of trace gases, energy and momentum. A field experiment is being conducted over a rain-fed soybean field at the AmeriFlux site (US-Ne3) near Mead, Nebraska. In this study, ultrasonic anemometers featuring orthogonal transducer sets (ATI Vx Probe) and non-orthogonal transducer sets (Gill R3-100) collect high frequency wind vector and sonic temperature data. Sensible heat and momentum fluxes and other key sonic performance data are evaluated based on environmental parameters including wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and angle of attack. Preliminary field experiment results are presented.

  14. Application of neural networks with orthogonal activation functions in control of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Saša S.; Antić, Dragan S.; Milojković, Marko T.; Milovanović, Miroslav B.; Perić, Staniša Lj.; Mitić, Darko B.

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we present a new method for the synthesis of almost and quasi-orthogonal polynomials of arbitrary order. Filters designed on the bases of these functions are generators of generalised quasi-orthogonal signals for which we derived and presented necessary mathematical background. Based on theoretical results, we designed and practically implemented generalised first-order (k = 1) quasi-orthogonal filter and proved its quasi-orthogonality via performed experiments. Designed filters can be applied in many scientific areas. In this article, generated functions were successfully implemented in Nonlinear Auto Regressive eXogenous (NARX) neural network as activation functions. One practical application of the designed orthogonal neural network is demonstrated through the example of control of the complex technical non-linear system - laboratory magnetic levitation system. Obtained results were compared with neural networks with standard activation functions and orthogonal functions of trigonometric shape. The proposed network demonstrated superiority over existing solutions in the sense of system performances.

  15. One method for calculating flux-MMF relationship of orthogonal-core

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Katsubumi; Kaga, Akio; Anazawa, Yoshihisa . Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering); Ichinokura, Osamu . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    The orthogonal-core has various applications, e.g. as a variable inductor, a parametric transformer and a DC-AC converter. This paper describes one method for calculating the flux-MMF relationship of an orthogonal-core. The calculation is based on a 3-dimensional magnetic circuit model of the orthogonal-core. The model is derived by dividing the orthogonal-core, inclusive of the surrounding region, into elements comprising a 3-dimensional magnetic circuit. Using this model, the authors can compute the flux-MMF relationship of the orthogonal core with arbitrary dimensions from the B-H characteristic of the core material. The calculation method presented here is useful for optimum design of devices using an orthogonal-core.

  16. Structures Division 1994 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1994 are presented.

  17. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-09-05

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  18. Density differences in embedding theory with external orbital orthogonality.

    PubMed

    Tamukong, Patrick K; Khait, Yuriy G; Hoffmann, Mark R

    2014-10-01

    First results on electron densities and energies for a number of molecular complexes with different interaction strengths (ranging from ca. 0.3 to 40 kcal/mol), obtained using our recently introduced DFT-in-DFT embedding equations (i.e., Kohn-Sham equations with constrained electron density (KSCED) and external orbital orthogonality (ext orth), KSCED(x, ext orth), where x denotes the single particle support: monomer (m); supermolecular (s); or extended monomer (e)) are compared with densities from supermolecular Kohn-Sham (KS)-DFT calculations and traditional DFT-in-DFT results. Because our methodology does not rely on error-prone potentials that are not present in supermolecular KS-DFT calculations, it allows DFT-in-DFT calculations to achieve much higher accuracy than previous protocols of DFT-in-DFT that employed such potentials. It is shown that whereas conventional DFT-in-DFT embedding theory leads to errors in the electron density at the boundary between subsystems, the situation is remedied when orbital orthogonality between subsystems (i.e., external orthogonality) is enforced. Our approach reproduces KS-DFT total energies at least to the seventh decimal place (and exactly at most geometries) for the tested systems. Potential energy curves (PECs) of the separation of some of the tested systems into fragments are calculated. PECs, obtained with the new equations, using the usual Kohn-Sham equations with constrained electron density and supermolecular basis expansion [KSCED(s, ext orth, v(T) = 0), where v(T) is the nonadditive kinetic potential] were found to be virtually identical to those from conventional KS-DFT; equilibrium distances and interaction energies were reproduced to all reported digits for both local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals. As an additional approximation, an alternative one-particle space (to the common monomer or supermolecular spaces) in which KS orbitals of a subsystem are

  19. Fully orthogonal optical-code multiplex for broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R I

    1988-06-01

    A novel method of optical-code multiplex transmission from a central location is proposed. It has the advantages that the receivers can be configured to any channel quickly, the channels have in principle zero cross talk, and the bandwidth-expansion factors are less than for other optical-code-division multiple access arrangements. The proposed method is based on arrays of optoelectronic switching detectors that are at present under development for broadband matrix switching.

  20. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-03-11

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-08-18

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-10-04

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  3. Compositions of orthogonal lysyl-tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J. Christopher; Wu, Ning; Santoro, Stephen; Schultz, Peter G.

    2009-12-29

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal lysyl-tRNAs, orthogonal lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of lysyl-tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate homoglutamines into proteins are provided in response to a four base codon. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with homoglutamines using these orthogonal pairs.

  4. Ensemble forecast of typhoon generated by orthogonal conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zhenhua; Duan, Wansuo; Zhou, Feifan

    2016-04-01

    Orthogonal conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) are the initial perturbations that have the largest impact on the forecast results in orthogonal subspaces of the initial perturbation space. Previous studies demonstrate the successful application of orthogonal CNOPs in ensemble forecasting. And further analysis indicates that orthogonal CNOPs may be more adapt to the prediction of strong events, among which typhoon events occur in the tropical or subtropical areas where the diabatic physical processes is very important and has strong nonlinear behavior. For these reasons, this paper focuses on the application of orthogonal CNOPs in ensemble forecast of typhoon. In this study, orthogonal CNOPs, orthogonal singular vectors (SVs), bred vectors (BVs) and random perturbations (RPs) are applied for typhoon ensemble forecasts using MM5 model. The results show that, for typhoons Matsa in 2005 and Sepat in 2007, ensemble forecasts generated by orthogonal CNOPs greatly improve the control forecast, successfully predicts the landing location of Matsa, and gives the warning information of the landing of Sepat. In detail, for the ensemble mean associated with orthogonal CNOPs, the averaging track forecast error over 5 days is decreased by 45.58 km for Matsa and 87.8 km for Sepat, compared with control forecast. However, ensemble forecasts generated by other three methods could not successfully predict the landing location of Matsa and give the warning information of the landing of Sepat. Compared with orthogonal SVs, BVs and RPs, ensemble forecasts generated by orthogonal CNOPs corresponds to the largest ensemble spread, improves the control forecast at the largest extent, and best samples the distribution of initial analysis errors. All these results show that orthogonal CNOPs may provide another useful technique for ensemble forecast of typhoon.

  5. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  6. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  7. Demonstration of 2×ONU 80 Gbps direct detection colorless polarization division multiplexing frequency division multiplexing passive optical network uplink transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhixin; Xu, Yinfan; Wang, Yanyi; Wang, Yuanquan; Chi, Nan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple direct detection passive optical network (PON) uplink transmission scheme based on frequency division multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing. Two optical network units (ONUs) are assigned to two different frequency bands at two different orthogonal polarization directions. At the optical line terminal, both ONU signals can be simultaneously detected by a single photodiode without utilizing any polarization control, polarization selection, or complicated polarization demultiplexing algorithms. As a proof-of-concept, the 2×ONU 80 Gbps 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation Nyquist single carrier signals are successfully transmitted over 2 km standard single mode fiber or 20 km large effective area fiber with the assistance of frequency domain equalization and decision-directed least-mean-square. The measured bit error rate can be below the 7% pre-forward error correction threshold of 3.8×10-3. Meanwhile, this scheme is compatible with the widely used wavelength-division multiplexed PON, which shows the promising potential and feasibility of this proposal.

  8. Antioxidant peptides from corn gluten meal: Orthogonal design evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cunshan; Hu, Jiali; Ma, Haile; Yagoub, Abu ElGasim A; Yu, Xiaojie; Owusu, John; Ma, Haiyan; Qin, Xiaopei

    2015-11-15

    Protamex catalyzed corn gluten meal (CGM) hydrolysis peptides (CHP) were prepared. Orthogonal design L16 (4(5)) was used to optimize processing variables of CGM concentration, CGM heat pretreatment (121 °C) time, and enzymolysis pH, temperature, and time. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), undigested residue ratio, molecular weight (MW) distribution and DPPH radical inhibition were selected as analysis indicators. Optimum variables were CGM concentration of 18%, heat pretreatment time of 40 min, and enzymolysis pH, temperature and time of 7.5, 55 °C and 24h, respectively. Verification test showed that CHP IC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was the best and then followed by reducing power. Oligopeptides improved after hydrolysis at the expense of di- and tripeptides, suggesting formation of soluble aggregates from low MW peptides. The increase in the DH, oligopeptides, Alanyl-Tyrosine, and antioxidant free amino acids coincided with the improvement in the antioxidant activity of CHP. PMID:25977026

  9. Non-coherent Receivers for Orthogonal Space-Time CPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Tarkesh; Huh, Heon; Krogmeier, James; Love, David

    Continuous phase modulation (CPM) is a non-linear modulation technique whose power and bandwidth efficiency make it an attractive choice for mobile communication systems. Current research has focused on devising encoding rules for using CPM over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems in order to obtain the improved bit error rate (BER) and high data rates promised by MIMO technology. In this paper, optimal and suboptimal non-coherent receivers for a class of CPM signals called orthogonal space-time CPM (OST-CPM) are derived under a quasi-static fading channel assumption. The performance of these receivers is characterized and shown to achieve the same diversity order as that of the corresponding optimal coherent receiver.

  10. Regioselective chromatic orthogonality with light-activated metathesis catalysts.

    PubMed

    Levin, Efrat; Mavila, Sudheendran; Eivgi, Or; Tzur, Eyal; Lemcoff, N Gabriel

    2015-10-12

    The ability to selectively guide consecutive chemical processes towards a preferred pathway by using light of different frequencies is an appealing concept. Herein we describe the coupling of two photochemical reactions, one the photoisomerization and consequent activation of a sulfur-chelated latent olefin-metathesis catalyst at 350 nm, and the other the photocleavage of a silyl protecting group at 254 nm. Depending on the steric stress exerted by a photoremovable neighboring chemical substituent, we demonstrate the selective formation of either five- or six-membered-ring frameworks by light-triggered ring-closing metathesis. The orthogonality of these light-induced reactions allows the initiation of these processes independently and in interchangeable order, according to the wavelength of light used to promote them.

  11. Asymptotic formulae for the zeros of orthogonal polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Badkov, V M

    2012-09-30

    Let p{sub n}(t) be an algebraic polynomial that is orthonormal with weight p(t) on the interval [-1, 1]. When p(t) is a perturbation (in certain limits) of the Chebyshev weight of the first kind, the zeros of the polynomial p{sub n}( cos {tau}) and the differences between pairs of (not necessarily consecutive) zeros are shown to satisfy asymptotic formulae as n{yields}{infinity}, which hold uniformly with respect to the indices of the zeros. Similar results are also obtained for perturbations of the Chebyshev weight of the second kind. First, some preliminary results on the asymptotic behaviour of the difference between two zeros of an orthogonal trigonometric polynomial, which are needed, are established. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  12. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-03-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  13. Calculation of turbulent reactive flows in general orthogonal coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, M. K. Y.

    1992-02-01

    The mathematical and numerical methodology for an extended and enhanced version of the TURCOM computer code, called TURCOM-BFC, is presented. This code solves the conservation equations of multi-component chemically reactive and turbulent flows in general curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. The k-epsilon turbulence submodel is used. Flame chemistry assumes a number of species and chemical reactions. The latter are subdivided into finite-rate reaction steps and a one-step irreversible reaction, whose rate is controlled by a combination of mixing and global kinetics. Both the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented to solve the system of equations. The capability of TURCOM-BFC is tested and demonstrated by predicting 3-dimensional combustion flow inside a reaction furnace, where both polar-cylindrical and bipolar coordinates are used.

  14. State diagram of an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Li; Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D.; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-21

    We present the switching characteristics of a spin-transfer device that incorporates a perpendicularly magnetized spin-polarizing layer with an in-plane magnetized free and fixed magnetic layer, known as an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device. This device shows clear switching between parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) resistance states and the reverse transition (AP → P) for both current polarities. Further, hysteretic transitions are shown to occur into a state with a resistance intermediate between that of the P and AP states, again for both current polarities. These unusual spin-transfer switching characteristics can be explained within a simple macrospin model that incorporates thermal fluctuations and considers a spin-polarized current that is tilted with respect to the free layer's plane, due to the presence of the spin-transfer torque from the polarizing layer.

  15. Independent component analysis (ICA) using wavelet subband orthogonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Yamakawa, Takeshi

    1998-03-01

    There are two kinds of RRP: (1) invertible ones, such as global Fourier transform (FT), local wavelet transform (WT), and adaptive wavelet transform (AWT); and (2) non-invertible ones, e.g. ICA including the global principle component analysis (PCA). The invertible FT and WT can be related to the non-invertible ICA when the continuous transforms are approximate din discrete matrix-vector operations. The landmark accomplishment of ICA is to obtain, by unsupervised learning algorithm, the edge-map as image feature ayields, shown by Helsinki researchers using fourth order statistics of nyields -- Kurosis K(uyields), and derived from information- theoretical first principle is augmented by the orthogonality property of the DWT subband used necessarily for usual image compression. If we take the advantage of the subband decorrelation, we have potentially an efficient utilization of a pari of communication channels if we could send several more mixed subband images through the pair of channels.

  16. Orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen Fulton; Moore, James Anthony

    2014-04-01

    An orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing includes a dual-polyhedral oscillator array, including an outer sensing array of oscillators and an inner clock array of oscillators situated inside the outer sensing array. The outer sensing array includes a first pair of sensing oscillators situated along a first axis of the outer sensing array, a second pair of sensing oscillators situated along a second axis of the outer sensing array, and a third pair of sensing oscillators situated along a third axis of the outer sensing array. The inner clock array of oscillators includes a first pair of clock oscillators situated along a first axis of the inner clock array, a second pair of clock oscillators situated along a second axis of the inner clock array, and a third pair of clock oscillators situated along a third axis of the inner clock array.

  17. Orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen Fulton; Moore, James Anthony

    2013-02-26

    An orthogonally referenced integrated ensemble for navigation and timing includes a dual-polyhedral oscillator array, including an outer sensing array of oscillators and an inner clock array of oscillators situated inside the outer sensing array. The outer sensing array includes a first pair of sensing oscillators situated along a first axis of the outer sensing array, a second pair of sensing oscillators situated along a second axis of the outer sensing array, and a third pair of sensing oscillators situated along a third axis of the outer sensing array. The inner clock array of oscillators includes a first pair of clock oscillators situated along a first axis of the inner clock array, a second pair of clock oscillators situated along a second axis of the inner clock array, and a third pair of clock oscillators situated along a third axis of the inner clock array.

  18. Orthogonal chromatographic descriptors for modelling Caco-2 drug permeability.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Verstraete, T; Van Gyseghem, E; Vander Heyden, Y; Coomans, D

    2012-03-01

    The use of chromatographic descriptors as alternative for Caco-2 permeability in drug absorption screening was evaluated. Therefore, retentions were measured on 17 Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic systems, considered to be orthogonal or dissimilar, and an Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) system. Retentions on a Micellar Liquid Chromatography system were taken from the literature. From this set of systems, those found dissimilar for the used data set were selected. The retention factors on these systems were then used as descriptors in QSAR modelling. Modelling was performed using Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression. This resulted in a model using only two chromatographic systems with good descriptive and acceptable predictive properties. A high qualitative model was obtained by combining both chromatographic systems selected in the previous model with a lipophilicity parameter (the squared Moriguchi n-octanol/water partition coefficient) and the molecular volume.

  19. Awake hippocampal reactivations project onto orthogonal neuronal assemblies.

    PubMed

    Malvache, Arnaud; Reichinnek, Susanne; Villette, Vincent; Haimerl, Caroline; Cossart, Rosa

    2016-09-16

    The chained activation of neuronal assemblies is thought to support major cognitive processes, including memory. In the hippocampus, this is observed during population bursts often associated with sharp-wave ripples, in the form of an ordered reactivation of neurons. However, the organization and lifetime of these assemblies remain unknown. We used calcium imaging to map patterns of synchronous neuronal activation in the CA1 region of awake mice during runs on a treadmill. The patterns were composed of the recurring activation of anatomically intermingled, but functionally orthogonal, assemblies. These assemblies reactivated discrete temporal segments of neuronal sequences observed during runs and could be stable across consecutive days. A binding of these assemblies into longer chains revealed temporally ordered replay. These modules may represent the default building blocks for encoding or retrieving experience. PMID:27634534

  20. Landmine detection using two-tapped joint orthogonal matching pursuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Sean; Glenn, Taylor; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Joint Orthogonal Matching Pursuits (JOMP) is used here in the context of landmine detection using data obtained from an electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor. The response from an object containing metal can be decomposed into a discrete spectrum of relaxation frequencies (DSRF) from which we construct a dictionary. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed for computing successive residuals of a signal by subtracting away the highest matching dictionary element at each step. The nal condence of a particular signal is a combination of the reciprocal of this residual and the mean of the complex component. A two-tap approach comparing signals on opposite sides of the geometric location of the sensor is examined and found to produce better classication. It is found that using only a single pursuit does a comparable job, reducing complexity and allowing for real-time implementation in automated target recognition systems. JOMP is particularly highlighted in comparison with a previous EMI detection algorithm known as String Match.

  1. Awake hippocampal reactivations project onto orthogonal neuronal assemblies.

    PubMed

    Malvache, Arnaud; Reichinnek, Susanne; Villette, Vincent; Haimerl, Caroline; Cossart, Rosa

    2016-09-16

    The chained activation of neuronal assemblies is thought to support major cognitive processes, including memory. In the hippocampus, this is observed during population bursts often associated with sharp-wave ripples, in the form of an ordered reactivation of neurons. However, the organization and lifetime of these assemblies remain unknown. We used calcium imaging to map patterns of synchronous neuronal activation in the CA1 region of awake mice during runs on a treadmill. The patterns were composed of the recurring activation of anatomically intermingled, but functionally orthogonal, assemblies. These assemblies reactivated discrete temporal segments of neuronal sequences observed during runs and could be stable across consecutive days. A binding of these assemblies into longer chains revealed temporally ordered replay. These modules may represent the default building blocks for encoding or retrieving experience.

  2. Asymptotic formulae for the zeros of orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badkov, V. M.

    2012-09-01

    Let p_n(t) be an algebraic polynomial that is orthonormal with weight p(t) on the interval \\lbrack -1, 1 \\rbrack . When p(t) is a perturbation (in certain limits) of the Chebyshev weight of the first kind, the zeros of the polynomial p_n(\\cos\\tau) and the differences between pairs of (not necessarily consecutive) zeros are shown to satisfy asymptotic formulae as n\\to\\infty, which hold uniformly with respect to the indices of the zeros. Similar results are also obtained for perturbations of the Chebyshev weight of the second kind. First, some preliminary results on the asymptotic behaviour of the difference between two zeros of an orthogonal trigonometric polynomial, which are needed, are established. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  3. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  4. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors. PMID:27005493

  5. Photonic integrated circuit as a picosecond pulse timing discriminator.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James; Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a compact on-chip optical pulse timing discriminator that is able to provide an output voltage proportional to the relative timing of two 60-ps input pulses on separate paths. The output voltage is intrinsically low-pass-filtered, so the discriminator forms an interface between high-speed optics and low-speed electronics. Potential applications include timing synchronization of multiple pulse trains as a precursor for optical time-division multiplexing, and compact rangefinders with millimeter dimensions.

  6. Photonic integrated circuit as a picosecond pulse timing discriminator.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Arthur James; Zhuang, Leimeng

    2016-04-18

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a compact on-chip optical pulse timing discriminator that is able to provide an output voltage proportional to the relative timing of two 60-ps input pulses on separate paths. The output voltage is intrinsically low-pass-filtered, so the discriminator forms an interface between high-speed optics and low-speed electronics. Potential applications include timing synchronization of multiple pulse trains as a precursor for optical time-division multiplexing, and compact rangefinders with millimeter dimensions. PMID:27137311

  7. Orthogonally bifunctionalised polyacrylamide nanoparticles: a support for the assembly of multifunctional nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, F.; Dumoulin, F.; Daly, R.; Ahsen, V.; Scanlan, E. M.; Lavado, A. S. P.; Aylott, J. W.; Rosser, G. A.; Beeby, A.; Boyle, R. W.

    2012-03-01

    Polyacrylamide nanoparticles bearing two orthogonal reactive functionalities were prepared by reverse microemulsion polymerisation. Water-soluble photosensitisers and peptide or carbohydrate moieties were sequentially attached to the new nanospecies by orthogonal conjugations based on copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and isothiocyanate chemistry.Polyacrylamide nanoparticles bearing two orthogonal reactive functionalities were prepared by reverse microemulsion polymerisation. Water-soluble photosensitisers and peptide or carbohydrate moieties were sequentially attached to the new nanospecies by orthogonal conjugations based on copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and isothiocyanate chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11947a

  8. System performances of optical space code-division multiple-access-based fiber-optic two-dimensional parallel data link.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K

    1998-05-10

    Optical space code-division multiple access is a scheme to multiplex and link data between two-dimensional processors such as smart pixels and spatial light modulators or arrays of optical sources like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We examine the multiplexing characteristics of optical space code-division multiple access by using optical orthogonal signature patterns. The probability density function of interference noise in interfering optical orthogonal signature patterns is calculated. The bit-error rate is derived from the result and plotted as a function of receiver threshold, code length, code weight, and number of users. Furthermore, we propose a prethresholding method to suppress the interference noise, and we experimentally verify that the method works effectively in improving system performance.

  9. Orthogonal relations and color constancy in dichromatic colorblindness.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs uniform color space to analyze relations in dichromacy (protanopia, deuteranopia, tritanopia). Fifty percent or less of dichromats represent the classical reduction form of trichromacy, where one of three cones is inoperative but normal trichromatic color mixture such as complementary colors (pairs that mix white) are accepted by the dichromat, whose data can thus be plotted to CIE chromaticity spaces. The remaining dichromats comprise many and varied more-complex gene arrays from mutations, recombinations, etc. Though perhaps a minority, the three reductionist types provide a simple standard, in genotype and phenotype, to which the more complex remainder may be compared. Here, previously published data on dichromacy are plotted and analyzed in CIELUV uniform color space to find spatial relations in terms of color appearance space (e.g., hue angle). Traditional residual (seen) hues for protanopia and deuteranopia (both red-green colorblindness) are yellow and blue, but analysis indicates the protanopic residual hues are more greenish yellow and reddish blue than in tradition. Results for three illuminants (D65, D50, B) imply four principles in the spatial structure of dichromacy: (1) complementarity of confusion hue pairs and of residual hue pairs; (2) orthogonality of confusion locus and residual hues locus at their intersection with the white point, in each dichromatic type; (3) orthogonality of protanopic and tritanopic confusion loci; and (4) inverse relations between protanopic and tritanopic systems generally, such that one's confusion hues are the other's residual hues. Two of the three dichromatic systems do not represent components of normal trichromatic vision as sometimes thought but are quite different. Wavelength shifts between illuminants demonstrate chromatic adaptation correlates exactly with that in trichromatic vision. In theory these results clarify relations in and between types of dichromacy. They also apply in Munsell and

  10. Nonlinear Identification Using Orthogonal Forward Regression With Nested Optimal Regularization.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xia; Chen, Sheng; Gao, Junbin; Harris, Chris J

    2015-12-01

    An efficient data based-modeling algorithm for nonlinear system identification is introduced for radial basis function (RBF) neural networks with the aim of maximizing generalization capability based on the concept of leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation. Each of the RBF kernels has its own kernel width parameter and the basic idea is to optimize the multiple pairs of regularization parameters and kernel widths, each of which is associated with a kernel, one at a time within the orthogonal forward regression (OFR) procedure. Thus, each OFR step consists of one model term selection based on the LOO mean square error (LOOMSE), followed by the optimization of the associated kernel width and regularization parameter, also based on the LOOMSE. Since like our previous state-of-the-art local regularization assisted orthogonal least squares (LROLS) algorithm, the same LOOMSE is adopted for model selection, our proposed new OFR algorithm is also capable of producing a very sparse RBF model with excellent generalization performance. Unlike our previous LROLS algorithm which requires an additional iterative loop to optimize the regularization parameters as well as an additional procedure to optimize the kernel width, the proposed new OFR algorithm optimizes both the kernel widths and regularization parameters within the single OFR procedure, and consequently the required computational complexity is dramatically reduced. Nonlinear system identification examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of this new approach in comparison to the well-known approaches of support vector machine and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator as well as the LROLS algorithm.

  11. Orthogonal arrays for computer experiments to assess important inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L. M.; McKay, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The topic of this paper is experiment planning, particularly fractional factorial designs or orthogonal arrays, for computer experiments to assess important inputs. The work presented in the paper is motivated by considering a non-stochastic computer simulation which has many inputs and which can, in a reasonable period of time, be run thousands of times. With many inputs, information that allows focus on a subset of important inputs is valuable. The characterization of 'importance' is expected to follow suggestions in McKay (1995) or McKay, et al. (1992). This analysis approach leads to considering factorial experiment designs. Inputs are associated with a finite number of discrete values, referred to as levels, so if each input has K levels and there are p inputs then there are K{sup P} possible distinct runs which constitute the K{sup P} factorial design space. The suggested size of p has been 35 to 50 so that even with K=2 the complete 2{sup P} factorial design space would not be run. Further, it is expected that the complexity of the simulation code and discrete levels possibly associated with equi-probable intervals from the input distribution make it desirable to consider more than 2 level inputs. Inputs levels of 5 and 7 have been investigated. In this paper, orthogonal array experiment designs, which are subsets of factorial designs also referred to as fractional factorial designs, are suggested as candidate experiments which provide meaningful basis for calculating and comparing R{sup 2} across subsets of inputs.

  12. Orthogonal Relations and Color Constancy in Dichromatic Colorblindness

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, Ralph W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs uniform color space to analyze relations in dichromacy (protanopia, deuteranopia, tritanopia). Fifty percent or less of dichromats represent the classical reduction form of trichromacy, where one of three cones is inoperative but normal trichromatic color mixture such as complementary colors (pairs that mix white) are accepted by the dichromat, whose data can thus be plotted to CIE chromaticity spaces. The remaining dichromats comprise many and varied more-complex gene arrays from mutations, recombinations, etc. Though perhaps a minority, the three reductionist types provide a simple standard, in genotype and phenotype, to which the more complex remainder may be compared. Here, previously published data on dichromacy are plotted and analyzed in CIELUV uniform color space to find spatial relations in terms of color appearance space (e.g., hue angle). Traditional residual (seen) hues for protanopia and deuteranopia (both red–green colorblindness) are yellow and blue, but analysis indicates the protanopic residual hues are more greenish yellow and reddish blue than in tradition. Results for three illuminants (D65, D50, B) imply four principles in the spatial structure of dichromacy: (1) complementarity of confusion hue pairs and of residual hue pairs; (2) orthogonality of confusion locus and residual hues locus at their intersection with the white point, in each dichromatic type; (3) orthogonality of protanopic and tritanopic confusion loci; and (4) inverse relations between protanopic and tritanopic systems generally, such that one's confusion hues are the other's residual hues. Two of the three dichromatic systems do not represent components of normal trichromatic vision as sometimes thought but are quite different. Wavelength shifts between illuminants demonstrate chromatic adaptation correlates exactly with that in trichromatic vision. In theory these results clarify relations in and between types of dichromacy. They also apply in Munsell and

  13. Operational Characterization of Divisibility of Dynamical Maps.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonwoo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2016-07-29

    In this work, we show the operational characterization to the divisibility of dynamical maps in terms of the distinguishability of quantum channels. It is proven that the distinguishability of any pair of quantum channels does not increase under divisible maps, in which the full hierarchy of divisibility is isomorphic to the structure of entanglement between system and environment. This shows that (i) channel distinguishability is the operational quantity signifying (detecting) divisibility (indivisibility) of dynamical maps and (ii) the decision problem for the divisibility of maps is as hard as the separability problem in entanglement theory. We also provide the information-theoretic characterization to the divisibility of maps with conditional min-entropy. PMID:27517760

  14. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  15. The Materials Division: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Lowell, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    The Materials Division at NASA's Lewis Research Center has been engaged in a program to improve the quality of its output. The division, its work, and its customers are described as well as the methodologies developed to assess and improve the quality of the Division's staff and output. Examples of these methodologies are presented and evaluated. An assessment of current progress is also presented along with a summary of future plans.

  16. Physics division annual report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium isotopes were

  17. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  18. Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.

  19. Chirped-pulse amplification with narrowband pulses.

    PubMed

    Shverdin, M Y; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Gibson, D J; Messerly, M J; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-15

    We demonstrate a compact hyperdispersion stretcher and compressor pair that permit chirped-pulse amplification in Nd:YAG. We generate 750 mJ, 0.2 nm FWHM, 10 Hz pulses recompressed to an 8 ps near-transform-limited duration. The dispersion-matched pulse compressor and stretcher impart a chirp of 7300 ps/nm, in a 3 m x 1 m footprint.

  20. Chirped-pulse amplification with narrowband pulses.

    PubMed

    Shverdin, M Y; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Gibson, D J; Messerly, M J; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; Barty, C P J

    2010-07-15

    We demonstrate a compact hyperdispersion stretcher and compressor pair that permit chirped-pulse amplification in Nd:YAG. We generate 750 mJ, 0.2 nm FWHM, 10 Hz pulses recompressed to an 8 ps near-transform-limited duration. The dispersion-matched pulse compressor and stretcher impart a chirp of 7300 ps/nm, in a 3 m x 1 m footprint. PMID:20634869

  1. Blind frequency-resolved optical-gating pulse characterization for quantitative differential multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeffrey J; Durfee, Charles G; Squier, Jeff A

    2010-10-15

    We use a unique multifocal multiphoton microscope to directly characterize the pulse in the focal plane of a high-NA objective using second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). Because of the nature of the optical setup, femtosecond laser pulses of orthogonal polarization states are generated in the focal plane, each acquiring a different spectral dispersion. By applying an additional constraint on the phase extraction algorithm, we simultaneously extract both the gate and probe pulses from a single spectrogram with a FROG error of 0.016. PMID:20967069

  2. High-Sensitivity Optical Pulse Characterization Using Sagnac Electro-Optic Spectral Shearing Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2010-05-04

    An electro-optic spectral shearing interferometer for high-sensitivity optical pulse characterization is described. Two replicas of the test pulse counterpropagate in a Sagnac interferometer with orthogonal polarization states, resulting in two relatively sheared copolarized replicas after temporal phase modulation. The polarization interferometer is intrinsically stable, and its birefringence sets the delay between interfering replicas to reduce the spectrometer resolution requirement. Experimental implementations demonstrate real-time pulse characterization at average powers as low as 1 nWwith spectral shears as high as 280 GHz.

  3. Deepening Students' Understanding of Multiplication and Division by Exploring Divisibility by Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Mills, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how a focus on understanding divisibility rules can be used to help deepen students' understanding of multiplication and division with whole numbers. It is based on research with seven Year 7-8 teachers who were observed teaching a group of students a rule for divisibility by nine. As part of the lesson, students were shown a…

  4. 76 FR 4724 - Emerson Transportation Division, a Division of Emerson Electric, Including Workers Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Transportation Division, a division of Emerson Electric, Bridgeton, Missouri. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 16, 2010 (75 FR 75701). At the request of a State of Arkansas agent, the... Division lived throughout the United States, including Arkansas, but report to the Bridgeton,...

  5. A note on the zeros of Freud-Sobolev orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Balcazar, Juan J.

    2007-10-01

    We prove that the zeros of a certain family of Sobolev orthogonal polynomials involving the Freud weight function e-x4 on are real, simple, and interlace with the zeros of the Freud polynomials, i.e., those polynomials orthogonal with respect to the weight function e-x4. Some numerical examples are shown.

  6. A pillar[5]arene-fused cryptand: from orthogonal self-assembly to supramolecular polymer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Cheng, Ming; Zhao, Yue; Wu, Lin; Jiang, Juli; Wang, Leyong; Pan, Yi

    2015-02-28

    A pillar[5]arene-fused cryptand with two different cavities was synthesized successfully. It was found that the novel tricyclic host could associate with two different guest species in an orthogonal manner. And based on this orthogonal self-assembly of two host-guest interactions, a novel type of supramolecular polymer was constructed easily and conveniently. PMID:25636005

  7. Families of orthogonal Schrödinger cat-like-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praxmeyer, Ludmiła

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the condition of orthogonality between optical Schrödinger cat-like-states constructed as a superposition of two coherent states. We show that the orthogonality condition leads to the quantization of values of a naturally emerging symplectic form, while values of the corresponding metric form are continuous. A complete analytical solution of the problem is presented.

  8. A 2-GHz discrete-spectrum waveband-division microscopic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fangjian; Chen, Hongwei; Lei, Cheng; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-03-01

    Limited by dispersion-induced pulse overlap, the frame rate of serial time-encoded amplified microscopy is confined to the megahertz range. Replacing the ultra-short mode-locked pulse laser by a multi-wavelength source, based on waveband-division technique, a serial time stretch microscopic imaging system with a line scan rate of in the gigahertz range is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this study, we present a surface scanning imaging system with a record line scan rate of 2 GHz and 15 pixels. Using a rectangular spectrum and a sufficiently large wavelength spacing for waveband-division, the resulting 2D image is achieved with good quality. Such a superfast imaging system increases the single-shot temporal resolution towards the sub-nanosecond regime.

  9. Physics Division annual report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.

    2006-04-06

    This report highlights the research performed in 2004 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The intellectual challenges of this research represent some of the most fundamental challenges in modern science, shaping our understanding of both tiny objects at the center of the atom and some of the largest structures in the universe. A great strength of these efforts is the critical interplay of theory and experiment. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the charge radius of He-6 in an atom trap and its explanation in ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure. Precise mass measurements on critical waiting point nuclei in the rapid-proton-capture process set the time scale for this important path in nucleosynthesis. An abrupt fall-off was identified in the subbarrier fusion of several heavy-ion systems. ATLAS operated for 5559 hours of research in FY2004 while achieving 96% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium Energy Physics, substantial progress was made on a long-term experiment to search for the violation of time-reversal invariance using trapped Ra atoms. New results from HERMES reveal the influence of quark angular momentum. Experiments at JLAB search for evidence of color transparency in rho-meson production and study the EMC effect in helium isotopes. New theoretical results include a Poincare covariant description of baryons as composites of confined quarks and non-point-like diquarks. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques give accurate descriptions of the excited states of light nuclei and these techniques been extended to scattering states for astrophysics studies. A theoretical description of the phenomena of proton radioactivity has been extended to triaxial nuclei. Argonne continues to

  10. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  11. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  12. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  13. New Study Designs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease. | The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease.

  14. On Durkheim's Explanation of Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueschemeyer, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    In De la Division du Travail Social, Durkheim's causal explanation for secular increases in the division of labor and the differentiation of social structure is flawed. His metatheoretical concerns expressed in the critique of utilitarian social theory flawed his contributions to a causal explanation of social differentiation. (Author/AM)

  15. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  16. Ultrasociality and the division of cognitive labor.

    PubMed

    Noles, Nicholaus Samuel; Danovitch, Judith Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall describe the development of ultrasociality in terms of economics and the division of labor. We propose that the division of cognitive labor allows humans to behave in an ultrasocial manner without the radical evolutionary changes that are experienced by other species, suggesting that species may traverse different paths to achieve ultrasociality. PMID:27561899

  17. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division 1990 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Jr., Ed.

    Research and development efforts carried out under sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research during fiscal year 1990 are described in this compilation of project description summaries. The Division's research is organized in three types of programs: (1) Cognitive Science (the human learner--cognitive…

  18. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  19. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  20. The Changing Nature of Division III Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    2014-01-01

    Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…

  1. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  2. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division, 1991 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Ed.

    This report documents research and development performed under the sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research in fiscal year 1991. It provides abstracts (title, principal investigator, project code, objective, approach, progress, and related reports) of projects of three program divisions (cognitive…

  3. Guide to the Division of Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This brief guide to the Research Programs Division of the National Endowment for the Humanities covers basic information, describes programs, and summarizes policies and procedures. An introductory section describes the division and its mission to encourage the development and dissemination of significant knowledge and scholarship in the…

  4. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  5. Introduction to JPL's Mechanical Systems Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Mechanical Systems Division. It reviews the projects, both past and current that the engineers of this division have worked on. It also reviews the work environment as an exciting place for the entry level engineer.

  6. Modal wavefront reconstruction over general shaped aperture by numerical orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jingfei; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qun

    2015-03-01

    In practical optical measurements, the wavefront data are recorded by pixelated imaging sensors. The closed-form analytical base polynomial will lose its orthogonality in the discrete wavefront database. For a wavefront with an irregularly shaped aperture, the corresponding analytical base polynomials are laboriously derived. The use of numerical orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront with a general shaped aperture over the discrete data points is presented. Numerical polynomials are orthogonal over the discrete data points regardless of the boundary shape of the aperture. The performance of numerical orthogonal polynomials is confirmed by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results demonstrate the adaptability, validity, and accuracy of numerical orthogonal polynomials for estimating the wavefront over a general shaped aperture from regular boundary to an irregular boundary.

  7. Design of generalised orthogonal filters: application to the modelling of dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Saša S.; Antić, Dragan S.; Perić, Staniša Lj.; Danković, Nikola B.; Milojković, Marko T.

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we define a new class of orthogonal filters with complex poles and zeroes inside their transfer function. This further improvement of classical orthogonal filters allows the possibility to model a wider range of real systems, that is, the systems whose mathematical models have complex zeroes besides real ones. These filters can be applied in the following areas: circuit theory, telecommunications, signal processing, bond graphs, theory approximations and control system theory. First, we describe the rational functions with complex poles and zeroes, and prove their orthogonality. Based on these functions, we designed the block diagram of orthogonal Legendre-type filter with complex poles and zeroes. After that an appropriate analogue scheme of this filter for practical realisation is derived. To validate theoretical results, we performed an experiment with a cascade-connected system designed and practically realised in our laboratories. The experiments proved the quality of the designed orthogonal model in terms of accuracy and simplicity.

  8. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  9. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  10. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  11. Combining orthogonal polarization for elongated target detection with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lualdi, Maurizio; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-10-01

    For an accurate imaging of ground penetrating radar data the polarization characteristics of the propagating electromagnetic (EM) wavefield and wave amplitude variations with antenna pattern orientation must be taken into account. For objects that show some directionality feature and cylindrical shape any misalignment between transmitter and target can strongly modify the polarization state of the backscattered wavefield, thus conditioning the detection capability of the system. Hints on the depolarization can be used to design the optimal GPR antenna survey to avoid omissions and pitfalls during data processing. This research addresses the issue of elongated target detection through a multi azimuth (or multi polarization) approach based on the combination of mutually orthogonal GPR data. Results from the analysis of the formal scattering problem demonstrate how this strategy can reach a scalar formulation of the scattering matrix and achieve a rotational invariant quantity. The effectiveness of the algorithm is then evaluated with a detailed field example showing results closely proximal to those obtained under the optimal alignment condition: detection is significantly improved and the risk of target missing is reduced.

  12. Aeroelastic System Development Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Volterra Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucia, David J.; Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    This research combines Volterra theory and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) into a hybrid methodology for reduced-order modeling of aeroelastic systems. The out-come of the method is a set of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the modal amplitudes associated with both the structural modes and the POD basis functions for the uid. For this research, the structural modes are sine waves of varying frequency, and the Volterra-POD approach is applied to the fluid dynamics equations. The structural modes are treated as forcing terms which are impulsed as part of the uid model realization. Using this approach, structural and uid operators are coupled into a single aeroelastic operator. This coupling converts a free boundary uid problem into an initial value problem, while preserving the parameter (or parameters) of interest for sensitivity analysis. The approach is applied to an elastic panel in supersonic cross ow. The hybrid Volterra-POD approach provides a low-order uid model in state-space form. The linear uid model is tightly coupled with a nonlinear panel model using an implicit integration scheme. The resulting aeroelastic model provides correct limit-cycle oscillation prediction over a wide range of panel dynamic pressure values. Time integration of the reduced-order aeroelastic model is four orders of magnitude faster than the high-order solution procedure developed for this research using traditional uid and structural solvers.

  13. Orthogonal least squares based complex-valued functional link network.

    PubMed

    Amin, Md Faijul; Savitha, Ramasamy; Amin, Muhammad Ilias; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2012-08-01

    Functional link networks are single-layered neural networks that impose nonlinearity in the input layer using nonlinear functions of the original input variables. In this paper, we present a fully complex-valued functional link network (CFLN) with multivariate polynomials as the nonlinear functions. Unlike multilayer neural networks, the CFLN is free from local minima problem, and it offers very fast learning of parameters because of its linear structure. Polynomial based CFLN does not require an activation function which is a major concern in the complex-valued neural networks. However, it is important to select a smaller subset of polynomial terms (monomials) for faster and better performance since the number of all possible monomials may be quite large. Here, we use the orthogonal least squares (OLS) method in a constructive fashion (starting from lower degree to higher) for the selection of a parsimonious subset of monomials. It is argued here that computing CFLN in purely complex domain is advantageous than in double-dimensional real domain, in terms of number of connection parameters, faster design, and possibly generalization performance. Simulation results on a function approximation, wind prediction with real-world data, and a nonlinear channel equalization problem exhibit that the OLS based CFLN yields very simple structure having favorable performance.

  14. Transient Orthogonality Catastrophe in a Time Dependent Nonequilibrium Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, Marco; Mitra, Aditi; 0 Team

    2015-03-01

    We study the response of a highly-excited time dependent quantum many-body state to a sudden local perturbation, a sort of orthogonality catastrophe problem in a transient non-equilibrium environment. To this extent we consider, as key quantity, the overlap between time dependent wave-functions, that we write in terms of a novel two-time correlator generalizing the standard Loschmidt Echo. We discuss its physical meaning, general properties, and its connection with experimentally measurable quantities probed through non-equilibrium Ramsey interferometry schemes. Then we present explicit calculations for a one dimensional interacting Fermi system brought out of equilibrium by a sudden change of the interaction, and perturbed by the switching on of a local static potential. We show that different scattering processes give rise to remarkably different behaviors at long times, quite opposite from the equilibrium situation. In particular, while the forward scattering contribution retains its power law structure even in the presence of a large non-equilibrium perturbation, with an exponent that is strongly affected by the transient nature of the bath, the backscattering term is a source of non-linearity which generates an exponential decay in time of the Loschmidt Echo, reminiscent of

  15. Transient Orthogonality Catastrophe in a Time-Dependent Nonequilibrium Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiró, Marco; Mitra, Aditi

    2014-06-01

    We study the response of a highly excited time-dependent quantum many-body state to a sudden local perturbation, a sort of orthogonality catastrophe problem in a transient nonequilibrium environment. To this extent we consider, as a key quantity, the overlap between time-dependent wave functions, which we write in terms of a novel two-time correlator generalizing the standard Loschmidt echo. We discuss its physical meaning, general properties, and its connection with experimentally measurable quantities probed through nonequilibrium Ramsey interferometry schemes. Then we present explicit calculations for a one-dimensional interacting Fermi system brought out of equilibrium by a sudden change of the interaction, and perturbed by the switching on of a local static potential. We show that different scattering processes give rise to remarkably different behaviors at long times, quite opposite from the equilibrium situation. In particular, while the forward scattering contribution retains its power-law structure even in the presence of a large nonequilibrium perturbation, with an exponent that is strongly affected by the transient nature of the bath, the backscattering term is a source of nonlinearity which generates an exponential decay in time of the Loschmidt Echo, reminiscent of an effective thermal behavior.

  16. Orthogonal least squares based complex-valued functional link network.

    PubMed

    Amin, Md Faijul; Savitha, Ramasamy; Amin, Muhammad Ilias; Murase, Kazuyuki

    2012-08-01

    Functional link networks are single-layered neural networks that impose nonlinearity in the input layer using nonlinear functions of the original input variables. In this paper, we present a fully complex-valued functional link network (CFLN) with multivariate polynomials as the nonlinear functions. Unlike multilayer neural networks, the CFLN is free from local minima problem, and it offers very fast learning of parameters because of its linear structure. Polynomial based CFLN does not require an activation function which is a major concern in the complex-valued neural networks. However, it is important to select a smaller subset of polynomial terms (monomials) for faster and better performance since the number of all possible monomials may be quite large. Here, we use the orthogonal least squares (OLS) method in a constructive fashion (starting from lower degree to higher) for the selection of a parsimonious subset of monomials. It is argued here that computing CFLN in purely complex domain is advantageous than in double-dimensional real domain, in terms of number of connection parameters, faster design, and possibly generalization performance. Simulation results on a function approximation, wind prediction with real-world data, and a nonlinear channel equalization problem exhibit that the OLS based CFLN yields very simple structure having favorable performance. PMID:22386786

  17. Exponential Orthogonality Catastrophe at the Anderson Metal-Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettemann, S.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the orthogonality catastrophe at the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). The typical overlap F between the ground state of a Fermi liquid and the one of the same system with an added potential impurity is found to decay at the AMIT exponentially with system size L as F ˜exp (-c Lη) , where η is the power of multifractal intensity correlations. Thus, strong disorder typically increases the sensitivity of a system to an added impurity exponentially. We recover, on the metallic side of the transition, Anderson's result that the fidelity F decays with a power law F ˜L-q (EF) with system size L . Its power increases as the Fermi energy EF approaches the mobility edge EM as q (EF)˜[(EF-EM )/EM]-ν η , where ν is the critical exponent of the correlation length ξc. On the insulating side of the transition, F is constant for system sizes exceeding the localization length ξ . While these results are obtained for the typical fidelity F , we find that log F is widely, log normally, distributed with a width diverging at the AMIT. As a consequence, the mean value of the fidelity F converges to one at the AMIT, in strong contrast to its typical value which converges to zero exponentially fast with system size L . This counterintuitive behavior is explained as a manifestation of multifractality at the AMIT.

  18. Anti-collusion forensics of multimedia fingerprinting using orthogonal modulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Jane; Wu, Min; Zhao, Hong Vicky; Trappe, Wade; Liu, K J Ray

    2005-06-01

    Digital fingerprinting is a method for protecting digital data in which fingerprints that are embedded in multimedia are capable of identifying unauthorized use of digital content. A powerful attack that can be employed to reduce this tracing capability is collusion, where several users combine their copies of the same content to attenuate/remove the original fingerprints. In this paper, we study the collusion resistance of a fingerprinting system employing Gaussian distributed fingerprints and orthogonal modulation. We introduce the maximum detector and the thresholding detector for colluder identification. We then analyze the collusion resistance of a system to the averaging collusion attack for the performance criteria represented by the probability of a false negative and the probability of a false positive. Lower and upper bounds for the maximum number of colluders K(max) are derived. We then show that the detectors are robust to different collusion attacks. We further study different sets of performance criteria, and our results indicate that attacks based on a few dozen independent copies can confound such a fingerprinting system. We also propose a likelihood-based approach to estimate the number of colluders. Finally, we demonstrate the performance for detecting colluders through experiments using real images.

  19. Magnetocardiogram measured by fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karo, Hikaru; Sasada, Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) of healthy volunteers has been measured by using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer array of 32 channels in a magnetic shielded room (MSR). Sensor heads, which are employed, consist of a 45 mm long U-shaped amorphous wire core and a 1000-turn solenoid pick-up coil of 30 mm in length and 3 mm in outer diameter. The excitation current of 100 kHz with large dc bias current is fed directly into wire cores, which are connected in series, whereas the signal detection circuit is provided to each of the sensor heads. A special technique to avoid mutual interaction between sensor heads is implemented, where all the sensor heads are excited synchronously by using a single ac source. A 2-D array having 32 sensors with 4 cm grid spacing was used to measure MCG signals inside an MSR. Measured data from each channel were first filtered (0.16-100 Hz pass band), then averaged for 2 min synchronously with electrocardiogram's peaks taken from both hands. Noise remaining after the average is about 1.8 pTrms for the band-width of 0.16-100 Hz. The QRS complex and the T-wave are clearly detected.

  20. Newtonized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit: Frequency Estimation Over the Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamandipoor, Babak; Ramasamy, Dinesh; Madhow, Upamanyu

    2016-10-01

    We propose a fast sequential algorithm for the fundamental problem of estimating frequencies and amplitudes of a noisy mixture of sinusoids. The algorithm is a natural generalization of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) to the continuum using Newton refinements, and hence is termed Newtonized OMP (NOMP). Each iteration consists of two phases: detection of a new sinusoid, and sequential Newton refinements of the parameters of already detected sinusoids. The refinements play a critical role in two ways: (1) sidestepping the potential basis mismatch from discretizing a continuous parameter space, (2) providing feedback for locally refining parameters estimated in previous iterations. We characterize convergence, and provide a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) based termination criterion. By benchmarking against the Cramer Rao Bound, we show that NOMP achieves near-optimal performance under a variety of conditions. We compare the performance of NOMP with classical algorithms such as MUSIC and more recent Atomic norm Soft Thresholding (AST) and Lasso algorithms, both in terms of frequency estimation accuracy and run time.

  1. Optimal detection using cyclostationary EOFs[Empirical orthogonal function

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.Y.; Wu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The problem of detecting a climate change signal in the climatological record is of obvious importance in any strategies to understand global climate changes. Atmospheric scientists have applied various statistical techniques to the problem of detecting global warming trend due to increased greenhouse gases. Many climatic and geophysical processes are cyclostationary and exhibit appreciable cyclic (monthly, daily, etc.) variation of their statistics in addition to interannual fluctuations. Utilization of this nested variation of statistics will lead to a better chance of detecting a signal in such a varying background noise field, especially in terms of cyclostationary empirical orthogonal functions, which take the nested periodicity of noise statistics into account. To investigate the improved performance of the cyclostationary approach the developed algorithm is applied to three specific detection examples: El Nino, greenhouse warming, and sunspot fluctuations. In all the test cases, signal-to-noise ratio is raised between 2% and 43% compared with that of a stationary detection technique. The variation of signal strength when a detection filter is constructed based on a different section of modeled noise is within the range of mean signal-to-noise ratio for small to moderate signals. There is a significant variation, however, of signal strength when a detection filter is constructed based on a different model dataset. This implies that model discrepancy is a more important factor than sampling error for the accuracy of the detection method and that climate models need to be improved further in their noise statistics.

  2. Dual, orthogonal, backlit pinhole radiography in OMEGA experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Blue, B. E.; Drake, R. P.; Robey, H. F.; Hansen, J. F.; Knauer, J. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Krauland, C.; Marion, D. C.

    2006-10-01

    Backlit pinhole radiography used with ungated film as a detector creates x-ray radiographs with increased resolution and contrast. Current hydrodynamics experiments on the OMEGA Laser use a three-dimensional sinusoidal pattern as a seed perturbation for the study of instabilities. The structure of this perturbation makes it highly desirable to obtain two simultaneous orthogonal backlighting views. We accomplished this using two backlit pinholes each mounted 12mm from the target. The pinholes, of varying size and shape, were centered on 5mm square foils of 50μm thick Ta. The backlighting is by K-alpha emission from a 500μm square Ti or Sc foil mounted 500μm from the Ta on a plastic substrate. Four laser beams overfill the metal foil, so that the expanding plastic provides radial tamping of the expanding metal plasma. The resulting x-rays pass through the target onto (ungated) direct exposure film (DEF). Interference between the two views is reduced by using a nose cone in front of the DEF, typically with a 9mm Ta aperture and with magnets to deflect electrons. Comparison of varying types of pinholes and film exposures will be presented from recent experiments as well as an analysis of the background noise created using this experimental technique.

  3. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in Optimal Control of Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindran, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we present a reduced order modeling approach suitable for active control of fluid dynamical systems based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The rationale behind the reduced order modeling is that numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations is still too costly for the purpose of optimization and control of unsteady flows. We examine the possibility of obtaining reduced order models that reduce computational complexity associated with the Navier-Stokes equations while capturing the essential dynamics by using the POD. The POD allows extraction of certain optimal set of basis functions, perhaps few, from a computational or experimental data-base through an eigenvalue analysis. The solution is then obtained as a linear combination of these optimal set of basis functions by means of Galerkin projection. This makes it attractive for optimal control and estimation of systems governed by partial differential equations. We here use it in active control of fluid flows governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the resulting reduced order model can be very efficient for the computations of optimization and control problems in unsteady flows. Finally, implementational issues and numerical experiments are presented for simulations and optimal control of fluid flow through channels.

  4. Progressive band processing of orthogonal subspace projection in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Yao; Gao, Cheng; Song, Meiping; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Progressive band processing (PBP) processes data band by band according to the Band SeQuential (BSQ) format acquired by a hyperspectral imaging sensor. It can be implemented in real time in the sense that data processing can be performed whenever bands are available without waiting for data completely collected. This is particularly important for satellite communication when data download is limited by bandwidth and transmission. This paper presents a new concept of processing a well-known technique, Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP) band by band, to be called PBPOSP. Several benefits can be gained by PBP-OSP. One is band processing capability which allows different receiving ends to process data whenever bands are available. Second, it enables users to identify significant bands during data processing. Third, unlike band selection which requires knowing the number of bands needed to be selected or band prioritization PBP-OSP can process arbitrary bands in real time with no need of such prior knowledge. Most importantly, PBP can locate and identify which bands are significant for data processing in a progressive manner. Such progressive profile resulting from PBP-OSP is the best advantage that PBP-OSP can offer and cannot be accomplished by any other OSP-like operators.

  5. Reversible Switching of Block Copolymer Nanopatterns by Orthogonal Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Liedel, Clemens; Lewin, Christian; Tsarkova, Larisa; Böker, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It is demonstrated that the orientation of striped patterns can be reversibly switched between two perpendicular in-plane orientations upon exposure to electric fields. The results on thin films of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine) polymer in the intermediate segregation regime disclose two types of reorientation mechanisms from perpendicular to parallel relative to the electric field orientation. Domains orient via grain rotation and via formation of defects such as stretched undulations and temporal phase transitions. The contribution of additional fields to the structural evolution is also addressed to elucidate the generality of the observed phenomena. In particular solvent effects are considered. This study reveals the stabilization of the meta-stable in-plane oriented lamella due to sequential swelling and quenching of the film. Further, the reorientation behavior of lamella domains blended with selective nanoparticles is addressed, which affect the interfacial tensions of the blocks and hence introduce another internal field to the studied system. Switching the orientation of aligned block copolymer patterns between two orthogonal directions may open new applications of nanomaterials as switchable electric nanowires or optical gratings. PMID:26449286

  6. [Orthogonal projection divergence-based hyperspectral band selection].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-jun; Sheng, Ye-hua; Yang, He; Du, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Due to the high data dimensionality of a hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction algorithm has attracted much attention in hyperspectral image analysis. Band selection algorithm, which selects appropriate bands from the original set of spectral bands, can preserve original information from the data and is useful for image classification and recognition. In the present paper, a novel band selection algorithm based on orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) is proposed, it aims to discriminate the interesting objects from background and noise information, maximize the spectral similarity between different spectral vectors by projecting the original data to feature space. Two HYDICE Washington DC Mall images and an HYMAP Purdue campus image data were experimented, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for classification. The selected band number varies from 5 to 40 in order to study the impacts of different band selection algorithms on different features. For the computation complex, the sequential floating forward search (SFFS) was used to get the appropriate bands. The experiments have proved that our proposed OPD algorithm can outperform other traditional band selection methods such as SAM, ED, SID, and LCMV-BCC for hyperspectral image analysis. It is proven that OPD band selection is effective and robust in hyperspectral remote sensing dimensionality reduction

  7. Capillary electrophoresis as an orthogonal technique in HPLC method validation.

    PubMed

    Jimidar, M Ilias; De Smet, Maurits; Sneyers, Rudy; Van Ael, Willy; Janssens, Willy; Redlich, Dirk; Cockaerts, Paul

    2003-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography is usually used to assay the main compound and organic impurity content of drug substance and drug product during pharmaceutical development. A crucial validation parameter of these methods is specificity--the ability to unequivocally assess the analyte in the presence of component expected to be present. Typically, these include impurities, degradation products, and matrices. Besides adequate chromatographic separation with sufficient selectivity, additional 2- or 3-D spectroscopic or chromatographic tools are frequently necessary for this purpose. In our current practice, HPLC is used with ultraviolet photodiode array detection and on-line mass spectrometry (LC-UVDAD-MS) during the assessment of specificity. Although this approach is very powerful and can solve the majority of problems, separation of isomers of the main compound is still difficult. Since HPLC usually cannot offer the required selectivity and because of the similar molecular weights, structural isomers are not specifically detected using LC-MS. Capillary electrophoresis, on the other hand, offers high separation efficiency and can be applied as an adjunct to HPLC. Therefore, a set of highly selective CE methods is used orthogonally in the specificity assessment of HPLC methods.

  8. Large Covariance Estimation by Thresholding Principal Orthogonal Complements

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of a high-dimensional covariance with a conditional sparsity structure and fast-diverging eigenvalues. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix in an approximate factor model, we allow for the presence of some cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common but unobservable factors. We introduce the Principal Orthogonal complEment Thresholding (POET) method to explore such an approximate factor structure with sparsity. The POET estimator includes the sample covariance matrix, the factor-based covariance matrix (Fan, Fan, and Lv, 2008), the thresholding estimator (Bickel and Levina, 2008) and the adaptive thresholding estimator (Cai and Liu, 2011) as specific examples. We provide mathematical insights when the factor analysis is approximately the same as the principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. The rates of convergence of the sparse residual covariance matrix and the conditional sparse covariance matrix are studied under various norms. It is shown that the impact of estimating the unknown factors vanishes as the dimensionality increases. The uniform rates of convergence for the unobserved factors and their factor loadings are derived. The asymptotic results are also verified by extensive simulation studies. Finally, a real data application on portfolio allocation is presented. PMID:24348088

  9. Origin of Orthogonality of Strain-Promoted Click Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Johannes A; Mercadante, Davide; Nikić, Ivana; Lemke, Edward A; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific labeling of biomolecules is rapidly advancing due to the discovery of novel mutually orthogonal reactions. Quantum chemistry studies have also increased our understanding of their relative rates, although these have until now been based on highly simplified reactants. Here we examine a set of strain-promoted click-type cycloaddition reactions of n-propyl azide, 3-benzyl tetrazine and 3-benzyl-6-methyl tetrazine with cyclooctenes/ynes, in which we aim to address all relevant structural details of the reactants. Our calculations have included the obligatory handles used to attach the label and biomolecule as these can critically influence the stereochemistry and electron demand of the reaction. We systematically computed orbital gaps, activation and distortion energies using density functional theory and determined experimental rates for validation. Our results challenge the current paradigm of the inverse electron demand for this class of reactions. We found that the ubiquitous handles, when next to the triple bond of cyclooctynes, can switch the Diels–Alder type ligations to normal electron demand, a class we term as SPINEDAC reactions. Electron donating substituents on tetrazine can enhance normal demand but also increase distortion penalties. The presence and isomeric configuration of handles thus determine the reaction speed and regioselectivity. Our findings can be directly utilized in engineering genuine cycloaddition click chemistries for biological labeling. PMID:26178299

  10. Simultaneous SHG of orthogonally polarized fundamentals in single QPM crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Benjamin F.; Saltiel, Solomon M.; Withford, Michael J.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-02-01

    Fabrication of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings suitable for cascading of two second-order parametric nonlinear processes in a single lithium niobate crystal is being undertaken using a new technique - electric field poling assisted by laser micro-machined topographical electrodes. To date, single period poled gratings with 45.75, and 45.8 μm periods have been fabricated in order to demonstrate second harmonic generation of 1064nm laser light with 1 st order type-I and 7 th order type-0 QPM simultaneously. The two frequency doubling processes share a common Z polarized second-harmonic wave which allows exchange of energy between the two orthogonally polarized fundamental waves and several second order cascading interactions can be realized. The use of the higher QPM orders (3rd, 5th or 7th) for the type-0 second harmonic generation process leads to comparable efficiencies of the two processes, as the respective nonlinear coefficients are d zzz ~27 pm/V and d yyz ~ 4.7 pm/V in lithium niobate crystals. Possible applications include; polarization switching, parametric amplification and polarization mode dispersion monitoring, and polarization insensitive second harmonic generation.

  11. Physics division annual report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.; Physics

    2000-12-06

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (WA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design. The heavy-ion research program focused on GammaSphere, the premier facility for nuclear structure gamma-ray studies. One example of the

  12. Physics Division annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Trela, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The Physics Division is organized into three major research areas: Weapons Physics, Inertial Fusion Physics, and Basic Research. In Weapons Physics, new strategic defensive research initiatives were developed in response to President Reagan's speech in May 1983. Significant advances have been made in high-speed diagnostics including electro-optic technique, fiber-optic systems, and imaging. In Inertial Fusion, the 40-kJ Antares CO/sub 2/ laser facility was completed, and the 1- by 1- by 2-m-long large-aperture module amplifier (LAM) was constructed and operated. In Basic Research, our main emphasis was on development of the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility as a world-class pulsed neutron research facility

  13. Pulse to pulse klystron diagnosis system

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.; Davidson, V.; Genova, L.; Johnson, R.; Reagan, D.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes a system used to study the behavior of SLAC high powered klystrons operating with a twice normal pulse width of 5 ..mu..s. At present, up to eight of the klystrons installed along the accelerator can be operated with long pulses and monitored by this system. The report will also discuss some of the recent findings and investigations.

  14. Highly polarized components of integrated pulse profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Han, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Highly polarized components of pulse profiles are investigated by analysing observational data and simulating the emission processes. The highly polarized components appear at the leading or trailing part of a pulse profile, which preferably have a flat spectrum and a flat polarization angle curve compared with the low polarized components. By considering the emission processes and propagation effects, we simulate the distributions of wave modes and fractional linear polarization within the entire pulsar emission beam. We show that the highly polarized components can appear at the leading, central, and/or trailing parts of pulse profiles in the models, depending on pulsar geometry. The depolarization is caused by orthogonal modes or scattering. When a sight line cuts across pulsar emission beam with a small impact angle, the detected highly polarized component will be of the O mode, and have a flat polarization angle curve and/or a flat spectrum as observed. Otherwise, the highly polarized component will be of the X mode and have a steep polarization angle curve.

  15. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  16. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  17. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1984-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, W.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report provides brief accounts of significant progress in development activities and research results achieved by Physics Division personnel during the period January 1, 1984, through September 31, 1986. These efforts are representative of the three main areas of experimental research and development in which the Physics Division serves Los Alamos National Laboratory's and the Nation's needs in defense and basic sciences: (1) defense physics, including the development of diagnostic methods for weapons tests, weapon-related high-energy-density physics, and programs supporting the Strategic Defense Initiative; (2) laser physics and applications, especially to high-density plasmas; and (3) fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and biophysics. Throughout the report, emphasis is placed on the design, construction, and application of a variety of advanced, often unique, instruments and instrument systems that maintain the Division's position at the leading edge of research and development in the specific fields germane to its mission. A sampling of experimental systems of particular interest would include the relativistic electron-beam accelerator and its applications to high-energy-density plasmas; pulsed-power facilities; directed energy weapon devices such as free-electron lasers and neutral-particle-beam accelerators; high-intensity ultraviolet and x-ray beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (at Brookhaven National Laboratory); the Aurora KrF ultraviolet laser system for projected use as an inertial fusion driver; antiproton physics facility at CERN; and several beam developments at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility for studying nuclear, condensed-matter, and biological physics, highlighted by progress in establishing the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center.

  18. Status of the intense pulsed neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Crawford, R.K.; Rauchas, A.V.; Schulke, A.W.; Worlton, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    IPNS is not unique in having concerns about the level of funding, and the future looks good despite these concerns. This report details the progress made at IPNS during the last two years. Other papers in these proceedings discuss in detail the status of the enriched uranium Booster target, the two instruments that are under construction, GLAD and POSY II, and a proposal for research on an Advanced Pulsed Neutron Source (ASPUN) that has been submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE). Further details on IPNS are available in the IPNS Progress Report 1987--1988, available by writing the IPNS Division Office. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Constant potential pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of constant potential pulse polarography, In which all pulses are to be the same potential, is presented theoretically and evaluated experimentally. The response obtained is in the form of a faradaic current wave superimposed on a constant capacitative component. Results obtained with a computer-controlled system exhibit a capillary response current similar to that observed In normal pulse polarography. Calibration curves for Pb obtained using a modified commercial pulse polarographic instrument are in good accord with theoretical predictions.

  20. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  1. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  2. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  3. Electrical pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  4. Overview of the Applied Aerodynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A major reorganization of the Aeronautics Directorate of the Langley Research Center occurred in early 1989. As a result of this reorganization, the scope of research in the Applied Aeronautics Division is now quite different than that in the past. An overview of the current organization, mission, and facilities of this division is presented. A summary of current research programs and sample highlights of recent research are also presented. This is intended to provide a general view of the scope and capabilities of the division.

  5. Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The division is one of ten LBL research divisions. It is composed of individual research groups organized into 5 scientific areas: chemical physics, inorganic/organometallic chemistry, actinide chemistry, atomic physics, and chemical engineering. Studies include structure and reactivity of critical reaction intermediates, transients and dynamics of elementary chemical reactions, and heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis. Work for others included studies of superconducting properties of high-{Tc} oxides. In FY 1994, the division neared completion of two end-stations and a beamline for the Advanced Light Source, which will be used for combustion and other studies. This document presents summaries of the studies.

  6. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  7. Biology and Medicine Division: Annual report 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The Biology and Medicine Division continues to make important contributions in scientific areas in which it has a long-established leadership role. For 50 years the Division has pioneered in the application of radioisotopes and charged particles to biology and medicine. There is a growing emphasis on cellular and molecular applications in the work of all the Division's research groups. The powerful tools of genetic engineering, the use of recombinant products, the analytical application of DNA probes, and the use of restriction fragment length polymorphic DNA are described and proposed for increasing use in the future.

  8. The art of choreographing asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong

    2013-06-10

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD), a mechanism for cell-type diversification in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is accomplished through highly coordinated cell-fate segregation, genome partitioning, and cell division. Whereas important paradigms have arisen from the study of animal embryonic divisions, the strategies for choreographing the dynamic subprocesses are, in fact, highly varied. This review examines divergent mechanisms of ACD across different kingdoms. Examples discussed show that there is no obligatory hierarchy among the dynamic events and that asymmetry can emerge from each event, but cell polarization more often occurs as the initial instructive process for patterning ACD especially in the multicellular context.

  9. Conductance Distributions for Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis and Optimal Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, Delores; McGranaghan, Ryan; Matsuo, Tomoko

    2016-04-01

    We show the first characterizations of the primary modes of ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductance variability as empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). These are derived from six satellite years of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) particle data acquired during the rise of solar cycles 22 and 24. The 60 million DMSP spectra were each processed through the Global Airlglow Model. This is the first large-scale analysis of ionospheric conductances completely free of assumption of the incident electron energy spectra. We show that the mean patterns and first four EOFs capture ˜50.1 and 52.9% of the total Pedersen and Hall conductance variabilities, respectively. The mean patterns and first EOFs are consistent with typical diffuse auroral oval structures and quiet time strengthening/weakening of the mean pattern. The second and third EOFs show major disturbance features of magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) interactions: geomagnetically induced auroral zone expansion in EOF2 and the auroral substorm current wedge in EOF3. The fourth EOFs suggest diminished conductance associated with ionospheric substorm recovery mode. These EOFs are then used in a new optimal interpolation (OI) technique to estimate complete high-latitude ionospheric conductance distributions. The technique combines particle precipitation-based calculations of ionospheric conductances and their errors with a background model and its error covariance (estimated by EOF analysis) to infer complete distributions of the high-latitude ionospheric conductances for a week in late 2011. The OI technique captures: 1) smaller-scaler ionospheric conductance features associated with discrete precipitation and 2) brings ground- and space-based data into closer agreement. We show quantitatively and qualitatively that this new technique provides better ionospheric conductance specification than past statistical models, especially during heightened geomagnetic activity.

  10. Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition formulation for linear structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, A.; Tran, D.-M.; Ohayon, R.

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid proper orthogonal decomposition (PODh) formulation is a POD-based reduced-order modeling method where the continuous equation of the physical system is projected on the POD modes obtained from a discrete model of the system. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the hybrid POD formulation and to compare it with other POD formulations on the simple case of a linear elastic rod subject to prescribed displacements in the perspective of building reduced-order models for coupled fluid-structure systems in the future. In the first part of the paper, the hybrid POD is compared to two other formulations for the response to an initial condition: an approach based on the discrete finite elements equation of the rod called the discrete POD (PODd), and an analytical approach using the exact solution of the problem and consequently called the analytical POD (PODa). This first step is useful to ensure that the PODh performs well with respect to the other formulations. The PODh is therefore used afterwards for the forced motion response where a displacement is imposed at the free end of the rod. The main contribution of this paper lies in the comparison of three techniques used to take into account the non-homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition with the hybrid POD: the first method relies on control functions, the second on the penalty method and the third on Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the robustness of the hybrid POD is investigated on two examples involving firstly the introduction of structural damping and secondly a nonlinear force applied at the free end of the rod.

  11. 2. JL photographer, summer 1978. View from south of Division ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. JL photographer, summer 1978. View from south of Division Avenue Punting and Filtration plant. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Chemical and Laser Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, N.

    1990-06-01

    The Chemical and Laser Sciences Division Annual Report includes articles describing representative research and development activities within the Division, as well as major programs to which the Division makes significant contributions.

  13. 75 FR 45154 - National Security Division; Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... National Security Division; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments... (Foreign Agents). The Department of Justice (DOJ), National Security Division (NSD), will be submitting the... Division, Counterespionage Section/Registration Unit, Bond Building--Room 9300, Washington, DC 20530....

  14. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber.

    PubMed

    Amiri, I S; Alavi, S E; Soltanian, M R K; Fisal, N; Supa'at, A S M; Ahmad, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length. PMID:26153536

  15. Characteristics of a magnetic fluid under an orthogonal alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M.; Hu, J. H.; Zou, J. B.; Zhao, B.; Li, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinearity is a primary characteristic of a magnetic fluid. Under an orthogonal alternating magnetic field, the magnetization characteristics change, which produce a variable magnetic field in the magnetic fluid region. A mathematical model of a magnetic fluid under an orthogonal alternating magnetic field is here proposed. The model is solved by an analytic method, and the validity of the solution is verified using the finite element method in addition to experimental results. It is shown that the frequency of the magnetic field in a magnetic fluid is twice that of the orthogonal alternating magnetic field.

  16. Orthogonal-core type three-phase dc-ac converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinokura, O.; Saito, H.; Jinzenji, T. ); Tajima, K. )

    1993-03-01

    In a previous paper, the authors proposed an orthogonal-core type dc-ac converter for use in photovoltaic power systems. The dc-ac converter has such desirable features as a simple construction, high degree of safety, and ease of maintenance. The operating characteristics of a single-phase converter for residential photovoltaic power systems have also been reported. In this paper, the authors discuss the basic operation of an orthogonal-core type dc-ac converter for a three-phase power system based on simulations and experiments. An optimal construction of the orthogonal-core type three-phase dc-ac converter has been developed.

  17. The tensor properties of energy gradients within a non-orthogonal basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christopher A.; Maslen, Paul; Lee, Michael S.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    1997-09-01

    The application of standard minimization techniques to electronic structure theory calculations often requires the formation of an electronic energy gradient. The tensor nature of the electronic gradient, while implicitly treated within an orthogonal basis set, manifests itself explicitly in a non-orthogonal basis set. We apply simple tensor theory to define the electronic gradient in an arbitrary reference frame using the energy minimization method of Li, Nunes and Vanderbilt in a non-orthogonal basis as a concrete example. The minimal basis HeH + energy surface is used to portray the strong effect of consistently accounting for these tensor properties versus neglecting them.

  18. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    DOEpatents

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  19. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  20. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOEpatents

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  1. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  2. CETA and Division Membership Are Prime Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues and concerns discussed and the recommendations made by the American Vocational Association's (AVA) Manpower Division Policy Committee during its meeting at the 1975 AVA Convention. (AJ)

  3. Chemical Sciences Division: Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Chemical Sciences Division (CSD) is one of twelve research Divisions of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a Department of Energy National Laboratory. The CSD is composed of individual groups and research programs that are organized into five scientific areas: Chemical Physics, Inorganic/Organometallic Chemistry, Actinide Chemistry, Atomic Physics, and Physical Chemistry. This report describes progress by the CSD for 1992. Also included are remarks by the Division Director, a description of work for others (United States Office of Naval Research), and appendices of the Division personnel and an index of investigators. Research reports are grouped as Fundamental Interactions (Photochemical and Radiation Sciences, Chemical Physics, Atomic Physics) or Processes and Techniques (Chemical Energy, Heavy-Element Chemistry, and Chemical Engineering Sciences).

  4. WESTERN ECOLOGY DIVISION - GENERAL INFORMATION SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract for flyer - general information The Western Ecology Division (WED), part of EPAs National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, provides information to EPA offices and regions nationwide to improve understanding of how human activities affect estuarine,...

  5. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, G.Y.; Schappert, G.T.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses its following topics: Recent Weapons-Physics Experiments on the Pegasus II Pulsed Power Facility; Operation of a Large-Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation Experiment; Production of Charm and Beauty Mesons at Fermilab Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; P-Division`s Essential Role in the Redirected Inertial Confinement Fusion Program; Trident Target Physics Program; Comparative Studies of Brain Activation with Magnetocephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cellular Communication, Interaction of G-Proteins, and Single-Photon Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Oxygen-doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} Thermoacoustic Engines; A Shipborne Raman Water-Vapor Lidar for the Central Pacific Experiment; Angara-5 Pinch Temperature Verification with Time-resolved Spectroscopy; Russian Collaborations on Megagauss Magnetic Fields and Pulsed-Power Applications; Studies of Energy Coupling from Underground Explosions; Trapping and Cooling Large Numbers of Antiprotons: A First Step Toward the Measurement of Gravity on Antimatter; and Nuclear-Energy Production Without a Long-Term High-Level Waste Stream.

  6. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  7. ELECTRICAL PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, W.M.; Jeeves, T.A.

    1962-09-01

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit rs designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses. The circuit employs a series of direct connected bistable counting stages simultaneously pulsed by each input pulse and a delay means connected between each of the stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states, which stage, when in its initial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since the delay circuits between the stages prevents the immediate decay of the d-c state of each stage when the stages are pulsed, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse, thereby providing progressive stage-by-stage counting. (AEC)

  8. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. We are proud to be able to bring you this report, which we hope will convey not only a description of the Division's scientific activities but also a sense of the enthusiasm and excitement present today in the Earth Sciences.

  9. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Laintz, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  10. Nuclear Science Division: 1993 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the activities of the Nuclear Science Division for the 1993 calendar year. This was another significant year in the history of the Division with many interesting and important accomplishments. Activities for the following programs are covered here: (1) nuclear structure and reactions program; (2) the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics; (3) relativistic nuclear collisions program; (4) nuclear theory program; (5) nuclear data evaluation program, isotope project; and (6) 88-inch cyclotron operations.

  11. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  12. Multivariate linear recurrences and power series division

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Herwig; Koutschan, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Bousquet-Mélou and Petkovšek investigated the generating functions of multivariate linear recurrences with constant coefficients. We will give a reinterpretation of their results by means of division theorems for formal power series, which clarifies the structural background and provides short, conceptual proofs. In addition, extending the division to the context of differential operators, the case of recurrences with polynomial coefficients can be treated in an analogous way. PMID:23482936

  13. Network evaluation for F-Division

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Carr, R.B.; Lee, F.D.

    1986-05-16

    This report contains an evaluation of the computer and computer network needs of F-Division. The main intent is to identify ways in which all computational aspects of F-Division might interact more effectively. This includes the physics, engineering, and clerical staffs. Consideration is given to usage of the Octopus computer system, computer control of experiments, data analysis, computer aided design (CAD) and word processing issues.

  14. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  16. Double-pulse digital speckle pattern interferometry for vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dazhi; Xue, Jingfeng; Chen, Lu; Wen, Juying; Wang, Jingjing

    2014-12-01

    The double-pulse Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) in the laboratory is established. Two good performances have been achieved at the same time, which is uniform distribution of laser beam energy by space filter and recording two successive pictures by a CCD camera successfully. Then two-dimensional discrete orthogonal wavelet transform method is used for the process of filtering method. By using the DSPI, speckle pattern of a vibrated object is obtained with interval of (2~800)μs, and 3D plot of the transient vibration is achieved. Moreover, good agreements of the mode shapes and displacement are obtained by comparing with Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) .

  17. Downstream evolution of proper orthogonal decomposition eigenfunctions in a lobed mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukeiley, L.; Glauser, M.; Wick, D.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional (one space and time) scalar adaptation of the proper orthogonal decomposition was applied to streamwise velocity data obtained in a lobed mixer flowfield, using a rake of 15 single-component hot wires. Through the application of the proper orthogonal decomposition, the amount of streamwise turbulent kinetic energy contained in the various proper orthogonal modes was examined for two different downstream locations (z/h = 2.6 and 3.9). The large eddy or dominant mode was shown to have a measurable decrease in the relative streamwise component of the kinetic energy between these two downstream locations. This indicates that the large eddy, as defined by the proper orthogonal decomposition, breaks down, and the flow becomes more homogeneous. A pseudoflow visualization technique was then employed to help visualize this process.

  18. A Novel Optimal Configuration form Redundant MEMS Inertial Sensors Based on the Orthogonal Rotation Method

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianhua; Dong, Jinlu; Landry, Rene Jr.; Chen, Daidai

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) navigation systems, an orthogonal rotation method-based nine-gyro redundant MEMS configuration is presented. By analyzing the accuracy and reliability characteristics of an inertial navigation system (INS), criteria for redundant configuration design are introduced. Then the orthogonal rotation configuration is formed through a two-rotation of a set of orthogonal inertial sensors around a space vector. A feasible installation method is given for the real engineering realization of this proposed configuration. The performances of the novel configuration and another six configurations are comprehensively compared and analyzed. Simulation and experimentation are also conducted, and the results show that the orthogonal rotation configuration has the best reliability, accuracy and fault detection and isolation (FDI) performance when the number of gyros is nine. PMID:25076218

  19. Optimized plasmid systems for the incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids by evolved orthogonal ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Christoph; Hahn, Liljan E; Neumann, Heinz

    2014-08-18

    Incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids into the same polypeptide remains a significant challenge. Orthogonal ribosomes, which are evolvable as they direct the translation of a single dedicated orthogonal mRNA, can provide an avenue to produce such polypeptides routinely. Recent advances in engineering orthogonal ribosomes have created a prototype system to enable genetically encoded introduction of two different functional groups, albeit with limited efficiency. Here, we systematically investigated the limiting factors of this system by using assays to measure the levels and activities of individual components; we identified Methanosarcina barkeri PylRS as a limiting factor for protein yield. Balancing the expression levels of individual components significantly improved growth rate and protein yield. This optimization of the system is likely to increase the scope of evolved orthogonal ribosome-mediated incorporation of multiple different unnatural amino acids.

  20. Three-dimensional protein assemblies directed by orthogonal non-covalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Kochovski, Zdravko; Ji, Zhongwei; Lu, Yan; Chen, Guosong; Jiang, Ming

    2016-08-11

    In this report, an orthogonal non-covalent interaction strategy based on specific recognition between sugar and protein, and host-guest interaction, was employed to construct artificial three dimensional (3D) protein assemblies in the laboratory. PMID:27407068