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Sample records for oryzae catechol oxidase

  1. The crystal structure of an extracellular catechol oxidase from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hakulinen, Nina; Gasparetti, Chiara; Kaljunen, Heidi; Kruus, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Catechol oxidases (EC 1.10.3.1) catalyse the oxidation of o-diphenols to their corresponding o-quinones. These oxidases contain two copper ions (CuA and CuB) within the so-called coupled type 3 copper site as found in tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18.1) and haemocyanins. The crystal structures of a limited number of bacterial and fungal tyrosinases and plant catechol oxidases have been solved. In this study, we present the first crystal structure of a fungal catechol oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCO4) at 2.5-Å resolution. AoCO4 belongs to the newly discovered family of short-tyrosinases, which are distinct from other tyrosinases and catechol oxidases because of their lack of the conserved C-terminal domain and differences in the histidine pattern for CuA. The sequence identity of AoCO4 with other structurally known enzymes is low (less than 30 %), and the crystal structure of AoCO4 diverges from that of enzymes belonging to the conventional tyrosinase family in several ways, particularly around the central α-helical core region. A diatomic oxygen moiety was identified as a bridging molecule between the two copper ions CuA and CuB separated by a distance of 4.2-4.3 Å. The UV/vis absorption spectrum of AoCO4 exhibits a distinct maximum of absorbance at 350 nm, which has been reported to be typical of the oxy form of type 3 copper enzymes.

  2. Platinum Nanoparticles: Efficient and Stable Catechol Oxidase Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wu, Haohao; Chong, Yu; Wamer, Wayne G; Xia, Qingsu; Cai, Lining; Nie, Zhihong; Fu, Peter P; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2015-09-09

    Although enzyme-like nanomaterials have been extensively investigated over the past decade, most research has focused on the peroxidase-like, catalase-like, or SOD-like activity of these nanomaterials. Identifying nanomaterials having oxidase-like activities has received less attention. In this study, we demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) exhibit catechol oxidase-like activity, oxidizing polyphenols into the corresponding o-quinones. Four unique approaches are employed to demonstrate the catechol oxidase-like activity exerted by Pt NPs. First, UV-vis spectroscopy is used to monitor the oxidation of polyphenols catalyzed by Pt NPs. Second, the oxidized products of polyphenols are identified by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) identification. Third, electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry techniques are used to confirm the O2 consumption during the oxidation reaction. Fourth, the intermediate products of semiquinone radicals formed during the oxidation of polyphenols are determined by ESR using spin stabilization. These results indicate Pt NPs possess catechol oxidase-like activity. Because polyphenols and related bioactive substances have been explored as potent antioxidants that could be useful for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and Pt NPs have been widely used in the chemical industry and medical science, it is essential to understand the potential effects of Pt NPs for altering or influencing the antioxidant activity of polyphenols.

  3. Tyrosinase versus Catechol Oxidase: One Asparagine Makes the Difference.

    PubMed

    Solem, Even; Tuczek, Felix; Decker, Heinz

    2016-02-18

    Tyrosinases mediate the ortho-hydroxylation and two-electron oxidation of monophenols to ortho-quinones. Catechol oxidases only catalyze the oxidation of diphenols. Although it is of significant interest, the origin of the functional discrimination between tyrosinases and catechol oxidases has been unclear. Recently, it has been postulated that a glutamate and an asparagine bind and activate a conserved water molecule towards deprotonation of monophenols. Here we demonstrate for the first time that a polyphenoloxidase, which exhibits only diphenolase activity, can be transformed to a tyrosinase by mutation to introduce an asparagine. The asparagine and a conserved glutamate are necessary to properly orient the conserved water in order to abstract a proton from the monophenol. These results provide direct evidence for the crucial importance of a proton shuttle for tyrosinase activity of type 3 copper proteins, allowing a consistent understanding of their different chemical reactivities.

  4. Optimization of catechol production by membrane-immobilized polyphenol oxidase: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, A; Burton, M H; Burton, S G

    2003-07-05

    Although previous research has focused on phenol removal efficiencies using polyphenol oxidase in nonimmobilized and immobilized forms, there has been little consideration of the use of polyphenol oxidase in a biotransformation system for the production of catechols. In this study, polyphenol oxidase was successfully immobilized on various synthetic membranes and used to convert phenolic substrates to catechol products. A neural network model was developed and used to model the rates of substrate utilization and catechol production for both nonimmobilized and immobilized polyphenol oxidase. The results indicate that the biotransformation of the phenols to their corresponding catechols was strongly influenced by the immobilization support, resulting in differing yields of catechols. Hydrophilic membranes were found to be the most suitable immobilization supports for catechol production. The successful biocatalytic production of 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and 4-chlorocatechol is demonstrated.

  5. Amperometric catechol biosensor based on polyaniline-polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongyan; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinghui; Kan, Jinqing

    2010-03-15

    A novel catechol biosensor was described based on the immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into polyaniline (PANI), which was easily constructed by direct electropolymerization of aniline in a solution containing ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EMIES). The developed biosensor for the detection of catechol has a linear range of 1.25-150 micromol dm(-3). The maximum response current (I(max)) and the Michaelis-Menten constant (k'(m)) are 0.62 microA and 146 micromol dm(-3), respectively. The activation energy (E(a)) of the PPO catalytic reaction is 31.1 kJ mol(-1) in the B-R buffer. The biosensor shows good reproducibility (a relative standard deviation of 3.1% was obtained) and remarkable long-term stability (it retains 75% of the original activity after four months). The effects of potential and pH on the response current of the biosensor are also described.

  6. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases.

  7. Synthetic models of the active site of catechol oxidase: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Koval, Iryna A; Gamez, Patrick; Belle, Catherine; Selmeczi, Katalin; Reedijk, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The ability of copper proteins to process dioxygen at ambient conditions has inspired numerous research groups to study their structural, spectroscopic and catalytic properties. Catechol oxidase is a type-3 copper enzyme usually encountered in plant tissues and in some insects and crustaceans. It catalyzes the conversion of a large number of catechols into the respective o-benzoquinones, which subsequently auto-polymerize, resulting in the formation of melanin, a dark pigment thought to protect a damaged tissue from pathogens. After the report of the X-ray crystal structure of catechol oxidase a few years earlier, a large number of publications devoted to the biomimetic modeling of its active site appeared in the literature. This critical review (citing 114 references) extensively discusses the synthetic models of this enzyme, with a particular emphasis on the different approaches used in the literature to study the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of the substrate (catechol) by these compounds. These are the studies on the substrate binding to the model complexes, the structure-activity relationship, the kinetic studies of the catalytic oxidation of the substrate and finally the substrate interaction with (per)oxo-dicopper adducts. The general overview of the recognized types of copper proteins and the detailed description of the crystal structure of catechol oxidase, as well as the proposed mechanisms of the enzymatic cycle are also presented.

  8. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases.

    PubMed

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette

    2016-03-29

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze theo-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme's interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate-enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO's acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their--so far unknown--natural substrates in vivo.

  9. Aurone synthase is a catechol oxidase with hydroxylase activity and provides insights into the mechanism of plant polyphenol oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the family of polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). Tyrosinases catalyze the o-hydroxylation and oxidation of phenolic compounds, whereas catechol oxidases were so far defined to lack the hydroxylation activity and catalyze solely the oxidation of o-diphenolic compounds. Aurone synthase from Coreopsis grandiflora (AUS1) is a specialized plant PPO involved in the anabolic pathway of aurones. We present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structures of a latent plant PPO, its mature active and inactive form, caused by a sulfation of a copper binding histidine. Analysis of the latent proenzyme’s interface between the shielding C-terminal domain and the main core provides insights into its activation mechanisms. As AUS1 did not accept common tyrosinase substrates (tyrosine and tyramine), the enzyme is classified as a catechol oxidase. However, AUS1 showed hydroxylase activity toward its natural substrate (isoliquiritigenin), revealing that the hydroxylase activity is not correlated with the acceptance of common tyrosinase substrates. Therefore, we propose that the hydroxylase reaction is a general functionality of PPOs. Molecular dynamics simulations of docked substrate–enzyme complexes were performed, and a key residue was identified that influences the plant PPO’s acceptance or rejection of tyramine. Based on the evidenced hydroxylase activity and the interactions of specific residues with the substrates during the molecular dynamics simulations, a novel catalytic reaction mechanism for plant PPOs is proposed. The presented results strongly suggest that the physiological role of plant catechol oxidases were previously underestimated, as they might hydroxylate their—so far unknown—natural substrates in vivo. PMID:26976571

  10. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation in endothelial cells by ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David K; Schillinger, Kurt J; Kwait, David M; Hughes, Chambers V; McNamara, Erin J; Ishmael, Fauod; O'Donnell, Robert W; Chang, Ming-Mei; Hogg, Michael G; Dordick, Jonathan S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Ziegler, Linda M; Holland, James A

    2002-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major enzymatic source of oxygen free radicals in stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). The ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), isolated from the traditional medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, inhibits the release of superoxide anion (O2*-) by this enzyme. The compound acts by blocking the assembly of a functional NADPH oxidase complex. The underlying chemistry of this inhibitory activity, and its physiological significance to EC proliferation, have been investigated. A critical event is the reaction of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidase. Analysis of this reaction reveals that apocynin is converted to a symmetrical dimer through the formation of a 5,5' carbon-carbon bond. Both reduced glutathione and L-cysteine inhibit this dimerization process. Catechols without the ortho-methoxy-substituted group do not undergo this chemical reaction. Superoxide production by an endothelial cell-free system incubated with apocynin was nearly completely inhibited after a lagtime for inhibition of ca. 2 min. Conversely, O2*- production was nearly completely inhibited, without a lagtime, by incubation with the dimeric form of apocynin. The apocynin dimer undergoes a two-electron transfer reaction with standard redox potentials of -0.75 and -1.34 V as determined by cyclic voltammetry. Inhibition of endothelial NADPH oxidase by apocynin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. These findings identify a metabolite of an ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol, which may be the active compound formed within stimulated ECs that prevents NADPH oxidase complex assembly and activation.

  11. Dinuclear copper complexes with imidazole derivative ligands: a theoretical study related to catechol oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Membrillo, Ingrid; Ugalde-Saldívar, Victor M; Gasque, Laura

    2012-07-19

    Catechol oxidase is a very important and interesting metalloprotein. In spite of the efforts to understand the reaction mechanism of this protein, there are important questions that remain unanswered concerning the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. In this article, dinuclear copper compounds are used as biomimetic models of catechol oxidase to study plausible reaction paths. These dinuclear copper(II) complexes have distant metal centers (of 7.5 Å approximately) and superior catalytic activity to that of many dicopper complexes with shorter Cu-Cu distances. One mononuclear copper(II) complex is also analyzed in this investigation in order to see the influence of the two metal centers in the catalytic activity. Density functional theory calculations were performed to obtain optimized structures, vertical ionization energies, vertical electron affinities, the electrodonating power (ω(-)), the electroaccepting power (ω(+)) and the energy difference of several reaction paths. The K(M) experimental results that were previously reported compare well with the electroaccepting power (ω(+)) of the copper compounds that are included in this article, indicating that this index is useful for the interpretation of the electron transfer capacity and therefore the catalytic activity. The catechol moiety coordinates to only one Cu ion, but two metal atoms are needed in order to have a good electron acceptor capacity of the biomimetic models.

  12. Quaternary ammonium functionalized clay film electrodes modified with polyphenol oxidase for the sensitive detection of catechol.

    PubMed

    Mbouguen, Justin Kemmegne; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Walcarius, Alain

    2007-09-30

    Naturally occurring Cameroonian smectite clay has been grafted with trimethylpropylammonium (TMPA) groups and the resulting organoclay has been deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface as a suitable immobilization matrix for polyphenol oxidase (PPO). High sensitivity of the electrochemical device to catechol biosensing can be achieved when the enzyme was impregnated within the organoclay film subsequent to its deposition due to favorable electrostatic interaction between PPO and the TMPA-clay layer. The bioelectrode preparation method was also compatible with the use of a mediator (i.e., ferrocene) and the best performance was obtained with a three-layer configuration made of glassy carbon coated with a first layer of ferrocene (Fc), which was then covered with the PPO-impregnated TMPA-clay layer, and finally overcoated with an enzyme-free TMPA-clay film acting as a protecting overlayer to avoid leaching of the biomolecule in solution. The electrochemical behavior of the modified film electrodes was first characterized by cyclic voltammetry and, then, they were evaluated for the amperometric biosensing of the model analyte catechol in batch conditions and in flow injection analysis. Various experimental parameters likely to influence the biosensor response have been investigated, including the electrode preparation mode (composition configuration, thickness), the usefulness of a mediator, the operating potential and pH of the medium, as well as the advantageous features of the TMPA-clay in comparison to related film electrodes based on non-functionalized clays. The organoclay was found to provide a favorable environment to enzyme activity and the multilayer configuration of the film electrode to provide a biosensor with good characteristics, such as an extended linear range for catechol detection (2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-5)M) and a detection limit in the nanomolar range (9 x 10(-9)M).

  13. Emergence of hydrogen bonds from molecular dynamics simulation of substituted N-phenylthiourea-catechol oxidase complex.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A series of N-phenylthiourea derivatives was built starting from the X-ray structure in the molecular mechanics framework and the interaction profile in the complex with the catechol oxidase was traced using molecular dynamics simulation. The results showed that the geometry and interactions between ligand and receptor were highly related to the position of the substituted side chains of phenyl moiety. At the end of molecular dynamics run, a concentrated multicenter hydrogen bond was created between the substituted ligand and receptor. The conformation of the ligand itself were also restricted in the receptor pocket. Furthermore, the simulation time of 50 ns were found to be long enough to explore the relevant conformational space and the stationary behavior of the molecular dynamic could be observed.

  14. Multipart copolyelectrolyte adhesive of the sandcastle worm, Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes): catechol oxidase catalyzed curing through peptidyl-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching Shuen; Stewart, Russell J

    2013-05-13

    Tube-building sabellariid polychaetes have major impacts on the geology and ecology of shorelines worldwide. Sandcastle worms, Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes), live along the western coast of North America. Individual sabellariid worms build tubular shells by gluing together mineral particles with a multipart polyelectrolytic adhesive. Distinct sets of oppositely charged components are packaged and stored in concentrated granules in separate cell types. Homogeneous granules contain sulfated macromolecules as counter-polyanion to polycationic Pc2 and Pc5 proteins, which become major components of the fully cured glue. Heterogeneous granules contain polyphosphoproteins, Pc3A/B, paired with divalent cations and polycationic Pc1 and Pc4 proteins. Both types of granules contain catechol oxidase that catalyzes oxidative cross-linking of L-DOPA. Co-secretion of catechol oxidase guarantees rapid and spatially homogeneous curing with limited mixing of the preassembled adhesive packets. Catechol oxidase remains active long after the glue is fully cured, perhaps providing an active cue for conspecific larval settlement.

  15. The studies of FT-IR and CD spectroscopy on catechol oxidase I from tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hourong; Xie, Yongshu; Liu, Qingliang; Xu, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunhua

    2005-10-01

    A novel copper-containing enzyme named COI (catechol oxidase I) has been isolated and purified from tobacco by extracting acetone-emerged powder with phosphate buffer, centrifugation at low temperature, ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, and column chromatography on DEAE-sephadex (A-50), sephadex (G-75), and DEAE-celluse (DE-52). PAGE, SDS-PAGE were used to detect the enzyme purity, and to determine its molecular weight. Then the secondary structures of COI at different pH, different temperatures and different concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) were studied by the FT-IR, Fourier self-deconvolution spectra, and circular dichroism (CD). At pH 2.0, the contents of both α-helix and anti-parallel β-sheet decrease, and that of random coil increases, while β-turn is unchanged compared with the neutral condition (pH 7.0). At pH 11.0, the results indicate that the contents of α-helix, anti-parallel β-sheet and β-turn decrease, while random coil structure increases. According to the CD measurements, the relative average fractions of α-helix, anti-parallel β-sheet, β-turn/parallel β-sheet, aromatic residues and disulfide bond, and random coil/γ-turn are 41.7%, 16.7%, 23.5%, 11.3%, and 6.8% at pH 7.0, respectively, while 7.2%, 7.7%, 15.2%, 10.7%, 59.2% at pH 2.0, and 20.6%, 9.5%, 15.2%, 10.5%, 44.2% at pH 11.0. Both α-helix and random coil decrease with temperature increasing, and anti-parallel β-sheet increases at the same time. After incubated in 6 mol/L guanidine hydrochloride for 30 min, the fraction of α-helix almost disappears (only 1.1% left), while random coil/γ-turn increases to 81.8%, which coincides well with the results obtained through enzymatic activity experiment.

  16. Mechanistic insight into the catechol oxidase activity by a biomimetic dinuclear copper complex.

    PubMed

    Granata, Alessandro; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi

    2004-10-01

    The biomimetic catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol by the dicopper(II) complex of the ligand alpha,alpha'-bis(bis[1-(1'-methyl-2'-benzimidazolyl)methyl]amino)- m-xylene in the presence of dioxygen has been investigated as a function of temperature and pH in a mixed aqueous/organic solvent. The catalytic cycle occurs in two steps, the first step being faster than the second step. In the first step, one molecule of catechol is oxidized by the dicopper(II) complex, and the copper(II) centers are reduced. From the pH dependence, it is deduced that the active species of the process is the monohydroxo form of the dinuclear complex. In the second step, the second molecule of catechol is oxidized by the dicopper(I)-dioxygen complex formed upon oxygenation of the reduced complex. In both cases, catechol oxidation is an inner-sphere electron transfer process involving binding of the catechol to the active species. The binary catechol-dicopper(II) complex formed in the first step could be characterized at very low temperature (-90 degrees C), where substrate oxidation is blocked. On the contrary, the ternary complex of dicopper(I)-O(2)-catechol relevant to the second step does not accumulate in solution and could not be characterized, even at low temperature. The investigation of the biphasic kinetics of the catalytic reaction over a range of temperatures allowed the thermodynamic (Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees ) and activation parameters (Delta H( not equal) and Delta S( not equal)) connected with the key steps of the catecholase process to be obtained.

  17. The reactivity of ortho-methoxy-substituted catechol radicals with sulfhydryl groups: contribution for the comprehension of the mechanism of inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Marília P P; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; Brunetti, Iguatemy L; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Ximenes, Valdecir F

    2007-08-01

    Redox processes are involved in the mechanism of action of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin. Here, we studied the structure-activity relationship for apocynin and analogous ortho-methoxy-substituted catechols as inhibitors of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils and their reactivity with peroxidase. Aiming to alter the reduction potential, the ortho-methoxy-catechol moiety was kept constant and the substituents at para position related to the hydroxyl group were varied. Two series of compounds were employed: methoxy-catechols bearing electron-withdrawing groups (MC-W) such as apocynin, vanillin, 4-nitroguaiacol, 4-cyanoguaiacol, and methoxy-catechol bearing electron-donating groups (MC-D) such as 4-methylguaiacol and 4-ethylguaiacol. We found that MC-D were weaker inhibitors compared to MD-W. Furthermore, the radicals generated by oxidation of MC-W via MPO/H(2)O(2), but not for MC-D, were able to oxidize glutathione (GSH) as verified by the formation of thiyl radicals, depletion of GSH, and recycling of the ortho-methoxy-catechols during their oxidations. The capacity of oxidizing sulfhydryl (SH) groups was also verified when ovalbumin was incubated with MC-W, but not for MC-D. Since the effect of apocynin has been correlated with inactivation of the cytosolic fractions of the NADPH oxidase complex and its oxidation during the inhibitory process develops a special role in this process, we suggest that the close relationship between the reactivity of the radicals of MC-W compounds with thiol groups and their efficacy as NADPH oxidase inhibitor could be the chemical pathway behind the mechanism of action of apocynin and should be taken into account in the design of new and specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors.

  18. Catechol O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A genotypes, and plasma catecholamine metabolites in bipolar and schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, María I; Erkoreka, Leire; Bustamante, Sonia; Inchausti, Lucía; González-Torres, Miguel A; Guimón, José

    2010-01-01

    Metabolites of dopamine and norepinephrine measured in the plasma have long been associated with symptomatic severity and response to treatment in schizophrenic, bipolar and other psychiatric patients. Plasma concentrations of catecholamine metabolites are genetically regulated. The genes encoding enzymes that are involved in the synthesis and degradation of these monoamines are candidate targets for this genetic regulation. We have studied the relationship between the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol O-methyltransferase gene, variable tandem repeat polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A gene promoter, and plasma concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in healthy control subjects as well as in untreated schizophrenic and bipolar patients. We found that the Val158Met substitution in catechol O-methyltransferase gene influences the plasma concentrations of homovanillic and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acids. Although higher concentrations of plasma homovanillic acid were found in the high-activity ValVal genotype, this mutation did not affect the plasma concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were higher in the low-activity MetMet genotype. Interestingly, plasma values 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were greater in schizophrenic patients and in bipolar patients than in healthy controls. Our results are compatible with the previously reported effect of the Val158Met polymorphism on catechol O-methyltransferase enzymatic activity. Thus, our results suggest that this polymorphism, alone or associated with other polymorphisms, could have an important role in the genetic control of monoamine concentration and its metabolites.

  19. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) containing a type-3 dicopper center.

    PubMed

    Eicken, C; Zippel, F; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, K; Krebs, B

    1998-10-02

    Two catechol oxidases have been isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and purified to homogeneity. The two isozymes have been characterized by EXAFS, EPR-, UV/Vis-spectroscopy, isoelectric focusing, and MALDI-MS and have been shown to contain a dinuclear copper center. Both are monomers with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively. Substrate specificity and NH2-terminal sequences have been determined. EXAFS data for the 39 kDa enzyme reveal a coordination number of four for each Cu in the resting form and suggest a Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.9 A for the native met form and 3.8 A for the oxy form.

  20. Bilirubin oxidase from Magnaporthe oryzae: an attractive new enzyme for biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Fabien; Gounel, Sébastien; Kjaergaard, Christian H.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    A novel bilirubin oxidase (BOD), from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, has been identified and isolated. The 64-kDa protein containing four coppers was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity in one step. Protein yield is more than 100 mg for 2 L culture, twice that of Myrothecium verrucaria. The kcat/Km ratio for conjugated bilirubin (1,513 mM −1 s−1) is higher than that obtained for the BOD from M. verrucaria expressed in native fungus (980 mM−1 s−1), with the lowest Km measured for any BOD highly desirable for detection of bilirubin in medical samples. In addition, this protein exhibits a half-life for deactivation >300 min at 37 °C, high stability at pH 7, and high tolerance towards urea, making it an ideal candidate for the elaboration of biofuel cells, powering implantable medical devices. Finally, this new BOD is efficient in decolorizing textile dyes such as Remazol brilliant Blue R, making it useful for environmentally friendly industrial applications. PMID:22350257

  1. Ligand centered radical pathway in catechol oxidase activity with a trinuclear zinc-based model: synthesis, structural characterization and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukanta; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Patra, Moumita; Maji, Milan; Biswas, Bhaskar

    2015-06-05

    A new trinuclear zinc(II) complex, [Zn3(L)(NCS)2](NO3)2·CH3OH·H2O (1), of a (N,O)-donor compartmental Schiff base ligand (H2L=N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-propanol), has been synthesized in crystalline phase. The zinc(II) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction study (PXRD), (1)H NMR, EI mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis. PXRD revealed that 1 crystallizes in P-1 space group with a=9.218 Å, b=10.849 Å, c=18.339 Å, with unit cell volume is 2179.713(Å)(3). Fluorescence spectra in methanolic solution reflect that intensity of emission for 1 is much higher compared to H2L and both the compounds exhibit good fluorescence properties. The complex 1 exhibits significant catalytic activities of biological relevance, viz. catechol oxidase. In methanol, it efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to corresponding quinone via formation of a dinuclear species as [Zn2(L)(3,5-DTBC)]. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) experiment suggests generation of radicals in the presence of 3,5-DTBC and it may be proposed that the radical pathway is probably responsible for conversion of 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-DTBQ promoted by complex of redox-innocent Zn(II) ion.

  2. Ligand centered radical pathway in catechol oxidase activity with a trinuclear zinc-based model: Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sukanta; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Patra, Moumita; Maji, Milan; Biswas, Bhaskar

    2015-06-01

    A new trinuclear zinc(II) complex, [Zn3(L)(NCS)2](NO3)2·CH3OH·H2O (1), of a (N,O)-donor compartmental Schiff base ligand (H2L = N,N‧-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2-propanol), has been synthesized in crystalline phase. The zinc(II) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction study (PXRD), 1H NMR, EI mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis. PXRD revealed that 1 crystallizes in P - 1 space group with a = 9.218 Å, b = 10.849 Å, c = 18.339 Å, with unit cell volume is 2179.713 (Å)3. Fluorescence spectra in methanolic solution reflect that intensity of emission for 1 is much higher compared to H2L and both the compounds exhibit good fluorescence properties. The complex 1 exhibits significant catalytic activities of biological relevance, viz. catechol oxidase. In methanol, it efficiently catalyzes the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to corresponding quinone via formation of a dinuclear species as [Zn2(L)(3,5-DTBC)]. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) experiment suggests generation of radicals in the presence of 3,5-DTBC and it may be proposed that the radical pathway is probably responsible for conversion of 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-DTBQ promoted by complex of redox-innocent Zn(II) ion.

  3. Gonadectomy and hormone replacement exert region- and enzyme isoform-specific effects on monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in prefrontal cortex and neostriatum of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Meyers, B; D'Agostino, A; Walker, J; Kritzer, M F

    2010-02-03

    Sex differences and gonadal hormone influences are well known for diverse aspects of forebrain amine and indolamine neurotransmitter systems, the cognitive and affective functions they govern and their malfunction in mental illness. This study explored whether hormone regulation/dysregulation of these systems could be related to gonadal steroid effects on catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase which are principal enzymatic controllers of forebrain dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine levels. Driven by male over female differences in cortical enzyme activities, by male-specific associations between monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms and cognitive and dysfunction in disease and by male-specific consequences of gene knockouts in mice, the question of hormone sensitivity was addressed here using a male rat model where prefrontal dopamine levels and related behaviors are also known to be affected. Specifically, quantitative O-methylation and oxidative deamination assays were used to compare the activities of catechol-O-methyltransferase's soluble and membrane-bound isoforms and of monoamine oxidase's A and B isoforms in the pregenual medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum of male rats that were sham operated, gonadectomized or gonadectomized and supplemented with testosterone propionate or with estradiol for 28 days. These studies revealed significant effects of hormone replacement but not gonadectomy on the soluble but not the membrane-bound isorfom of catechol-O-methyltransferase in both striatum and cortex. A significant, cortex-specific testosterone-but not estradiol-attenuated effect (increase) of gonadectomy on monoamine oxidase's A but not B isoform was also observed. Although none of these actions suggest potential roles in the regulation/dysregulation of prefrontal dopamine, the suppressive effects of testosterone on cortical monoamine oxidase-A that were observed could have bearing on the increased

  4. Relation between the catalytic efficiency of the synthetic analogues of catechol oxidase with their electrochemical property in the free state and substrate-bound state.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Prateeti; Adhikary, Jaydeep; Ghosh, Bipinbihari; Sanyal, Ria; Chattopadhyay, Shyamal Kumar; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2014-08-18

    A library of 15 dicopper complexes as synthetic analogues of catechol oxidase has been synthesized with the aim to determine the relationship between the electrochemical behavior of the dicopper(II) species in the absence as well as in the presence of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as model substrate and the catalytic activity, kcat, in DMSO medium. The complexes have been characterized by routine physicochemical techniques as well as by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis in some cases. Fifteen "end-off" compartmental ligands have been designed as 1 + 2 Schiff-base condensation product of 2,6-diformyl-4-R-phenol (R = Me, (t)Bu, and Cl) and five different amines, N-(2-aminoethyl)piperazine, N-(2-aminoethyl)pyrrolidine, N-(2-aminoethyl)morpholine, N-(3-aminopropyl)morpholine, and N-(2-aminoethyl)piperidine. Interestingly, in case of the combination of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol and N-(2-aminoethyl)morpholine/N-(3-aminopropyl)morpholine/N-(2-aminoethyl)piperidine 1 + 1 condensation becomes the reality and the ligands are denoted as L2(1-3). On reaction of copper(II) nitrate with L2(1-3) in situ complexes 3, 12, and 13 are formed having general formula Cu2(L2(1-3))2(NO3)2. The remaining 12 ligands obtained as 1 + 2 condensation products are denoted as L1(1-12), which produce complexes having general formula Cu2(L1(1-12))(NO3)2. Catecholase activity of all 15 complexes has been investigated in DMSO medium using 3,5-DTBC as model substrate. Treatment on the basis of Michaelis-Menten model has been applied for kinetic study, and thereby turnover number, kcat, values have been evaluated. Cyclic voltametric (CV) and differential pulse voltametric (DPV) studies of the complexes in the presence as well as in the absence of 3,5-DTBC have been thoroughly investigated in DMSO medium. From those studies it is evident that oxidation of 3,5-DTBC catalyzed by dicopper(II) complexes proceed via two steps: first, semibenzoquinone followed by benzoquinone with concomitant

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectral studies, and catechol oxidase activity of trigonal bipyramidal Cu(II) complexes derived from a tetradentate diamide bisbenzimidazole ligand.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mathur, P; Butcher, R J

    2001-02-26

    . Palaniandavar, M.; Pandiyan, T.; Laxminarayan, M.; Manohar, H. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1995, 457. Sakurai, T.; Oi, H.; Nakahara, A. Inorg. Chim. Acta 1984, 92, 131). It is therefore concluded that binding of amide carbonyl oxygen destabilizes the Cu(II) state. The complex [Cu(II)(GBHA)(NO(3))](NO(3)) could be successfully reduced by the addition of dihydroxybenzenes to the corresponding [Cu(I)(GBHA)](NO(3)). (1)H NMR of the reduced complex shows slightly broadened and shifted (1)H signals. The reduction of the Cu(II) complex presumably occurs with the corresponding 2e(-) oxidation of the quinol to quinone. Such a conversion is reminiscent of the functioning of a copper-containing catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes and the met form of the enzyme tyrosinase.

  6. Microdialysis with radiometric monitoring of L-[β-11C]DOPA to assess dopaminergic metabolism: effect of inhibitors of L-amino acid decarboxylase, monoamine oxidase, and catechol-O-methyltransferase on rat striatal dialysate.

    PubMed

    Okada, Maki; Nakao, Ryuji; Hosoi, Rie; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The catecholamine, dopamine (DA), is synthesized from 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Dopamine metabolism is regulated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). To measure dopaminergic metabolism, we used microdialysis with radiometric detection to monitor L-[β-(11)C]DOPA metabolites in the extracellular space of the rat striatum. We also evaluated the effects of AADC, MAO, and COMT inhibitors on metabolite profiles. The major early species measured after administration of L-[β-(11)C]DOPA were [(11)C]3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ([(11)C]DOPAC) and [(11)C]homovanillic acid ([(11)C]HVA) in a 1:1 ratio, which shifted toward [(11)C]HVA with time. An AADC inhibitor increased the uptake of L-[β-(11)C]DOPA and L-3-O-methyl-[(11)C]DOPA and delayed the accumulation of [(11)C]DOPAC and [(11)C]HVA. The MAO and COMT inhibitors increased the production of [(11)C]3-methoxytyramine and [(11)C]DOPAC, respectively. These results reflect the L-DOPA metabolic pathway, suggesting that this method may be useful for assessing dopaminergic metabolism.

  7. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Polymorphisms Interact with Maternal Parenting in Association with Adolescent Reactive Aggression but not Proactive Aggression: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Cong; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Cao, Yanmiao

    2016-04-01

    To date, whether and how gene-environment (G × E) interactions operate differently across distinct subtypes of aggression remains untested. More recently, in contrast with the diathesis-stress hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis of differential susceptibility proposes that individuals could be differentially susceptible to environments depending on their genotypes in a "for better and for worse" manner. The current study examined interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) T941G and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphisms with maternal parenting on two types of aggression: reactive and proactive. Moreover, whether these potential G × E interactions would be consistent with the diathesis-stress versus the differential susceptibility hypothesis was tested. Within the sample of 1399 Chinese Han adolescents (47.2 % girls, M age = 12.32 years, SD = 0.50), MAOA and COMT genes both interacted with positive parenting in their associations with reactive but not proactive aggression. Adolescents with T alleles/TT homozygotes of MAOA gene or Met alleles of COMT gene exhibited more reactive aggression when exposed to low positive parenting, but less reactive aggression when exposed to high positive parenting. These findings provide the first evidence for distinct G × E interaction effects on reactive versus proactive aggression and lend further support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

  8. Identification of catechol as a new marker for detecting propolis adulteration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, George Q; Sun, Yue-Yi; Wang, Kai; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2014-07-14

    Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract.

  9. Catechol oxidase activity of a series of new dinuclear copper(II) complexes with 3,5-DTBC and TCC as substrates: syntheses, X-ray crystal structures, spectroscopic characterization of the adducts and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Suresh, Eringathodi; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2008-08-18

    A series of dinuclear copper(II) complexes has been synthesized with the aim to investigate their applicability as potential structure and function models for the active site of catechol oxidase enzyme. They have been characterized by routine physicochemical techniques as well as by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis: [Cu 2(H 2L2 (2))(OH)(H 2O)(NO 3)](NO 3) 3.2H 2O ( 1), [Cu(HL1 (4))(H 2O)(NO 3)] 2(NO 3) 2.2H 2O ( 2), [Cu(L1 (1))(H 2O)(NO 3)] 2 ( 3), [Cu 2(L2 (3))(OH)(H 2O) 2](NO 3) 2, ( 4) and [Cu 2(L2 (1))(N 3) 3] ( 5) [L1 = 2-formyl-4-methyl-6R-iminomethyl-phenolato and L2 = 2,6-bis(R-iminomethyl)-4-methyl-phenolato; for L1 (1) and L2 (1), R = N-propylmorpholine; for L2 (2), R = N-ethylpiperazine; for L2 (3), R = N-ethylpyrrolidine, and for L1 (4), R = N-ethylmorpholine]. Dinuclear 1 and 4 possess two "end-off" compartmental ligands with exogenous mu-hydroxido and endogenous mu-phenoxido groups leading to intermetallic distances of 2.9794(15) and 2.9435(9) A, respectively; 2 and 3 are formed by two tridentate compartmental ligands where the copper centers are connected by endogenous phenoxido bridges with Cu-Cu separations of 3.0213(13) and 3.0152(15) A, respectively; 5 is built by an end-off compartmental ligand having exogenous mu-azido and endogenous mu-phenoxido groups with a Cu-Cu distance of 3.133(2) A (mean of two independent molecules). The catecholase activity of all of the complexes has been investigated in acetonitrile and methanol medium by UV-vis spectrophotometric study using 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) and tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) as substrates. In acetonitrile medium, the conversion of 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-di- tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) catalyzed by 1- 5 is observed to proceed via the formation of two enzyme-substrate adducts, ES1 and ES2, detected spectroscopically for the first time. In methanol medium no such enzyme-substrate adduct has been detected, and the 3,5-DTBC to 3,5-DTBQ conversion is observed to be catalyzed by 1- 5

  10. The influence of catechol structure on the suicide-inactivation of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher A; Stratford, Michael R L; Riley, Patrick A

    2009-09-07

    3,6-Difluorocatechol, which cannot act as a monooxygenase tyrosinase substrate, is an oxidase substrate, and, in contrast to other catechols, oxidation does not lead to suicide-inactivation, providing experimental evidence for an inactivation mechanism involving reductive elimination of Cu(0) from the active site.

  11. Biomimetic metal-radical reactivity: aerial oxidation of alcohols, amines, aminophenols and catechols catalyzed by transition metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Phalguni; Wieghardt, Karl; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Paine, Tapan K; Mukherjee, Soumen; Mukherjee, Chandan

    2005-10-01

    The contributions of the authors to the research program 'Radicals in Enzymatic Catalysis' over the last ca. 5 years are summarized. Significant efforts were directed towards the design and testing of phenol-containing ligands for synthesizing radical-containing transition metal complexes as potential candidates for catalysis of organic substrates like alcohols, amines, aminophenols and catechols. Functional models for different copper oxidases, such as galactose oxidase, amine oxidases, phenoxazinone synthase and catechol oxidase, are reported. The copper complexes synthesized can mimic the function of the metalloenzymes galactose oxidase and amine oxidases by catalyzing the aerial oxidation of alcohols and amines. Even methanol could be oxidized, albeit with a low conversion, by a biradical-copper(II) compound. The presence of a primary kinetic isotope effect, similar to that for galactose oxidase, provides compelling evidence that H-atom abstraction from the alpha-C-atom of the substrates is the rate-limiting step. Although catechol oxidase and phenoxazinone synthase contain copper, manganese(IV) complexes containing radicals have been found to be useful to study synthetic systems and to understand the naturally occurring processes. An 'on-off' mechanism of the radicals without redox participation from the metal centers seems to be operative in the catalysis involving such metal-radical complexes.

  12. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catechol oxidase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and other plant materials. Because PPOs are often induced by wounding or pathogen attack, they are most generally believed to play important roles in plant defense responses. However, a few well-characterized PPOs appear to have very specific roles in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites via both tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase) and catechol oxidase activities. Here we detail a few examples of these and explore the possibility that there may be many more "biosynthetic" PPOs.

  13. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  14. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells.

  15. Sensitive radioenzymatic assay for catechol drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Durrett, L.R.; Ziegler, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    This assay measures picogram quantities of catechol drugs and endogenous catecholamines in body tissues and fluids. The catechols are converted to their 3H-O-methyl metabolites during incubation with 3H-S-adenosylmethionine then separated by solvent extraction and thin-layer chromatography. Most drugs containing the catechol structure can be radiolabeled and separated from norepinephrine and epinephrine by this technique to provide simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenously administered catechols. The disposition of isoproterenol in tissues and fluids of man and experimental animals is measured to illustrate the utility of this assay. The reactivity of several commonly administered catechol drugs with COMT is described and the possible implications discussed.

  16. A new boronic acid based fluorescent reporter for catechol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongyu; Li, Minyong; Fang, Hao; Wang, Binghe

    2012-12-01

    Catechol skeleton widely exists in natural products and bioactive substances. Fluorescent reporters which could recognize catechol are very promising for the construction of chemosensors to detect catechol and its derivatives in biological environment. Herein, we reported a novel catechol reporter, 2-(4-boronophenyl)quinoline-4-carboxylic acid, which exhibits significant fluorescent property changes upon binding catechol containing molecules in an aqueous solution.

  17. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from corn tassel.

    PubMed

    Gul Guven, R; Aslan, N; Guven, K; Matpan Bekler, F; Acer, O

    2016-11-30

    In this study, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from corn tassel  was extracted and partially purified through  (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. Optimal temperatures for subsrates catechol and 4-methyl catechol were 40 °C and 30 °C, respectively. The optimal pH values were 8.0 for catechol and 6.0 for 4-methyl catechol. Catechol was the most suitible substrate (Km: 3.48 mM, Vmax: 1.0 Abs./ min.). The moleculer mass of PPO was determined as 158 kDa. In this work, sodium azide, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were found to inhibit the enzyme activity as 26.6 %,  22.2 % and 12.2 % ratio, respectively. Besides, the effects of carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, ribose and glucose on PPO activity were investigated. The enzyme was found to be activated 17 % by fructose and ribose, 16 % by glucose and 4 % by sucrose.

  18. Substrate inhibition competes with halide inhibition in polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lim, Giselle Grace Fernando; Imura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Etsuro

    2012-10-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a ubiquitous enzyme important in the food industry. Although PPO activity followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics at catechol concentrations of up to 1 mM, it slowly decreased at catechol concentrations above 2 mM. This result indicated that in addition to the active site (site A), the enzyme possesses a second catechol-binding site (site B) that exerts an inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Halides inhibit PPO activity in such a way that substrate inhibition is lessened when halide concentration is increased. Furthermore, elevated concentrations of catechol diminished the degree of inhibition by halides. These findings suggest that halides also bind to site B to inhibit PPO activity. A steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrated that the dissociation constant between catechol and PPO depended on the binding of halides to site B. The dissociation constants were greatest when chloride bound to the site. Bromide and iodide yielded lower dissociation constants, in that order. These data indicate that the binding of halide to site B modulated the structure of site A, thereby exerting an inhibitory effect.

  19. Some biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase from celery.

    PubMed

    Yagar, Hülya

    2004-11-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) was extracted from celery roots (Apium graveolens L.) with 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The PPO was partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 and dialysis. Substrate specificity experiments were carried out with catechol, pyrogallol, L-DOPA, p-cresol, resorcinol, and tyrosine. The Km for pyrogallol, catechol, and L-DOPA were 4.5, 8.3, and 6.2mM, respectively, at 25 degrees C. Data for Vmax/Km values, which represent catalytic efficiency, show that pyrogallol has the highest value. The optimum pH and temperature were determined with catechol, pyrogallol, and L-DOPA. Optimum pH was 7.0 for catechol and L-DOPA, and 7.5 for pyrogallol. Optimum temperatures for maximum PPO activity were 25 degrees C for pyrogallol, 40 degrees C for catechol, and 45 degrees C for L-DOPA. Heat inactivation studies showed a decrease in enzymatic activity at temperatures above 60 degrees C. The order of inhibitor effectiveness was: L-cysteine > ascorbic acid > glycine > resorcinol > NaCl.

  20. Spectroscopic Studies of the Catechol Dioxygenases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Que, Lawrence Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The catechol dioxygenases are bacterial iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of catechols. These enzymes serve as a component of nature's mechanisms for degrading aromatic compounds in the environment. The structure and mechanistic aspects of these enzymes are described. (JN)

  1. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  2. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-27

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to (18)O-labelled catechols using (18)O-labelled acetic acid.

  3. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C-H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid.

  4. A redox-neutral catechol synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qian; Yan, Dingyuan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ting; Xiong, Feng; Wei, Wei; Lu, Yi; Sun, Wei-Yin; Li, Jie Jack; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous tyrosinase catalyses the aerobic oxidation of phenols to catechols through the binuclear copper centres. Here, inspired by the Fischer indole synthesis, we report an iridium-catalysed tyrosinase-like approach to catechols, employing an oxyacetamide-directed C–H hydroxylation on phenols. This method achieves one-step, redox-neutral synthesis of catechols with diverse substituent groups under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies confirm that the directing group (DG) oxyacetamide acts as the oxygen source. This strategy has been applied to the synthesis of different important catechols with fluorescent property and bioactivity from the corresponding phenols. Finally, our method also provides a convenient route to 18O-labelled catechols using 18O-labelled acetic acid. PMID:28128196

  5. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  6. Diphenol activation of the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of field bean (Dolichos lablab) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Lalitha R; Paul, Beena

    2002-03-13

    This paper reports a study on the hydroxylation of ferulic acid and tyrosine by field bean (Dolichos lablab) polyphenol oxidase, a reaction that does not take place without the addition of catechol. A lag period similar to the characteristic lag of tyrosinase activity was observed, the length of which decreased with increasing catechol concentration and increased with increasing ferulic acid concentration. The activation constant K(a) of catechol for ferulic acid hydroxylation reaction was 5 mM. The kinetic parameters of field bean polyphenol oxidase toward ferulic acid and tyrosine were evaluated in the presence of catechol. 4-Methyl catechol, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, pyrogallol, and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, substrates with high binding affinity to field bean polyphenol oxidase, could stimulate this hydroxylation reaction. In contrast, diphenols such as protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, which were not substrates for the oxidation reaction, were unable to bring about this activation. It is most likely that only o-diphenols that are substrates for the diphenolase serve as cosubstrates by donating electrons at the active site for the monophenolase activity. The reaction mechanism for this activation is consistent with that proposed for tyrosinase (Sanchez-Ferrer, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J. N.; Garcia-Canovas, F.; Garcia-Carmona, F. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1995, 1247, 1-11). The presence of o-diphenols, viz. catechol, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and 4-methyl catechol, is also necessary for the oxidation of the diphenols, caffeic acid, and catechin to their quinones by the field bean polyphenol oxidase. This oxidation reaction occurs immediately with no lag period and does not occur without the addition of diphenol. The kinetic parameters for caffeic acid (K(m) = 0.08 mM, V(max) = 32440 u/mg) in the presence of catechol and the activation constant K(a) of catechol (4.6 mM) for this reaction were enumerated. The absence of a lag

  7. 40 CFR 721.10711 - Alkyl substituted catechol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted catechol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10711 Alkyl substituted catechol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted catechol (PMN P-13-197) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. Purification and characterization of Ocimum basilicum L. polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Pinar; Dogan, Mehmet; Arslan, Oktay; Alkan, Mahir

    2005-12-28

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in Ocimum basilicum L. is described. PPO in O. basilicum L. was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. The samples obtained from (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis were used for the characterization of PPO. At the end of purification by affinity chromatography, 11.5-fold purification was achived. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be approximately 54 kDa. The contents of total phenolic and protein of O. basilicum L. extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of O. basilicum L. was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 280 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. The protein content was determined according to the Bradford method. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates, but not to tyrosine. Therefore, of these three substrates, 4-methylcatecol was the best substrate due to the highest V(max)/K(m) value, followed by pyrogallol and catechol. The optimum pH was at 6, 8, and 9 for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 20, 40, and 50 degrees C for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. It was found that optimum temperature and pH were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme.

  9. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  10. PEM Anchorage on Titanium Using Catechol Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Hélène; Barrere, Amélie; Schoentstein, Frédérique; Chavanne, Marie-Hélène; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Mora, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background This study deals with the anchorage of polyelectrolyte films onto titanium surfaces via a cathecol-based linker for biomedical applications. Methodology The following study uses a molecule functionalized with a catechol and a carboxylic acid: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid. This molecule is anchored to the TiO2 substrate via the catechol while the carboxylic acid reacts with polymers bearing amine groups. By providing a film anchorage of chemisorption type, it makes possible to deposit polyelectrolytes on the surface of titanium. Principal Findings Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the different steps of grafting have been successfully performed. Conclusions This method based on catechol anchorage of polyelectrolytes open a window towards large possibilities of clinical applications. PMID:23226262

  11. Catechol Formation and Melanization by Na+ -Dependent Azotobacter chroococcum: a Protective Mechanism for Aeroadaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Shivprasad, Shailaja; Page, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Aeroadaptive microaerophilic Azotobacter chroococcum 184 produced a cell-associated black pigment when grown at high aeration rates under nitrogen-fixing conditions. This pigment was shown to be a catechol melanin. Polyphenol oxidase activity was detected in cell extracts of cells grown for 72 h. Melanin formation was optimal in the later stages of growth, and there was no correlation between nitrogenase activity and melanization. Nitrogenase activity in strain 184 was optimal at 10% O2, and melanin formation was suppressed by O2 limitation. In the presence of charcoal, an adsorbent of toxic oxygen intermediates, and benzoic acid, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, melanization was inhibited. However, in the presence of copper, the intensity of pigment color increased and melanization was accelerated. Copper also eliminated catalase and peroxidase activities of the organism but still permitted aerobic growth. In the presence of low levels of iron, melanization was accelerated under high aeration rates, and under low rates of aeration, melanization was observed only at higher levels of iron. Hydroxamate-siderophore production was detectable in the presence of soluble iron under high rates of aeration but was repressed by the same levels of iron under low aeration rates. Unlike melanization and hydroxamate formation, catechol formation was observed under both low and high rates of aeration under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Catechol formation and melanization were repressed by 14 mM NH4+, at which level nitrogenase activity was also repressed. Copper reversed the repressive effect of NH4+. A role for catechol formation and melanization in aeroadaptation is proposed. PMID:16347974

  12. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  13. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  14. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  15. Anomalous cage effect of the excited state dynamics of catechol in the 18-crown-6-catechol host-guest complex.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Fumiya; Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Haino, Takeharu; Ebata, Takayuki

    2015-02-12

    We determined the number of isomers and their structures for the 18-crown-6 (18C6)-catechol host-guest complex, and examined the effect of the complex formation on the S1 ((1)ππ*) dynamics of catechol under a supersonically cooled gas phase condition and in cyclohexane solution at room temperature. In the gas phase experiment, UV-UV hole-burning spectra of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex indicate that there are three stable isomers. For bare catechol, it has been reported that two adjacent OH groups have an intramolecular hydrogen (H) bond. The IR-UV double resonance spectra show two types of isomers in the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex; one of the three 18C6-catechol 1:1 isomers has the intramolecular H-bond between the two OH groups, while in the other two isomers the intramolecular H-bond is broken and the two OH groups are H-bonded to oxygen atoms of 18C6. The complex formation with 18C6 substantially elongates the S1 lifetime from 7 ps for bare catechol and 2.0 ns for the catechol-H2O complex to 10.3 ns for the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex. Density functional theory calculations of the 18C6-catechol 1:1 complex suggest that this elongation is attributed to a larger energy gap between the S1 ((1)ππ*) and (1)πσ* states than that of bare catechol or the catechol-H2O complex. In cyclohexane solution, the enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of catechol was found by adding 18C6, due to the formation of the 18C6-catechol complex in solution, and the complex has a longer S1 lifetime than that of catechol monomer. From the concentration dependence of the fluorescence intensity, we estimated the equilibrium constant K for the 18C6 + catechol ⇄ 18C6-catechol reaction. The obtained value (log K = 2.3) in cyclohexane is comparable to those for alkali metal ions or other molecular ions, indicating that 18C6 efficiently captures catechol in solution. Therefore, 18C6 can be used as a sensitive sensor of catechol derivatives in solution with its high ability of

  16. Aluminum complexation by catechol as determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.; McBride, M.B.

    1989-03-01

    Methods of ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry were used to determine the stoichiometry and association constant for the Al-catechol complex from pH 3.8 to 4.6. Job's method of continuous variation indicated the Al-catechol complex had a 1:1 stoichiometry in the pH range studied. Aluminum titrations of catechol and pH titrations of catechol plus Al resulted in a shift in the UV spectra due to the formation of an Al-catechol complex absorbing UV radiation uniquely different than that of free catechol. General equations were developed for the determination of association constants assuming an organic and Al-organic complex absorb UV radiation. Aluminum titrations with constant catechol concentration yielded a log k/sub 0.1//sup c/ of 16.22 for a 1:1 Al-catechol complex. Calculated absorbance as a function of pH agree dwell with experimental pH titrations of solutions containing catechol plus Al. The fact that Al can be complexed by catechol at low pH indicates the o-hydroxy group provides a potential source for Al complexation in soil and surface waters.

  17. Jack of all trades: versatile catechol crosslinking mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

    2014-12-21

    Catechols play an important role in many natural systems. They are known to readily interact with both organic (e.g., amino acids) and inorganic (e.g., metal ions, metal oxides) compounds, thereby providing a powerful system for protein curing. Catechol crosslinked protein networks, such as sclerotized cuticle and byssal threads of the mussel, have been shown to exhibit excellent mechanical properties. A lot of effort has been devoted to mimicking the natural proteins using synthetic catechol-functionalized polymers. Despite the success in developing catechol-functionalized materials, the crosslinking chemistry of catechols is still a subject of debate. To develop materials with controlled and superior properties, a clear understanding of the crosslinking mechanism of catechols is of vital importance. This review describes the crosslinking pathways of catechol and derivatives in both natural and synthetic systems. We discuss existing pathways of catechol crosslinking and parameters that affect the catechol chemistry in detail. This overview will point towards a rational direction for further investigation of the complicated catechol chemistry.

  18. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species.

    PubMed

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2016-01-01

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a text-based browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tab-delimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  19. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Suriguga; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  20. Catechol-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with additional antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.

  1. Etoposide catechol is an oxidizable topoisomerase II poison.

    PubMed

    Jacob, David A; Gibson, Elizabeth G; Mercer, Susan L; Deweese, Joseph E

    2013-08-19

    Topoisomerase II regulates DNA topology by generating transient double-stranded breaks. The anticancer drug etoposide targets topoisomerase II and is associated with the formation of secondary leukemias in patients. The quinone and catechol metabolites of etoposide may contribute to strand breaks that trigger leukemic translocations. To further analyze the characteristics of etoposide metabolites, we extend our previous analysis of etoposide quinone to the catechol. We demonstrate that the catechol is ∼2-3-fold more potent than etoposide and under oxidative reaction conditions induces high levels of double-stranded DNA cleavage. These results support a role for etoposide catechol in contributing to therapy-induced DNA damage.

  2. Extracellular superoxide anion production contributes to the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Pang, Xinyue; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Jinsheng; Li, Minquan; Li, Hongyu

    2009-02-01

    Endogenous superoxide anion production was determined by electron spin resonance in wild-type strains and avrXa7 mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The localization of superoxide anion was carried out in the intra- and extra-cellular fractions. Results showed the presence of superoxide anion in multi-locations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae cells. The extracellular fraction was the major location of superoxide anion production. Furthermore, a positive relationship was shown between the levels of endogenous superoxide anion and the virulence of strains. These indubitable results suggested that the superoxide anion contributes to the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterocyclic Catechol Mimics as Inhibitors of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-4-pyridinones and 5-hydroxy-4-pyrimidinones were identified as inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in a high-throughput screen. These heterocyclic catechol mimics exhibit potent inhibition of the enzyme and an improved toxicity profile versus the marketed nitrocatechol inhibitors tolcapone and entacapone. Optimization of the series was aided by X-ray cocrystal structures of the novel inhibitors in complex with COMT and cofactors SAM and Mg2+. The crystal structures suggest a mechanism of inhibition for these heterocyclic inhibitors distinct from previously disclosed COMT inhibitors. PMID:25815153

  4. Catechol metabolites of the mycotoxin zearalenone are poor substrates but potent inhibitors of catechol-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Wefers, Daniel; Hildebrand, Andreas A; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred

    2013-08-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) elicits estrogenic effects and is biotransformed to two catechol metabolites, in analogy to the endogenous steroidal estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E2). Previous studies have shown that the catechol metabolites of ZEN have about the same potency to induce oxidative DNA damage as the catechol metabolites of E2, but are less efficiently converted to their methyl ethers by human hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Here, we report that the two catechol metabolites of ZEN, i.e. 13-hydroxy-ZEN and 15-hydroxy-ZEN, are not only poor substrates of human COMT but are also able to strongly inhibit the O-methylation of 2-hydroxy-E2, the major catechol metabolite of E2. 15-Hydroxy-ZEN acts as a non-competitive inhibitor and is about ten times more potent than 13-hydroxy-ZEN, which is an uncompetitive inhibitor of COMT. The catechol metabolites of ZEN were also shown to inhibit the O-methylation of 2-hydroxy-E2 by hepatic COMT from mouse, rat, steer and piglet, although to a lesser extent than observed with human COMT. The powerful inhibitory effect of catechol metabolites of ZEN on COMT may have implications for the tumorigenic activity of E2, because catechol metabolites of E2 elicit genotoxic effects, and their impaired O-methylation may increase the tumorigenicity of steroidal estrogens.

  5. Catechol Siderophore Transport by Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Benjamin E.; Raymond, Kenneth N.; Payne, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Siderophores, small iron-binding molecules secreted by many microbial species, capture environmental iron for transport back into the cell. Vibrio cholerae synthesizes and uses the catechol siderophore vibriobactin and also uses siderophores secreted by other species, including enterobactin produced by Escherichia coli. E. coli secretes both canonical cyclic enterobactin and linear enterobactin derivatives likely derived from its cleavage by the enterobactin esterase Fes. We show here that V. cholerae does not use cyclic enterobactin but instead uses its linear derivatives. V. cholerae lacked both a receptor for efficient transport of cyclic enterobactin and enterobactin esterase to promote removal of iron from the ferrisiderophore complex. To further characterize the transport of catechol siderophores, we show that the linear enterobactin derivatives were transported into V. cholerae by either of the catechol siderophore receptors IrgA and VctA, which also transported the synthetic siderophore MECAM [1,3,5-N,N′,N″-tris-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-triaminomethylbenzene]. Vibriobactin is transported via the additional catechol siderophore receptor ViuA, while the Vibrio fluvialis siderophore fluvibactin was transported by all three catechol receptors. ViuB, a putative V. cholerae siderophore-interacting protein (SIP), functionally substituted for the E. coli ferric reductase YqjH, which promotes the release of iron from the siderophore in the bacterial cytoplasm. In V. cholerae, ViuB was required for the use of vibriobactin but was not required for the use of MECAM, fluvibactin, ferrichrome, or the linear derivatives of enterobactin. This suggests the presence of another protein in V. cholerae capable of promoting the release of iron from these siderophores. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a major human pathogen and also serves as a model for the Vibrionaceae, which include other serious human and fish pathogens. The ability of these species to persist and

  6. Recessive resistance genes and the Oryza sativa-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; McCouch, Susan R

    2007-07-01

    Though recessive resistance is well-studied in viral systems, little is understood regarding the phenomenon in plant-bacterial interactions. The Oryza sativa-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. orzyae pathosystem provides an excellent opportunity to examine recessive resistance in plant-bacterial interactions, in which nine of 30 documented resistance (R) genes are recessively inherited. Infestations of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight, result in significant crop loss and damage throughout South and Southeast Asia. Two recently cloned novel recessive R genes, xa5 and xa13, have yielded insights to this system. Like their viral counterparts, these bacterial recessive R gene products do not conform to the five commonly described classes of R proteins. New findings suggest that such genes may more aptly be viewed as mutations in dominant susceptibility alleles and may also function in a gene-for-gene manner. In this review, we discuss recent accomplishments in the understanding of recessively inherited R genes in the rice-bacterial blight pathosystem and suggest a new model for the function of recessive resistance in plant-bacterial interactions.

  7. Photocatalytic reaction of catechol on rutile titanium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Peter; Wang, Chundao; Diebold, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to understand the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis we have studied the substituted benzene catechol on TiO2(110). Previous studies have given detailed information about the catechol bonding configuration letting our group focus on molecular level interactions with scanning tunneling microscopy and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under UV exposure (248 nm) in an oxygen background, catechol is observed to degrade via oxidation. This oxidation process results in removal of roughly 10% of the initial monolayer. The removal of carbon from the TiO2 surface is shown to depend upon the background gas. Formation of a residual carbon layer is achieved by annealing the catechol monolayer to 600C. This carbon layer is more difficult to remove by photocatalytic oxidation than a pristine catechol monolayer. Work supported by Intel Corporation

  8. Adsorption mechanism and valency of catechol-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Krysiak, Stefanie; Wei, Qiang; Rischka, Klaus; Hartwig, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nature often serves as a model system for developing new adhesives. In aqueous environments, mussel-inspired adhesives are promising candidates. Understanding the mechanism of the extraordinarily strong adhesive bonds of the catechol group will likely aid in the development of adhesives. With this aim, we study the adhesion of catechol-based adhesives to metal oxides on the molecular level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The comparison of single catechols (dopamine) with multiple catechols on hyperbranched polyglycerols (hPG) at various pH and dwell times allowed us to further increase our understanding. In particular, we were able to elucidate how to achieve strong bonds of different valency. It was concluded that hyperbranched polyglycerols with added catechol end groups are promising candidates for durable surface coatings. PMID:26150898

  9. DNA integrity of onion root cells under catechol influence.

    PubMed

    Petriccione, Milena; Forte, Valentina; Valente, Diego; Ciniglia, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Catechol is a highly toxic organic pollutant, usually abundant in the waste effluents of industrial processes and agricultural activities. The environmental sources of catechol include pesticides, wood preservatives, tanning lotion, cosmetic creams, dyes, and synthetic intermediates. Genotoxicity of catechol at a concentration range 5 × 10(-1)-5 mM was evaluated by applying random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and time-lapse DNA laddering tests using onion (Allium cepa) root cells as the assay system. RAPD analysis revealed polymorphisms in the nucleotidic sequence of DNA that reflected the genotoxic potential of catechol to provoke point mutations, or deletions, or chromosomal rearrangements. Time-lapse DNA laddering test provided evidence that catechol provoked DNA necrosis and apoptosis. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining could distinguish apoptotic from necrotic cells in root cells of A. cepa.

  10. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  11. Cytotoxic effects of catechol to neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rute M F; Alvarez, Lisandro D G; Costa, Maria F D; Costa, Silvia L; Clarêncio, Jorge; El-Bachá, Ramon S

    2008-12-01

    The mechanisms of catechol-induced cytotoxicity were studied in cultures of neuroblastoma N2a cells. The minimal cytotoxic concentration after 72 h was 20 micromol x l(-1). The EC50 after 72 h was 38 micromol x l(-1). There was not a correlation between the cytotoxicity and the formation of quinones in the medium. Catechol-induced cytotoxicity was increased significantly when superoxide dismutase (SOD) was added. The addition of catalase did not protect cells, but this enzyme reverted the deleterious effect of SOD. The experimental studies showed a detrimental effect of deferoxamine on catechol-induced cytotoxicity suggesting that cells need iron to maintain its metabolism. NF-kappaB inhibitors increased the cytotoxicity, suggesting that this factor is also important for cell viability. L-cysteine and N-acetyl-L-cysteine protected cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The use of monochlorobimane showed that catechol induced reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion after 24 h, prior to cell death. The mode of cell death was studied by flow cytometry after double staining with annexin V and propidium iodide. Catechol induced apoptosis after 72 h. Furthermore, catechol also induced nuclear fragmentation. These data showed that catechol-induced cytotoxicity to N2a cell was not directly a consequence of reactive oxygen species production. Rather, it was due to GSH depletion followed by the induction of apoptosis.

  12. Fate of catechols in coal gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.E.

    1986-02-01

    Even after the wastewater has been subjected to rigorous cleaning, many chemicals still remain. In order to remove these compounds, they must be identified. Catechol is a compound which appears in the condensate water and, because its concentration changes, its fate is somewhat uncertain. In recent experiments modeling the condensate water conditions, catechol solutions were aerated in the presence of ammonia. Upon acidification of the solutions, a polymer precipitates. This polymer was compared to the black compound isolated from the condensate water by spectral and elemental analyses. The structures of the two polymers were reasonably similar. The kinetics of oxidation, as determined by the uptake of oxygen, indicates that the reaction was first order in catechol and oxygen. The rate was significantly enhanced by an increase in pH. Assuming that catechol is the only subunit of the polymers isolated from the different condensate waters, calculations would indicate that the initial catechol concentration varies from 440 to 1700 ppM. An attempt is being made to account for all of the carbon that appears in the water from the gasification process. Presently, only 60% to 70% of the carbon-containing products have been identified. Part of the remaining total organic carbon can be accounted for by the catechol polymer. Studying the fate of catechol in the coal gasification condensate water will help to develop an environmentally and financially feasible treatment of the wastewater. 4 refs.

  13. Polyphenol oxidase from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva, Maraiza Aparecida

    2007-03-21

    Polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) (PPO) extracted from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius) was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and separation on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 45 490+/-3500 Da and Km values of 0.23, 1.14, 1.34, and 5.0 mM for the substrates caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol, respectively. When assayed with resorcinol, DL-DOPA, pyrogallol, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and cinnamic acids, catechin, and quercetin, the PPO showed no activity. The optimum pH varied from 5.0 to 6.6, depending on substrate. PPO activity was inhibited by various phenolic and nonphenolic compounds. p-Coumaric and cinnamic acids showed competitive inhibition, with Ki values of 0.017 and 0.011 mM, respectively, using chlorogenic acid as substrate. Heat inactivation from 60 to 90 degrees C showed the enzyme to be relatively stable at 60-70 degrees C, with progressive inactivation when incubated at 80 and 90 degrees C. The Ea (apparent activation energy) for inactivation was 93.69 kJ mol-1. Sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, and trehalose at high concentrations appeared to protect yacon PPO against thermal inactivation at 75 and 80 degrees C.

  14. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bibhuti B; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2012-10-15

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which negatively affects its quality upon cutting and postharvest processing due to enzymatic browning. PPO inhibitors, from natural or synthetic sources, are used to tackle this problem. One isoform of PPO was 259-fold purified using standard chromatographic procedures. The PPO was found to be a 112 kDa homodimer. The enzyme showed very low K(m) (0.34 mM) and high catalytic efficiency (3.3×10(6)) with 4-methyl catechol. The substrate specificity was in the order: 4-methyl catechol>tert-butylcatechol>dihydrocaffeic acid>pyrocatechol. Cysteine hydrochloride, potassium metabilsulphite, ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, resorcylic acid and kojic acid showed competitive inhibition, whereas, citric acid and sodium azide showed mixed inhibition of PPO activity. Cysteine hydrochloride was found to be an excellent inhibitor with the low inhibitor constant of 1.8 μM.

  15. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site.

  16. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    PubMed

    Siddiq, M; Dolan, K D

    2017-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted and characterized from high-bush blueberries. PPO showed an optimum activity at pH 6.1-6.3 and 35°C, with the enzyme showing significant activity over a wide temperature range (25-60°C). Catechol was the most readily oxidized substrate followed by 4-methylcatechol, DL-DOPA, and dopamine. Blueberry PPO showed a Km of 15mM and Vmax of 2.57 ΔA420nm/min×10(-1), determined with catechol. PPO was completely inactivated in 20min at 85°C, however, after 30minat 75°C it showed about 10% residual activity. Thermal treatment at 55 and 65°C for 30min resulted in the partial inactivation of PPO. Ascorbic acid, sodium diethyldithiocarbamic acid, L-cysteine, and sodium metabisulfite were effective inhibitors of PPO at 1.0mM. Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid series inhibitors showed relatively weak inhibition of PPO (21.8-27.6%), even at as high as 2.0mM concentration.

  17. Bioinspired catecholic copolymers for antifouling surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hee; Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Ellison, Christopher J

    2013-05-01

    We report here a synthetic approach to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate)-polydopamine diblock (PMMA-PDA) and triblock (PDA-PMMA-PDA) copolymers combining mussel-inspired catecholic oxidative chemistry and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These copolymers display very good solubility in a range of organic solvents and also a broad band photo absorbance that increases with increasing PDA content in the copolymer. Spin-cast thin films of the copolymer were stable in water and showed a sharp reduction (by up to 50%) in protein adsorption compared to those of neat PMMA. Also the peak decomposition temperature of the copolymers was up to 43°C higher than neat PMMA. The enhanced solvent processability, thermal stability and low protein adsorption characteristics of this copolymer makes it attractive for variety of applications including antifouling coatings on large surfaces such as ship hulls, buoys, and wave energy converters.

  18. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-12-07

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.

  19. Synthesis of catechol estrogens by human uterus and leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, V.V.; Hanjani, P.; Rajan, R.

    1981-02-01

    Homogenates of human endometrial, myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were incubated with (2,4,6,7-/sub 3/H)-estradiol and tritiated catechol estrogens were isolated and identified. Though 2- and 4-hydroxylations were about the same in endometrium, 4-hydroxylation was two to four fold higher than 2-hydroxylation in myometrium and leiomyoma. However, endometrium showed greater capacity to form both 2- and 4-hydroxyestrogens than the other two tissues. Both 2- and 4-hydroxylations were significantly less than in myometrium. In view of the reports indicating that inhibitors of catechol 0-methyl transferase (COMT) might act as antineoplastic agents due to their interference with t-RNA methylases and since catechol estrogens inhibit COMT, the present results suggest that endogenous synthesis of catechol estrogens may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uterine leiomyoma.

  20. Decoration of electrospun nanofibers with monomeric catechols to facilitate cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Messersmith, Phillip B; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2014-02-01

    Monomeric catechols are displayed on the surface of polymeric nanofibers by robust catechol-thiol interactions to enhance cell adhesion and migration. Dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid is chemically conjugated to primary amine groups of poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-amine (PCL-PEG) nanofibers to display catechol moieties on the surface. At basic pH, catecholized nanofibers incorporate thiol groups at a five-fold higher rate than at acidic pH, while catechol-coated surfaces do not show any pH-dependent binding. Live/dead cell staining indicates that the catecholized nanofibers do not exert any cytotoxic effects. Also, NIH 3T3 cells cultured on the catecholized nanofibers show increased attachment and migration that is proportional to the amount of the immobilized catechol moieties on the surface. These results clearly indicate that 6 nmol of monomeric catechols on the surface of nanofiber can promote cell adhesion and migration by thiol-catehol interactions.

  1. Succinate oxidase in Neurospora.

    PubMed

    West, D J; Woodward, D O

    1973-02-01

    Two kinetically distinct states of succinate oxidase have been detected in the mitochondria of Neruospora crassa. One state has a K(m) for succinate of 4.1 x 10(-3)m, and the other has a K(m) for succinate of 3.5 x 10(-4)m. The high K(m) state was found in freshly extracted mitochondria from either 20- or 72-hr mycelium. However, the succinate oxidase activity in mitochondria from 20-hr mycelium rapidly deteriorated in vitro, leaving a stable residual activity with the lower K(m) for succinate. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plus Mg(2+) stabilized the high K(m) state in these preparations. The high K(m) state of succinate oxidase was further characterized by a two- to threefold increase in activity over the pH range 6.6 to 8.0 and by classical competitive inhibition by fumarate and malonate. By contrast, the low K(m) state of succinate oxidase showed a relatively flat response to pH over the range 6.6 to 8.0 and a nonclassical pattern of inhibition by fumarate and malonate, as shown by nonlinear plots of reciprocal velocity versus reciprocal substrate concentration in the presence of inhibitor or reciprocal velocity versus inhibitor concentration at fixed substrate concentrations. The relationship of mycelial age to the in vitro stability of succinate oxidase is considered with reference to probable changes in the relative pool sizes of extra- and intramitochondrial ATP in response to changes in the rate of glycolysis.

  2. Chemisorption of catechol on gibbsite, boehmite, and noncrystalline alumina surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Wesselink, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The mechanism of bonding of catechol and related phenolic compounds on aluminum oxides was elucidated from sorption behavior in the presence of competing adsorbates and the nature of the infrared spectra of the surface-bound molecules. The surfaces demonstrated a high degree of selectivity toward catechol, adsorbing the molecule in the presence of a large excess of chloride. Phosphate competed effectively with catechol for sorption sites while acetate did not. Dispersive and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verified that catechol bound on the aluminum oxide surfaces was chemically perturbed in much the same manner as catechol chelated by Al/sup 3 +/, suggesting that the dominant sorption process involved the formation of a 1:1 bidentate complex with surface Al. The mechanisms of bonding was similar for all the aluminum oxides, but the dominant crystal surfaces of the crystalline oxides were unreactive toward catechol, and adsorption was attributed to -AlOH groups situated on edge faces. As a result, the noncrystalline oxide was more reactive per unit of surface area than the crystalline minerals boehmite and gibbsite.

  3. Spinach Thylakoid Polyphenol Oxidase : ISOLATION, ACTIVATION, AND PROPERTIES OF THE NATIVE CHLOROPLAST ENZYME.

    PubMed

    Golbeck, J H; Cammarata, K V

    1981-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (E.C. 1.14.18.1) has been found in two enzyme species isolated from thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts. The proteins were released from the membrane by sonication and purified >900-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes appear to be the tetramer and monomer of a subunit with a molecular weight of 42,500 as determined by lithium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The higher molecular weight enzyme is the predominant form in freshly isolated preparations but on aging or further purification, the amount of lower molecular weight enzyme increases at the expense of the higher.Sonication releases polyphenol oxidase from the membrane largely in the latent state. C(18) fatty acids, especially linolenic acid, are potent activators of the enzymic activity. In the absence of added fatty acids, the isolated enzyme spontaneously, but slowly, activates with time.Purified polyphenol oxidase utilizes o-diphenols as substrates and shows no detectable levels of monophenol or p-diphenol oxidase activities. The K(m) values for 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and O(2) are 6.5 and 0.065 millimolar, respectively. Suitable substrates include chlorogenic acid, catechol, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, and dopamine; however, the enzyme is substrate-inhibited by the last four at concentrations near their K(m) A large seasonal variation in polyphenol oxidase activity may result from a decrease in enzyme content rather than inhibition of the enzyme present.

  4. Excess boron reduces polyphenol oxidase activities in embryo and endosperm of maize seed during germination.

    PubMed

    Olçer, Hillya; Kocaçaliskan, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of boron (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 20 mM) as boric acid on the rate of germination and polyphenol oxidase activities in embryo and endosperm tissues of maize seeds (Zea mays L. cv. Arifiye) were studied. The germination percentage of maize seeds was not affected by boron concentrations up to 10 mM, and decreased by 20 mM. Distilled water and lower boron concentrations (0.1 and 1 mM) increased polyphenol oxidase activities at the beginning of germination up to 12 h whereas its excess levels (10 and 20 mM) decreased polyphenol oxidase activities in embryos and endosperm during germination. Polyphenol oxidase activities with o-diphenolic substrates (caffeic acid, catechol and dopa) were found to be higher than with a monophenolic substrat (tyrosine) in both embryos and endosperms. Further, caffeic acid oxidizing polyphenol oxidase was found to show more activity in embryos of the seeds germinating in distilled water when compared to other substrates.

  5. Spinach thylakoid polyphenol oxidase isolation, activation, and properties of the native chloroplast enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Golbeck, J.H.; Cammarata, K.V.

    1981-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase activity (E.C. 1.14,18.1) has been found in two enzyme species isolated from thylakoid membranes of spinach chloroplasts. The proteins were released from the membrane by sonication and purified >900-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes appear to be the tetramer and monomer of a subunit with a molecular weight of 42,500 as determined by lithium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Sonication releases polyphenol oxidase from the membrane largely in the latent state. In the absence of added fatty acids, the isolated enzyme spontaneously, but slowly, activates with time. Purified polyphenol oxidase utilizes o-diphenols as substrates and shows no detectable levels of monophenol or p-diphenol oxidase activities. Suitable substrates include chlorogenic acid, catechol, caffeic acid, pyrogallol, and dopamine; however, the enzyme is substrate-inhibited by the last four at concentrations near their K/sub m/. A large seasonal variation in polyphenol oxidase activity may result from a decrease in enzyme content rather than inhibition of the enzyme present.

  6. A pluripotent polyphenol oxidase from the melanogenic marine Alteromonas sp shares catalytic capabilities of tyrosinases and laccases.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Amat, A; Solano, F

    1997-11-26

    The recently characterized marine melanogenic bacterium MMB-1 contains a pluripotent polyphenol oxidase (PPO) which catalyzes the oxidation of a very wide range of substrates considered specific for tyrosinase or laccase. This range includes monophenols such as L-tyrosine, o-diphenols such as L-dopa, p-diphenols such as hydroquinone, o-aminophenols such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, activated monophenols such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and syringaldazine, and chromophores such as ABTS. This is the first report of an enzyme that is able to catalyze the oxidation of compounds so far considered specific for tyrosinases (L-tyrosine) or laccase (syringaldazine), showing cresolase, catechol oxidase and laccase activities. Such PPO could be a very useful model to study the structural requirements, catalytic mechanisms and involvement of the copper sites existing in non-blue and blue copper-oxidases.

  7. Some kinetic properties of polyphenol oxidase obtained from dill (Anethum graveolens).

    PubMed

    Sakiroğlu, Halis; Oztürk, Ahmet Emin; Pepe, Anil Ece; Erat, Mustafa

    2008-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was partially purified from dill by (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation followed by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography. Polyphenol oxidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 420 nm using catechol, dopamine and chlorogenic acid as substrates. Optimum pH, temperature, and ionic strength were determined with three substrates. The best substrate of dill PPO was found to be chlorogenic acid. Some kinetic properties of the enzyme such as V(max,) K(M) and V(max)/K(M) were determined for all three substrates. The effects of various inhibitors on the reaction catalysed by the enzyme were tested and I(50) values calculated. The most effective inhibitor was L-cysteine. Activation energies, E(a), were determined from the Arrhenius equation. In addition, activation enthalpy, DeltaH(a), and Q(10) values of the enzyme were also calculated.

  8. NMR spectra and electrochemical behavior of catechol-bearing block copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Urara; Moriyama, Masaki; Uyama, Hiroshi; van der Vlies, André J.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the NMR spectra and AFM data for antioxidant micelles prepared from amphiphilic PAM-PDA block copolymers composed of a poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) and a redox-active catechol-bearing block with different catechol content. We also provide details of the electrochemical analysis that showed micelles higher catechol content had a similar redox potential with the small catechol compound dopamine, but slowed down the redox reaction (Hasegawa et al., Polymer (in press)). PMID:26217751

  9. Colorimetric determination of catechol siderophores in microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Rioux, C; Jordan, D C; Rattray, J B

    1983-08-01

    A highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the selective detection of catechol compounds such as catechol siderophores (e.g., enterobactin) is described. The basis of the method involves the ability of the vicinal aromatic hydroxyl groups under acidic conditions to bring about a reduction of Fe3+ (from ferric ammonium citrate) to Fe2+. Detection of Fe2+ in the presence of Fe3+ is made with 1,10-phenanthroline under previously established conditions. The assay mixture is heated at 60 degrees C for 1 h to accelerate the development of color which is subsequently measured at 510 nm. The Beer-Lambert law is obeyed over the range of 0.16 to 60 microM 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Compared to the Arnow nitration method, the assay is more responsive, is approximately seven times more sensitive, and is effective with catechols substituted at positions 3 and 4. The method gives positive results with catechols such as DL-DOPA, L-dopamine, (+/-)-epinephrine, and DL-norepinephrine. Very rapid color development is obtained with ascorbic acid and p-diols, while m-diols are poorly detected. Low degrees of reactivity are shown by hydroxylamino and hydroxamate compounds. Phenolic, sulfydryl, indolyl, and quinonyl derivatives do not interfere with the reaction. The method has been adapted to determine catechol compounds in the culture medium of bacterial cells grown at different iron concentrations.

  10. Dietary Catechols and their Relationship to Microbial Endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Neil; Walton, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the evidence that the ability of neuroendocrine hormones, notably norepinephrine and epinephrine, to stimulate bacterial growth in iron-restricted media is not limited to molecules with a catecholamine structure but is also possessed by a variety of other catechols, many of which are of plant origin and are common in the diet. Catechols derived from the diet, such as the tea flavanols, can be present in the plasma at submicromolar and micromolar concentrations, comparable with the concentrations of catecholamines that have been shown to be effective in promoting bacterial growth under conditions of iron restriction, although many dietary catechols, notably quercetin derivatives, are present in the plasma and tissues largely as conjugates, from which the catechol function has been lost. Finally, although bacterial growth promotion through relief of iron restriction appears to be exhibited by a wide range of catechols, the gene-activation effects of catecholamines demonstrated to occur in some bacteria may be much more specific, although the definitive experiments to establish structure-function relationships have yet to be reported.

  11. Catechol conjugates are in vivo metabolites of Salicis cortex.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Susanne; Abdelsalam, Rania M; Khayyal, Mohamed T; Schweda, Frank; Heilmann, Jörg; Kees, Martin Georg; Mair, Georg; Kees, Frieder; Jürgenliemk, Guido

    2013-11-01

    After oral administration of 100 mg/kg b. w. (235.8 µmol/kg) salicortin to Wistar rats, peak serum concentrations of 1.43 mg/L (13.0 µM) catechol were detected after 0.5 h in addition to salicylic acid by HPLC-DAD after serum processing with β-glucuronidase and sulphatase. Both metabolites could also be detected in the serum of healthy volunteers following oral administration of a willow bark extract (Salicis cortex, Salix spec., Salicaceae) corresponding to 240 mg of salicin after processing with both enzymes. In humans, the cmax (1.46 mg/L, 13.3 µM) of catechol was reached after 1.2 h. The predominant phase-II metabolite in humans and rats was catechol sulphate, determined by HPLC analysis of serum samples processed with only one kind of enzyme. Without serum processing with glucuronidase and sulphatase, no unconjugated catechol could be detected in human and animal serum samples. As catechol is described as an anti-inflammatory compound, these results may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of the action of willow bark extract.

  12. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from persimmon.

    PubMed

    Navarro, José L; Tárrega, Amparo; Sentandreu, Miguel A; Sentandreu, Enrique

    2014-08-15

    Activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from "Rojo Brillante" persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits was characterized. Crude extracts were used for characterization of enzyme activity and stability at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80 °C), pHs (from 3.5 to 7.5) and substrate concentrations (catechol from 0 to 0.5M). Maximum enzyme activity was reached at pH 5.5 and 55 °C. Enzyme stability was higher than PPO activities found in other natural sources, since above pH 5.5 the minimum time needed to achieve an enzyme inactivation of 90% was 70 min at 80 °C. However, at pH 4.0 the enzyme stability decreased, reaching inactivation levels above 90% after 10 min even at 60 °C. Thus it was concluded that acidification can circumvent browning problems caused by PPO activity. Moreover, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the enriched extract revealed the presence of at least four bands with strong oxidase activity, suggesting the existence of different PPO isoforms.

  13. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning.

  14. A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

  15. Characterization of the hrpF pathogenicity peninsula of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F

    2005-06-01

    The hrp gene cluster of Xanthomonas spp. contains genes for the assembly and function of a type III secretion system (TTSS). The hrpF genes reside in a region between hpaB and the right end of the hrp cluster. The region of the hrpF gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is bounded by two IS elements and also contains a homolog of hpaF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and two newly identified genes, hpa3 and hpa4. A comparison of the hrp gene clusters of different species of Xanthomonas revealed that the hrpF region is a constant yet more variable peninsula of the hrp pathogenicity island. Mutations in hpaF, hpa3, and hpa4 had no effect on virulence, whereas hrpF mutants were severely reduced in virulence on susceptible rice cultivars. The hrpF genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, X. campestris pv. campestris, and X. axonopodis pv. citri each were capable of restoring virulence to the hrpF mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Correspondingly, none of the Xanthomonas pathovars with hrpF from X. oryzae pv. oryzae elicited a hypersensitive reaction in their respective hosts. Therefore, no evidence was found for hrpF as a host-specialization factor. In contrast to the loss of Bs3-dependent reactions by hrpF mutants of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, hrpF mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with either avrXa10 or avrXa7 elicited hypersensitive reactions in rice cultivars with the corresponding R genes. A double hrpFxoo-hpa1 mutant also elicited an Xa10-dependent resistance reaction. Thus, loss of hrpF, hpal, or both may reduce delivery or effectiveness of type III effectors. However, the mutations did not completely prevent the delivery of effectors from X. oryzae pv. oryzae into the host cells.

  16. Inactivation of urease by catechol: Kinetics and structure.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Musiani, Francesco; Lente, Gábor; Palombo, Marta; Ciurli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Urease is a Ni(II)-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate at a rate 10(15) times higher than the uncatalyzed reaction. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, efficient urease inhibitors are actively sought. In this study, we describe a molecular characterization of the interaction between urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii (SPU) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, JBU) with catechol, a model polyphenol. In particular, catechol irreversibly inactivates both SPU and JBU with a complex radical-based autocatalytic multistep mechanism. The crystal structure of the SPU-catechol complex, determined at 1.50Å resolution, reveals the structural details of the enzyme inhibition.

  17. Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  18. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  19. Evaluation of the oxidase like activity of nanoceria and its application in colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Akhtar; Cunningham, Jessica; Bulbul, Gonca; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-07-23

    Nanomaterial-based enzyme mimics have attracted considerable interest in chemical analysis as alternative catalysts to natural enzymes. However, the conditions in which such particles can replace biological catalysts and their selectivity and reactivity profiles are not well defined. This work explored the oxidase like properties of nanoceria particles in the development of colorimetric assays for the detection of dopamine and catechol. Selectivity of the system with respect to several phenolic compounds, the effect of interferences and real sample analysis are discussed. The conditions of use such as buffer composition, selectivity, pH, reaction time and particle type are defined. Detection limits of 1.5 and 0.2μM were obtained with nanoceria for dopamine and catechol. The same assay could be used as a general sensing platform for the detection of other phenolics. However, the sensitivity of the method varies significantly with the particle type, buffer composition, pH and with the structure of the phenolic compound. The results demonstrate that nanoceria particles can be used for the development of cost effective and sensitive methods for the detection of these compounds. However, the selection of the particle system and experimental conditions is critical for achieving high sensitivity. Recommendations are provided on the selection of the particle system and reaction conditions to maximize the oxidase like activity of nanoceria.

  20. Purification and structural analysis of membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase from Fuji apple.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Wen, Xin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-09-15

    Membrane-bound polyphenol oxidase (mPPO) in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) was purified and analyzed with a nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The three-dimensional model and binding site of mPPO to 4-methyl catechol were also studied using molecular docking. mPPO was purified 54.41-fold using temperature-induced phase partitioning technique and ion exchange chromatography. mPPO had a molecular weight of 67.3kDa. Even though a significant level of homology was observed between mPPO and the soluble polyphenol oxidase in the copper binding sequence, there was another region, rich in histidine residues, which differed in 13 amino acids. The three-dimensional structure of mPPO consisted of six α-helices, two short β-strands, and ten random coils. The putative substrate-binding pocket contained six polar or charged amino acids, His191, His221, Trp224, Trp228, Phe227, and Val190. Trp224 and Trp228 formed hydrogen bonds with 4-methyl-catechol.

  1. Reactive oxygen species production by catechol stabilized copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Fruk, Ljiljana

    2013-11-01

    Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants.Stable Cu nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using catechol containing dopamine-based linkers could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can activate peroxidase enzymes and catalyze the degradation of fluorescent dye pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis of dopamine linkers and Cu NPs, peroxidase activity tests, H2O2 calibration and degradation tests for resorufin, RB and MB. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03563h

  2. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  3. Conjugation of catechols by recombinant human sulfotransferases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and soluble catechol O-methyltransferase: structure-conjugation relationships and predictive models.

    PubMed

    Taskinen, Jyrki; Ethell, Brian T; Pihlavisto, Pia; Hood, Alan M; Burchell, Brian; Coughtrie, Michael W H

    2003-09-01

    Conjugation of a structurally diverse set of 53 catechol compounds was studied in vitro using six recombinant human sulfotransferases (SULTs), five UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the soluble form of catechol O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) as catalyst. The catechol set comprised endogenous compounds, such as catecholamines and catecholestrogens, drugs, natural plant constituents, and other catechols with diverse substituent properties and substitution patterns. Most of the catechols studied were substrates of S-COMT and four SULT isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, and 1B1), but the rates of conjugation varied considerably, depending on the substrate structure and the enzyme form. SULT1E1 sulfated fewer catechols. Only low activities were observed for SULT1C2. UGT1A9 glucuronidated catechols representing various structural classes, and almost half of the studied compounds were glucuronidated at a high rate. The other UGT enzymes (1A1, 1A6, 2B7, and 2B15) showed narrower substrate specificity for catechols, but each glucuronidated some catechols at a high rate. Dependence of specificity and rate of conjugation on the molecular structure of the substrate was characterized by structure-activity relationship analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling. Twelve structural descriptors were used to characterize lipophilicity/polar interaction properties, steric properties, and electronic effects of the substituents modifying the catechol structure. PLS models explaining more than 80% and predicting more than 70% of the variance in conjugation activity were derived for the representative enzyme forms SULT1A3, UGT1A9, and S-COMT. Several structural factors governing the conjugation of catechol hormones, metabolites, and drugs were identified. The results have significant implications for predicting the metabolic fate of catechols.

  4. Catechol and aldehyde moieties of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde contribute to tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Lydia M M; Florang, Virginia R; Doorn, Jonathan A

    2012-09-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which leads to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. This causes a decrease in the important neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), which is essential for coordinated movement. Previous studies have implicated the monoamine oxidase metabolite of DA, 3,4-dihydroxphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), in the pathogenesis of PD and have shown it to be a reactive intermediate capable of protein modification. DOPAL also has demonstrated the ability to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lead to significant inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The current study was undertaken to investigate four analogs of DOPAL, including a novel nitrile analog, to determine how the structure of DOPAL is related to its toxicity and inhibition of TH. Both mitochondrial function and inhibition of TH in cell lysate were investigated. Furthermore, a novel whole cell assay was designed to determine the consequence to enzyme action when DOPAL levels were elevated. The results presented here demonstrate that changes to DOPAL structure lead to a decrease in toxicity and inhibition of enzyme activity as compared to the parent compound. Furthermore, the production of superoxide anion but not hydrogen peroxide increased in the presence of elevated DOPAL. These results reveal the toxicity of DOPAL and demonstrate that both the catechol and aldehyde are required to potently inhibit TH activity.

  5. Iron-Binding Catechols and Virulence in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Henry J.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work suggested that virulent bacteria, which can grow rapidly in serum, must possess a specific mechanism for removing iron from its transferrin complex. Two strains of Escherichia coli were examined with this in mind. Strain O141, which showed inoculum-dependent growth in serum and multiplied in the mouse peritoneum, secreted iron-binding catechols into both synthetic medium and serum. One of these compounds has an association constant for iron similar to that of transferrin. Both transferrin and ethylenediamine-di-o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (EDDA), which have very high affinities for ferric iron, induced catechol synthesis in growing cultures of strain O111. This organism was inhibited by normal horse serum. Further work showed that traces of specific antibody inhibited catechol synthesis by O111 exposed to EDDA; therefore, the existence of this inhibitory process means that the organism can no longer obtain Fe3+, which all remains bound to transferrin in serum. In vivo, the inhibition of O111 is similar to that produced by serum in vitro. Neither phagocytosis nor killing by complement appeared to be of any significance during the first 4 h of the infections. Significantly, the purified catechol was capable of abolishing bacteriostasis in vivo. Since these results show that the production of iron-binding catechols is essential for rapid bacterial growth both in vitro and in vivo, these compounds should therefore be considered as true virulence factors. Conversely, any interference by the host with the production or activity of these compounds would constitute an important aspect of antibacterial defense. Images PMID:16558077

  6. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-06-20

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.

  7. An assay for human erythrocyte catechol-O-methyltransferase activity using a catechol estrogen as the substrate.

    PubMed

    Bates, G W; Edman, C D; Porter, J C; Johnston, J M; MacDonald, P C

    1979-05-16

    A radiometric assay for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity in human erythrocytes is described that employs 2-hydroxy[3H]estrone, and non-radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as the cosubstrates. The ease of separation of the product of the reaction, 2-methoxy[3H]estrone from 2-hydroxy[3H]estrone makes it possible to achieve low reaction blanks. The assay is very sensitive, and only 200 microliter of whole blood are used per determination. The assay is highly reproducible. The interassay variability (coefficient of variation) was 6.5% for 24 assays of COMT activity in red blood cells in blood obtained daily for 24 days from one person. In incubations conducted at 37 degrees C for 30 min, the catechol-O-methyltransferase activity was a linear function of enzyme concentration (equivalent to 11 to 180 microliter of packed red blood cells). Employing this assay, we evaluated the catalytic conversion of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-methoxyestrone by catechol-O-methyltransferase from human red blood cells and found that the apparent Michaelis constant and the apparent maximal rate of reaction were 3 x 10(-7) M and 6.7 x 10(-9) mol . ml-1 erythrocytes . h-1, respectively. The catechol-O-methyltransferase activity measured in erythrocytes obtained from 100 healthy subjects (men and nonpregnant women) was 8.2 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- S.E.) nmol 2-methoxyestrone . ml-1 erythrocytes . h-1.

  8. Genomic comparison between Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, using suppression-subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Soto-Suárez, Mauricio; González, Carolina; Piégu, Benoît; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

    2010-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) cause bacterial diseases in rice: leaf blight and leaf streak, respectively. Although both the Asian and the African strains of Xoo induce similar symptoms, they are genetically different, with the African Xoo strains being more closely related to the Asian Xoc. To identify the sequences responsible for differences between African and Asian Xoo strains and their relatedness to Xoc strains, a suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) procedure was performed, using the African Xoo MAI1 strain as a tester and the Philippine Xoo PXO86 strain and Xoc BLS256 strain as drivers. A nonredundant set of 134 sequences from MAI1 was generated. Several DNA fragments isolated by SSH were similar to genes of unknown function, hypothetical proteins, genes related to the type III secretion system, and other pathogenicity-related genes. The specificity of various fragments was validated by Southern blot analysis. SSH sequences were compared with several xanthomonad genomes. In silico analysis revealed SSH sequences as specific to strain MAI1, revealing their potential as specific markers for further epidemiological and diagnostic studies. SSH proved to be a useful method for rapidly identifying specific genes among closely related X. oryzae strains.

  9. Molecular analysis of the hrp gene cluster in Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10859.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee-Jung; Park, Young-Jin; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Yeong-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Song, Eun-Sung; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Moo

    2008-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight. The plant pathogenic bacterium X. oryzae pv. oryzae expresses a type III secretion system that is necessary for both the pathogenicity in susceptible hosts and the induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants. This specialized protein transport system is encoded by a 32.18kb hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster. The hrp gene cluster is composed of nine hrp, nine hrc (hrp conserved) and eight hpa (hrp-associated) genes and is controlled by HrpG and HrpX, which are known as regulators of the hrp gene cluster. Before mutational analysis of these hrp genes, the transcriptional linkages of the core region of the hrp gene cluster from hpaB to hrcC of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10859 was determined and the non-polarity of EZTn5 insertional mutagenesis was demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenicity assays of these non-polar hrp mutants were carried out on the susceptible rice cultivar, Milyang-23. According to the results of these assays, all hrp-hrc, except hrpF, and hpaB mutants lost their pathogenicity, which indicates that most hrp-hrc genes encode essential pathogenicity factors. On the other hand, most hpa mutants showed decreased virulence in a different pattern, i.e., hpa genes are not essential but are important for pathogenicity.

  10. Antimicrobial peptide melittin against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen in rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Li, Caiyun; Li, Man; Zong, Xicui; Han, Dongju; Chen, Yuqing

    2016-06-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a destructive bacterial disease of rice, and the development of an environmentally safe bactericide is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides, as antibacterial sources, may play important roles in bactericide development. In the present study, we found that the antimicrobial peptide melittin had the desired antibacterial activity against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The antibacterial mechanism was investigated by examining its effects on cell membranes, energy metabolism, and nucleic acid, and protein synthesis. The antibacterial effects arose from its ability to interact with the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the cytoplasmic membrane by making holes and channels, resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic content. Additionally, melittin is able to permeabilize bacterial membranes and reach the cytoplasm, indicating that there are multiple mechanisms of antimicrobial action. DNA/RNA binding assay suggests that melittin may inhibit macromolecular biosynthesis by binding intracellular targets, such as DNA or RNA, and that those two modes eventually lead to bacterial cell death. Melittin can inhibit X. oryzae pv. oryzae from spreading, alleviating the disease symptoms, which indicated that melittin may have potential applications in plant protection.

  11. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-11-15

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has stimulated significant interest in lysyl oxidase as a strong candidate for developing and deploying inhibitors as functional efficacious cancer therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the rapidly expanding body of knowledge concerning lysyl oxidase in solid tumor progression, highlighting recent advancements in the field of colorectal cancer.

  12. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    PubMed Central

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-01-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation of egg activation modulate the activity of the oxidase. Inhibitors were used to test the relevance of this oxidase to the respiratory burst of fertilization. Procaine, two phenothiazines, and N-ethylmaleimide (but not iodoacetamide) inhibited H2O2 production by the oxidase fraction and oxygen consumption by activated eggs. The ATP requirement suggested that protein kinase activity might regulate the respiratory burst of fertilization; consonant with this hypothesis, H-7 and staurosporine were inhibitory. The respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization is an NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase that appears to be regulated by a protein kinase; although it bears a remarkable resemblance to the neutrophil oxidase, unlike the latter it does not form O2- as its initial product. PMID:2537493

  13. Genome sequence and rapid evolution of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Steven L; Sommer, Daniel D; Schatz, Michael C; Phillippy, Adam M; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Delcher, Arthur L; Kelley, David; Madupu, Ramana; Puiu, Daniela; Radune, Diana; Shumway, Martin; Trapnell, Cole; Aparna, Gudlur; Jha, Gopaljee; Pandey, Alok; Patil, Prabhu B; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Meyer, Damien F; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valerie; Koebnik, Ralf; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Won Lee, Sang; Ronald, Pamela C; Sonti, Ramesh V; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Leach, Jan E; White, Frank F; Bogdanove, Adam J

    2008-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. Results The PXO99A genome is a single circular chromosome of 5,240,075 bp, considerably longer than the genomes of the other strains (4,941,439 bp and 4,940,217 bp, respectively), and it contains 5083 protein-coding genes, including 87 not found in KACC10331 or MAFF311018. PXO99A contains a greater number of virulence-associated transcription activator-like effector genes and has at least ten major chromosomal rearrangements relative to KACC10331 and MAFF311018. PXO99A contains numerous copies of diverse insertion sequence elements, members of which are associated with 7 out of 10 of the major rearrangements. A rapidly-evolving CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) region contains evidence of dozens of phage infections unique to the PXO99A lineage. PXO99A also contains a unique, near-perfect tandem repeat of 212 kilobases close to the replication terminus. Conclusion Our results provide striking evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for strain-specific adaptations of this pathogen that help to explain the extraordinary diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae genotypes and races that have been isolated from around the world. PMID:18452608

  14. Biological degradation of catechol in wastewater using the sequencing continuous-inflow reactor (SCR).

    PubMed

    Aghapour, Ali Ahmad; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2013-05-24

    Catechol is used in many industries. It can be removed from wastewater by various methods but biological processes are the most superior and commonly used technology. The SCR is a modified form of SBR used to degrade catechol. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of SCR for biodegradation and mineralization of catechol under various inlet concentrations (630-1500 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (18-9 h). This study used a bench scale SCR setup to test catechol degradation. The acclimation time of biomass for catechol at degradation at 630 mg/L was 41 d. The SCR operating cycle time was 6 h and the consecutive times taken for aerating, settling and decanting were 4, 1.5 and 0.5 h, respectively. This study investigated the effects of inlet catechol concentration (630-1560 mg/L) and HRT (18-9 h). The average catechol removal efficiencies in steady-state conditions of 630, 930, 12954 and 1559 mg/L of catechol were 98.5%, 98.5%, 98.2% and 96.9% in terms catechol and 97.8%, 97.7%, 96.4% and 94.3% for COD, respectively. SCR with acclimated biomasses could effectively remove the catechol and the corresponding COD from wastewater with concentrations of up to 1560, at the loading rate of 5.38 kg COD/m3.d and at a HRT of up to 13 h. The HRT was determined as an important variable affecting catechol removal from wastewater. Reducing the HRT to below 13 h led to reduced removal of catechol and COD.

  15. Biological degradation of catechol in wastewater using the sequencing continuous-inflow reactor (SCR)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Catechol is used in many industries. It can be removed from wastewater by various methods but biological processes are the most superior and commonly used technology. The SCR is a modified form of SBR used to degrade catechol. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of SCR for biodegradation and mineralization of catechol under various inlet concentrations (630–1500 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (18–9 h). This study used a bench scale SCR setup to test catechol degradation. The acclimation time of biomass for catechol at degradation at 630 mg/L was 41 d. The SCR operating cycle time was 6 h and the consecutive times taken for aerating, settling and decanting were 4, 1.5 and 0.5 h, respectively. This study investigated the effects of inlet catechol concentration (630–1560 mg/L) and HRT (18–9 h). The average catechol removal efficiencies in steady-state conditions of 630, 930, 12954 and 1559 mg/L of catechol were 98.5%, 98.5%, 98.2% and 96.9% in terms catechol and 97.8%, 97.7%, 96.4% and 94.3% for COD, respectively. SCR with acclimated biomasses could effectively remove the catechol and the corresponding COD from wastewater with concentrations of up to 1560, at the loading rate of 5.38 kg COD/m3.d and at a HRT of up to 13 h. The HRT was determined as an important variable affecting catechol removal from wastewater. Reducing the HRT to below 13 h led to reduced removal of catechol and COD. PMID:24499534

  16. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ► Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ► Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ► Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  17. Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-26

    REPORT Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Improved Performance of Protected Catecholic Polysiloxanes for Bioinspired Wet Adhesion to Surface Oxides Report Title...Protected Catecholic P Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2012 . Published in Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. Ed. 0 134, (49) (2012), ( (49). DoD

  18. NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Konior, Anna; Schramm, Agata; Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in vascular disease. While there are many possible sources of ROS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases play a central role. They are a source of “kindling radicals,” which affect other enzymes, such as nitric oxide synthase endothelial nitric oxide synthase or xanthine oxidase. This is important, as risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) regulate the expression and activity of NADPH oxidases in the vessel wall. Recent Advances: There are seven isoforms in mammals: Nox1, Nox2, Nox3, Nox4, Nox5, Duox1 and Duox2. Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and Nox5 are expressed in endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, or perivascular adipocytes. Other homologues have not been found or are expressed at very low levels; their roles have not been established. Nox1/Nox2 promote the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and inflammation. Nox4 may have a role in protecting the vasculature during stress; however, when its activity is increased, it may be detrimental. Calcium-dependent Nox5 has been implicated in oxidative damage in human atherosclerosis. Critical Issues: NADPH oxidase-derived ROS play a role in vascular pathology as well as in the maintenance of normal physiological vascular function. We also discuss recently elucidated mechanisms such as the role of NADPH oxidases in vascular protection, vascular inflammation, pulmonary hypertension, tumor angiogenesis, and central nervous system regulation of vascular function and hypertension. Future Directions: Understanding the role of individual oxidases and interactions between homologues in vascular disease is critical for efficient pharmacological regulation of vascular NADPH oxidases in both the laboratory and clinical practice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2794–2814. PMID:24180474

  19. Computational Study on the Stacking Interaction in Catechol Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Laura; Otero, Nicolás; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2009-09-01

    The stability and electron density topology of catechol complexes (dimers and tetramer) were studied using the MPW1B95 functional. The QTAIM analysis shows that both dimers (face to face and C-H/π one) display a different electronic origin. The formation of the former is accompanied by a significant change in the values of atomic electron dipole and quadrupole components, flattening the most diffuse part of the electron density distribution toward the molecular plane. A small electron population transfer is observed between catechol monomers connected by C-H/π interactions, whose QTAIM characterization does not differ from that of a weak hydrogen bond. Cooperative effects in the tetramer on binding energies are small and negligible for bond properties and charge transfer. Nevertheless, they are significant on atomic electron populations.

  20. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Pang, Zengyuan; Chen, Xiaodong; Luo, Lei; Cai, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Summary Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were employed to study the electrocatalysis of the catechol biosensor. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the biosensor was 41 µA·mM−1, the detection limit was 0.63 µM, the linear range was 1–1310 µM and the response time was within 2 seconds, which excelled most other laccase-based biosensor reported. Furthermore, the biosensor showed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability and tolerance to interferences. This novel biosensor also demonstrated its promising application in detecting catechol in real water samples. PMID:24778958

  1. Low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in a Saami population.

    PubMed

    Klemetsdal, B; Straume, B; Giverhaug, T; Aarbakke, J

    1994-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of catechol hormones, neurotransmitters and certain drugs. It is subject to genetic polymorphism and ethnic differences. High red blood cell (RBC) COMT activity has been correlated with a poor response to levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease. RBC COMT was determined in a Norwegian population (n = 213) of whom 115 were Saami (Laaps). The Saami had 16.5% lower RBC COMT activity compared to a non-Saami population sample from the northern part of Norway (n = 50), 13.9 vs. 16.4 units/ml RBC (U) (P = 0.04). This is the first report of any population with lower RBC COMT activity than a Caucasian population. A wide range of RBC COMT activities was found in the entire population examined (1.3-38.3 U).

  2. Mucilaginibacter oryzae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a rice paddy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeji; Lee, Sang-Suk; Chung, Bok Sil; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Soo Kwon; Jeon, Che Ok

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-negative-staining, non-spore-forming bacterium devoid of flagella, designated strain B9(T), was isolated from rice paddy soil associated with the roots of Oryza sativa collected from Jinju, South Korea. Cells were straight rods, were catalase- and oxidase-positive and were able to hydrolyse pectin, xylan and laminarin. Growth of strain B9(T) was observed between 15 and 35 degrees C (optimum 25-30 degrees C) and between pH 5.0 and 8.0 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5). Strain B9(T) contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as a major isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0) as major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B9(T) belonged to the genus Mucilaginibacter, a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, and was most closely related to Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis SCK(T) (95.9 % sequence similarity). On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular properties, strain B9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B9(T) (=KACC 12816(T) =DSM 19975(T)).

  3. Brain catechol synthesis - Control by brain tyrosine concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.; Larin, F.; Mostafapour, S.; Fernstrom, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Brain catechol synthesis was estimated by measuring the rate at which brain dopa levels rose following decarboxylase inhibition. Dopa accumulation was accelerated by tyrosine administration, and decreased by treatments that lowered brain tyrosine concentrations (for example, intraperitoneal tryptophan, leucine, or parachlorophenylalanine). A low dose of phenylalanine elevated brain tyrosine without accelerating dopa synthesis. Our findings raise the possibility that nutritional and endocrine factors might influence brain catecholamine synthesis by controlling the availability of tyrosine.

  4. [Isolation and characteristics of micromycetes--producers of neutral phenol oxidase from trophic soil with a high level of dioxins].

    PubMed

    Vasil'chenko, L G; Koroleva, O V; Stepanova, E V; Landesman, E O; Rabinovich, M L

    2000-01-01

    Samples of South Vietnamese soils intensely treated with Agent Orange defoliant were tested for the presence of fungi and actinomycetes with elevated phenol oxidase activity. As a result, fast-growing non-sporulating strain producing neutral phenol oxidases was isolated and identified as Mycelia sterilia INBI 2-26. The strain formed extracellular phenol oxidases during surface growth on liquid medium in the presence of guayacol and copper sulfate, as well as during submerged cultivation in liquid medium containing wheat bran and sugar beet pulp. Isoelectric focusing of cultural liquid has revealed two major catechol oxidases (PO1 and PO2) with pI 3.5 and 8, respectively. The enzymes were purified by ultrafiltration, ion exchange chromatography and exclusion HPLC. Both were stable between pH 3 and 8. At pH 8 and 40 degrees C they retained at least 50% of activity after incubation for 50 h. At 50 degrees C PO2 was more stable and retained 40% of activity after 50 h, whereas PO1 was inactivated in 3-6 h. The pH optimums for PO1 and PO2 towards catechol were equal to 6 and 6.5, and the Km values were 1.5 +/- 0.35 and 1.25 +/- 0.2 mM, respectively. PO1 and PO2 most optimally oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) at pH 3 with Km values 1.6 +/- 0.18 and 0.045 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively, but displayed no activity towards tyrosine. The PO2 absorbance spectrum had a peak at 600 nm, thus indicating the enzyme to be a member of the laccase family.

  5. Defining the Catechol-Cation Synergy for Enhanced Wet Adhesion to Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Michael V; Maier, Greg P; Dobbs, Howard A; Higdon, Nicholas J; Waite, J Herbert; Butler, Alison; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2016-07-27

    Mussel foot proteins (Mfps) exhibit remarkably adaptive adhesion and bridging between polar surfaces in aqueous solution despite the strong hydration barriers at the solid-liquid interface. Recently, catechols and amines-two functionalities that account for >50 mol % of the amino acid side chains in surface-priming Mfps-were shown to cooperatively displace the interfacial hydration and mediate robust adhesion between mineral surfaces. Here we demonstrate that (1) synergy between catecholic and guanidinium side chains similarly promotes adhesion, (2) increasing the ratio of cationic amines to catechols in a molecule reduces adhesion, and (3) the catechol-cation synergy is greatest when both functionalities are present within the same molecule.

  6. Aerosol formation yields from the reaction of catechol with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Tomas, Alexandre; Guilloteau, Angélique; Henry, Françoise; Ledoux, Frédéric; Visez, Nicolas; Riffault, Véronique; Wenger, John C.; Bedjanian, Yuri

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol from the gas-phase reaction of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) with ozone has been studied in two smog chambers. Aerosol production was monitored using a scanning mobility particle sizer and loss of the precursor was determined by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy, whilst ozone concentrations were measured using a UV photometric analyzer. The overall organic aerosol yield ( Y) was determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses ( Mo) to the total reacted catechol concentrations, assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm -3. Analysis of the data clearly shows that Y is a strong function of Mo and that secondary organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas-particle partitioning absorption model. The aerosol formation is affected by the initial catechol concentration, which leads to aerosol yields ranging from 17% to 86%. The results of this work are compared to similar studies reported in the literature.

  7. Immobilization of Amphiphilic Polycations by Catechol Functionality for Antimicrobial Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hua; Wu, Jianfeng; Avery, Christopher W.; Mizutani, Masato; Jiang, Xiaoming; Kamigaito, Masami; Chen, Zhan; Xi, Chuanwu; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    A new strategy to prepare antimicrobial surfaces by a simple dip-coating procedure is reported. Amphiphilic polycations with different mole ratios of monomers containing dodecyl quaternary ammonium, methoxyethyl, and catechol groups were synthesized by free-radical polymerization. The polymer coatings were prepared by immersing glass slides into a polymer solution and subsequent drying and heating. The quaternary ammonium side chains endow the coatings with potent antibacterial activity, while the methoxyetyhyl side chains enable tuning the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance and the catachol groups promote immobilization of the polymers into films. The polymer coated surfaces displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a dynamic contact assay and prevented accumulation of viable E. coli, S. aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii for up to 96 hours. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of coating surfaces indicated that the surfaces exhibit virtually the same smoothness for all polymers except the most hydrophobic. The hydrophobic polymer without methoxyethyl side chains showed clear structuring into polymer domains, causing high surface roughness. Sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy characterization of the surface structures demonstrated that the dodecyl chains are predominantly localized at the surface-air interface of the coatings. SFG also showed that the phenyl groups of the catechols are oriented on the substrate surface. These results support our hypothesis that the adhesive or cross-linking functionality of catechol groups discourages leaching of polymers, allowing tuning of the amphiphilic balance by incorporating hydrophilic components into the polymer chains to gain potent biocidal activity. PMID:21391641

  8. An antioxidant role for catecholate siderophores in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Achard, Maud E S; Chen, Kaiwen W; Sweet, Matthew J; Watts, Rebecca E; Schroder, Kate; Schembri, Mark A; McEwan, Alastair G

    2013-09-15

    Iron acquisition is an important aspect of the host-pathogen interaction. In the case of Salmonella it is established that catecholate siderophores are important for full virulence. In view of their very high affinity for ferric iron, functional studies of siderophores have been almost exclusively focused on their role in acquisition of iron from the host. In the present study, we investigated whether the siderophores (enterobactin and salmochelin) produced by Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium could act as antioxidants and protect from the oxidative stress encountered after macrophage invasion. Our results show that the ability to produce siderophores enhanced the survival of Salmonella in the macrophage mainly at the early stages of infection, coincident with the oxidative burst. Using siderophore biosynthetic and siderophore receptor mutants we demonstrated that salmochelin and enterobactin protect S. Typhimurium against ROS (reactive oxygen species) in vitro and that siderophores must be intracellular to confer full protection. We also investigated whether other chemically distinct siderophores (yersiniabactin and aerobactin) or the monomeric catechol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate could provide protection against oxidative stress and found that only catecholate siderophores have this property. Collectively, the results of the present study identify additional functions for siderophores during host-pathogen interactions.

  9. Protein reactivity of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a toxic dopamine metabolite, is dependent on both the aldehyde and the catechol.

    PubMed

    Rees, Jennifer N; Florang, Virginia R; Eckert, Laurie L; Doorn, Jonathan A

    2009-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated as an endogenous neurotoxin to explain selective neurodegeneration, as observed for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, previous work demonstrated that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) was more toxic than DA. DOPAL is generated as a part of DA catabolism via the activity of monoamine oxidase, and the mechanism of DOPAL toxicity is proposed to involve protein modification. Previous studies have demonstrated protein reactivity via the aldehyde moiety; however, DOPAL contains two reactive functional groups (catechol and aldehyde), both with the potential for protein adduction. The goal of this work was to determine whether protein modification by DOPAL occurs via a thiol-reactive quinone generated from oxidation of the catechol, which is known to occur for DA, or if the aldehyde forms adducts with amine nucleophiles. To accomplish this objective, the reactivity of DOPAL toward N-acetyl-lysine (NAL), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), and two model proteins was determined. In addition, several DOPAL analogues were obtained and used for comparison of reactivity. Results demonstrate that at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, the order of DOPAL reactivity is NAL > NAC and the product of NAL and DOPAL is stable in the absence of reducing agent. Moreover, DOPAL will react with model proteins, but in the presence of amine-selective modifiers citraconic anhydride and 2-iminothiolane hydrochloride, the reactivity of DOPAL toward the proteins is diminished. In addition, DOPAL-mediated protein cross-linking is observed when a model protein or a protein mixture (i.e., mitochondria lysate) is treated with DOPAL at concentrations of 5-100 microM. Protein cross-linking was diminished in the presence of ascorbate, suggesting the involvement of a quinone in DOPAL-mediated protein modification. These data indicate that DOPAL is highly reactive toward protein nucleophiles with the potential for protein cross-linking.

  10. Prokaryotic orthologues of mitochondrial alternative oxidase and plastid terminal oxidase.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Allison E; Amirsadeghi, Sasan; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2003-12-01

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) are two similar members of the membrane-bound diiron carboxylate group of proteins. AOX is a ubiquinol oxidase present in all higher plants, as well as some algae, fungi, and protists. It may serve to dampen reactive oxygen species generation by the respiratory electron transport chain. PTOX is a plastoquinol oxidase in plants and some algae. It is required in carotenoid biosynthesis and may represent the elusive oxidase in chlororespiration. Recently, prokaryotic orthologues of both AOX and PTOX proteins have appeared in sequence databases. These include PTOX orthologues present in four different cyanobacteria as well as an AOX orthologue in an alpha-proteobacterium. We used PCR, RT-PCR and northern analyses to confirm the presence and expression of the PTOX gene in Anabaena variabilis PCC 7120. An extensive phylogeny of newly found prokaryotic and eukaryotic AOX and PTOX proteins supports the idea that AOX and PTOX represent two distinct groups of proteins that diverged prior to the endosymbiotic events that gave rise to the eukaryotic organelles. Using multiple sequence alignment, we identified residues conserved in all AOX and PTOX proteins. We also provide a scheme to readily distinguish PTOX from AOX proteins based upon differences in amino acid sequence in motifs around the conserved iron-binding residues. Given the presence of PTOX in cyanobacteria, we suggest that this acronym now stand for plastoquinol terminal oxidase. Our results have implications for the photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism of these prokaryotes, as well as for the origin and evolution of eukaryotic AOX and PTOX proteins.

  11. [Alternative oxidase in industrial fungi].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Liu, Qiang; He, Hao; Li, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have been used in industrial fermentation extensively. Based on non-phosphorylating electron transport process, alternative respiration pathway (ARP) acts as an energy overflow, which can balance carbon metabolism and electron transport, allow the continuance of tricarboxylic acid cycle without the formation of ATP, and permit the turnover of carbon skeletons. Alternative respiration pathway also plays an important role in the stress response of fungi and the physiological function of conditioned pathogen. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for the activity of alternative respiration pathway, which exists widely in higher plants, parts of fungi and algae. Owing to the property that alternative oxidase (AOX) is sensitive to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and insensitive to conventional inhibitors of cytochrome respiration, alternative respiration pathway by AOX is also named as cyanide-resistant respiration (CRR). In recent years, the study of the alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase has been a hot topic in the area involving cellular respiration metabolism. In this review we summarized the latest research advances about the functions of alternative respiration pathway and alternative oxidase in industrial fungi.

  12. Identification of novel type III secretion effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Ayako; Takaoka, Minako; Sanada, Harumi; Noguchi, Yukari; Oku, Takashi; Tsuno, Kazunori; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Tsuge, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion (T3S) system. Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors, 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria: i) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria, ii) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX, or iii) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae. Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells, 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner. Of these 16 proteins, nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not. Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp.; however, some were specific to X. oryzae. Interestingly, all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner, suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system. In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, HpaB and HpaC (HpaP in X. oryzae pv. oryzae) have a central role in recruiting T3S substrates to the secretion apparatus. Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB() and HpaP() mutant strains, indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors.

  13. Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jillian M.; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R.; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A.; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Verdier, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all assays were consistently 104 to 105 CFU ml−1, while genomic DNA thresholds were between 1 pg and 10 fg. Use of the unique sequences combined with the LAMP assay provides a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive protocol to detect both BB and BLS pathogens. PMID:24837384

  14. Transcriptome analysis confers a complex disease resistance network in wild rice Oryza meyeriana against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Jie; He, Bin; Chen, Lin; Xiao, Su-qin; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Yu, Teng-qiong; Cheng, Zai-Quan; Feng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation. The significant metabolic pathways related to the disease resistance enriched by KEGG, were revealed to plant-pathogen interaction, phytohormone signaling, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Further, many disease resistance genes were also identified to be differentially expressed in response to Xoo infection. Conclusively, the present study indicated that the induced innate immunity comprise the basal defence frontier of O. meyeriana against Xoo infection. And then, the resistance genes are activated. Simultaneously, the other signaling transduction pathways like phytohormones and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis may contribute to the disease defence through modulation of the disease-related genes or pathways. This could be an useful information for further investigating the molecular mechanism associated with disease resistance in O. meyeriana. PMID:27905546

  15. Transcriptome analysis confers a complex disease resistance network in wild rice Oryza meyeriana against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Jie; He, Bin; Chen, Lin; Xiao, Su-Qin; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Yu, Teng-Qiong; Cheng, Zai-Quan; Feng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation. The significant metabolic pathways related to the disease resistance enriched by KEGG, were revealed to plant-pathogen interaction, phytohormone signaling, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Further, many disease resistance genes were also identified to be differentially expressed in response to Xoo infection. Conclusively, the present study indicated that the induced innate immunity comprise the basal defence frontier of O. meyeriana against Xoo infection. And then, the resistance genes are activated. Simultaneously, the other signaling transduction pathways like phytohormones and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis may contribute to the disease defence through modulation of the disease-related genes or pathways. This could be an useful information for further investigating the molecular mechanism associated with disease resistance in O. meyeriana.

  16. Analysis of the Proteins Secreted from the Oryza meyeriana Suspension-Cultured Cells Induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Dong, Yan; Yu, Chulang; Fang, XianPing; Deng, Zhiping; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Oryza meyeriana, a wild species of rice from China, shows high resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the cause of rice bacterial blight, one of the most serious rice pathogens. To better understand the resistance mechanism, a proteomic study was conducted to identify changes in the proteins secreted in embryo cell suspension cultures in response to Xoo. After two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), 72 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 34 proteins were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry. Of the 34 proteins, 10 were up regulated and 24 down regulated. The secreted proteins identified were predicted to be involved in various biological processes, including signal transduction, defense, ROS and cell wall modification. 77% of the 34 proteins were predicted to have a signal peptide by Signal P. Quantitative Real-Time PCR showed that transcript levels of 14 secreted proteins were not well correlated with secreted protein levels. Peroxidase activity was up regulated in both O. meyriana and susceptible rice but was about three times higher in O. meyeriana. This suggests that peroxidases may play an important role in the early response to Xoo in O. meyeriana. These results not only provide a better understanding of the resistance mechanism of O. meyeriana, but have implications for studies of the interactions between other plants and their pathogens. PMID:27196123

  17. Polyphenol oxidases from latex of Hevea brasiliensis: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Wititsuwannakul, Dhirayos; Chareonthiphakorn, Nopphakaew; Pace, Mario; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2002-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from the B-serum obtained after repetitive freeze-thawing of the bottom fraction isolated from ultracentrifuged fresh latex. The B-serum was subjected to acetone precipitation and CM-Sepharose chromatography, affording two PPOs, PPO-I and PPO-II, which, upon SDS-PAGE, were 32 and 34 kDa, respectively. Both PPOs possessed the same pI (9.2), optimum pH (7) and optimum temperature (35-45 degrees C). They are stable up to 60 degrees C and active at broad pH ranges from 4-9. The K(m) values of PPO-I for dopamine, L-dopa and catechol as substrates are 2.08, 8.33 and 9.09 mM, while those for PPO-II are 2.12, 4.76 and 7.14 mM, respectively. Among various PPO inhibitors tested, 4-hexylresorcinol was the most potent. Anionic detergents were among the most effective activators of the enzymes, while cationic and nonionic detergents showed little and no effect on the PPO activities, respectively.

  18. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in Ataulfo mango.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Summervir; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2015-03-15

    Crude extracts of Ataulfo exhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity with pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, catechol, gallic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The substrate dependent pH optima ranged from pH 5.4 to 6.4 with Michaelis-Menten constants between 0.84 ± 0.09 and 4.6 ± 0.7 mM measured in MES or phosphate buffers. The use of acetate buffers resulted in larger Michaelis-Menten constants, up to 14.62 ± 2.03 mM. Sodium ascorbate, glutathione, and kojic acid are promising inhibitors to prevent enzymatic browning in Ataulfo. PPO activity increased with ripeness and was always higher in the skin compared to the pulp. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) enhanced PPO activity, with pulp showing a stronger increase than skin. SDS-PAGE gels stained for catecholase activity showed multiple bands, with the most prominent bands at apparent molecular weights of 53, 112, and 144 kDa.

  19. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae XKK.12 contains an AroQgamma chorismate mutase that is involved in rice virulence.

    PubMed

    Degrassi, Giuliano; Devescovi, Giulia; Bigirimana, Joseph; Venturi, Vittorio

    2010-03-01

    Chorismate mutase (CM) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway which is responsible for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. There are two classes of CMs, AroQ and AroH, and several pathogenic bacteria have been reported to possess a subgroup of CMs designated AroQ(gamma). These CMs are usually exported to the periplasm or outside the cell; in a few cases, they have been reported to be involved in virulence and their precise role is currently unknown. Here, we report that the important rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae XKK.12 produces an AroQ(gamma) CM which we have purified and characterized from spent supernatants. This enzyme is synthesized in planta and X. oryzae pv. oryzae knock-out mutants are hypervirulent to rice. The role of this enzyme in X. oryzae pv. oryzae rice virulence is discussed.

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationship for the cleavage of C3/C4-substituted catechols by a prototypal extradiol catechol dioxygenase with broad substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Horiike, Kihachiro

    2004-06-01

    Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase [EC 1.13.11.2] from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (Mpc) catalyzes the extradiol cleavage of catechol to produce 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde. The K(m) values for the catecholic substrate (K(mA)) and O(2) (K(mO2)), and catalytic constants (k(cat)) were kinetically determined for eight C3/C4-substituted catechols at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5 or 7.5. The first pK(a) values (pK(1)) were determined for eleven catechols (pK(1) = 7.26-9.47), correlated with Hammett substituent constants, and electron-withdrawing substituents significantly stabilized the monoanionic species of free catechols. Mpc preferred catechols with non-ionic substituents at the C3 or C4 position. 3-Phenylcatechol, a biphenyl, was cleaved, while 4-tert-butylcatechol was not. The logarithm of k(cat)/K(mA) (substrate specificity constant) exhibited a good linear correlation with pK(1), with the exception of those for 4-halocatechols. The logarithm of k(cat)/K(mO2) showed a good linear correlation with pK(1), with the exception of that of 3-phenylcatechol. These results demonstrate that catechol binding to the Mpc active site, the following O(2) binding, and the activation of the bound O(2) are all sensitive to electronic effects of the substituents. However, k(cat) did not correlate significantly with pK(1). The present study distinguishes clearly between the electronic and the steric effects of catecholic substrates in the reactivity of Mpc, and provides important insight into the mechanistic basis for a vast range of substrate specificities of extradiol dioxygenases.

  1. [Invasive maxilar sinusitis by Rhizopus oryzae].

    PubMed

    Perea, S; del Palacio, A; Gil, R; de la Serna, J; Mata, R; Arribi, A

    1997-12-01

    We herein present a diabetic with non Hodgkin lymphoma patient that had been treated with steroids and developed fungal invasive sinusitis. The patient had intensive facial pain that did not respond to antibiotics and on clinical inspection had a necrotic lesion on right nasal area. A smear and biopsy tissue showed broad non septate hyphae and on cultures Rhizopus oryzae was isolated. There was an unfavorable outcome, and the patient died even though liposomal Amphotericin B was administered and surgical treatment was performed.

  2. Production, properties and application to biocatalysis of a novel extracellular alkaline phenol oxidase from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Ogel, Z B; Yüzügüllü, Y; Mete, S; Bakir, U; Kaptan, Y; Sutay, D; Demir, A S

    2006-08-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum produces an extracellular phenol oxidase on glucose-containing medium. Certain phenolic acids, specifically gallic acid and tannic acid, induce the expression of the enzyme. Production at 45 degrees C in batch cultures is growth-associated and is enhanced in the presence of 160 microM CuSO4 x 5 H2O and 3 mM gallic acid. The highest enzyme activity is observed at pH 7.5 and 65 degrees C, on catechol. When incubated for 1 h at pH 7 and pH 8, 95% and 86% of the activity is retained. Thermostability decreases gradually from 40 degrees C to 80 degrees C. Estimated molecular mass is c. 83 kDa, and pI is acidic at c. 5.4. Substrate specificity and inhibition analysis in culture supernatants suggest that the enzyme has unique properties showing activity towards catechol; 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA); 4-amino-N, N-diethylaniline (ADA); p-hydroquinone; gallic acid; tannic acid and caffeic acid, and no activity towards L-tyrosine, guaiacol, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldazine. Inhibition is observed in the presence of salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) and p-coumaric acid. Enzyme activity is enhanced by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and the organic solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol. No inhibition is observed in the presence of carbon monoxide. Benzoin, benzoyl benzoin and hydrobenzoin are converted into benzil, and stereoselective oxidation is observed on hydrobenzoin. The reported enzyme is novel due to its catalytic properties resembling mainly catechol oxidases, but displaying some features of laccases at the same time.

  3. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  4. The structure of the lipooligosaccharide from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae: the causal agent of the bacterial leaf blight in rice.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Palmigiano, Angelo; Silipo, Alba; Desaki, Yoshitake; Garozzo, Domenico; Lanzetta, Rosa; Shibuya, Naoto; Molinaro, Antonio

    2016-06-02

    The structure of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) from the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has been elucidated. The characterization of the core oligosaccharide structure was obtained by the employment of two chemical degradation protocols and by analysis of the products via NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the lipid A portion was achieved by MALDI mass spectrometry analysis on purified lipid A. The LOS from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae revealed to possess the same core structure of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and interesting novel features on its lipid A domain. The evaluation of the biological activity of both LOS and isolated lipid A was also executed.

  5. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    While a long shelf life for fruit products is highly desired, enzymatic browning is the main cause of quality loss in fruits and is therefore a main problem for the food industry. In this study polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the main enzyme responsible for browning was isolated from mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) and characterized biochemically. Two isoenzymes (PPO 1 and PPO 2) were obtained upon ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic and ion exchange chromatography; PPO 1 was purified up to 6.6-fold with 0.28% yield, while PPO 2 could not be characterized as enzyme activity was completely lost after 24 h of storage. PPO 1 molecular weight was estimated to be 16.1 and 18 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the native state of the PPO 1 is a monomer. The optimum pH for PPO 1 activity was 7. The PPO 1 was determined to be maximum thermally stable up to 35°C. Kinetic constants for PPO 1 were K(m)=44 mM and K(m)=1.3 mM using catechol and pyrogallol as substrate, respectively. The best substrates for PPO 1 were pyrogallol, 4-methylcatechol and catechol, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite were the most effective inhibitors.

  6. Gel electrophoresis of polyphenol oxidase with instant identification by in situ blotting.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Huang, Pei-Chen; Pan, Ju-Pin; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Mao, Simon J T

    2007-04-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) or tyrosinase is an important and ubiquitous enzyme responsible for browning in plants and melanization in animals. The molecular size of the plant PPO is varied among the species and its activity can be enhanced by a variety of anionic detergents. In the present study, we developed a simple method for the first-step identification of PPO in fruit and vegetable extracts. First, 3mm chromatographic paper was immersed in 0.5% (w/v) catechol solution as an immobilized PPO substrate. After running the extract with 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), one side of the glass plate was removed. The plate was immediately laid on top of the dried catechol-paper. A dark-brown band corresponding to PPO was visualized within 1 min and was further confirmed by a conventional Western blot using an antibody prepared against mushroom PPO. It also reveals that some vegetation (such as tomato, radish, and oriental melon) with low or no detectable activity in a conventional enzyme assay actually possessed marked levels of PPO activity when assessed by PAGE-blot. We propose that an inhibitor is associated with PPO in some plants; the inhibitor, however, is dissociated during the electrophoresis. Therefore, in addition to identify the molecular form of PPO, the present technique may explore the existence of PPO inhibitor(s) in plants. The detail of the method with respect to its relevance for searching a natural PPO inhibitor is described and discussed.

  7. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Yao, Le-Yi; Qin, Qiu-Yan; Shen, Wang

    2013-12-26

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from jackfruit bulb was purified through acetone precipitation, ion-exchange column, and gel filtration column. PPO was a dimer with the molecular weight of 130 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration. The Km was 8.3 and 18.2 mM using catechol and 4-methylcatechol as substrates, respectively. The optimum pH was 7.0 (catechol as the substrate) or 6.5 (4-methylcatechol as the substrate). The optimum temperature was 8 °C. The enzyme was stable below 40 °C. The activation energy (Ea) of heat inactivation was estimated to be 103.30 kJ/mol. The PPO activity was activated by Mn(2+), SDS, Tween-20, Triton X-100, citric acid, and malic acid but inhibited by K(+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), kojic acid, tropolone, glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and ascorbic acid (AA). Cys and AA were effective to reduce browning of jackfruit bulbs during the storage at 8 °C for 15 days.

  8. Purification and characterization of a polyphenol oxidase from the seeds of field bean (Dolichos lablab).

    PubMed

    Paul, B; Gowda, L R

    2000-09-01

    The polyphenol oxidase from field bean (Dolichos lablab) seeds has been purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, phenyl agarose chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The purified enzyme has a molecular weight of 120 +/- 3 kDa and is a tetramer of 30 +/- 1.5 kDa. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme revealed the presence of a single isoform with an observed pH optimum of 4.0. 4-Methyl catechol is the best substrate, followed by catechol, and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, all of which exhibited a phenomenon of inhibition by excess substrate. No activity was detected toward chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and monophenols. Tropolone, both a substrate analogue and metal chelator, proved to be the most effective competitive inhibitor with an apparent K(i) of 5.8 x 10(-)(7) M. Ascorbic acid, metabisulfite, and cysteine were also competitive inhibitors.

  9. Purification and partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na-na; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dai-jie; Zhou, Yi-bin; Lin, Xiao-jing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Sheng-bo

    2013-05-01

    The purification and partial enzymology characteristics of polyphenol oxidase from Lonicera japonica (LjPPO) were studied in this paper. The crude enzyme solution was purified in turn by ammonium sulfate, dialysis, and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography after preliminary treatments. Purification resulted in 31-fold enrichment and its molecular weight was estimated to be ~49 kDa exhibited on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The pH for optimal conditions of LjPPO was 7.5, and the temperature was 25 °C, in addition, the inhibitive effects of inhibitors were enhanced positively with increasing of the concentration. Moreover, crude enzyme solution showed diphenolase activity toward catechol, l-dopa and chlorogenic acid rather than monophenolase and triphenolase activity, and the best substrate was catechol because of the highest V(max)/K(m) value. However, the oxidation of diphenol related to browning significantly, so the data obtained in this research provided theoretical basis for the prevention of enzymatic browning of L. japonica during processing.

  10. Immobilization of polyphenol oxidase on chitosan-SiO2 gel for removal of aqueous phenol.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jian; Ge, Huimin; Yang, Yumin

    2007-06-01

    A partially purified potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was immobilized in a cross-linked chitosan-SiO2 gel and used to treat phenol solutions. Under optimized conditions (formaldehyde 20 mg/ml, PPO 4 mg/ml and pH 7.0), the activity of immobilized PPO was 1370 U/g and its Km value for catechol was 12 mM at 25 degrees C. The highest activity of immobilized enzyme was at pH 7.4. Immobilization stabilized the enzyme with 73 and 58% retention of activity after 10 and 20 days, respectively, at 30 degrees C whereas most of the free enzyme was inactive after 7 days. The efficiency of removing phenol (10 mg phenol/l) by the immobilized PPO was 86%, and about 60% removal efficiency was retained after five recycles. The immobilized PPO may thus be a useful for removing phenolic compounds from industrial waste-waters.

  11. Study and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Todaro, Aldo; Cavallaro, Rosalinda; Argento, Sergio; Branca, Ferdinando; Spagna, Giovanni

    2011-10-26

    In this study the catecholase and cresolase activities of eggplant polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were investigated. Enzyme activity was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance using catechol as substrate and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) as coupled reagent. The effects of substrate specificity, heat inactivation, temperature, pH, and inhibitors were investigated to understand the enzymatic alteration of ready-to-eat preparations. Browning of vegetables was determined through a colorimeter. Decrease of lightness (L*) and increase of color difference values (ΔE*) were correlated with tissue browning. Antibrowning agents were tested on PPO under the same conditions. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by 0.4 M citric acid. Under natural pH conditions, the enzyme was also inhibited by tartaric acid and acetic acid. All of the results were used to understand the best conditions for food transformation (ready-to-eat and grilled eggplant slices).

  12. Characterization and purification of polyphenol oxidase from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Yusuf; Ertürk, Hatibe; Arslan, Oktay

    2005-02-09

    In this study, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was first purified by a combination of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. At the end of purification, 43-fold purification was achieved. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that PPO had a 57 kDa molecular mass. Second, the contents of total phenolic and protein of artichoke head extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of artichoke head was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 425 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Protein content was determined according to Bradford method. Third, the effects of substrate specificity, pH, temperature, and heat inactivation were investigated on the activity of PPO purified from artichoke. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, catechol, and L-dopa. No activity was detected toward L-tyrosine, resorsinol, and p-cresol. According to V(max)/K(m) values, 4-methylcatechol (1393 EU min(-1) mM(-1)) was the best substrate, followed by pyrogallol (1220 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), catechol (697 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), and L-dopa (102 EU min(-1) mM(-1)). The optimum pH values for PPO were 5.0, 8.0, and 7.0 using 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, and catechol as substrate, respectively. It was found that optimum temperatures were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol substrates. However, all inactivation experiments for catechol showed that the activity of artichoke PPO increased with mild heating, reached a maximum, and then decreased with time. Finally, inhibition of artichoke PPO was investigated with inhibitors such as L-cysteine, EDTA, ascorbic

  13. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  14. Succinimide complexes of borated alkyl catechols and lubricating oil compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Liston, T.V.

    1986-12-16

    A composition is described comprising a complex prepared by reacting a borated alkyl catechol and an oil soluble alkyl or alkenyl succinimide wherein the weight percent ratio of the alkyl or alkenyl succinimide to the borated alkyl catechol ranges from 3:1 to 16:1.

  15. Binding to PLA2 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of catechol.

    PubMed

    Dileep, Kalarickal V; Tintu, Ignatius; Mandal, Pradeep K; Karthe, Ponnuraj; Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu

    2012-01-01

    Inhibiting PLA(2) activity should, in theory, be an effective approach to control the inflammation. Several naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds have been reported as inhibitors of PLA(2) . Among the naturally occurring polyphenols, catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Catechol can inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipo-oxygenase. By means of enzyme kinetic study, it was revealed that catechol can inhibit PLA(2) also. Crystal structure showed that catechol binds to PLA(2) at the opening of the active site cleft. This might stop the entry of substrate into the active site. Hence, catechol can be used as a lead compound for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with PLA(2) as the target.

  16. Pathways for formation of catechol and 1,2,4-benzenetriol in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Osamu; Seiji, Kazunori Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai ); Ikeda, Masayuki )

    1989-08-01

    Benzene, an established human leukemogen, was once widely used as an industrial solvent and is currently an important material for organic synthesis. Its metabolism in man and animals has also been studied extensively, and phenolic compounds were identified as major metabolites in urine after benzene exposure. One point yet to be elucidated is the pathway for formation of catechol (or 1,2-benzenediol). Early studies suggested that catechol will be formed via phenol whereas a later study failed to identify catechol in the urine of men and rabbits after oral administration methods of {sup 14}C-phenol. Sensitive HPLC methods have been recently developed in our laboratory to measure urinary phenolic metabolites and t,t-muconic acid. The methods were applied to show that phenol is not a precursor of catechol in rabbits. Evidence is also presented that 1,2,4-benzenetriol is formed only from quinol (1,4-benzenediol) and not from catechol.

  17. Studies on polyphenol content, activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase during air-curing in three tobacco types.

    PubMed

    Sheen, S J; Calvert, J

    1969-02-01

    The change in polyphenol content in the primed leaves of burley, flue-cured, and Turkish tobaccos during air-curing was related to the activities and isozymes of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. The quantity of chlorogenic acid was rapidly reduced during the first week of curing. The decrease in rutin content during curing was less significant, especially when the concentration of chlorogenic acid was high in leaf tissues. This result was further confirmed by in vitro assays with partially purified tobacco polyphenol oxidase.The polyphenol oxidase activity did not differ at any stage of curing in the 3 tobaccos. When the activity was measured by the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine it rose rapidly during the first day of curing and then decreased sharply so that in the fully cured leaf only 15% activity remained. The increase in activity was not observed when chlorogenic acid was used as the substrate. A similar level of peroxidase activity was found in the 3 tobaccos before curing. Peroxidase activities increased rapidly during the first 24 hr of curing, declined thereafter, and remained highest in the flue-cured tobacco, less in the Turkish line, and least in the burley at the end of curing process.By polyacrylamide gel block electrophoresis, 10 peroxidase isozyme bands, 2 cationic and 8 anionic, appeared identical in all 3 tobaccos. When catechol replaced benzidine-2 HCl as the electron donor, 1 cationic and 2 anionic peroxidase isozymes did not form. Of interest is that the same 10 peroxidase isozyme bands also exhibited polyphenol oxidase activities when treated with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine or chlorogenic acid. Results suggest that in the crude tobacco leaf extract the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase may associate as protein complexes, and peroxidase isozymes may differ in electron-donor requirements. Isozyme patterns for both oxidases at various curing intervals differed only quantitatively.

  18. Photophysical properties of catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium (IV) phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinxin; Lin, Ting; Lv, Huafei; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Zeng, Di; Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Huang, Yide; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) have been found to be a promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers and non-cancer diseases. Nevertheless, phthalocyanines are substantially limited in clinical applications owing to their poor solubility, aggregation and insufficient selectivity for cancer cells. Catechol is an important pharmaceutical intermediate, playing important in vivo biological activity in medicine. Using catechol (pyrocatechin) as axial ligands, utilizing of the pharmaceutical effect of catechins, could improve the bioavailability, and achieve synergistic therapeutic effect in PDT. To address these issues, a novel catechol axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) titanium(IV) (TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol) was synthesized. The structure of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and MS methods. The photophysical properties of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol have been studied by UV/Vis and steady-state fluorescence spectra. After being axially substituted with catechin groups, no obviously intensity and position of maximum wavelength in Q-band of TiPc(OC5H11)4 and TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol were observed. The fluorescence intensity of TiPc(OC5H11)4 was stronger than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol, but the fluorescence lifetime of TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol was longer than that of TiPc(OC5H11)4. TiPc(OC5H11)4-Catechol may be considered as a promising photosensitizer for PDT.

  19. NADPH oxidases regulate septin-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling during plant infection by the rice blast fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Lauren S.; Dagdas, Yasin F.; Mentlak, Thomas A.; Kershaw, Michael J.; Thornton, Christopher R.; Schuster, Martin; Chen, Jisheng; Wang, Zonghua; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, which uses turgor to drive a rigid penetration peg through the rice leaf cuticle. Here, we show that NADPH oxidases (Nox) are necessary for septin-mediated reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton to facilitate cuticle rupture and plant cell invasion. We report that the Nox2–NoxR complex spatially organizes a heteroligomeric septin ring at the appressorium pore, required for assembly of a toroidal F-actin network at the point of penetration peg emergence. Maintenance of the cortical F-actin network during plant infection independently requires Nox1, a second NADPH oxidase, which is necessary for penetration hypha elongation. Organization of F-actin in appressoria is disrupted by application of antioxidants, whereas latrunculin-mediated depolymerization of appressorial F-actin is competitively inhibited by reactive oxygen species, providing evidence that regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by fungal NADPH oxidases directly controls septin and F-actin dynamics. PMID:23382235

  20. A functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases: mimicking the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad.

    PubMed

    Paria, Sayantan; Halder, Partha; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2010-05-17

    The synthesis and characterization of an iron-catecholate model complex of a tridentate 2-N-1-carboxylate ligand derived from L-proline are reported. The X-ray crystal structure of the complex [(L)(3)Fe(3)(DBC)(3)] (1) (where L is 1-(2-pyridylmethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate and DBC is the dianion of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol) reveals that the tridentate ligand binds to the iron center in a facial manner and mimics the 2-his-1-carboxylate facial triad motif observed in extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases. The iron(III)-catecholate complex (1) reacts with dioxygen in acetonitrile in ambient conditions to cleave the C-C bond of catecholate. In the reaction, an equal amount of extra- and intradiol cleavage products are formed without any auto-oxidation product. The iron-catecholate complex is a potential functional model of extradiol-cleaving catechol dioxygenases.

  1. Detoxication of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) o-quinones by human recombinant catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) via O-methylation of PAH catechols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Huang, Meng; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2011-07-22

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Metabolic activation of intermediate PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to the formation of electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. We investigated whether O-methylation by human recombinant soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) is a feasible detoxication step for a panel of structurally diverse PAH-catechols produced during the redox-cycling process. Classes of PAH non-K-region o-quinones (bay region, methylated bay region, and fjord region o-quinones) produced by AKRs were employed in the studies. PAH o-quinones were reduced to the corresponding catechols by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further O-methylated by human S-COMT in the presence of S-[³H]adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl group donor. The formation of the O-methylated catechols was detected by HPLC-UV coupled with in-line radiometric detection, and unlabeled products were also characterized by LC-MS/MS. Human S-COMT was able to catalyze O-methylation of all of the PAH-catechols and generated two isomeric metabolites in different proportions. LC-MS/MS showed that each isomer was a mono-O-methylated metabolite. ¹H NMR was used to assign the predominant positional isomer of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol as the O-8-monomethylated catechol. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) varied among different classes of PAH-catechols by 500-fold. The ability of S-COMT to produce two isomeric products from PAH-catechols was rationalized using the crystal structure of the enzyme. We provide evidence that O-8-monomethylated benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is formed in three different human lung cell lines. It is concluded that human S-COMT may play a critical role in the detoxication of PAH o-quinones generated by AKRs.

  2. Mapping the conformational space accessible to catechol-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Andreas; Benz, Jörg; Schlatter, Daniel; Rudolph, Markus G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation catalysed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is the main pathway of catechol neurotransmitter deactivation in the prefrontal cortex. Low levels of this class of neurotransmitters are held to be causative of diseases such as schizophrenia, depression and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of COMT may increase neurotransmitter levels, thus offering a route for treatment. Structure-based drug design hitherto seems to be based on the closed enzyme conformation. Here, a set of apo, semi-holo, holo and Michaelis form crystal structures are described that define the conformational space available to COMT and that include likely intermediates along the catalytic pathway. Domain swaps and sizeable loop movements around the active site testify to the flexibility of this enzyme, rendering COMT a difficult drug target. The low affinity of the co-substrate S-adenosylmethionine and the large conformational changes involved during catalysis highlight significant energetic investment to achieve the closed conformation. Since each conformation of COMT is a bona fide target for inhibitors, other states than the closed conformation may be promising to address. Crystallographic data for an alternative avenue of COMT inhibition, i.e. locking of the apo state by an inhibitor, are presented. The set of COMT structures may prove to be useful for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. PMID:25084335

  3. [Alternative oxidase - never ending story].

    PubMed

    Szal, Bożena; Rychter, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of plant cyanide resistant respiration lead to the discovery in mitochondrial respiratory chain of the second terminal oxidase, alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX transfers electrons from reduced ubiquinone to oxygen omitting two coupling places thus lowering energetic efficiency of respiration. The presence of AOX was shown in all plants and also in some fungi, mollusca and protista. In termogenic plants the activity of AOX is connected with heat production. In other organisms AOX activity is important for maintaining metabolic homeostasis (carbon metabolism, cell redox state and energy demand) and ROS homeostasis. In this article structure of plant AOX protein and the regulation on molecular levels was described. Possible role of AOX as stress marker was pointed and the possibility of using AOX in human gene therapy was discussed.

  4. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future.

  5. Joining Two Natural Motifs: Catechol-Containing Poly(phosphoester)s.

    PubMed

    Becker, Greta; Ackermann, Lisa-Maria; Schechtel, Eugen; Klapper, Markus; Tremel, Wolfgang; Wurm, Frederik R

    2017-02-14

    Numerous catechol-containing polymers, including biodegradable polymers, are currently heavily discussed for modern biomaterials. However, there is no report combining poly(phosphoester)s (PPEs) with catechols. Adhesive PPEs have been prepared via acyclic diene metathesis polymerization. A novel acetal-protected catechol phosphate monomer was homo- and copolymerized with phosphoester comonomers with molecular weights up to 42000 g/mol. Quantitative release of the catechols was achieved by careful hydrolysis of the acetal groups without backbone degradation. Degradation of the PPEs under basic conditions revealed complete and statistical degradation of the phosphotri- to phosphodiesters. In addition, a phosphodiester monomer with an adhesive P-OH group and no protective group chemistry was used to compare the binding to metal oxides with the multicatechol-PPEs. All PPEs can stabilize magnetite particles (NPs) in polar solvents, for example, methanol, due to the binding of the phosphoester groups in the backbone to the particles. ITC measurements reveal that multicatechol PPEs exhibit a higher binding affinity to magnetite NPs compared to PPEs bearing phosphodi- or phosphotriesters as repeating units. In addition, the catechol-containing PPEs were used to generate organo- and hydrogels by oxidative cross-linking, due to cohesive properties of catechol groups. This unique combination of two natural adhesive motives, catechols and phosphates, will allow the design of novel future gels for tissue engineering applications or novel degradable adhesives.

  6. The terminal oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    de Gier, J W; Lübben, M; Reijnders, W N; Tipker, C A; Slotboom, D J; van Spanning, R J; Stouthamer, A H; van der Oost, J

    1994-07-01

    Three distinct types of terminal oxidases participate in the aerobic respiratory pathways of Paracoccus denitrificans. Two alternative genes encoding subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase have been isolated before, namely ctaDI and ctaDII. Each of these genes can be expressed separately to complement a double mutant (delta ctaDI, delta ctaDII), indicating that they are isoforms of subunit I of the aa3-type oxidase. The genomic locus of a quinol oxidase has been isolated: cyoABC. This protohaem-containing oxidase, called cytochrome bb3, is the only quinol oxidase expressed under the conditions used. In a triple oxidase mutant (delta ctaDI, delta ctaDII, cyoB::KmR) an alternative cytochrome c oxidase has been characterized; this cbb3-type oxidase has been partially purified. Both cytochrome aa3 and cytochrome bb3 are redox-driven proton pumps. The proton-pumping capacity of cytochrome cbb3 has been analysed; arguments for and against the active transport of protons by this novel oxidase complex are discussed.

  7. Tyrosinase and catechol oxidase activity of copper(I) complexes supported by imidazole-based ligands: structure-reactivity correlations.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Franziska; Näther, Christian; Tuczek, Felix

    2016-09-01

    Four new imidazole-based ligands, 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 1), 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-(tert-butyl)-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 2), 4-((1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl)-2-methyl-4,5-dihydrooxyzole (L OL 3), and N-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)-2-(1-trityl-1H-imidazol-4-yl-)ethyl amine (L imz 1), have been synthesized. The corresponding copper(I) complexes [Cu(I)(L OL 1)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 1), [Cu(I)(L OL 2)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 2), [Cu(I)(L OL 3)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuL OL 3), [Cu(I)(L imz 1)(CH3CN)2]PF6 (CuL imz 1) as well as the Cu(I) complex derived from the known ligand bis(1-methylimidazol-2-yl)methane (BIMZ), [Cu(I)(BIMZ)(CH3CN)]PF6 (CuBIMZ), are screened as catalysts for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC-H2) to 3,5-di-tert-butylquinone (3,5-DTBQ). The primary reaction product of these oxidations is 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone (3,5-DTBSQ) which slowly converts to 3,5-DTBQ. Saturation kinetic studies reveal a trend of catalytic activity in the order CuL OL 3 ≈ CuL OL 1 > CuBIMZ > CuL OL 2 > CuL imz 1. Additionally, the catalytic activity of the copper(I) complexes towards the oxygenation of monophenols is investigated. As substrates 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-DTBP-H), 3-tert-butylphenol (3-TBP-H), 4-methoxyphenol (4-MeOP-H), N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester monohydrate (NATEE) and 8-hydroxyquinoline are employed. The oxygenation products are identified and characterized with the help of UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence measurements. Whereas the copper complexes with ligands containing combinations of imidazole and imine functions or two imidazole units (CuL imz 1 and CuBIMZ) are found to exhibit catalytic tyrosinase activity, the systems with ligands containing oxazoline just mediate a stoichiometric conversion. Correlations between the structures of the complexes and their reactivities are discussed.

  8. Mono- and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes showing efficient catechol oxidase activity: syntheses, characterization and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Banerjee, Arpita; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Patra, Goutam Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2009-10-28

    Four side-off compartmental ligands L1-L4 [L1 = N,N'-ethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methyl-salicylaldimine), L2 = N,N'-1-methylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine), L3 = N,N'-1,1-dimethylethylenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine) and L4= N,N'-cyclohexenebis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylaldimine)] having two binding sites, N2O2 and O4, have been chosen to synthesize mononuclear and dinuclear manganese(III) complexes with the aim to study their catecholase activity using 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) as substrate in the presence of molecular oxygen. In all cases only mononuclear manganese complexes (1-4) were obtained, with manganese coordination taking place at the N2O2 binding site only, irrespective of the amount of manganese salt used. All these complexes have been characterized by routine physico-chemical techniques. Complex MnL2Cl.4H2O (2) has further been structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. Four dinuclear manganese complexes, 5-8, were obtained after condensing the two pending formyl groups on each ligand (L1-L4) with aniline followed by reaction with MnCl2 to put the second Mn atom onto another N2O2 site. The catalytic activity of all complexes 1-8 has been investigated following the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) with molecular oxygen in two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. The study reveals that the catalytic activity is influenced by the solvent and to a significant extent by the backbone of the diamine and the behavior seems to be related mainly to steric rather than electronic factors. Experimental data suggest that a correlation, the lower the E(1/2) value the higher the catalytic activity, can be drawn between E(1/2) and Vmax of the complexes in a particular solvent. The EPR measurements suggest that the catalytic property of the complexes is related to the metal center(s) participation rather than to a radical mechanism.

  9. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes.

  10. Bio-inspired adhesive catechol-conjugated chitosan for biomedical applications: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyun; Hong, Seonki; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-11-01

    The development of adhesive materials, such as cyanoacrylate derivatives, fibrin glues, and gelatin-based adhesives, has been an emerging topic in biomaterial science because of the many uses of these materials, including in wound healing patches, tissue sealants, and hemostatic materials. However, most bio-adhesives exhibit poor adhesion to tissue and related surfaces due to the presence of body fluid. For a decade, studies have aimed at addressing this issue by developing wet-resistant adhesives. Mussels demonstrate robust wet-resistant adhesion despite the ceaseless waves at seashores, and mussel adhesive proteins play a key role in this adhesion. Adhesive proteins located at the distal end (i.e., those that directly contact surfaces) are composed of nearly 60% of amino acids called 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), lysine, and histidine, which contain side chains of catechol, primary amines, and secondary amines, respectively. Inspired by the abundant catecholamine in mussel adhesive proteins, researchers have developed various types of polymeric mimics, such as polyethylenimine-catechol, chitosan-catechol, and other related catecholic polymers. Among them, chitosan-catechol is a promising adhesive polymer for biomedical applications. The conjugation of catechol onto chitosan dramatically increases its solubility from zero to nearly 60mg/mL (i.e., 6% w/v) in pH 7 aqueous solutions. The enhanced solubility maximizes the ability of catecholamine to behave similar to mussel adhesive proteins. Chitosan-catechol is biocompatible and exhibits excellent hemostatic ability and tissue adhesion, and thus, chitosan-catechol will be widely used in a variety of medical settings in the future. This review focuses on the various aspects of chitosan-catechol, including its (1) preparation methods, (2) physicochemical properties, and (3) current applications.

  11. Effect of Sesbania rostrata on Hirschmanniella oryzae in Flooded Rice

    PubMed Central

    Germani, G.; Reversat, G.; Luc, M.

    1983-01-01

    Microplot experiments on flooded soil infested with Hirschmanniella oryzae were conducted to investigate the influence of the legum Sesbania rostrata as a rotation crop with rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. Moroberekan. To avoid a green manure effect from S. rostrata, all aerial parts were removed at harvest. The dry weight of paddy, culms and leaves, and number of culms of rice following Sesbania were 214%, 158%, and 121% greater, respectively, than those following rice. Ripening of the paddy occurred earlier if rice followed Sesbania. The beneficial effect of Sesbania may have been due to the trap-crop action of Sesbania against H. oryzae. PMID:19295801

  12. Aminoparathion: a highly reactive metabolite of parathion. 1. Reactions with polyphenols and polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rung, Bruno; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2005-11-16

    Spiking of tomato and apple fruits with parathion at different levels of about 1-4 mg/kg irradiation and under simulated sunlight conditions resulted in nearly complete photodegradation within 13 h, but extractable parathion degradation products could not be found in any case. However, after irradiation of an unrealistically spiked apple (134 mg/kg) different photoproducts including aminoparathion (AP) were detectable by HPLC, proving that the hitherto postulated photochemistry of parathion indeed takes place in the fruit cuticle environment. Besides the photoreduction pathway it was shown for the first time that AP is also easily formed by reduction of the primary photoproduct nitrosoparathion with thiols (cysteine, glutathione), while ascorbic acid only leaves hydroxylaminoparathion. In the presence of polyphenols, AP was effectively bound to quinone intermediates formed by both silver oxide and polyphenol oxidases. For pyrocatechol, a disubstituted o-quinone derivative could be isolated as a dark red addition product and structurally be elucidated. However, in the presence of caffeic acid, catechol, naringin, and quercetin, respectively, insoluble dark colored polymers precipitated within 48 h, while in the supernatants AP was not detectable any more. Polymer-bound and nonextractable AP was proven by transesterification with sodium ethoxide releasing O,O,O-triethyl thiophosphate which was determined by GC. Additionally, AP itself was a substrate for polyphenol oxidases, resulting in a quinone imine intermediate which in turn reacted with excessive AP yielding deep red colored di- and trimerization products.

  13. Effector Diversification Contributes to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Phenotypic Adaptation in a Semi-Isolated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro; Booher, Nicholas J.; Dossa, Gerbert S.; Grande, Genelou; Szurek, Boris; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Bogdanove, Adam J.; Oliva, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shaped contemporary pathogen populations in agricultural landscapes is quite important to define appropriate management strategies and to support crop improvement efforts. Here, we took advantage of an historical record to examine the adaptation pathway of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in a semi-isolated environment represented in the Philippine archipelago. By comparing genomes of key Xoo groups we showed that modern populations derived from three Asian lineages. We also showed that diversification of virulence factors occurred within each lineage, most likely driven by host adaptation, and it was essential to shape contemporary pathogen races. This finding is particularly important because it expands our understanding of pathogen adaptation to modern agriculture. PMID:27667260

  14. Crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucine aminopeptidase, from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Natarajan, Sampath; Park, Hanseul; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Aminopeptidases are metalloproteinases that degrade N-terminal residues from protein and play important roles in cell growth and development by controlling cell homeostasis and protein maturation. We determined the crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucyl aminopeptidase, at 2.6 Å resolution from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing the destructive rice disease of bacterial blight. It is the first crystal structure of aminopeptidase from phytopathogens as a drug target. XoLAP existed as a hexamer and the monomer structure consisted of an N-terminal cap domain and a C-terminal peptidase domain with two divalent zinc ions. XoLAP structure was compared with BlLAP and EcLAP (EcPepA) structures. Based on the structural comparison, the molecular model of XoLAP in complex with the natural aminopeptidase inhibitor of microginin FR1 was proposed. The model structure will be useful to develop a novel antibacterial drug against Xoo.

  15. Polyphenol oxidase from wheat bran is a serpin.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Konno, Haruyoshi; Noda, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from wheat bran by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, batch adsorption by DEAE-cellulofine, CM-cellulofine column chromatography, DEAE-cellulofine column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, adsorption on the membrane of a Vivapure Q Maxi H spin column, and heat treatment. These procedures led to 150-fold purification with 4.2% recovery. The PPO was homogeneous by SDS/PAGE. The relative molecular weight of the PPO was estimated to be 37,000 based on its mobility in SDS/PAGE. The isoelectric point of the PPO was 4.4. The K(m) values of the PPO for caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, pyrocatechol, 4-methyl catechol and l-DOPA as substrates were 0.077, 0.198, 1.176, 1.667 and 4.545 mM. The PPO was strongly inhibited by tropolone. The K(i) value for tropolone is 2.2 x 10(-7) M. The sequence of the 15 N-terminal amino-acid residues was determined to be ATDVRLSIAHQTRFA, which was identical to those of serpin from Triticum aestivum and protein Z from Hordeum vulgare. The PPO strongly inhibited the activity of trypsin, which is an enzyme of serine proteases; 50% inhibition was observed with 1.5 x 10(-7) M PPO. The K(i) value for PPO is 2.3 x 10(-8) M. The wheat bran PPO should be a very important protein for protecting wheat against disease, virus, insect and herbivore damages by both the activities of PPO and protease inhibitor.

  16. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae).

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10-30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents.

  17. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M.; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10–30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents. PMID:28144236

  18. Identification of catechols as histone-lysine demethylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anders L; Kristensen, Line H; Stephansen, Karen B; Kristensen, Jan B L; Helgstrand, Charlotte; Lees, Michael; Cloos, Paul; Helin, Kristian; Gajhede, Michael; Olsen, Lars

    2012-04-24

    Identification of inhibitors of histone-lysine demethylase (HDM) enzymes is important because of their involvement in the development of cancer. An ELISA-based assay was developed for identification of inhibitors of the HDM KDM4C in a natural products library. Based on one of the hits with affinity in the low μM range (1, a catechol), a subset of structurally related compounds was selected and tested against a panel of HDMs. In this subset, two inhibitors (2 and 10) had comparable affinities towards KDM4C and KDM6A but no effect on PHF8. One inhibitor restored H3K9me3 levels in KDM4C transfected U2-OS cells.

  19. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  20. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  1. Biotransformation of benzene and toluene to catechols by phenol hydroxylase from Arthrobacter sp. W1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Sun, Tie-Heng; Li, Ang; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Qu, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Phenol hydroxylase gene engineered microorganism (PHIND) was used to synthesize catechols from benzene and toluene by successive hydroxylation reaction. HPLC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis proved that the products of biotransformation were the corresponding catechols via the intermediate production of phenols. It was indicated that the main products of toluene oxidation were o-cresol and p-cresol. 3-Methylcatechol was the predominant product for m-cresol biotransformation. Formation rate of catechol (25 μM/min/g cell dry weight) was 1.43-fold higher than that of methylcatechols. It was suggested that phenol hydroxylase could be successfully used to transform both benzene and toluene to catechols by successive hydroxylation.

  2. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-07

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  3. Protein-responsive assemblies from catechol-metal ion supramolecular coordination.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Chen, J; Yu, S; Chang, Y; Mao, J; Xu, Y; Luo, W; Zeng, B; Dai, L

    2015-03-21

    Supramolecular self-assembly driven by catechol-metal ion coordination has gained great success in the fabrication of functional materials including adhesives, capsules, coatings and hydrogels. However, this route has encountered a great challenge in the construction of nanoarchitectures in the absence of removable templates, because of the uncontrollable crosslinking of catechol-metal ion coordination. Herein, we show that a supramolecular approach, combining both catechol-metal ion coordination and polymer self-assembly together, can organize polymers into hybrid nanoassemblies ranging from solid particles, homogeneous vesicles to Janus vesicles. Without the introduction of a specific binding ligand or complicated molecular design, these assemblies can totally disassemble in response to proteins. UV/vis absorption, fluorescence quenching and recovery investigations have confirmed that proteins can seize metal ions from the hybrid nanoassemblies, thus causing the degradation of catechol-metal ion coordination networks.

  4. H-point curve isolation method for determination of catechol in complex unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Masoumeh; Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard additions method (HPSAM) was used for determination of catechol in the presence of phenolic interferents. Spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard additions of an analyte in an unknown matrix was used by the method. A cumulative spectrum for interferents in sample was extracted by HPCIM and then HPSAM is used for determination of the catechol concentration by obtained cumulative interferents spectrum. The method was tested with simulated data set. The spectrum obtained from applying HPCIM to the simulated data well agrees with the cumulative spectra of the interferents. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in the presence of highly overlapping interferents in synthetic ternary mixtures using spectrophotometric data. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully used for determination of catechol in real complicated matrices of tea and urine samples. Percent recoveries were between 95.4 and 113.6.

  5. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  6. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Greg P.; Rapp, Michael V.; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (Ead ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a “one-two punch,” whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  7. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  8. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Ronald A.; Froese, Colleen

    1990-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective antidepressant agents. They are increasingly and effectively used in a number of other psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical syndromes. Their potential for serious toxicity (i.e., hypertensive reaction) is far less than original reports suggest, and newer reversible substrate-specific MAOIs may offer even less toxicity. The author reviews the pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical indications, and dosing strategies of MAOIs. The common MAOI side-effects (hypotension, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, insomnia, daytime sedation, myoclonus, and hypertensive episodes) are described and management techniques suggested. Recent clinical developments involving MAOIs are outlined. PMID:21233984

  9. Reduced expression of glycolate oxidase leads to enhanced disease resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Chern, Mawsheng; Bai, Wei; Chen, Xuewei; Canlas, Patrick E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2013-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GLO) is a key enzyme in photorespiration, catalyzing the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Arabidopsis GLO is required for nonhost defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae and for tobacco Pto/AvrPto-mediated defense responses. We previously described identification of rice GLO1 that interacts with a glutaredoxin protein, which in turn interacts with TGA transcription factors. TGA transcription factors are well known to participate in NPR1/NH1-mediated defense signaling, which is crucial to systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here we demonstrate that reduction of rice GLO1 expression leads to enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). Constitutive silencing of GLO1 leads to programmed cell death, resulting in a lesion-mimic phenotype and lethality or reduced plant growth and development, consistent with previous reports. Inducible silencing of GLO1, employing a dexamethasone-GVG (Gal4 DNA binding domain-VP16 activation domain-glucocorticoid receptor fusion) inducible system, alleviates these detrimental effects. Silencing of GLO1 results in enhanced resistance to Xoo, increased expression of defense regulators NH1, NH3, and WRKY45, and activation of PR1 expression.

  10. Two independent S-phase checkpoints regulate appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Osés-Ruiz, Míriam; Sakulkoo, Wasin; Littlejohn, George R.; Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M. oryzae requires two independent S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints. Initial formation of appressoria on the rice leaf surface requires an S-phase checkpoint that acts through the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, involving the Cds1 kinase. By contrast, appressorium repolarization involves a novel, DDR-independent S-phase checkpoint, triggered by appressorium turgor generation and melanization. This second checkpoint specifically regulates septin-dependent, NADPH oxidase-regulated F-actin dynamics to organize the appressorium pore and facilitate entry of the fungus into host tissue. PMID:28028232

  11. Septin-Dependent Assembly of the Exocyst Is Essential for Plant Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, the most devastating disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and a continuing threat to global food security. To cause disease, the fungus elaborates a specialized infection cell called an appressorium, which breaches the cuticle of the rice leaf, allowing the fungus entry to plant tissue. Here, we show that the exocyst complex localizes to the tips of growing hyphae during vegetative growth, ahead of the Spitzenkörper, and is required for polarized exocytosis. However, during infection-related development, the exocyst specifically assembles in the appressorium at the point of plant infection. The exocyst components Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, and Sec15, and exocyst complex proteins Exo70 and Exo84 localize specifically in a ring formation at the appressorium pore. Targeted gene deletion, or conditional mutation, of genes encoding exocyst components leads to impaired plant infection. We demonstrate that organization of the exocyst complex at the appressorium pore is a septin-dependent process, which also requires regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species by the NoxR-dependent Nox2 NADPH oxidase complex. We conclude that septin-mediated assembly of the exocyst is necessary for appressorium repolarization and host cell invasion. PMID:26566920

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of catechols in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells: inhibition of microglial neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long Tai; Ryu, Geun-Mu; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2008-06-24

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by producing various proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory and subsequent neuroprotective effects of catechol and its derivatives including 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 4-tert-butylcatechol were investigated in microglia and neuroblastoma cells in culture. The four catechol compounds showed anti-inflammatory effects with different potency. The catechols significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in BV-2 microglia cells. The catechols also inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-alpha at mRNA or protein levels in the LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, the catechols inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, IkappaB degradation, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in BV-2 cells. Moreover, the catechols attenuated the cytotoxicity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia toward co-cultured rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. The catechols, however, did not protect B35 cells against H(2)O(2) toxicity, indicating that the compounds exerted the neuroprotective effect by inhibiting the inflammatory activation of microglia in the co-culture. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of the catechols in cultured microglia and neuroblastoma cells suggest a therapeutic potential of these compounds for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with an excessive microglial activation.

  13. Surface water enhances the uptake and photoreactivity of gaseous catechol on solid iron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Tofan-Lazar, Julia; Al-Abadleh, Hind A

    2014-01-01

    Uptake and photoreactivity of catechol-Fe complexes are investigated at the gas/solid interface under humid and dry conditions, along with the nature of the hydrogen-bonding network of adsorbed water. Catechol was chosen as a simple model for organics in aerosols. Iron chloride was used to distinguish ionic mobility from binding to coordinated iron(III) in hematite. Studies were conducted using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy as a function of irradiation time. Results show that adsorbed water at 30% relative humidity (RH), not light, increases the concentration of adsorbed catechol by a factor of 3 over 60 min relative to dry conditions. Also, our data show that, at 30% RH and under light and dark conditions, growth factors describing the concentration of adsorbed catechol are very similar suggesting that light does not significantly enhance the uptake of catechol vapor on FeCl3. Surface water also enhances the initial photodecay kinetics of catechol-Fe complexes at 30% RH by a factor of 10 relative to control experiments (RH < 1%, or no FeCl3 under humid conditions). Absorptions assigned to carbonyl groups were not observed with irradiation time, which was explained by the dominance of FeCl(2+) species relative to FeOH(2+) in the highly acidic "quasi-liquid" phase at 30% RH. Clear differences in the hydrogen-bonding network upon gaseous catechol uptake are observed in the dark and light and during the photodecay of adsorbed catechol. The implications of these results on our understanding of interfacial processes in aged iron-containing surfaces are discussed.

  14. Secretome analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae using in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Ho; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, So Hee; Singh, Raksha; Lee, Jae-eun; Cho, Yoon-Seong; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Jwa, Nam-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a devastating blast fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes dramatic decreases in seed yield and quality. During the early stages of infection by this pathogen, the fungal spore senses the rice leaf surface, germinates, and penetrates the cell via an infectious structure known as an appressorium. During this process, M. oryzae secretes several proteins; however, these proteins are largely unknown mainly due to the lack of a suitable method for isolating secreted proteins during germination and appressoria formation. We examined the secretome of M. oryzae by mimicking the early stages of infection in vitro using a glass plate (GP), PVDF membrane, and liquid culture medium (LCM). Microscopic observation of M. oryzae growth revealed appressorium formation on the GP and PVDF membrane resembling natural M. oryzae-rice interactions; however, appresorium formation was not observed in the LCM. Secreted proteins were collected from the GP (3, 8, and 24 h), PVDF membrane (24 h), and LCM (48 h) and identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The GP, PVDF membrane, and LCM-derived 2D gels showed distinct protein patterns, indicating that they are complementary approaches. Collectively, 53 nonredundant proteins including previously known and novel secreted proteins were identified. Six biological functions were assigned to the proteins, with the predominant functional classes being cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species detoxification, lipid modification, metabolism, and protein modification. The in vitro system using GPs and PVDF membranes applied in this study to survey the M. oryzae secretome, can be used to further our understanding of the early interactions between M. oryzae and rice leaves.

  15. African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Olga F.

    2002-01-01

    The African species of rice (Oryza glaberrima) was cultivated long before Europeans arrived in the continent. At present, O. glaberrima is being replaced by the introduced Asian species of rice, Oryza sativa. Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice for use in ritual contexts. The two species of rice have recently been crossed, producing a promising hybrid. PMID:12461173

  16. Improving Pharmaceutical Protein Production in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Tan, Chia-Chun; Ku, Jung-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Cho; Su, Sung-Chieh; Lu, Chung-An; Huang, Li-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Application of plant expression systems in the production of recombinant proteins has several advantages, such as low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and possession of complex post-translational glycosylation capabilities. Plants have been successfully used to produce recombinant cytokines, vaccines, antibodies, and other proteins, and rice (Oryza sativa) is a potential plant used as recombinant protein expression system. After successful transformation, transgenic rice cells can be either regenerated into whole plants or grown as cell cultures that can be upscaled into bioreactors. This review summarizes recent advances in the production of different recombinant protein produced in rice and describes their production methods as well as methods to improve protein yield and quality. Glycosylation and its impact in plant development and protein production are discussed, and several methods of improving yield and quality that have not been incorporated in rice expression systems are also proposed. Finally, different bioreactor options are explored and their advantages are analyzed. PMID:23615467

  17. Extradiol dioxygenase-SiO₂ sol-gel modified electrode for catechol and its derivatives detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Hongtao

    2011-07-15

    A feasible and sensitive biosensor for catechol and its derivatives using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC)-modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully constructed by polyvinyl alcohol-modified SiO₂ sol-gel method. The as-prepared biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the surface topography of the film was imaged by atomic force microscope. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to reveal the catalytic mechanism. BphC embedded in SiO₂ gel maintained its bioactivity well and exhibited excellent eletrocatalytical response to both catechol and some of its derivatives (such as 3-methylcatechol and 4-methylcatechol). The biosensor showed a linear amperometric response range between 0.002 mM and 0.8 mM catechol. And the sensitivity was 1.268 mA/(mM cm²) with a detection limit of 0.428 μM for catechol (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the BphC biosensor exhibited perfect selectivity for catechol in the mixtures of catechol and phenol. It was suggested that this flexible protocol would open up a new avenue for designing other ring-cleavage enzyme biosensors, which could be widely used for monitoring various kinds of environmental pollutants.

  18. Removing Dissolved Silica from Waste Water with Catechol and Active Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sasan, Koroush; Brady, Patrick; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity is going to be a global great challenge in the near future because of the increasing population. Our water resources are limited and, hence, water treatment and recycling methods are the only alternatives for fresh water procurement in the upcoming decades. Water treatment and recycling methods serve to remove harmful or problematic constituents from ground, surface and waste waters prior to its consumption, industrial supply, or other uses. Scale formation in industrial and domestic installations is still an important problem during water treatment. In water treatment, silica scaling is a real and constant concern for plant operations. The focus of this study is on the viability of using a combination of catechol and active carbon to remove dissolved silica from concentrated cooling tower water (CCTW). Various analytical methods, such as ICP-MS and UV-vis, were used to understand the structure-property relationship between the material and the silica removal results. UV-Vis indicates that catechol can react with silica ions and form a silica-catecholate complex. The speciation calculation of catechol and silica shows that catechol and silica bind in the pH range of 8 – 10; there is no evidence of linkage between them in neutral and acidic pHs. The silica removal results indicate that using ~4g/L of catechol and 10g/L active carbon removes up to 50% of the dissolved silica from the CCTW.

  19. Virulence deficiency caused by a transposon insertion in the purH gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2005-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. We have identified a Tn5-induced virulence-deficient mutant (BXO1704) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The BXO1704 mutant exhibited growth deficiency in minimal medium but was proficient in inducing a hypersensitive response in a non-host tomato plant. Sequence analysis of the chromosomal DNA flanking the Tn5 insertion indicated that the Tn5 insertion is in the purH gene, which is highly homologous to purH genes of other closely related plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Purine supplementation reversed the growth deficiency of BXO1704 in minimal medium. These results suggest that the virulence deficiency of BXO1704 may be due to the inability to use sufficient purine in the host.

  20. Multicopper oxidase-3 is a laccase associated with the peritrophic matrix of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Lang, Minglin; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2012-01-01

    The multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes includes laccases, which oxidize a broad range of substrates including polyphenols and phenylendiamines; ferroxidases, which oxidize ferrous iron; and several other oxidases with specific substrates such as ascorbate, bilirubin or copper. The genome of Anopheles gambiae, a species of mosquito, encodes five putative multicopper oxidases. Of these five, only AgMCO2 has known enzymatic and physiological functions: it is a highly conserved laccase that functions in cuticle pigmentation and tanning by oxidizing dopamine and dopamine derivatives. AgMCO3 is a mosquito-specific gene that is expressed predominantly in adult midguts and Malpighian tubules. To determine its enzymatic function, we purified recombinant AgMCO3 and analyzed its activity. AgMCO3 oxidized hydroquinone (a p-diphenol), the five o-diphenols tested, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and p-phenylenediamine, but not ferrous iron. The catalytic efficiencies of AgMCO3 were similar to those of cuticular laccases (MCO2 orthologs), except that AgMCO3 oxidized all of the phenolic substrates with similar efficiencies whereas the MCO2 isoforms were less efficient at oxidizing catechol or dopa. These results demonstrate that AgMCO3 can be classified as a laccase and suggest that AgMCO3 has a somewhat broader substrate specificity than MCO2 orthologs. In addition, we observed AgMCO3 immunoreactivity in the peritrophic matrix, which functions as a selective barrier between the blood meal and midgut epithelial cells, protecting the midgut from mechanical damage, pathogens, and toxic molecules. We propose that AgMCO3 may oxidize toxic molecules in the blood meal leading to detoxification or to cross-linking of the molecules to the peritrophic matrix, thus targeting them for excretion.

  1. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance of studying different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy.

  2. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  3. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance to study different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. PMID:26846578

  4. A Novel Mechanism for Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibition from the Crystal Structure of its Complex with Catechol Estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Steegborn,C.; Litvin, T.; Hess, K.; Capper, A.; Taussig, R.; Buck, J.; Levin, L.; Wu, H.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol estrogens are steroid metabolites that elicit physiological responses through binding to a variety of cellular targets. We show here that catechol estrogens directly inhibit soluble adenylyl cyclases and the abundant trans-membrane adenylyl cyclases. Catechol estrogen inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate ATP, and we solved the crystal structure of a catechol estrogen bound to a soluble adenylyl cyclase from Spirulina platensis in complex with a substrate analog. The catechol estrogen is bound to a newly identified, conserved hydrophobic patch near the active center but distinct from the ATP-binding cleft. Inhibitor binding leads to a chelating interaction between the catechol estrogen hydroxyl groups and the catalytic magnesium ion, distorting the active site and trapping the enzyme substrate complex in a non-productive conformation. This novel inhibition mechanism likely applies to other adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, and the identified ligand-binding site has important implications for the development of specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitors.

  5. Study of S0 and S1 states of catechol and catechol-Al(III) systems in aqueous solution by TD-DFT methods and electronic spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornard, Jean-Paul; Lapouge, Christine; Allet-Bodelot, Cyrille

    2010-04-01

    The electronic structures of the ground and the lowest excited states of catechol and its 1:1 complex with aluminium have been optimized by taking into account the solvent effects. The good agreement between the theoretical absorption and fluorescence emission wavelengths with the experimental ones has allowed the validation of the computed electronic structures. If the structure of the S0 state of catechol is planar, it is twisted in the S1 state in water, contrary to the results obtained in vacuum. In opposition, the changes observed for the 1:1 complex structures in the S0 and S1 states are negligible.

  6. Catechol metabolites of zeranol and 17β-estradiol: a comparative in vitro study on the induction of oxidative DNA damage and methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Hildebrand, Andreas A; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred

    2012-04-05

    α-Zearalanol (α-ZAL, zeranol) is a highly estrogenic macrocyclic β-resorcylic acid lactone, which is used as a growth promotor for cattle in various countries. We have recently reported that α-ZAL and its major metabolite zearalanone (ZAN) are hydroxylated at the aromatic ring by microsomes from human liver in vitro, thereby forming two catechol metabolites each. Thus, the oxidative metabolism of α-ZAL and ZAN resembles that of the endogenous steroidal estrogens 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), which also give rise to two catechols each. As these catechol metabolites are believed to mediate the carcinogenicity of E2 and E1 by causing oxidative DNA damage and DNA adducts, their methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important inactivation pathway. Here we report that hepatic microsomes from five species generate catechol metabolites of α-ZAL and ZAN, the highest amounts being formed by human liver microsomes, followed by rat, mouse, steer and swine. The microsomal extracts and the individual catechols of α-ZAL, ZAN, E2 and E1 were found to induce oxidative DNA damage, as measured by the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in a cell-free system. The ranking of pro-oxidant activity was 15-HO-ZAN>15-HO-α-ZAL≈4-HO-E2/E1≈2-HO-E2/E1>13-HO-ZAN>13-HO-α-ZAL. With respect to the rate of methylation by human hepatic COMT, the ranking was 2-HO-E2/E1>4-HO-E2/E1>15-HO-α-ZAL/ZAN>13-HO-α-ZAL/ZAN. Thus, some catechol metabolites of α-ZAL and ZAN are better pro-oxidants and poorer substrates of COMT than the catechols of E2 and E1. These findings warrant further investigations into the genotoxic potential of α-ZAL, which may constitute another biological activity in addition to its well-known estrogenicity.

  7. Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E.; Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J.

    1996-12-01

    The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of LipA, a secretory lipase/esterase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Aparna, Gudlur; Chatterjee, Avradip; Jha, Gopaljee; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2007-08-01

    The crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of LipA, a lipase/esterase secreted by X. oryzae pv. oryzae during its infection of rice plants, are reported. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. Several enzymes that are secreted through the type II secretion system of this bacterium play an important role in the plant–microbe interaction, being important for virulence and also being able to induce potent host defence responses. One of these enzymes is a secretory lipase/esterase, LipA, which shows a very weak homology to other bacterial lipases and gives a positive tributyrin plate assay. In this study, LipA was purified from the culture supernatant of an overexpressing clone of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and two types of crystals belonging to space group C2 but with two different unit-cell parameters were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Type I crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 1.89 Å and have unit-cell parameters a = 93.1, b = 62.3, c = 66.1 Å, β = 90.8°. Type II crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 54.6, c = 66.3 Å, β = 92.6° and diffract to 1.86 Å. Solvent-content analysis shows one monomer in the asymmetric unit in both the crystal forms.

  9. Comparison of membrane-bound and soluble polyphenol oxidase in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji).

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jin-Hong; Gan, Zhi-Lin; Ni, Yuan-Ying

    2015-04-15

    This study compared membrane-bound with soluble polyphenol oxidase (mPPO and sPPO, respectively) from Fuji apple. Purified mPPO and partially purified sPPO were used. mPPO was purified by temperature-induced phase partitioning and ion exchange chromatography. The specific activity of mPPO was 34.12× higher than that of sPPO. mPPO was more stable than sPPO at pH 5.0-8.5. Although mPPO was more easily inactivated at 25-55 °C, it is still more active than sPPO in this temperature range. The optimum substrate of mPPO was 4-methyl catechol, followed by catechol. L-cysteine had the highest inhibitory effects on mPPO followed by ascorbic acid and glutathione. Surprisingly, EDTA increased mPPO activity. The results revealed that purified mPPO is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 67 kDa.

  10. Polyphenol oxidase and herbivore defense in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides): cDNA cloning, expression, and potential substrates.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Pedersen, Jens A.; Constabel, C. Peter

    2001-08-01

    The biochemical anti-herbivore defense of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) was investigated in a molecular analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2). A PPO cDNA was isolated from a trembling aspen wounded leaf cDNA library and its nucleotide sequence determined. Southern analysis indicated the presence of two PPO genes in the trembling aspen genome. Expression of PPO was found to be induced after herbivory by forest tent caterpillar, by wounding, and by methyl jasmonate treatment. Wound induction was systemic, and occurred in unwounded leaves on wounded plants. This pattern of expression is consistent with a role of this enzyme in insect defense. A search for potential PPO substrates in ethanolic aspen leaf extracts using electron spin resonance (ESR) found no pre-existing diphenolic compounds. However, following a brief delay and several additions of oxygen, an ESR signal specific for catechol was detected. The source of this catechol was most likely the aspen phenolic glycosides tremulacin or salicortin which decomposed during ESR experiments. This was subsequently confirmed in experiments using pure salicortin.

  11. Characterization of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Planococcus sp. strain S5 induced by high phenol concentration.

    PubMed

    Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Guzik, Urszula; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at characterization of a new catechol 2,3-dioxygenase isolated from a Gram-positive bacterium able to utilize phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Planococcus sp. strain S5 grown on 1 or 2 mM phenol showed activity of both a catechol 1,2- and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase while at a higher concentrations of phenol only catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity was observed. The enzyme was optimally active at 60°C and pH 8.0. Kinetic studies showed that the K(m) and V(max) of the enzyme were 42.70 µM and 329.96 mU, respectively. The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase showed the following relative meta-cleavage activities for various catechols tested: catechol (100%), 3-methylcatechol (13.67%), 4-methylcatechol (106.33%) and 4-chlorocatechol (203.80%). The high reactivity of this enzyme towards 4-chlorocatechol is different from that observed for other catechol 2,3-dioxygenases. Nucleotide sequencing and homology search revealed that the gene encoding the S5 catechol 2,3-dioxygenase shared the greatest homology with the known genes encoding isoenzymes from Gram-negative Pseudomonas strains.

  12. Heterogeneous Reactions of Surface-Adsorbed Catechol: A Comparison of Tropospheric Aerosol Surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.; Woodill, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Surface-adsorbed organics can alter the chemistry of tropospheric solid-air interfaces, such as aerosol and ground level surfaces, thereby impacting photochemical cycles and altering aerosol properties. The nature of the surface can also influence the chemistry of the surface-adsorbed organic. We employed diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to monitor the adsorption of gaseous catechol on several tropospheric aerosol surrogates and to investigate the subsequent reactivity of adsorbed-catechol with nitrogen dioxide and, in separate preliminary experiments, ozone. Graphite, kaolinite, and sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr) powders served as carbonaceous, mineral and sea salt aerosol surrogates, respectively. Broad OH stretching bands for adsorbed catechol shifted to lower wavenumber with peak frequencies following the trend NaBr > NaCl > NaF ≈ kaolinite, consistent with the increasing basicity of the halide anions and basic Brønsted sites on kaolinite. The dark heterogeneous reaction of NO2 with NaCl-adsorbed catechol at relative humidity (RH) <2% promoted nitration forming 4-nitrocatechol and oxidation forming 1,2-benzoquinone and the ring cleavage product muconic acid, with product yields of 88%, 8%, and 4%, respectively. 4-Nitrocatechol was the dominant product for catechol adsorbed on NaF and kaolinite, while NaBr-adsorbed catechol produced less 4-nitrocatechol and more 1,2-benzoquinone and muconic acid. For all three sodium halides, the reactions of NO2 with adsorbed catechol were orders of magnitude faster than between NO2 and each NaX substrate. 4-Nitrocatechol rates and product yields were consistent with the relative ability of each substrate to enhance the deprotonated nature of adsorbed-catechol. Increasing the relative humidity caused the rate of each product channel to decrease and also altered the product branching ratios. Most notably, 1,2-benzoquinone formation decreased significantly even at 13% RH. The dramatic

  13. The polyamine oxidase from lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5), unlike that of angiosperms, back-converts thermospermine to norspermidine.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Inoue, Masataka; Kim, Dong Wook; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-10-07

    In the phylogeny of plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs), clade III members from angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana PAO5 and Oryza sativa PAO1, prefer spermine and thermospermine as substrates and back-convert both of these substrates to spermidine in vitro. A clade III representative of lycophytes, SelPAO5 from Selaginella lepidophylla, also prefers spermine and thermospermine but instead back-converts these substrates to spermidine and norspermidine, respectively. This finding indicates that the clade III PAOs of lycophytes and angiosperms oxidize thermospermine at different carbon positions. We discuss the physiological significance of this difference.

  14. Dietary inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A.

    PubMed

    Dixon Clarke, Sarah E; Ramsay, Rona R

    2011-07-01

    Inhibition of monoamine oxidase is one way to treat depression and anxiety. The information now available on the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids and of the components of tobacco prompted an exploration of whether a healthy diet (with or without smoking) provides active compounds in amounts sufficient to partially inhibit monoamine oxidase. A literature search was used to identify dietary monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the levels of these compounds in foods, the pharmacokinetics of the absorption and distribution, and tissue levels observed. An estimated daily intake and the expected tissue concentrations were compared with the measured efficacies of the compounds as inhibitors of monoamine oxidases. Norharman, harman and quercetin dietary presence, pharmacokinetics, and tissue levels were consistent with significant levels reaching neuronal monoamine oxidase from the diet or smoking; 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, eugenol, 1-piperoylpiperidine, and coumarin were not. Quercetin was equipotent with norharman as a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor and its metabolite, isorhamnetin, also inhibits. Total quercetin was the highest of the compounds in the sample diet. Although bioavailability was variable depending on the source, a healthy diet contains amounts of quercetin that might give sufficient amounts in brain to induce, by monoamine oxidase A inhibition, a small decrease in neurotransmitter breakdown.

  15. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  16. Structural insights into sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Erkan; Wilson, Heather L; Graf, Tyler N; Xiang, Song; Jaramillo-Busquets, Sandra; Rajagopalan, K V; Kisker, Caroline

    2005-09-30

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  17. Ortho-substituted catechol derivatives: the effect of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pathways on chloride anion recognition.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Keith J; Smith, David K

    2007-04-13

    This paper reports a series of chloride anion receptors containing two catechol head groups connected through their ortho-positions via a spacer chain. The linking group chosen to attach the spacer chain to the catechol units has a major impact on the anion-binding potential of the receptor. Linking groups that are capable of forming stable six-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded rings with the catechol O-H groups significantly inhibit the ability of the catechol units to hydrogen bond to chloride anions. However, where the linking groups are only capable of forming five- or seven-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded rings, then anion binding via hydrogen bonding through the catechol O-H groups becomes a possibility. This process is solvent dependent; the presence of competitive solvent (e.g., DMSO-d6) disrupts the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern and enhances anion binding relative to simple unfunctionalized catechol. The most effective receptor is that in which the hydrogen-bonding linker (-CH2CONH-) is most distant from the catechol units and can only form a seven-membered intramolecular hydrogen-bonded ring. In this case, the receptor, which contains two catechol units, is a more effective chloride anion binder than simple unfunctionalized catechol, demonstrating that the two head groups, in combination with the N-H groups in the linker, act cooperatively and enhance the degree of anion binding. In summary, this paper provides insight into the hydrogen-bonding patterns in ortho-functionalized catechols and the impact these have on the potential of the catechol O-H groups to hydrogen bond to a chloride anion.

  18. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant, lipid, and protein fractions of accessions of Oryza Species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Oryza has given rise to rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major source of food for much of the human population. The Oryza genus is small, including only 23 species, but it is remarkably diverse in terms of its ecological adaptation. This diversity may not only be restricted to ecological characte...

  20. Genistein effect on xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Sumbayev, V V

    2001-01-01

    Genistein was defined to be an allosteric xanthine oxidase inhibitor in the concentrations 0.1-4.0 microM and xanthine oxidase activator with superoxide scavenging activity in the concentrations 5.0 microM and higher. But the most effective allosteric binding with the highest affinity was observed in the genistein concentrations 0.1-1.0 microM. Intraperitoneum injections of genistein (500 micrograms/kg) during three days with the interval 24 hours decrease xanthine oxidase activity in the liver, lung and brain of the Vistar rats.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nor'Aishah; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Rahim, Harun A.; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Mazlan, Norida; Abdullah, Shamsiah

    2016-02-01

    Rice is arguably the most crucial food crops supplying quarter of calories intake. Fungal pathogen, Magnaphorthe oryzae promotes blast disease unconditionally to gramineous host including rice species. This disease spurred an outbreaks and constant threat to cereal production. Global rice yield declining almost 10-30% including Malaysia. As Magnaphorthe oryzae and its host is model in disease plant study, the rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest to overcome the importance of the disease to world agriculture. Therefore, in this study, our prime objective was to isolate samples of Magnaphorthe oryzae from diseased leaf obtained from MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang, Malaysia. Molecular identification was performed by sequences analysis from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Phylogenetic affiliation of the isolated samples were analyzed by comparing the ITS sequences with those deposited in the GenBank database. The sequence of the isolate demonstrated at least 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaphorthe oryzae. Morphological observed under microscope demonstrated that the structure of conidia followed similar characteristic as M. oryzae. Finding in this study provide useful information for breeding programs, epidemiology studies and improved disease management.

  2. Secretome of Aspergillus oryzae in Shaoxing rice wine koji.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cao, Yu; Xie, Guang-Fa; Lu, Jian

    2012-04-16

    Shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative Chinese rice wine. Aspergillus oryzae SU16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the Shaoxing rice wine starter culture. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of A. oryzae SU16 in Shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. The proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry based on the annotated A. oryzae genome sequence. A total of 41 unique proteins were identified from the secretome. These proteins included 17 extracellular proteins following the classical secretory pathway, and 10 extracellular proteins putatively secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. The present secretome profile greatly differed from previous reports on A. oryzae growing in other solid-state nutrient sources. Several new secretory or putative secretory proteins were also found. These proteomic data will significantly aid the advancement of research on the secretome of A. oryzae, especially in solid-state cultures, and in elucidating the production process mechanism of Shaoxing rice wine koji. The findings may promote the technological development and innovation of the Shaoxing rice wine industry.

  3. Enantioselectivity in the methylation of the catecholic phase I metabolites of methylenedioxy designer drugs and their capability to inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed dopamine 3-methylation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-06-01

    The designer drugs R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy), R,S-3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA, Eve), and R,S-N-methyl-benzodioxolyl-butanamine (MBDB, Eden) are chiral compounds, and their in vitro and in vivo metabolism is enantioselective with a preference for the S-enantiomer caused in part by P450-mediated demethylenation. As the elimination of the catecholamine metabolites could also be enantioselective, the aim of the present study was to investigate the O-methylation to the corresponding methoxy derivatives catalyzed by the soluble or membrane-bound form of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). As all three compounds showed substrate inhibition effects during the incubation, their inhibition potential was quantified using the methylation of dopamine as a marker reaction. For investigation of the catechol-O-methylation catalyzed by the soluble form of the COMT (sCOMT), incubations with human liver cytosol (HLC) were performed. Human liver microsomes (HLM) were used for investigation of the membrane-bound form. For inhibition studies, 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) was incubated in HLC. The respective catechols were added at various concentrations to check whether they influence the methylation of 3-hydroxytyramine. Our data showed that the S-enantiomers of all studied catecholamines were preferably O-methylated by both types of COMT. Comparing the resulting kinetics of the HLC and HLM assays, the affinity for all substrates was 10-fold higher for the membrane-bound COMT, whereas the turnover rate was 10-fold higher for the soluble COMT. Uncompetitive inhibition of dopamine methylation could be observed for all tested catechols. In conclusion, elimination of the catecholamine metabolites of MDMA, MDEA, and MBDB was shown to be enantioselective and might therefore contribute to the different pharmacokinetic properties observed for both enantiomers. Furthermore, the catecholic metabolites were identified to be uncompetitive inhibitors

  4. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphysms in Italians

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Barbuti, Serena; Curcio, Michele; Scatena, Fabrizio; Carli, Giancarlo; Santarcangelo, Enrica L.

    2014-01-01

    Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) in subjects with high hypnotizability scores (highs) has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotizability and the COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 (Val158Met) were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotizability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows), and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype, and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotizability and focused attention abilities. PMID:24431998

  5. A chemical proteomic probe for detecting dehydrogenases: catechol rhodanine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xia; Sem, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Inherent complexity of the proteome often demands that it be studied as manageable subsets, termed subproteomes. A subproteome can be defined in a number of ways, although a pragmatic approach is to define it based on common features in an active site that lead to binding of a common small molecule ligand (e.g., a cofactor or a cross-reactive drug lead). The subproteome, so defined, can be purified using that common ligand tethered to a resin, with affinity chromatography. Affinity purification of a subproteome is described in the next chapter. That subproteome can then be analyzed using a common ligand probe, such as a fluorescent common ligand that can be used to stain members of the subproteome in a native gel. Here, we describe such a fluorescent probe, based on a catechol rhodanine acetic acid (CRAA) ligand that binds to dehydrogenases. The CRAA ligand is fluorescent and binds to dehydrogenases at pH > 7, and hence can be used effectively to stain dehydrogenases in native gels to identify what subset of proteins in a mixture are dehydrogenases. Furthermore, if one is designing inhibitors to target one or more of these dehydrogenases, the CRAA staining can be performed in a competitive assay format, with or without inhibitor, to assess the selectivity of the inhibitor for the targeted dehydrogenase. Finally, the CRAA probe is a privileged scaffold for dehydrogenases, and hence can easily be modified to increase affinity for a given dehydrogenase.

  6. Proteome analysis of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Luo, Jianying; Pan, Xiayan; Liang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Wenjun; Chen, Changjun; Hou, Yiping; Ma, Hongyu; Zhou, Mingguo

    2013-08-01

    The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases of rice. Xoo has been studied for over one century, and much has been learned about it, but proteomic investigation has been neglected. In this study, proteome reference maps of Xoo were constructed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and 628 spots in the gels representing 469 different protein species were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The identified spots were assigned to 15 functional categories according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database and the annotations from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The data set has been deposited in the World-2DPAGE database (Database ID: 0044). In addition, comparative proteomic analysis revealed that proteins related to the TonB-dependent transportation system and energy metabolism are involved in the phenazine-1-carboxylic acid resistance in Xoo. In conclusion, we have established a proteome database for Xoo and have used this database in a comparative proteomic analysis that identified proteins potentially contributing to phenazine-1-carboxylic acid resistance in Xoo.

  7. Deciphering the Role of Tyrosine Sulfation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Using Shotgun Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jee; Park, Chang-Jin; Bae, Nahee; Han, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial tyrosine sulfotransferase, RaxST, is required for activation of rice XA21-mediated immunity, and it catalyzes sulfation of tyrosine residues of Omp1X and RaxX in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, a causal agent of bacterial blight in rice. Although RaxST is biochemically well-characterized, biological functions of tyrosine sulfation have not been fully elucidated. We compared protein expression patterns between the wildtype and a raxST knockout mutant using shotgun proteomic analysis. Forty nine proteins displayed a more than 1.5-fold difference in their expression between the wildtype and the mutant strains. Clusters of orthologous groups analysis revealed that proteins involved in cell motility were most abundant, and phenotypic observation also showed that the twitching motility of the mutant was dramatically changed. These results indicate that tyrosine sulfation by RaxST is essential for Xoo movement, and they provide new insights into the biological roles of RaxST in cellular processes. PMID:27298602

  8. A new function of graphene oxide emerges: inactivating phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juanni; Wang, Xiuping; Han, Heyou

    2013-05-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo) is one representative phytopathogenic bacterium causing bacteria infections in rice. The antibacterial activity of graphene suspended in different dispersants against Xoo was first investigated. Bacteriological test data, fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscopy images are provided, which yield insight into the antibacterial action of the nanoscale materials. Surprisingly, the results showed graphene oxide (GO) exhibits superior bactericidal effect even at extremely low dose in water (250 μg/mL), almost killing 94.48 % cells, in comparison to common bactericide bismerthiazol with only 13.3 % mortality. The high efficiency in inactivating the bacteria on account of considerable changes in the cell membranes caused by the extremely sharp edges of graphene oxide and generation of reactive oxygen species, which may be the fatal factor for bacterial inactivation. Given the superior antibacterial effect of GO and the fact that GO can be mass-produced with low cost, we expect a new application could be developed as bactericide for controlling plant disease, which may be a matter of great importance for agricultural development.

  9. Direct suppression of a rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) by monoterpene (S)-limonene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kang, Mihyung; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Sungbeom

    2016-05-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a severe disease of rice plants. Upon pathogen infection, rice biosynthesizes phytoalexins, including diterpenoids such as momilactones, phytocassanes, and oryzalexins. However, information on headspace volatiles in response to Xoo infection is limited. We have examined headspace volatile terpenes, induced by the infection of Xoo, and investigated their biological roles in the rice plant. Monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-terpene, and (S)-limonene and sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, α-copaene, and β-elemene were detected from 1-week-old Xoo-infected rice seedlings, by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All monoterpenes were constitutively released from rice seedlings before Xoo infection. However, (S)-limonene emission was further elicited after exposure of the seedlings to Xoo in coincidence with upregulation of limonene synthase gene (OsTPS20) transcripts. Only the stereospecific (S)-limonene [and not (R)-limonene or other monoterpenes] severely inhibited Xoo growth, as confirmed by disc diffusion and liquid culture assays. Rice seedlings showed suppressed pathogenic symptoms suggestive of resistance to Xoo infection after foliar treatment with (S)-limonene. Collectively, our findings suggest that (S)-limonene is a volatile phytoanticipin, which plays a significant role in suppressing Xoo growth in rice seedlings.

  10. DgcA, a diguanylate cyclase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae regulates bacterial pathogenicity on rice.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmei; Zou, Xia; Huang, Liangbo; Bai, Tenglong; Liu, Shu; Yuan, Meng; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Ya-Wen; Wang, Haihong; He, Jin

    2016-05-19

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ΔdgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases.

  11. Root-associated bacterial diversities of Oryza rufipogon and Oryza sativa and their influencing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Zhou, Xue; Ma, Lina; Xu, Shangqi; Nasir, Fahad; Tian, Chunjie

    2016-12-18

    Oryza rufipogon is the ancestor of human-cultivated Oryza sativa. However, little is known about the difference between the root-associated microorganisms of O. rufipogon and O. sativa. In this study, the root-associated bacteria of O. rufipogon, Leersia hexandra, and O. sativa from different latitudes in China were studied by DGGE analysis. Their bacterial community structures were compared by principal component analysis. The relationship between root-associated bacteria and soil properties was explored by canonical correspondence analysis. The relationships of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content, soluble sugar content, proline content of the plant, and bacterial diversity indices of their root-associated microorganisms were also investigated. We found both broad-spectrum and host-specific bacteria, and the similarity, diversity and abundance indices of O. rufipogon and L. hexandra were higher than O. sativa root-associated bacteria. However, even living in the same habitat, O. rufipogon and L. hexandra selected different root-associated bacteria. Microbial composition was primarily correlated with available N, P, and K and the annual precipitation. We also found a positive correlation between the soluble sugar content of the plant and GRSP content of the root soil. The above results indicated that the community structure of root-associated bacteria differs between wild rice and cultivated rice. Human activity and the natural selection of the host plants shaped the differences, consistent with our hypothesis.

  12. DgcA, a diguanylate cyclase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae regulates bacterial pathogenicity on rice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianmei; Zou, Xia; Huang, Liangbo; Bai, Tenglong; Liu, Shu; Yuan, Meng; Chou, Shan-Ho; He, Ya-Wen; Wang, Haihong; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ΔdgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases. PMID:27193392

  13. Population genomic insights into variation and evolution of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Samriti; Bansal, Kanika; Kumar, Sanjeet; Girija, Anil Madhusoodana; Mishra, Deo; Brahma, Kranthi; Laha, Gouri Sankar; Sundaram, Raman Meenakshi; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Patil, Prabhu B.

    2017-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo) is a serious pathogen of rice causing bacterial leaf blight disease. Resistant varieties and breeding programs are being hampered by the emergence of highly virulent strains. Herein we report population based whole genome sequencing and analysis of 100 Xoo strains from India. Phylogenomic analysis revealed the clustering of Xoo strains from India along with other Asian strains, distinct from African and US Xo strains. The Indian Xoo population consists of a major clonal lineage and four minor but highly diverse lineages. Interestingly, the variant alleles, gene clusters and highly pathogenic strains are primarily restricted to minor lineages L-II to L-V and in particularly to lineage L-III. We could also find the association of an expanded CRISPR cassette and a highly variant LPS gene cluster with the dominant lineage. Molecular dating revealed that the major lineage, L-I is youngest and of recent origin compared to remaining minor lineages that seems to have originated much earlier in the past. Further, we were also able to identify core effector genes that may be helpful in efforts towards building durable resistance against this pathogen. PMID:28084432

  14. Electrocatalytic Efficiency Analysis of Catechol Molecules for NADH Oxidation during Nanoparticle Collision.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Jun; Qian, Ruo-Can; Ma, Wei; Tian, He; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-06

    Electrocatalysis of molecules is a hot research topic in biological and energy-related chemistry. Here, we develop a new system to study the electrocatalytic efficiency of a single catechol molecule for NADH oxidation by single functionalized nanoparticle collision at ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs). The proposed system is composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with catechol molecules and a carbon-fiber ultramicroelectrode. In the absence of NADH, when a functionalized AuNP collides with an UME at a suitable voltage, a small current spike is generated due to the oxidation of catechol molecules modified on the surface of AuNP. In the presence of NADH, the current spike is significantly amplified by the combined effects of the oxidation and electrocatalysis for NADH of catechol molecules. By analyzing the variations of the average peak charges and durations without or with NADH, we calculate that around five thousands NADH molecules could be catalyzed per second by a single catechol molecule, suggesting the successful establishment of this novel catalytic system. Thus, the proposed strategy could be used as a promising platform for research of other molecular electrocatalytic systems.

  15. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, J; Daneshi, M; Nami-Ana, F; Behbahani, M; Bagheri, A

    2016-11-15

    A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0μM-1.0mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2μM and from 30.0μM-1.0mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  16. Relation Between the Adsorbed Quantity and the Immersion Enthalpy in Catechol Aqueous Solutions on Activated Carbons

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An activated carbon, CarbochemTM—PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H2, in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pKa. The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG), the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g−1 for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L−1. PMID:22312237

  17. Surface Complexation at the TiO(2) (anatase)/Aqueous Solution Interface: Chemisorption of Catechol.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez; Blesa; Regazzoni

    1996-01-15

    Catechol adsorbs at the TiO(2) (anatase)/aqueous solution interface forming inner-sphere surface complexes. The UV-visible differential reflectance spectrum of surface titanium-catecholate complexes presents a band centered at 420 nm which corresponds to the ligand to metal charge transfer transition within the surface complexes. At pH values below pK(a1), the surface excess of catechol is almost insensitive toward pH and presents a Langmuirian dependence with the concentration of uncomplexed catechol. The ratio Gamma(max):N(S) (N(S) being the measured density of available OH surface groups) indicates a prevailing 1 to 2 ligand exchange adsorption stoichiometry. In the range pH >/= pK(a1), the catechol surface excess decreases markedly with increasing pH. Formation of 1 to 1 surface complexes produces an excess of negative surface charge that is revealed by the shift of the iep to lower pH values. The reported data, which are supplemented with information on the charging behavior of TiO(2) suspended in indifferent electrolyte solutions, are interpreted in terms of the multi-site surface complexation model. In this model, two types of surface OH groups are considered: identical withTiOH(1/3-) and identical withOH(1/3+). Although both surface groups undergo protonation-deprotonation reactions, only identical withTiOH(1/3-) are prone to chemisorption.

  18. Catechol and humic acid sorption onto a range of laboratory-produced black carbons (biochars).

    PubMed

    Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Gao, Bin

    2010-08-15

    Although the major influence of black carbon (BC) on soil and sediment organic contaminant sorption is widely accepted, an understanding of the mechanisms and natural variation in pyrogenic carbon interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) is lacking. The sorption of a phenolic NOM monomer (catechol) and humic acids (HA) onto BC was examined using biochars made from oak, pine, and grass at 250, 400, and 650 degrees C. Catechol sorption equilibrium occurred after 14 d and was described by a diffusion kinetic model, while HA required only 1 d and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Catechol sorption capacity increased with increasing biochar combustion temperature, from pine < oak < grass and from coarse < fine particle size. At lower catechol concentrations, sorption affinity (Freundlich constant, K(f)) was directly related to micropore surface area (measured via CO(2) sorptometry) indicating the predominance of specific adsorption. In contrast, HA exhibited an order of magnitude less sorption (0.1% versus 1%, by weight) due to its exclusion from micropores. Greater sorption of both catechol and HA occurred on biochars with nanopores, i.e. biochars made at higher temperatures. These findings suggest that addition of BC to soil, via natural fires or biochar amendments, will sequester abundant native OM through sorption.

  19. Relation between the adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy in catechol aqueous solutions on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Blanco, Diego; Giraldo, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An activated carbon, Carbochem(TM)-PS230, was modified by chemical and thermal treatment in flow of H(2), in order to evaluate the influence of the activated carbon chemical characteristics in the adsorption of the catechol. The catechol adsorption in aqueous solution was studied along with the effect of the pH solution in the adsorption process of modified activated carbons and the variation of immersion enthalpy of activated carbons in the aqueous solutions of catechol. The interaction solid-solution is characterized by adsorption isotherms analysis, at 298 K and pH 7, 9 and 11 in order to evaluate the adsorption value above and below that of the catechol pK(a). The adsorption capacity of carbons increases when the solution pH decreases. The retained amount increases slightly in the reduced carbon to maximum adsorption pH and diminishes in the oxidized carbon. Similar conclusions are obtained from the immersion enthalpies, whose values increase with the solute quantity retained. In granular activated carbon (CAG), the immersion enthalpies obtained are between 21.5 and 45.7 J·g(-1) for catechol aqueous solutions in a range of 20 at 1500 mg·L(-1).

  20. Bioinspired catechol-terminated self-assembled monolayers with enhanced adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Guardingo, Mireia; Bellido, Elena; Miralles-Llumà, Rosa; Faraudo, Jordi; Sedó, Josep; Tatay, Sergio; Verdaguer, Albert; Busqué, Felix; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2014-04-24

    The role of the catechol moiety in the adhesive properties of mussel proteins and related synthetic materials has been extensively studied in the last years but still remains elusive. Here, a simplified model approach is presented based on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of upward-facing catechols thiol-bound to epitaxial gold substrates. The orientation of the catechol moieties is confirmed by spectroscopy, which also showed lack of significant amounts of interfering o-quinones. Local force-distance curves on the SAM measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows an average adhesion force of 45 nN, stronger than that of a reference polydopamine coating, along with higher reproducibility and less statistical dispersion. This is attributed to the superior chemical and topographical homogeneity of the SAM coating. Catechol-terminated SAMs are also obtained on high-roughness gold substrates that show the ability to assemble magnetic nanoparticles, despite their lack of enhanced adhesion at the molecular level. Finally, the influence of the catechol group on the formation and quality of the SAM is explored both theoretically (molecular dynamics simulations) and experimentally using direct-write AFM lithography.

  1. ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM BASIDIOCARPS OF Lactarius pergamenus Fr. (Fr.) FUNGI.

    PubMed

    Tsivinska, M V; Antonyuk, V O; Stoika, R S

    2015-01-01

    Fresh juice of basidiocarps of Lactarius pergamenus Fr. (Fr.) fungi was subjected to ion exchange chromatography with used DEAE-toyopearl and CM-cellulose columns, as well as preparative electrophoresis in 7.5% polyacrylamide gels (pH 8.6). Three isoforms of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were discovered and two isoforms (1-l and 1-2) were purified with a release of protein 0.42 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg of basidiocarps, respectively. These isoforms differ in the mobility at disc-electrophoresis in 7.5% PAGE in alkaline buffer system (pH 8.6). Specfic activity of isoform 1-2 is 4.8 times higher than that of the isoforms 1-1. The molecular weight determination by gel chromatography on the Toyopearl HW-55 demonstrated that both isoforms 1-1 and 1-2 have the same 64 ± 2 kDa molecular mass. Electrophoresis in 15% PAGE in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate and β-mercaptoethanol revealed one band with molecular mass of 64 ± 1 kDa which suggests the presence of one polypeptide chain in the molecule ofthe enzyme. The enzyme has demonstrated the highest activity at pH 6.0 and temperature +10 °C, and at +70 °C the enzyme was inactivated. The PPO activity was the highest in young mushrooms and it decreased with their age and positively correlated with the content ofthe milky juice. Ortho-aminophenol was most effective among all the tested substrates to determine the activity of PPO (o-, m- and p-aminophenol, catechol, tyrosine, resorcinol, phloroglucinol) and its relative activity was 129% of the activity of catechol. Ascorbic acid was the most effective inhibitor of the polyphenol oxidase activity which was completely blocked at 1 mM concentration, whereas the same concentration of thiourea and sodium sulphite decreased the enzymatic activity by 40-45%. The PPO in L. pergamenus fungi basidiocarps was mainly localized in the mushroom milky juice where its high activity may be associated with protection of basidiocarps against various pathogens.

  2. Prokaryotic origins for the mitochondrial alternative oxidase and plastid terminal oxidase nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Patrick M; Umbach, Ann L; Wilce, Jackie A

    2003-12-18

    The mitochondrial alternative oxidase is a diiron carboxylate quinol oxidase (Dox) found in plants and some fungi and protists, but not animals. The plastid terminal oxidase is distantly related to alternative oxidase and is most likely also a Dox protein. Database searches revealed that the alpha-proteobacterium Novosphingobium aromaticivorans and the cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. PCC7120, Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris CCMP1378 each possess a Dox homolog. Each prokaryotic protein conforms to the current structural models of the Dox active site and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the eukaryotic Dox genes arose from an ancestral prokaryotic gene.

  3. Activation of polyphenol oxidase of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N E

    1973-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or -18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density.Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes.Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30

  4. A natural small molecule, catechol, induces c-Myc degradation by directly targeting ERK2 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Young; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jinglong; Jiang, Yanan; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Bae, Ki Beom; Choi, Bu Young; Deng, Yibin; Bode, Ann; Dong, Zigang

    2016-06-07

    Various carcinogens induce EGFR/RAS/MAPK signaling, which is critical in the development of lung cancer. In particular, constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is observed in many lung cancer patients, and therefore developing compounds capable of targeting ERK2 in lung carcinogenesis could be beneficial. We examined the therapeutic effect of catechol in lung cancer treatment. Catechol suppressed anchorage-independent growth of murine KP2 and human H460 lung cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Catechol inhibited ERK2 kinase activity in vitro, and its direct binding to the ERK2 active site was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Phosphorylation of c-Myc, a substrate of ERK2, was decreased in catechol-treated lung cancer cells and resulted in reduced protein stability and subsequent down-regulation of total c-Myc. Treatment with catechol induced G1 phase arrest in lung cancer cells and decreased protein expression related to G1-S progression. In addition, we showed that catechol inhibited the growth of both allograft and xenograft lung cancer tumors in vivo. In summary, catechol exerted inhibitory effects on the ERK2/c-Myc signaling axis to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, including a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. These findings suggest that catechol, a natural small molecule, possesses potential as a novel therapeutic agent against lung carcinogenesis in future clinical approaches.

  5. A natural small molecule, catechol, induces c-Myc degradation by directly targeting ERK2 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Do Young; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Malakhova, Margarita; Kurinov, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jinglong; Jiang, Yanan; Dong, Ziming; Liu, Kangdong; Lee, Kun Yeong; Bae, Ki Beom; Choi, Bu Young; Deng, Yibin; Bode, Ann; Dong, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Various carcinogens induce EGFR/RAS/MAPK signaling, which is critical in the development of lung cancer. In particular, constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) is observed in many lung cancer patients, and therefore developing compounds capable of targeting ERK2 in lung carcinogenesis could be beneficial. We examined the therapeutic effect of catechol in lung cancer treatment. Catechol suppressed anchorage-independent growth of murine KP2 and human H460 lung cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Catechol inhibited ERK2 kinase activity in vitro, and its direct binding to the ERK2 active site was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Phosphorylation of c-Myc, a substrate of ERK2, was decreased in catechol-treated lung cancer cells and resulted in reduced protein stability and subsequent down-regulation of total c-Myc. Treatment with catechol induced G1 phase arrest in lung cancer cells and decreased protein expression related to G1-S progression. In addition, we showed that catechol inhibited the growth of both allograft and xenograft lung cancer tumors in vivo. In summary, catechol exerted inhibitory effects on the ERK2/c-Myc signaling axis to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, including a preclinical patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. These findings suggest that catechol, a natural small molecule, possesses potential as a novel therapeutic agent against lung carcinogenesis in future clinical approaches. PMID:27167001

  6. Catechol-modified activated carbon prepared by the diazonium chemistry for application as active electrode material in electrochemical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Pognon, Grégory; Cougnon, Charles; Mayilukila, Dilungane; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbon (Black Pearls 2000) modified with electroactive catechol groups was evaluated for charge storage application as active composite electrode material in an aqueous electrochemical capacitor. High surface area Black Pearls 2000 carbon was functionalized by introduction of catechol groups by spontaneous reduction of catechol diazonium ions in situ prepared in aqueous solution from the corresponding amine. Change in the specific surface area and pore texture of the carbon following grafting was monitored by nitrogen gas adsorption measurements. The electrochemical properties and the chemical composition of the catechol-modified carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Such carbon-modified electrode combines well the faradaic capacitance, originating from the redox activity of the surface immobilized catechol groups, to the electrochemical double layer capacitance of the high surface area Black Pearls carbon. Due to the faradaic contribution, the catechol-modified electrode exhibits a higher specific capacitance (250 F/g) than pristine carbon (150 F/g) over a potential range of -0.4 to 0.75 V in 1 M H(2)SO(4). The stability of the modified electrode evaluated by long-time charge/discharge cycling revealed a low decrease of the capacitance of the catechol-modified carbon due to the loss of the catechol redox activity. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that the benefit of redox groups persists for 10, 000 constant current charge/discharge cycles.

  7. Azide inhibition of urate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Gabison, Laure; Colloc'h, Nathalie; Prangé, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    The inhibition of urate oxidase (UOX) by azide was investigated by X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with cyanide inhibition. Two well characterized sites for reagents are present in the enzyme: the dioxygen site and the substrate-binding site. To examine the selectivity of these sites towards azide inhibition, several crystallization conditions were developed. UOX was co-crystallized with azide (N3) in the presence or absence of either uric acid (UA, the natural substrate) or 8-azaxanthine (8AZA, a competitive inhibitor). In a second set of experiments, previously grown orthorhombic crystals of the UOX-UA or UOX-8AZA complexes were soaked in sodium azide solutions. In a third set of experiments, orthorhombic crystals of UOX with the exchangeable ligand 8-nitroxanthine (8NXN) were soaked in a solution containing uric acid and azide simultaneously (competitive soaking). In all assays, the soaking periods were either short (a few hours) or long (one or two months). These different experimental conditions showed that one or other of the sites, or the two sites together, could be inhibited. This also demonstrated that azide not only competes with dioxygen as cyanide does but also competes with the substrate for its enzymatic site. A model in agreement with experimental data would be an azide in equilibrium between two sites, kinetically in favour of the dioxygen site and thermodynamically in favour of the substrate-binding site.

  8. Azide inhibition of urate oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Gabison, Laure; Colloc’h, Nathalie; Prangé, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of urate oxidase (UOX) by azide was investigated by X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with cyanide inhibition. Two well characterized sites for reagents are present in the enzyme: the dioxygen site and the substrate-binding site. To examine the selectivity of these sites towards azide inhibition, several crystallization conditions were developed. UOX was co-crystallized with azide (N3) in the presence or absence of either uric acid (UA, the natural substrate) or 8-azaxanthine (8AZA, a competitive inhibitor). In a second set of experiments, previously grown orthorhombic crystals of the UOX–UA or UOX–8AZA complexes were soaked in sodium azide solutions. In a third set of experiments, orthorhombic crystals of UOX with the exchangeable ligand 8-nitroxanthine (8NXN) were soaked in a solution containing uric acid and azide simultaneously (competitive soaking). In all assays, the soaking periods were either short (a few hours) or long (one or two months). These different experimental conditions showed that one or other of the sites, or the two sites together, could be inhibited. This also demonstrated that azide not only competes with dioxygen as cyanide does but also competes with the substrate for its enzymatic site. A model in agreement with experimental data would be an azide in equilibrium between two sites, kinetically in favour of the dioxygen site and thermodynamically in favour of the substrate-binding site. PMID:25005084

  9. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-25

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  10. Direction-dependent intermolecular interactions: catechol on TiO2(110)-1×1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-Chun; Diebold, Ulrike

    2009-08-01

    The adsorption of a submonolayer of catechol (C6H6O2) on the rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surface has been investigated by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The catechol molecules are preferentially adsorbed on the surface 5-fold coordinated Ti4+ sites, and occupy two neighboring lattice Ti sites. No preference for adsorption at surface step edges is observed at room temperature. A statistical analysis of intermolecular distances demonstrates that the interaction between the molecules strongly depends on the surface crystallographic direction: catechol molecules exhibit attractive interaction along [1-1 0], while they repel each other along the [001] direction. The attractive interaction is proposed to be caused by the coupling of π bonding electrons and the repulsive interaction is possibly mediated by substrate.

  11. Copper-Aβ Peptides and Oxidation of Catecholic Substrates: Reactivity and Endogenous Peptide Damage.

    PubMed

    Pirota, Valentina; Dell'Acqua, Simone; Monzani, Enrico; Nicolis, Stefania; Casella, Luigi

    2016-11-14

    The oxidative reactivity of copper complexes with Aβ peptides 1-16 and 1-28 (Aβ16 and Aβ28) against dopamine and related catechols under physiological conditions has been investigated in parallel with the competitive oxidative modification undergone by the peptides. It was found that both Aβ16 and Aβ28 markedly increase the oxidative reactivity of copper(II) towards the catechol compounds, up to a molar ratio of about 4:1 of peptide/copper(II). Copper redox cycling during the catalytic activity induces the competitive modification of the peptide at selected amino acid residues. The main modifications consist of oxidation of His13/14 to 2-oxohistidine and Phe19/20 to ortho-tyrosine, and the formation of a covalent His6-catechol adduct. Competition by the endogenous peptide is rather efficient, as approximately one peptide molecule is oxidized every 10 molecules of 4-methylcatechol.

  12. Multimodal underwater adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Uchiyama, Shun; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N-dodecylacrylamide (DDA) and dopamine methacrylamide (DMA). The p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets were immersed into water dispersions of SiO2, Al2O3, and WO3 nanoparticles (NPs) respectively. The results show that the adsorption properties can be altered by varying the NP type: SiO2 NP adsorption was observed only below pH = 6, at which the o-quinone form in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets transforms into the catechol form or vice versa. However, their transition point for Al2O3 NP adsorption was found at approximately pH 10, at which the surface potential of Al2O3 NPs changes the charge polarity, indicating that the electrostatic interaction is predominant. For WO3 NPs, adsorption was observed when citric acid, which modifies the surface of WO3 NPs by complex formation, was used as a pH-controlling agent, but no adsorption was found for hydrochloric acid used as a pH controlling agent. FT-IR measurements proved that miniscule amounts of water molecules were trapped in p(DDA/DMA) nanosheets and that they acquired hydrogen bonding network formations, which might assist nanoparticle adsorption underwater and make the catechol units adjustable. The results indicate that the nanoscale spatial arrangements of catechol units in films are crucially important for the application of multimodal adsorption of oxide nanoparticles on catechol-based polymer materials.Multimodal underwater adsorption behaviour of catechol units was demonstrated by examining the adsorption of different oxide nanoparticles on nanoscale-integrated polymer nanosheets. Catechol-based polymer nanosheets were fabricated using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique with random copolymers (p(DDA/DMA)s) of N

  13. Remarkably enhanced adhesion of coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on ultraclean ultraflat gold nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Miyeon; Park, Changjun; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Hongki; Kim, Sang Youl; In, Insik; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-11-01

    We report the characterization and formation of catechol-terminated molecules immobilized on gold nanoplates (Au NPLs) using N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-2-mercaptoacetamide (Cat-EAA-SH). Single-crystalline Au NPLs, synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor transport method, have ultraclean and ultraflat surfaces that make Cat-EAA-SH molecules aligned into a well-ordered network of a large-scale. Topographic study of the catechol-terminated molecules on Au NPLs using atomic force microscopy showed more orderly orientation and higher density, leading to significantly higher adhesion as observed from local force-distance curves than those on other Au surfaces. These coherently aligned catechol-terminated molecules on the atomically smooth gold surface led to significanty more reproducible and thus more physico-chemically meaningful measurements than was possible before by employing rough gold surfaces.

  14. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-24

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  15. Effect of β-cyclodextrin on intra and intermolecular Michael addition of some catechol derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafi, Lida; Rafiee, Mohammad; Fathi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation reactions of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine have been studied in the absence and presence of N-methylaniline by UV-Vis. Spectrophotometry. A variety of reaction pathways (inter and intramolecular reactions) that followed by this oxidation have been observed depending on the nature of catechol derivatives. The observed homogeneous rate constants of the reactions were estimated by fitting the absorption time profiles for each reaction. The effect of β-cyclodextrin and its inclusion complex has also been studied on the chosen reactions. The formation constants of the complexes of catechol, dopamine and epinephrine with β-cyclodextrin as well as the rate constants of the reactions of free and complexed forms have been obtained by fitting the absorption-time spectra to a proposed kinetic-equilibrium model.

  16. Structure and kinetics of formation of catechol complexes of ferric soybean lipoxygenase-1

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Brennan, B.A.; Chase, D.B. |

    1995-11-21

    Ferric soybean lipoxygenase forms stable complexes with 4-substituted catechols. The structure of the complex between the enzyme and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile has been studied by resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, visible, and X-ray spectroscopies. It is a bidentate iron-catecholate complex with at least one water ligand. The kinetics of formation of complexes between lipoxygenase and 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile and 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone have been studied by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The data are consistent with two kinetically distinct, reversible steps. The pH dependence of the first step suggests that the substrate for the reaction is the catechol monoanion. When these results are combined, plausible mechanisms for the complexation reaction are suggested. 51 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The biosynthesis, structure and gelatinization properties of starches from wild and cultivated African rice species (Oryza barthii and Oryza glaberrima).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wambugu, Peterson W; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Alex Chi; Henry, Robert J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-09-20

    The molecular structure and gelatinization properties of starches from domesticated African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its wild progenitor (Oryza barthii) are determined and comparison made with Asian domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), the commonest commercial rice. This suggests possible enzymatic processes contributing to the unique traits of the African varieties. These have similar starch structures, including smaller amylose molecules, but larger amounts of amylose chains across the whole amylose chain-length distribution, and higher amylose contents, than O. sativa. They also show a higher proportion of two- and three-lamellae spanning amylopectin branch chains (degree of polymerization 34-100) than O. sativa, which contributes to their higher gelatinization temperatures. Fitting amylopectin chain-length distribution with a biosynthesis-based mathematical model suggests that the reason for this difference might be because O. glaberrima and O. barthii have more active SSIIIa and/or less active SBEIIb enzymes.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE ANAEROBIC ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX OF CATECHOL 1,2-DIOXYGENASE

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Jirasek, Andrew; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H.; Barbosa, Christopher J.; Jarzecki, Andrzej A.; Xu, Changliang; Mekmouche, Yasmina; Spiro, Thomas G.; Lipscomb, John D.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F.B.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2008-01-01

    The basis of the respective regiospecificities of intradiol and extradiol dioxygenase is poorly understood and may be linked to the protonation state of the bidentate-bound catechol in the enzyme:substrate complex. Previous ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and UV-visible (UV-vis) difference spectroscopic studies demonstrated that in extradiol dioxygenases, the catechol is bound to the Fe(II) as a monoanion. In this study, we use the same approaches to demonstrate that in catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), an intradiol enzyme, the catechol binds to the Fe(III) as a dianion. Specifically, features at 290 nm and 1550 cm−1 in the UV-vis and UVRR difference spectra, respectively, are assigned to dianionic catechol based on spectra of the model compound, ferric tris(catecholate). The UVRR spectroscopic band assignments are corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In addition, negative features at 240 nm in UV-vis difference spectra and at 1600, 1210, and 1175 cm−1 in UVRR difference spectra match those of a tyrosinate model compound, consistent with protonation of the axial tyrosinate ligand when it is displaced from the ferric ion coordination sphere upon substrate binding. The DFT calculations ascribe the asymmetry of the bound dianionic substrate to the trans donor effect of an equatorially ligated tyrosinate ligand. In addition, the computations suggest that trans donation from the tyrosinate ligand may facilitate charge-transfer from the substrate to yield the iron-bound semiquinone transition state, which is capable of reacting with dioxygen. In illustrating the importance of ligand trans effects in a biological system, the current study demonstrates the power of combining difference UVRR and optical spectroscopies to probe metal ligation in solution. PMID:16316234

  19. Catechol chemistry inspired approach to construct self-cross-linked polymer nanolayers as versatile biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyue; Deng, Jie; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Nie, Chuanxiong; He, Chao; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-16

    In this study, we proposed a catechol chemistry inspired approach to construct surface self-cross-linked polymer nanolayers for the design of versatile biointerfaces. Several representative biofunctional polymers, P(SS-co-AA), P(SBMA-co-AA), P(EGMA-co-AA), P(VP-co-AA), and P(MTAC-co-AA), were first synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and then the catecholic molecules (dopamine, DA) were conjugated to the acrylic acid (AA) units by the facile carbodiimide chemistry. Then, the catechol (Cat) group conjugated biofunctional polymers, named PSS-Cat, PSBMA-Cat, PEGMA-Cat, PVP-Cat, and PMTAC-Cat, were applied for the construction of self-cross-linked nanolayers on polymeric substrates via the pH induced catechol cross-linking and immobilization. The XPS spectra, surface morphology, and wettability gave robust evidence that the catechol conjugated polymers were successfully coated, and the coated substrates possessed increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity. Furthermore, the systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), cell viability, and antibacterial ability confirmed that the coated nanolayers conferred the substrates with versatile biological performances. The PSS-Cat coated substrate had low blood component activation and excellent anticoagulant activity; while the PEGMA-Cat and PSBMA-Cat showed ideal resistance to protein fouling and inhibition of platelet activation. The PSS-Cat and PVP-Cat coated substrates exhibited promoted endothelial cell proliferation and viability. The PMTAC-Cat coated substrate showed an outstanding activity on bacterial inhibition. In conclusion, the catechol chemistry inspired approach allows the self-cross-linked nanolayers to be easily immobilized on polymeric substrates with the stable conformation and multiple biofunctionalities. It is expected that this low-cost and facile

  20. The effect of catechol on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study).

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Catechol also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene is formed endogenously in the organism from neurotransmitters including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. It is also a metabolite of many drugs like DOPA, isoproterenol or aspirin and it is also formed in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics. We evaluated in vitro the effect of catechol on the structure and function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cells were incubated with xenobiotic at concentration range from 2 to 500μg/mL for 1h. Human blood mononuclear cells were obtained from leucocyte-platelet buffy coat taken from healthy donors in the Blood Bank of Łódź, Poland. Using flow cytometry we have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic and morphological changes in PBMCs incubated with catechol. Moreover, we have estimated changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in the cells studied. The compound studied provoked necrotic (from 250μg/mL), apoptotic (from 100μg/mL), and morphological changes (from 250μg/mL) in the incubated cells. We have also noted that catechol decreased H2DCF oxidation at 2 and 10μg/mL but at higher concentrations of 250 and 500μg/mL it caused statistically significant increase in the oxidation of this probe. We also observed an increase in lipid peroxidation (from 250μg/mL) and protein carbonylation (from 50μg/mL) of PBMCs. It was observed that catechol only at high concentrations was capable of inducing changes in PBMCs. The obtained results clearly showed that catechol may induce change in PBMCs only in the caste of poisoning with this compound.

  1. Effect of β-carotene on catechol-induced genotoxicity in vitro: evidence of both enhanced and reduced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Åsgård, R; Hellman, B

    2013-09-01

    Intake of antioxidants from the diet has been recognized to have beneficial health effects, but the potential benefit of taking antioxidants such as β-carotene as supplements is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of a physiologically relevant concentration (2 μM) of β-carotene on the DNA damaging effects of catechol in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells. Two different exposure protocols were used: simultaneous exposure to β-carotene and catechol for 3 h; and exposure to catechol for 3 h after 18 h pre-treatment with the vitamin. DNA damage was evaluated using the comet assay (employing one procedure for general damage, and another procedure, which also included oxidative DNA damage). Independent of exposure protocol and procedure for comet assay, β-carotene did not increase the basal level of DNA damage. However, at the highest concentration of catechol (1 mM), β-carotene was found to clearly increase the level of catechol-induced DNA damage, especially in the pre-treated cells. Interestingly, an opposite effect was observed at lower concentrations of catechol, but the β-carotene related reduction of catechol-induced genotoxicity was significant (P < 0.05) only for the procedure including oxidative damage induced by 0.5 mM catechol. Taken together our results indicate that β- carotene can both reduce and enhance the DNA damaging effects of a genotoxic agent such as catechol. This indicates that it is the level of catechol-induced DNA damage that seems to determine whether β-carotene should be regarded as a beneficial or detrimental agent when it comes to its use as a dietary supplement.

  2. A Hyperactive Cobalt-Substituted Extradiol-Cleaving Catechol Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Andrew J.; Farquhar, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Homoprotocatechuate (HPCA) 2,3-dioxygenase from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) has an Fe(II) center in its active site that can be replaced with Mn(II) or Co(II). While Mn-HPCD exhibits steady state kinetic parameters comparable to those of Fe-HPCD, Co-HPCD behaves somewhat differently exhibiting a significantly higher KMO2 and kcat. The high activity of Co-HPCD is surprising, given that cobalt has the highest standard M(III/II) redox potential of the three metals. Comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of the resting and substrate-bound forms of Fe-, Mn-, and Co-HPCD shows that metal-substitution has no effect on the local ligand environment, the conformational integrity of the active site, or the overall protein structure, suggesting that the protein structure does not differentially tune the potential of the metal center. Analysis of the steady state kinetics of Co-HPCD suggests that the Co(II) center alters the relative rate constants for the interconversion of intermediates in the catalytic cycle but still allows the dioxygenase reaction to proceed efficiently. When compared with the kinetic data for Fe- and Mn-HPCD, these results show that dioxygenase catalysis can proceed at high rates over a wide range of metal redox potentials. This is consistent with the proposed mechanism in which the metal mediates electron transfer between the catechol substrate and O2 to form the postulated [M(II)(semiquinone)superoxo] reactive species. These kinetic differences and the spectroscopic properties of Co-HPCD provide new tools with which to explore the unique O2 activation mechanism associated with the extradiol dioxygenase family. PMID:21153851

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase association with hemoglobin A1c

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ling; Harden, Maegan; Tolkin, Benjamin R.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Bray, George A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Florez, Jose C.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catecholamines have metabolic effects on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose. Genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here we examined COMT effects on glycemic function and type 2 diabetes. Methods We tested whether COMT polymorphisms were associated with baseline HbA1c in the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS), and Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC), and with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in WGHS, DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (DIAGRAM), and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Given evidence that COMT modifies some drug responses, we examined association with type 2 diabetes and randomized metformin and aspirin treatment. Results COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c in WGHS (β = −0.032% [0.012], p = 0.008) and borderline significant in MAGIC (β = −0.006% [0.003], p = 0.07). Combined COMT per val allele effects on type 2 diabetes were significant (OR = 0.98 [0.96–0.998], p = 0.03) in fixed-effects analyses across WGHS, DIAGRAM, and DPP. Similar results were obtained for 2 other COMT SNPs rs4818 and rs4633. In the DPP, the rs4680 val allele was borderline associated with lower diabetes incidence among participants randomized to metformin (HR = 0.81 [0.65–1.00], p = 0.05). Conclusions COMT rs4680 high-activity G-allele was associated with lower HbA1c and modest protection from type 2 diabetes. The directionality of COMT associations was concordant with those previously observed for cardiometabolic risk factors and CVD. PMID:27282867

  4. Regioselectivity of catechol O-methyltransferase confers enhancement of catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Douglas; Liu, Shubin; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2011-04-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes catechol moieties by methylating a single hydroxyl group at the meta- or para- hydroxyl position. Hydrophobic amino acids near the active site of COMT influence the regioselectivity of this reaction. Our sequence analysis highlights their importance by showing that these residues are highly conserved throughout evolution. Reaction barriers calculated in the gas phase reveal a lower barrier during methylation at the meta- position, suggesting that the observed meta-regioselectivity of COMT can be attributed to the substrate itself, and that COMT has evolved residues to orient the substrate in a manner that increases the rate of catalysis.

  5. Synthesis, molecular structure and magnetic properties of a rhenium(IV) compound with catechol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, A.; Geis, L.; Pintos, V.; Chiozzone, R.; Sanchíz, J.; Hummert, M.; Schumann, H.; Kremer, C.

    2009-03-01

    A novel Re(IV) complex containing catechol as ligand has been prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of (HNEt 3)(NBu 4)[ReCl 4(cat)]·H 2cat was determined. The rhenium ion presents a distorted octahedral geometry, being bonded to a bidentate catecholate group and four chloride anions. The magnetic properties of the complex were studied, a /2 D/ (the energy gap between ±3/2 and ±1/2 Kramers doublets) value of 190(10) cm -1. This is the largest /2 D/ value reported for Re(IV) up to now.

  6. Stark spectroscopy of charge-transfer transitions in catechol-sensitized TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2009-06-01

    Electronic excited states of catechol bound to titanium dioxide nanoparticles were investigated using electroabsorption (Stark effect) spectroscopy. The electronic transition at about 400 nm, characteristic for catechol bound to TiO 2 is associated with a change in permanent dipole moment by f · |Δ μ| = 15.7 D (where f is the local field correction factor), and a small negative change in the polarizability. Electron transfer distance points to the strong charge-transfer character of this transition. The electroabsorption spectra show also another electronic transition 7000 cm -1 higher energy, partially masked by the TiO 2 absorption.

  7. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk-Woźniak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwińska, Karolina; Gierczyk, Błażej; Jakubczyk, Michał; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O → B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  8. Unexpected formation of a novel pyridinium-containing catecholate ligand and its manganese(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Tippu S; Watkinson, Michael; Motevalli, Majid; Lesin, Jocelyne F

    2010-01-07

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone by pyridine and reduction of the o-quinone to the catechol by hydroxylamine forms 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzene-4-pyridinium chloride. This compound reacts with manganese(II) acetate in air to form chlorobis(3,5,6-trichlorobenzene 4-pyridinium catecholate)manganese(III), which represents the first complex of this ligand class to be structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction; this complex is active in the catalytic reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide under ambient conditions and turnover frequencies (TOFs) >10,000 h(-1) can be obtained.

  9. Catechol versus bisphosphonate ligand exchange at the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles: towards multi-functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guénin, Erwann; Lalatonne, Yoann; Bolley, Julie; Milosevic, Irena; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Motte, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    We report an investigation of the ligand exchange at the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles in water. For this purpose we compared two strong chelating agents on the iron oxide surface containing catechol and bisphosphonate moieties. Interactions between the coating agents (catechol/bisphosphonate) and the nanoparticle's surface were studied by FTIR and DFT calculations. Ligand exchange experiments were performed using sonication and the exchange yield was characterized by FTIR and EDX. This methodology allowed introducing bisphosphonates with various functionalities (alkyne or biotin) permitting multi-functionalization.

  10. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of CbsA, a secretory exoglucanase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Haque, Asfarul S; Jha, Gopaljee; Sonti, Ramesh V; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. The secreted exoglucanase CbsA is an important virulence factor of this pathogen. It belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 6 family of proteins based on the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZY) classification. In this study, CbsA has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.86 Å and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). It contained one monomer per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 45.8%.

  12. Designer TAL effectors induce disease susceptibility and resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Huang, Sheng; Zhou, Junhui; Yang, Bing

    2013-05-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from Xanthomonas bacteria activate the cognate host genes, leading to disease susceptibility or resistance dependent on the genetic context of host target genes. The modular nature and DNA recognition code of TAL effectors enable custom-engineering of designer TAL effectors (dTALE) for gene activation. However, the feasibility of dTALEs as transcription activators for gene functional analysis has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the use of dTALEs, as expressed and delivered by the pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), in revealing the new function of two previously identified disease-related genes and the potential of one developmental gene for disease susceptibility in rice/Xoo interactions. The dTALE gene dTALE-xa27, designed to target the susceptible allele of the resistance gene Xa27, elicited a resistant reaction in the otherwise susceptible rice cultivar IR24. Four dTALE genes were made to induce the four annotated Xa27 homologous genes in rice cultivar Nipponbare, but none of the four induced Xa27-like genes conferred resistance to the dTALE-containing Xoo strains. A dTALE gene was also generated to activate the recessive resistance gene xa13, an allele of the disease-susceptibility gene Os8N3 (also named Xa13 or OsSWEET11, a member of sucrose efflux transporter SWEET gene family). The induction of xa13 by the dTALE rendered the resistant rice IRBB13 (xa13/xa13) susceptible to Xoo. Finally, OsSWEET12, an as-yet uncharacterized SWEET gene with no corresponding naturally occurring TAL effector identified, conferred susceptibility to the Xoo strains expressing the corresponding dTALE genes. Our results demonstrate that dTALEs can be delivered through the bacterial secretion system to activate genes of interest for functional analysis in plants.

  13. Pathotype and Genetic Diversity amongst Indian Isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deo; Vishnupriya, Manne Ramachander; Anil, Madhusoodana Girija; Konda, Kotilingam; Raj, Yog; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2013-01-01

    A number of rice resistance genes, called Xa genes, have been identified that confer resistance against various strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight. An understanding of pathotype diversity within the target pathogen population is required for identifying the Xa genes that are to be deployed for development of resistant rice cultivars. Among 1024 isolates of Xoo collected from 20 different states of India, 11 major pathotypes were distinguished based on their reaction towards ten Xa genes (Xa1, Xa3, Xa4, xa5, Xa7, xa8, Xa10, Xa11, xa13, Xa21). Isolates belonging to pathotype III showing incompatible interaction towards xa8, xa13 and Xa21 and compatible interaction towards the rest of Xa genes formed the most frequent (41%) and widely distributed pathotype. The vast majority of the assayed Xoo isolates were incompatible with one or more Xa genes. Exceptionally, the isolates of pathotype XI were virulent on all Xa genes, but have restricted distribution. Considering the individual R-genes, Xa21 appeared as the most broadly effective, conferring resistance against 88 % of the isolates, followed in decreasing order by xa13 (84 %), xa8 (64 %), xa5 (30 %), Xa7 (17 %) and Xa4 (14 %). Fifty isolates representing all the eleven pathotypes were analyzed by southern hybridization to determine their genetic relatedness using the IS1112 repeat element of Xoo. Isolates belonging to pathotype XI were the most divergent. The results suggest that one RFLP haplotype that is widely distributed all over India and is represented in strains from five different pathotypes might be an ancestral haplotype. A rice line with xa5, xa13 and Xa21 resistance genes is resistant to all strains, including those belonging to pathotype XI. This three gene combination appears to be the most suitable Xa gene combination to be deployed in Indian rice cultivars. PMID:24312391

  14. Pathotype and genetic diversity amongst Indian isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Deo; Vishnupriya, Manne Ramachander; Anil, Madhusoodana Girija; Konda, Kotilingam; Raj, Yog; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2013-01-01

    A number of rice resistance genes, called Xa genes, have been identified that confer resistance against various strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight. An understanding of pathotype diversity within the target pathogen population is required for identifying the Xa genes that are to be deployed for development of resistant rice cultivars. Among 1024 isolates of Xoo collected from 20 different states of India, 11 major pathotypes were distinguished based on their reaction towards ten Xa genes (Xa1, Xa3, Xa4, xa5, Xa7, xa8, Xa10, Xa11, xa13, Xa21). Isolates belonging to pathotype III showing incompatible interaction towards xa8, xa13 and Xa21 and compatible interaction towards the rest of Xa genes formed the most frequent (41%) and widely distributed pathotype. The vast majority of the assayed Xoo isolates were incompatible with one or more Xa genes. Exceptionally, the isolates of pathotype XI were virulent on all Xa genes, but have restricted distribution. Considering the individual R-genes, Xa21 appeared as the most broadly effective, conferring resistance against 88 % of the isolates, followed in decreasing order by xa13 (84 %), xa8 (64 %), xa5 (30 %), Xa7 (17 %) and Xa4 (14 %). Fifty isolates representing all the eleven pathotypes were analyzed by southern hybridization to determine their genetic relatedness using the IS1112 repeat element of Xoo. Isolates belonging to pathotype XI were the most divergent. The results suggest that one RFLP haplotype that is widely distributed all over India and is represented in strains from five different pathotypes might be an ancestral haplotype. A rice line with xa5, xa13 and Xa21 resistance genes is resistant to all strains, including those belonging to pathotype XI. This three gene combination appears to be the most suitable Xa gene combination to be deployed in Indian rice cultivars.

  15. [SERS spectra of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) on nano silver film prepared by electrolysis method].

    PubMed

    Kang, Yi-Pu; Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yu; Huang, Qiong; Liu, Ren-Ming

    2010-02-01

    The nano silver film was prepared by electrolysis method using silver nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in deionized water as the electrolyte, with four glass slides put in the electrolyte and two silver rods dipped into the electrolyte as the anode and cathode. A direct current was applied to the rods, then the four glass slides stayed in the silver colloids. Thus the authors got the nano silver film. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to detect the silver particles in the silver colloids and on the nano silver film. From the SEM we can see that the silver particles on the film formed different layers. In one layer, the distance between two particles was about 100 nm. The samples of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) were 7 different kinds of bacterial blight, namely 1-YN1, 2-YN7, 3-YN11, 4-GD414, 5-SCYC6, 6-HEN11 and 7-FWJ. Because the silver particles in the colloids were aggregated on the film, there was large electromagnetic potentiation. So the SERS spectra of Xoo were perfect. The authors used the area analytical method to distinguish the different kinds of Xoo. The silver film prepared by electrolysis was cheap and active, the preparation time of the samples was short, and any normal chemistry lab can make it, which can find excellent application to detecting the Xoo in agriculture. On the other hand, this film is active on biomolecules and bioorganism, which may be a new kind of SERS fundus to explain the creation of the SERS. Further study was under way.

  16. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase changes induced by desiccation of Ramonda serbica leaves.

    PubMed

    Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja; Kukavica, Biljana; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2008-04-01

    Resurrection plants are able to dehydrate/rehydrate rapidly without cell damage by a mechanism, the understanding of which may be of ecological importance in the adaptation of crop plants to dry conditions. The o-diphenol oxidase in Ramonda serbica Pan. & Petrov, a rare resurrection plant of the Balkan Peninsula, was characterized in respect to different isoforms, preferable substrates and specific inhibitors. Two anionic isoforms with pI 4.6 and 4.7 were separated from turgid leaves. Three additional anionic isoforms (pI 5.1, 5.3 and 5.6) and three neutral isoforms (pI from 6.8 to 7.4) were induced in desiccated leaves. Based on apparent K(m) values, the affinity for reducing substrates decreased as follows: methyl catechol > chlorogenic acid > 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine > caffeic acid > pyrogallol. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was specifically sensitive to diethyldithiocarbamate and also inhibited by KCN, DTT and salicylic hydroxamic acid but with no inhibitory effect of Na3N. Plants were subjected to drought-to-near complete water loss (approximately 2% relative water content, RWC) and several fold higher PPO activity was detected in desiccated leaves. Ramonda leaves contain high levels of phenolics, which decreased during drought. Rehydration of dry leaves from 2% RWC to 95% RWC led to transient inhibition of PPO in the first few hours. Within a day, the levels completely recovered to those determined in desiccated leaves. The finding of desiccation-induced high activity of PPO and new isoforms, which were also present in rehydrated turgid leaves, indicates a substantial role for PPO in the adaptation mechanism of resurrection plants to desiccation and also to the oxidative stress during rehydration.

  17. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  18. In-depth Analysis of the Magnaporthe oryzae Conidial Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Emine; Franck, William L.; Oh, Yeonyee; Dean, Ralph A.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is the causative agent of rice blast disease and presents a significant threat to worldwide rice production. To establish the groundwork for future research on the pathogenic development of M. oryzae, a global proteomic study of conidia was performed. The filter aided sample preparation method (FASP) and anion StageTip fractionation combined with long, optimized shallow 210 min nanoLC gradients prior to mass spectrometry analysis on an Orbitrap XL was applied, which resulted in a doubling of protein identifications in comparison to our previous GeLC analysis. Herein, we report the identification of 2912 conidial proteins at a 1% protein false discovery rate (FDR) and we present the most extensive study performed on M. oryzae conidia to date. A similar distribution between identified proteins and the predicted proteome was observed when subcellular localization analysis was performed, suggesting the detected proteins build a representative portion of the predicted proteome. A higher percentage of cytoplasmic proteins (associated with translation, energy and metabolism) were observed in the conidial proteome relative to the whole predicted proteome. Conversely, nuclear and extracellular proteins were less well represented in the conidial proteome. Further analysis by gene ontology revealed biological insights into identified proteins important for central metabolic processes and the physiology of conidia. PMID:23039028

  19. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. 173.130 Section 173.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.130 Carbohydrase derived from...

  20. 21 CFR 173.130 - Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbohydrase derived from Rhizopus oryzae. 173.130 Section 173.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations...

  1. CBS domain-containing proteins are Rhizopus oryzae ferrioxamine receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Iron-overload patients treated with deferoxamine are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis, because Rhizopus spp. can obtain iron from ferrioxamine (deferoxamine + Fe**3+). Previously we have identified two closely related, ferrioxamine-inducible R. oryzae genes (FOB1 and FOB2) in which ...

  2. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  3. EcpA, an extracellular protease, is a specific virulence factor required by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola but not by X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua-Song; Song, Xue; Zou, Li-Fang; Yuan, Liang; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Wei; Che, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Wen-Xiang; Duan, Yong-Ping; Chen, Gong-You

    2012-09-01

    Previously, 12 protease-deficient mutants of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) RS105 strain were recovered from a Tn5-tagged mutant library. In the current study, the Tn5 insertion site in each mutant was mapped. Mutations in genes encoding components of the type II secretion apparatus, cAMP regulatory protein, integral membrane protease subunit, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme and extracellular protease (ecpA(Xoc)) either partially or completely abolished extracellular protease activity (ECPA) and reduced virulence in rice. Transcription of ecpA(Xoc) was induced in planta in all the mutants except RΔecpA. Complementation of RΔecpA with ecpA(Xoc) in trans restored ECPA, virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Purified EcpA(Xoc) induced chlorosis- and necrosis-like symptoms similar to those induced by the pathogen when injected into rice leaves. Heterologous expression of ecpA(Xoc) conferred ECPA upon the vascular bacterium X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and upon non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal residues of EcpA in Xoo PXO99(A) and Xoc RS105 are different, and a frame shift in ecpA(Xoo) may explain the absence of EcpA activity in Xoo. Collectively, these results suggest that EcpA(Xoc) is a tissue-specific virulence factor for Xoc but not Xoo, although the two pathovars are closely related bacterial pathogens of rice.

  4. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maas, Ronald H W; Bakker, Robert R; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2006-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure L(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the conversion of xylose in synthetic media into lactic acid by ten R. oryzae strains resulting in yields between 0.41 and 0.71 g g(-1). By-products were fungal biomass, xylitol, glycerol, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The growth of R. oryzae CBS 112.07 in media with initial xylose concentrations above 40 g l(-1) showed inhibition of substrate consumption and lactic acid production rates. In case of mixed substrates, diauxic growth was observed where consumption of glucose and xylose occurred subsequently. Sugar consumption rate and lactic acid production rate were significantly higher during glucose consumption phase compared to xylose consumption phase. Available xylose (10.3 g l(-1)) and glucose (19.2 g l(-1)) present in a mild-temperature alkaline treated wheat straw hydrolysate was converted subsequently by R. oryzae with rates of 2.2 g glucose l(-1) h(-1) and 0.5 g xylose l(-1) h(-1). This resulted mainly into the product lactic acid (6.8 g l(-1)) and ethanol (5.7 g l(-1)).

  5. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  6. Correlation between Bonding Geometry and Band Gap States at Organic -- inorganic interfaces: Catechol on Rutile TiO2 (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Ulrike; Li, Shao-Chun; Wang, Jian-Guo; Jacobson, Peter; Gong, Xue-Qing; Selloni, Annabella

    2009-03-01

    Adsorbate-induced band gap states in semiconductors are of particular interest due to the potential of increased light absorption and photoreactivity. A combined theoretical (DFT) and experimental (STM, photoemission) study of the molecular-scale factors involved in the formation of gap states in TiO2 is presented. Using the organic catechol on rutile TiO2(110) as a model system it is found that the bonding geometry strongly affects the molecular electronic structure. At saturation catechol forms an ordered 4 x 1 overlayer. This structure is attributed to catechol adsorbed on rows of surface Ti atoms with the molecular plane tilted from the surface normal by about ±27 in an alternating fashion. In the lowest-energy structure one of the two terminal OH groups at each catechol dissociates and the O binds to a surface Ti atom in a monodentate configuration, while the other OH group forms a H-bond to the next catechol neighbor. Through proton exchange with the surface this structure transforms into one where both OH groups dissociate and the catechol is bound to two surface Ti in a bidentate configuration. Only bidendate catechol introduces states in the band gap of TiO2.

  7. Polyaniline-iron oxide nanohybrid film as multi-functional label-free electrochemical and biomagnetic sensor for catechol.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Lang, Heinrich; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2013-09-17

    Polyaniline-iron oxide magnetic nanohybrid was synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic, microstructural and electrochemical techniques. The smart integration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the polyaniline (PANI) matrix yielded a mesoporous nanohybrid (Fe3O4@PANI) with high surface area (94 m(2) g(-1)) and average pore width of 12.8 nm. Catechol is quasi-reversibly oxidized to o-quinone and reduced at the Fe3O4@PANI modified electrodes. The amperometric current response toward catechol was evaluated using the nanohybrid and the sensitivity and detection limit were found to be 312 μA μL(-1) and 0.2 nM, respectively. The results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the increased solution resistance (Rs) was due to elevated adsorption of catechol on the modified electrodes. Photoluminescence spectra showed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) between p-π orbitals of the phenolate oxygen in catechol and the d-σ* metal orbital of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid. Potential dependent spectroelectrochemical behavior of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid toward catechol was studied using UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. The binding activity of the biomagnetic particles to catechol through Brownian relaxation was evident from AC susceptibility measurements. The proposed sensor was used for successful recovery of catechol in tap water samples.

  8. Decolorization of the textile dyes using purified banana pulp polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Umesh U; Dawkar, Vishal V; Jadhav, Mital U; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-04-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) purified using DEAE-cellulose and Biogel P-100 column chromatography from banana pulp showed 12.72-fold activity and 2.49% yield. The optimum temperature and pH were found to be 30 degrees C and 7.0, respectively for its activity. Catechol was found to be a suitable substrate for banana pulp PPO that showed V(max), 0.041 mM min(-1) and K(m), 1.6 mM. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sodium metabisulfite, citric acid, cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol at 10 mM concentration. The purified enzyme could decolorize (90%) Direct Red 5B (160 microg mL(-1)) dye within 48 h and Direct Blue GLL (400 microg mL(-1)) dye up to 85% within 90 h. The GC-MS analysis indicated the presence of 4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonic acid and Naphthalene-1,2,3,6-tetraol in the degradation products of Direct Red 5B, and 5-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-8-hydroxy-naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid and 2-(4-Diazenyl-naphthalene-1-ylazo)-benzenesulfonic acid in the degradation products of Direct Blue GLL.

  9. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Marrufo-Hernández, Norma A; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2014-10-08

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme widely distributed in the plant kingdom that has been detected in most fruits and vegetables. PPO was extracted and purified from Manila mango (Mangifera indica), and its biochemical properties were studied. PPO was purified 216-fold by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography. PPO was purified to homogeneity, and the estimated PPO molecular weight (MW) by SDS-PAGE was ≈31.5 kDa. However, a MW of 65 kDa was determined by gel filtration, indicating a dimeric structure for the native PPO. The isolated PPO showed the highest affinity to pyrogallol (Km = 2.77 mM) followed by 4-methylcatechol (Km = 3.14 mM) and catechol (Km = 15.14 mM). The optimum pH for activity was 6.0. PPO was stable in the temperature range of 20-70 °C. PPO activity was completely inhibited by tropolone, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, and kojic acid at 0.1 mM.

  10. Could abiotic stress tolerance in wild relatives of rice be used to improve Oryza sativa?

    PubMed

    Atwell, Brian J; Wang, Han; Scafaro, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima have been selected to acquire and partition resources efficiently as part of the process of domestication. However, genetic diversity in cultivated rice is limited compared to wild Oryza species, in spite of 120,000 genotypes being held in gene banks. By contrast, there is untapped diversity in the more than 20 wild species of Oryza, some having been collected from just a few coastal locations (e.g. Oryza schlechteri), while others are widely distributed (e.g. Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon). The extent of DNA sequence diversity and phenotypic variation is still being established in wild Oryza, with genetic barriers suggesting a vast range of morphologies and function even within species, such as has been demonstrated for Oryza meridionalis. With increasing climate variability and attempts to make more marginal land arable, abiotic and biotic stresses will be managed over the coming decades by tapping into the genetic diversity of wild relatives of O. sativa. To help create a more targeted approach to sourcing wild rice germplasm for abiotic stress tolerance, we have created a climate distribution map by plotting the natural occurrence of all Oryza species against corresponding temperature and moisture data. We then discuss interspecific variation in phenotype and its significance for rice, followed by a discussion of ways to integrate germplasm from wild relatives into domesticated rice.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of LipA, a secretory lipase/esterase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Aparna, Gudlur; Chatterjee, Avradip; Jha, Gopaljee; Sonti, Ramesh V; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

    2007-08-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. Several enzymes that are secreted through the type II secretion system of this bacterium play an important role in the plant-microbe interaction, being important for virulence and also being able to induce potent host defence responses. One of these enzymes is a secretory lipase/esterase, LipA, which shows a very weak homology to other bacterial lipases and gives a positive tributyrin plate assay. In this study, LipA was purified from the culture supernatant of an overexpressing clone of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and two types of crystals belonging to space group C2 but with two different unit-cell parameters were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Type I crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 1.89 A and have unit-cell parameters a = 93.1, b = 62.3, c = 66.1 A, beta = 90.8 degrees . Type II crystals have unit-cell parameters a = 103.6, b = 54.6, c = 66.3 A, beta = 92.6 degrees and diffract to 1.86 A. Solvent-content analysis shows one monomer in the asymmetric unit in both the crystal forms.

  12. Transposable element distribution, abundance and role in genome size variation in the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Sebastian, Aswathy; Talag, Jayson; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, HyeRan; Collura, Kristi; Kudrna, Dave; Wing, Rod A

    2007-01-01

    Background The genus Oryza is composed of 10 distinct genome types, 6 diploid and 4 polyploid, and includes the world's most important food crop – rice (Oryza sativa [AA]). Genome size variation in the Oryza is more than 3-fold and ranges from 357 Mbp in Oryza glaberrima [AA] to 1283 Mbp in the polyploid Oryza ridleyi [HHJJ]. Because repetitive elements are known to play a significant role in genome size variation, we constructed random sheared small insert genomic libraries from 12 representative Oryza species and conducted a comprehensive study of the repetitive element composition, distribution and phylogeny in this genus. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the most important classes of transposable elements (Long Terminal Repeats Retrotransposons, Long interspersed Nuclear Elements, helitrons, DNA transposable elements) in shaping these genomes and in their contributing to genome size variation. Results We identified the elements primarily responsible for the most strikingly genome size variation in Oryza. We demonstrated how Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons belonging to the same families have proliferated to very different extents in various species. We also showed that the pool of Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons is substantially conserved and ubiquitous throughout the Oryza and so its origin is ancient and its existence predates the speciation events that originated the genus. Finally we described the peculiar behavior of repeats in the species Oryza coarctata [HHKK] whose placement in the Oryza genus is controversial. Conclusion Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons are the major component of the Oryza genomes analyzed and, along with polyploidization, are the most important contributors to the genome size variation across the Oryza genus. Two families of Ty3-gypsy elements (RIRE2 and Atlantys) account for a significant portion of the genome size variations present in the Oryza genus. PMID:17727727

  13. Preserving the adhesion of catechol-conjugated hydrogels by thiourea-quinone coupling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang J; Wei, Kongchang; Zhao, Pengchao; Feng, Qian; Choi, Chun Kit K; Bian, Liming

    2016-11-15

    Mussel adhesion has inspired the development of catechol-based adhesive polymers. However, conventional strategies require basic pH conditions and lead to the loss of adhesion. To solve the problem, we report the first attempt to use thiourea-functionalized polymers for preserving hydrogel adhesion. We believe that this simple thiourea-quinone coupling chemistry is instrumental to synthetic adhesive materials.

  14. Reaction Pathways in Catechol/Primary Amine Mixtures: A Window on Crosslinking Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Velders, Aldrik H; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Catechol chemistry is used as a crosslinking tool abundantly in both natural organisms (e.g. mussels, sandcastle worms) and synthetic systems to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Despite this abundance and success, the crosslinking chemistry is still poorly understood. In this study, to simplify the system, yet to capture the essential chemistry, model compounds 4-methyl catechol and propylamine are used. The reaction of 4-methyl catechol (2 mM) with propylamine (6 mM) is carried out in the presence of NaIO4 (2 mM) in 10 mM Na2CO3 aqueous solution. A variety of spectroscopic/spectrometric and chromatographic methods such as 1H NMR, LC-MS, and UV-VIS are used to track the reaction and identify the products/intermediates. It is found that the crosslinking chemistry of a catechol and an amine is both fast and complicated. Within five minutes, more than 60 products are formed. These products encompass 19 different masses ranging from molecular weight of 179 to 704. By combining time-dependent data, it is inferred that the dominant reaction pathways: the majority is formed via aryloxyl-phenol coupling and Michael-type addition, whereas a small fraction of products is formed via Schiff base reactions.

  15. Ultrafast Exciton Dynamics of J- and H- Aggregates of Porphyrin Catechol in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sandeep; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    Porphyrin catechol found to form J- and H-aggregates in different pH at certain concentration. Ultrafast exciton dynamics of J- and H-aggregates found to be 200 fs and 100 fs respectively as monitored by femtosecond visible spectroscopy

  16. Revealing the role of catechol moieties in the interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-08-18

    Catechol (1,2-dihydroxy benzene) moieties are being widely used today in new adhesive technologies. Understanding their mechanism of action is therefore of high importance for developing their applications in materials science. This paper describes a single-molecule study of the interactions between catechol-related amino acid residues and a well-defined titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. It is the first quantified measurement of the adhesion of these residues with a well-defined TiO2 surface. Single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements with AFM determined the role of different substitutions of the catechol moiety on the aromatic ring in the adhesion to the surface. These results shed light on the nature of interactions between these residues and inorganic metal oxide surfaces. This information is important for the design and fabrication of catechol-based materials such as hydrogels, coatings, and composites. Specifically, the interaction with TiO2 is important for the development of solar cells.

  17. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  18. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  19. Catechol polymers for pH-responsive, targeted drug delivery to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; Chen, Feng; Cryns, Vincent L; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2011-08-10

    A novel cell-targeting, pH-sensitive polymeric carrier was employed in this study for delivery of the anticancer drug bortezomib (BTZ) to cancer cells. Our strategy is based on facile conjugation of BTZ to catechol-containing polymeric carriers that are designed to be taken up selectively by cancer cells through cell surface receptor-mediated mechanisms. The polymer used as a building block in this study was poly(ethylene glycol), which was chosen for its ability to reduce nonspecific interactions with proteins and cells. The catechol moiety was exploited for its ability to bind and release borate-containing therapeutics such as BTZ in a pH-dependent manner. In acidic environments, such as in cancer tissue or the subcellular endosome, BTZ dissociates from the polymer-bound catechol groups to liberate the free drug, which inhibits proteasome function. A cancer-cell-targeting ligand, biotin, was presented on the polymer carriers to facilitate targeted entry of drug-loaded polymer carriers into cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that the cancer-targeting drug-polymer conjugates dramatically enhanced cellular uptake, proteasome inhibition, and cytotoxicity toward breast carcinoma cells in comparison with nontargeting drug-polymer conjugates. The pH-sensitive catechol-boronate binding mechanism provides a chemoselective approach for controlling the release of BTZ in targeted cancer cells, establishing a concept that may be applied in the future toward other boronic acid-containing therapeutics to treat a broad range of diseases.

  20. Chloridazon-catechol dioxygenases, a distinct group of meta-cleaving enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, S; Müller, R; Wegst, W; Lingens, F

    1984-02-01

    We previously described a new meta-cleaving enzyme, termed chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. The present paper describes the comparison of this enzyme with the meta-cleaving enzymes of eighteen strains of soil bacteria isolated with various aromatic compounds. Four of these strains were isolated with the herbicide chloridazon, six with the analgeticum aminopyrine and one with the analgeticum antipyrine as sole carbon source. These strains all belonged to a new type of bacteria, called Phenylobacteria. The seven other strains were isolated with aromatic compounds such as toluene, 3-phenylpropionate, benzoate, papaverine and 4-chlorobenzoate, and belonged to various species including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Nocardia. In double diffusion experiments with antibodies, prepared against chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase, extracts from the eleven strains of Phenylobacteria gave a cross reaction, whereas the extracts of the seven other strains showed no reaction. The enzymes of the eleven positive strains showed the same characteristic kinetic behaviour as the previously described enzyme. In contrast to catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase they needed the addition of exogenous Fe2+ ions for activity. On ion-exchange chromatography they emerged at the same buffer concentration as chloridazon-catechol dioxygenase. In polyacrylamide electrophoresis they migrated identically. The linkage map derived from the activities of the various enzymes with 10 different substrates revealed an identity of more than 80% for these eleven enzymes. So the meta-cleaving enzymes of the Phenylobacteria seem to form a distinct group among the non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases.

  1. Biochemical and computational insights into the anti-aromatase activity of natural catechol estrogens.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco A C; Dinis, Teresa C P; Colombo, Giorgio; Luisa Sá E Melo, M

    2008-05-01

    High levels of endogenous estrogens are associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Estrogen levels are mainly increased by the activity of the aromatase enzyme and reduced by oxidative/conjugative metabolic pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that catechol estrogen metabolites are potent aromatase inhibitors, thus establishing a link between aromatase activity and the processes involved in estrogen metabolism. In particular, the anti-aromatase activity of a set of natural hydroxyl and methoxyl estrogen metabolites was investigated using biochemical methods and subsequently compared with the anti-aromatase potency of estradiol and two reference aromatase inhibitors. Catechol estrogens proved to be strong inhibitors with an anti-aromatase potency two orders of magnitude higher than estradiol. A competitive inhibition mechanism was found for the most potent molecule, 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE(2)) and a rational model identifying the interaction determinants of the metabolites with the enzyme is proposed based on ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations. A strong relationship between activity and electrostatic properties was found for catechol estrogens. Moreover, our results suggest that natural catechol estrogens may be involved in the control mechanisms of estrogen production.

  2. Free radical scavenging potency of quercetin catecholic colonic metabolites: Thermodynamics of 2H(+)/2e(-) processes.

    PubMed

    Amić, Ana; Lučić, Bono; Stepanić, Višnja; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Svetlana; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Amić, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Reaction energetics of the double (2H(+)/2e(-)), i.e., the first 1H(+)/1e(-) (catechol→ phenoxyl radical) and the second 1H(+)/1e(-) (phenoxyl radical→ quinone) free radical scavenging mechanisms of quercetin and its six colonic catecholic metabolites (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, homoprotocatechuic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-methylcatechol, and catechol) were computationally studied using density functional theory, with the aim to estimate the antiradical potency of these molecules. We found that second hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and second sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are less energy demanding than the first ones indicating 2H(+)/2e(-) processes as inherent to catechol moiety. The Gibbs free energy change for reactions of inactivation of selected free radicals indicate that catecholic colonic metabolites constitute an efficient group of more potent scavengers than quercetin itself, able to deactivate various free radicals, under different biological conditions. They could be responsible for the health benefits associated with regular intake of flavonoid-rich diet.

  3. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    PubMed

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  4. Association of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphism and Academic Achievement in a Chinese Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lin, Ming-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a methylation enzyme that catalyzes the degradation pathway and inactivation of dopamine. It is accepted widely as being involved in the modulation of dopaminergic physiology and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with variation in COMT activity. COMT 158Met allele…

  5. Chitosan-catechol: a polymer with long-lasting mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyuri; Kim, Keumyeon; Ryu, Ji Hyun; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-06-01

    Numerous mucoadhesive polymers have been exploited for prolonging the residence time of formulated drugs or pharmaceuticals at specific delivery sites. However, it has been difficult to achieve satisfactory mucoadhesive properties. The two major modification strategies such as thiolation or lectin functionalization have been extensively studied, but disulfide bond reversibility in the case of thiolation and the toxicity of lectins have been problems. Thus, approaches for further improvement of mucoadhesive properties need to be developed. With an overwhelming library of mucoadhesive polymers, one practical way to improve mucoadhesion is chemical modification of existing mucoadhesive polymers. In other words, the method is based on utilizing the cooperative effect that might be achieved by chemical tethering of a small adhesive moiety to an available mucoadhesive polymer. Here, we conjugated catechols derived from mussel adhesive proteins to chitosan, which is a widely known mucoadhesive polymer. We demonstrated that the gastrointestinal (GI) tract retention of chitosan-catechol was improved compared to unmodified chitosan, which is due to the formation of irreversible catechol mediated-crosslinking with mucin. The results indicate that catechol modification of mucoadhesive polymers may possibly lead to a new generation of mucoadhesive polymers for mucosal drug delivery.

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase in complex with substituted 3'-deoxyribose bisubstrate inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, Manuel; Lerner, Christian; Burgy, Guillaume; Ehler, Andreas; Bissantz, Caterina; Jakob-Roetne, Roland; Paulini, Ralph; Allemann, Oliver; Tissot, Heloïse; Grünstein, Dan; Stihle, Martine; Diederich, Francois; Rudolph, Markus G

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of catechol neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the synapse is modulated by transporters and enzymes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; EC 2.1.1.6) inactivates neurotransmitters by catalyzing the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to catechols in the presence of Mg²⁺. This pathway also inactivates L-DOPA, the standard therapeutic for Parkinson's disease. Depletion of catechol neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex has been linked to schizophrenia. The inhibition of COMT therefore promises improvements in the treatment of these diseases. The concept of bisubstrate inhibitors for COMT has been described previously. Here, ribose-modified bisubstrate inhibitors were studied. Three high-resolution crystal structures of COMT in complex with novel ribose-modified bisubstrate inhibitors confirmed the predicted binding mode but displayed subtle alterations at the ribose-binding site. The high affinity of the inhibitors can be convincingly rationalized from the structures, which document the possibility of removing and/or replacing the ribose 3'-hydroxyl group and provide a framework for further inhibitor design.

  7. Reaction Pathways in Catechol/Primary Amine Mixtures: A Window on Crosslinking Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Velders, Aldrik H.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Kamperman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Catechol chemistry is used as a crosslinking tool abundantly in both natural organisms (e.g. mussels, sandcastle worms) and synthetic systems to achieve the desired mechanical properties. Despite this abundance and success, the crosslinking chemistry is still poorly understood. In this study, to simplify the system, yet to capture the essential chemistry, model compounds 4-methyl catechol and propylamine are used. The reaction of 4-methyl catechol (2 mM) with propylamine (6 mM) is carried out in the presence of NaIO4 (2 mM) in 10 mM Na2CO3 aqueous solution. A variety of spectroscopic/spectrometric and chromatographic methods such as 1H NMR, LC-MS, and UV-VIS are used to track the reaction and identify the products/intermediates. It is found that the crosslinking chemistry of a catechol and an amine is both fast and complicated. Within five minutes, more than 60 products are formed. These products encompass 19 different masses ranging from molecular weight of 179 to 704. By combining time-dependent data, it is inferred that the dominant reaction pathways: the majority is formed via aryloxyl-phenol coupling and Michael-type addition, whereas a small fraction of products is formed via Schiff base reactions. PMID:27930671

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase: a method for autoradiographic visualization of isozymes in cellogel

    SciTech Connect

    Brahe, C.; Crosti, N.; Meera Khan, P.; Serra, A.

    1984-02-01

    An electrophoretic procedure for separating the molecular forms of catechol-O-methyltransferase in cellulose acetate gel is described; the zones of enzyme activity were revealed by autoradiography. The electrophoretic patterns of the enzyme in several tissues and cell lines derived from four different species are presented.

  9. Effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that naphthalene inhibits oxygen consumption in Daphnia magna tissue culture cells, and intact mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. These studies were extended to algal mitochondrial respiration as well as photosynthetic activity. The authors were able to demonstrate the specific site of apparent respiratory inhibition to be coenzyme Q (ubiquinone, UQ) and later to demonstrate the molecular basis of this inhibition at ubiquinone. The authors previously could not demonstrate an effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity. However, the observation that naphthalene can stimulate respiration in algae prompted the reinvestigation of the effect of naphthalene on the kinetics of cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome oxidase is a multi-subunit membranous protein responsible for the oxidation of cytochrome c and the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Because of the complicated nature and mechanism of this enzyme, the potential exists for multiple and possibly opposite effects of naphthalene on its function.

  10. Vanadium-based, extended catalytic lifetime catechol dioxygenases: evidence for a common catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cindy-Xing; Finke, Richard G

    2005-06-29

    In 1999, a catechol dioxygenase derived from a V-polyoxometalate was reported which was able to perform a record >100 000 total turnovers of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol oxygenation using O2 as the oxidant (Weiner, H.; Finke, R. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9831). An important goal is to better understand this and other vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases. Scrutiny of 11 literature reports of vanadium-based catechol dioxygenases yielded the insight that they all proceed with closely similar selectivities. This, in turn, led to a "common catalyst hypothesis" for the broad range of vanadium based catechol dioxygenase precatalysts presently known. The following three classes of V-based compounds, 10 complexes total, have been explored to test the common catalyst hypothesis: (i) six vanadium-based polyoxometalate precatalysts, (n-Bu4N)4H5PV14O42, (n-Bu4N)7SiW9V3O40, (n-Bu4N)5[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).SiW9V3O40], (n-Bu4N)9P2W15V3O62, (n-Bu4N)5Na2[(CH3CN)(x)Fe(II).P2W15V3O62], and (n-Bu4N)4H2-gamma-SiW10V2O40; (ii) three vanadium catecholate complexes, [V(V)O(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, [Et3NH]2[V(IV)O(DBTC)2].2CH3OH, and [Na(CH3OH)2]2[V(V)(DTBC)3]2.4CH3OH (where DBSQ = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinone anion and DTBC = 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate dianion), and (iii) simple VO(acac)2. Product selectivity studies, catalytic lifetime tests, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), negative ion mode electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (negative ion ESI-MS), and kinetic studies provided compelling evidence for a common catalyst or catalyst resting state, namely, Pierpont's structurally characterized vanadyl semiquinone catecholate dimer complex, [VO(DBSQ)(DTBC)]2, formed from V-leaching from the precatalysts. The results provide a considerable simplification and unification of a previously disparate literature of V-based catechol dioxygenases.

  11. OsWRKY62 is a negative regulator of basal and Xa21-mediated defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice Xa21 gene, which confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), encodes a receptor-like kinase. Few components involved in transducing the Xa21-mediated defense response have yet been identified. It is reported that XA21 binds to a WRKY transcription fac...

  12. The role of the interaction between oxygen and catechol in the pitting corrosion of steel in alkaline sulfide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.; Kelly, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    Black liquor corrosivity is shown to depend on the interaction of the chemical species present. Specifically, an interaction between oxygen and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds (catechols) in alkaline sulfide solutions leads to a distinct increase in the severity of the attack. This increased corrosivity is explained in terms of the oxidation of catechol leading to increased open circuit potentials for steel. The importance of the ratio of sulfide concentration to hydroxyl concentration in the initiation of pitting is stressed. The possible role of catechol in stabilizing metastable pits is also discussed.

  13. Dose rate effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase, and browning of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, M; D'Aprano, M B; Lacroix, M

    1999-07-01

    To enhance the shelf life of edible mature mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionizing treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I(-)) and 32 kGy/h (I(+)). Both I(+) and I(-) showed a 2 and 4 day shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I(-). Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I(-) contained more phenols than I(+) and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The fluctuation of the precursors of glutaminyl-4-hydroxyaniline (GHB) was less in I(-) than in I(+). The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analyzed via catechol oxidase, dopa oxidase, and tyrosine hydroxylase substrates, were found to be significantly lowered (p = 0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I(+). Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I(+), contrasting with its lower phenols concentration. The observation of mushrooms' cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I(-) than in I(+). It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I(+) was caused by both the decompartmentation of vacuolar phenol and the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning I(+) than in I(-).

  14. Combination Patterns of Major R Genes Determine the Level of Resistance to the M. oryzae in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunyu; Xiao, Ning; Yu, Ling; Pan, Cunhong; Li, Yuhong; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Guangqing; Dai, Zhengyuan; Pan, Xuebiao; Li, Aihong

    2015-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating disease of rice and poses a serious threat to world food security. In this study, the distribution and effectiveness of 18 R genes in 277 accessions were investigated based on pathogenicity assays and molecular markers. The results showed that most of the accessions exhibited some degree of resistance (resistance frequency, RF >50%). Accordingly, most of the accessions were observed to harbor two or more R genes, and the number of R genes harbored in accessions was significantly positively correlated with RF. Some R genes were demonstrated to be specifically distributed in the genomes of rice sub-species, such as Pigm, Pi9, Pi5 and Pi1, which were only detected in indica-type accessions, and Pik and Piz, which were just harbored in japonica-type accessions. By analyzing the relationship between R genes and RF using a multiple stepwise regression model, the R genes Pid3, Pi5, Pi9, Pi54, Pigm and Pit were found to show the main effects against M. oryzae in indica-type accessions, while Pita, Pb1, Pik, Pizt and Pia were indicated to exhibit the main effects against M. oryzae in japonica-type accessions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that combination patterns of major R genes were the main factors determining the resistance of rice varieties to M. oryzae, such as 'Pi9+Pi54', 'Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pi54+Pid3+Pigm', 'Pi5+Pid3' and 'Pi5+Pit+Pid3' in indica-type accessions and 'Pik+Pib', 'Pik+Pita', 'Pik+Pb1', 'Pizt+Pia' and 'Pizt+Pita' in japonica-type accessions, which were able to confer effective resistance against M. oryzae. The above results provide good theoretical support for the rational utilization of combinations of major R genes in developing rice cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance.

  15. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-03-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  16. Catechol oxidation by ozone and hydroxyl radicals at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pillar, Elizabeth A; Camm, Robert C; Guzman, Marcelo I

    2014-12-16

    Anthropogenic emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons promptly react with hydroxyl radicals undergoing oxidation to form phenols and polyphenols (e.g., catechol) typically identified in the complex mixture of humic-like substances (HULIS). Because further processing of polyphenols in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) can continue mediated by a mechanism of ozonolysis at interfaces, a better understanding about how these reactions proceed at the air-water interface is needed. This work shows how catechol, a molecular probe of the oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons present in SOA, can contribute interfacial reactive species that enhance the production of HULIS under atmospheric conditions. Reactive semiquinone radicals are quickly produced upon the encounter of 40 ppbv-6.0 ppmv O3(g) with microdroplets containing [catechol] = 1-150 μM. While the previous pathway results in the instantaneous formation of mono- and polyhydroxylated aromatic rings (PHA) and chromophoric mono- and polyhydroxylated quinones (PHQ), a different channel produces oxo- and dicarboxylic acids of low molecular weight (LMW). The cleavage of catechol occurs at the 1,2 carbon-carbon bond at the air-water interface through the formation of (1) an ozonide intermediate, (2) a hydroperoxide, and (3) cis,cis-muconic acid. However, variable [catechol] and [O3(g)] can affect the ratio of the primary products (cis,cis-muconic acid and trihydroxybenzenes) and higher order products observed (PHA, PHQ, and LMW oxo- and dicarboxylic acids). Secondary processing is confirmed by mass spectrometry, showing the production of crotonic, maleinaldehydic, maleic, glyoxylic, and oxalic acids. The proposed pathway can contribute precursors to aqueous SOA (AqSOA) formation, converting aromatic hydrocarbons into polyfunctional species widely found in tropospheric aerosols with light-absorbing brown carbon.

  17. Catechol formation: a novel pathway in the metabolism of sterigmatocystin and 11-methoxysterigmatocystin.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Erika; Fleck, Stefanie C; Metzler, Manfred

    2014-12-15

    The mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (STC) has an aflatoxin-like structure including a furofuran ring system. Like aflatoxin B1, STC is a liver carcinogen and forms DNA adducts after metabolic activation to an epoxide at the furofuran ring. In incubations of STC with human P450 isoforms, one monooxygenated and one dioxygenated STC metabolite were recently reported, and a GSH adduct was formed when GSH was added to the incubations. However, the chemical structures of these metabolites were not unambiguously elucidated. We now report that hepatic microsomes from humans and rats predominantly form the catechol 9-hydroxy-STC via hydroxylation of the aromatic ring. No STC-1,2-oxide and only small amounts of STC-1,2-dihydrodiol were detected in microsomal incubations, suggesting that epoxidation is a minor pathway compared to catechol formation. Catechol formation was also much more pronounced than furofuran epoxidation in the microsomal metabolism of 11-methoxysterigmatocystin (MSTC). In support of the preference of catechol formation, only trace amounts of the thiol adduct of the 1,2-oxides but large amounts of the thiol adducts of the 9-hydroxy-8,9-quinones were obtained when N-acetyl-l-cysteine was added to the microsomal incubations of STC and MSTC. In addition to hydroxylation at C-9, smaller amounts of 12c-hydroxylated, 9,12c-dihydroxylated, and 9,11-dihydroxylated metabolites were formed. Our study suggests that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, yielding a catechol, represents a major and novel pathway in the oxidative metabolism of STC and MSTC, which may contribute to the toxic and genotoxic effects of these mycotoxins.

  18. Condensed-phase versus gas-phase ozonolysis of catechol: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Timothy J.; Medeiros, Nicholas; Hinrichs, Ryan Z.

    2012-08-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of volatile aromatic compounds contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), especially in urban environments. Aromatic SOA precursors typically require oxidation by hydroxyl radicals, although recent work suggests that ozonolysis of 1,2-benzenediols produces SOA in high yields. We employed attenuated total reflectance and transmission infrared spectroscopy to investigate the heterogeneous ozonolysis of catechol thin films. Formation of the dominant condensed-phase product muconic acid was highly dependent on relative humidity (RH) with few products detected below 40% RH and a maximum reactive uptake coefficient of γ = (5.6 ± 0.5) × 10-5 measured at 81.2% RH. We also performed quantum chemical calculations mapping out several reaction pathways for the homogeneous ozonolysis of gaseous catechol. 1,3-cycloaddition transition states were rate limiting with the most favorable activation energies at 45.4 and 47.1 kJ mol-1 [CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p)] corresponding to addition across and adjacent to the diol Cdbnd C, respectively. Gas-phase rate constants, calculated using transition state theory, were six orders of magnitude slower than experimental values. In contrast, a calculated activation energy was lower for the ozonolysis of a catechol•H2O complex, which serves as a first-approximation for modeling the ozonolysis of condensed-phase catechol. These combined results suggests that homogeneous ozonolysis of catechol may not be important for the formation of secondary organic aerosols but that ozonolysis of surface-adsorbed catechol may contribute to SOA growth.

  19. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  20. Purification of the Alpha Glycerophosphate Oxidase From Trypanosomes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    is the purifica- tion of the glycerphosphate oxidase from the terminal oxidase in bloodstream trypanosomes. African trypanosomiasis remains one of the...oxidase from the terminal oxidase in bloodstream trypanosomes. African trypanosomiasis remains one of the major diseases in the world today, affecting...interest as a possible target for drug chemotherapy . At present only suramin and organic arsenicals remain as the mainstay of chemotherapy , despite their

  1. Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Złotek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    The study concentrated on changes in certain biochemical parameters of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lettuce leaves caused by dl-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) elicitation. PPO from control plants demonstrated the highest affinity toward catechol, whereas PPO from BABA-elicited lettuce showed the highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol. The optimum temperature for enzymes from control plants was 35°C, whereas from plants elicited with 1mM BABA this was 25°C. PPO from plants elicited with BABA was also more sensitive to the tested inhibitors than PPO from control plants. l-Cysteine was the most effective inhibitor. Native gel stained for PPO activity in control samples showed two isoforms. However, in BABA-treated lettuce three bands visualising PPO activity were observed. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for the development of treatment technology and storage conditions to control undesirable browning reactions in elicited lettuce.

  2. The First Mammalian Aldehyde Oxidase Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Catarina; Mahro, Martin; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Ramos, Maria João; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are homodimeric proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. Each 150-kDa monomer contains a FAD redox cofactor, two spectroscopically distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and a molybdenum cofactor located within the protein active site. AOXs are characterized by broad range substrate specificity, oxidizing different aldehydes and aromatic N-heterocycles. Despite increasing recognition of its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, the physiological function of the protein is still largely unknown. We have crystallized and solved the crystal structure of mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 to 2.9 Å. This is the first mammalian AOX whose structure has been solved. The structure provides important insights into the protein active center and further evidence on the catalytic differences characterizing AOX and xanthine oxidoreductase. The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 three-dimensional structure combined with kinetic, mutagenesis data, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies make a decisive contribution to understand the molecular basis of its rather broad substrate specificity. PMID:23019336

  3. An oxidase road to platelet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2016-03-17

    Platelet adhesion to collagen via collagen receptors is an important part of thrombosis. In this issue of Blood, Matsuura et al identify collagen receptors as previously unrecognized targets of the extracellular enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX), the level of which is increased in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and other conditions associated with pathological thromboses.

  4. Polyphenol oxidase activity in annual forage clovers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated phenol reactions in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) bind forage protein and reduce proteolysis, producing beneficial effects on forage protein degradability, silage fermentation, and soil-N cycling. We evaluated PPO activity in seven previously untested annual c...

  5. A colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase.

    PubMed

    Libreros-Minotta, C A; Tipton, P A

    1995-11-01

    A simple and rapid colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase is described. The assay is based on the formation of a Schiff base between the enzymatic reaction product 3-methyl-2-butenal and p-aminophenol. The assay is effective in the submicromolar concentration range and can be used in crude plant extracts as well as in more highly purified preparations.

  6. Exploiting algal NADPH oxidase for biophotovoltaic energy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Blaby, Ian K; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Davies, Julia M; Smith, Alison G

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbes exhibit light-dependent electron export across the cell membrane, which can generate electricity in biological photovoltaic (BPV) devices. How electrons are exported remains to be determined; the identification of mechanisms would help selection or generation of photosynthetic microbes capable of enhanced electrical output. We show that plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity is a significant component of light-dependent generation of electricity by the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NADPH oxidases export electrons across the plasma membrane to form superoxide anion from oxygen. The C. reinhardtii mutant lacking the NADPH oxidase encoded by RBO1 is impaired in both extracellular superoxide anion production and current generation in a BPV device. Complementation with the wild-type gene restores both capacities, demonstrating the role of the enzyme in electron export. Monitoring light-dependent extracellular superoxide production with a colorimetric assay is shown to be an effective way of screening for electrogenic potential of candidate algal strains. The results show that algal NADPH oxidases are important for superoxide anion production and open avenues for optimizing the biological component of these devices.

  7. Effect of Preexposure to Triazoles on Susceptibility and Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Albert, Nathaniel D; Lewis, Russell E; Walsh, Thomas J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2015-12-01

    Triazole prophylaxis has become the norm in patients with hematological malignancies. Breakthrough infections caused by Mucorales during triazole prophylaxis remain a challenging problem. We found that preexposure of Rhizopus oryzae to antifungal triazoles (fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole) did not modify the in vitro susceptibility of Rhizopus oryzae to posaconazole. In contrast, preexposure of Rhizopus to triazoles was associated with the enhanced in vitro susceptibility of R. oryzae to amphotericin B. Preexposure to posaconazole did not alter the virulence of R. oryzae in the fly model of mucormycosis.

  8. Relationship between disease resistance and rice oxalate oxidases in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian Yong; Nie, Zhuan Hua; Wang, Wen Juan; Leung, David W M; Xu, Da Gao; Chen, Bai Ling; Chen, Zhe; Zeng, Lie Xian; Liu, E E

    2013-01-01

    Differential expression of rice oxalate oxidase genes (OsOxO1-4) in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) in response to biotic stress was assayed using RT-PCR. OsOxO4 was induced transiently at 12 h in plants inoculated with the pathogens of bacterial blight and that of the wounding control. Inoculation with the rice blast pathogen induced OsOxO2 expression compared to the mock spray control. Overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 in rice resulted in elevated transcript levels of the respective transgene as well as OsOxO3 in leaves compared to that in untransformed wild type (WT). In a line of RNA-i transgenic rice plants (i-12), expression of all four OsOxO genes except that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited. Oxalate oxidase (OxO, EC 1.2.3.4) activity in plants overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 was substantially higher than that in WT and the RNA-i lines. It was found that transgenic rice plants with substantially higher OxO activity were not more resistant to rice blast and bacterial blight than WT. In contrast, some RNA-i lines with less OxO activity seemed to be more resistant to rice blast while some overexpressing lines were more susceptible to rice blast than WT. Therefore, OxO might not be a disease resistance factor in rice.

  9. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  10. Inhibition of rat fat cell lipolysis by monoamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase substrates.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Virgile; Prévot, Danielle; Marti, Luc; Carpéné, Christian

    2003-04-18

    It has been demonstrated that amine oxidase substrates stimulate glucose transport in cardiomyocytes and adipocytes, promote adipogenesis in pre-adipose cell lines and lower blood glucose in diabetic rats. These insulin-like effects are dependent on amine oxidation by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase or by monoamine oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether amine oxidase substrates also exhibit another insulin-like property, the inhibition of lipolysis. We therefore tested the influence of tyramine and benzylamine on lipolytic activity in rat adipocytes. These amines did not modify basal lipolysis but dose-dependently counteracted the stimulation induced by lipolytic agents. The response to 10 nM isoprenaline was totally inhibited by tyramine 1 mM. The blockade produced by inhibition of amine oxidase activity or by 1 mM glutathione suggested that the generation of oxidative species, which occurs during amine oxidation, was involved in tyramine antilipolytic effect. Among the products resulting from amine oxidation, only hydrogen peroxide was antilipolytic in a manner that was potentiated by vanadate, as for tyramine or benzylamine. Antilipolytic responses to tyramine and to insulin were sensitive to wortmannin. These data suggest that inhibition of lipolysis is a novel insulin-like effect of amine oxidase substrates which is mediated by hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation.

  11. Niclosamide inhibits leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Il; Song, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Seo, Hak Soo

    2016-01-01

    Rice leaf blight, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), results in huge losses in grain yield. Here, we show that Xoo-induced rice leaf blight is effectively controlled by niclosamide, an oral antihelminthic drug and molluscicide, which also functions as an anti-tumor agent. Niclosamide directly inhibited the growth of the three Xoo strains PXO99, 10208 and K3a. Niclosamide moved long distances from the site of local application to distant rice tissues. Niclosamide also increased the levels of salicylate and induced the expression of defense-related genes such as OsPR1 and OsWRKY45, which suppressed Xoo-induced leaf wilting. Niclosamide had no detrimental effects on vegetative/reproductive growth and yield. These combined results indicate that niclosamide can be used to block bacterial leaf blight in rice with no negative side effects. PMID:26879887

  12. Characterization of recombinant β-amylases from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Koide, Tomojiro; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2011-01-01

    Four putative β-amylase genes found in the Oryza sativa cDNA sequence database (KOME) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant proteins from two of these genes showed β-amylase activity. Similarly to β-amylases from other plants, the optimum pH of the recombinant rice β-amylases was about 5.5-6.0, but they exhibited inferior heat stability to soybean β-amylase.

  13. Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Jun; Tanaka, Hisaki; Akagawa, Takumi; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo

    2007-10-01

    To characterize aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae, the recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids. About 30% activity was retained in 20% NaCl. Digestion of defatted soybean by the enzyme resulted in an increase in the glutamic acid content, suggesting that the enzyme is potentially responsible for the release of glutamic acid in soy sauce mash.

  14. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Oryza sativa Calli Under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Haiying; Cai, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptome of Oryza sativacalli was analyzed on board the Chinese spaceship "Shenzhou 8" to study the effects of microgravity on plant signal transduction and secondary metabolism (as one of the experiments with SIMBOX on Shenzhou 8). Calli of Oryza sativa were pre-cultured for 4 days on ground and then loaded into the stationary platform or the rotating platform of a biological incubator, called SIMBOX, to grow in space under microgravity conditions or 1g-conditions, respectively. The calli were fixed by RNAlater after grew 324 h under microgravity. After 17 days, Shenzhou 8 returned to Earth carrying SIMBOX. Oryza sativa calli were recovered, and the RNA was extracted for transcriptome analysis. After comparing 1 gspaceflight controls-inflight controls with 1 g-ground controls, 157 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. When comparing spaceflight controls to 1 g-ground controls and to 1 g-inflight controls, 678 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. The fact that the same 678 probe sets were identified in these two comparisons suggests that transcription was affected under microgravity conditions. MapMan analysis was used to classify 627 microgravity responsive (MR) transcripts. The MR transcripts were mainly involved in cell wall structure, the TCA cycle, primary metabolism, transcription, protein modification and degradation, hormone metabolism, calcium regulation, receptor like kinase activity and transport.

  16. Iron starvation induces apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with mucormycosis remains high despite current antifungals. Iron-starvation strategies have been shown to have promising activity against Mucorales. We hypothesized that iron starvation enhances apoptosis in Rhizopus oryzae. Apoptosis was characterized in R. oryzae transformed with RNAi plasmid targeting FTR1 expression (iron permease mutant) or empty plasmid grown in iron rich (0.125% FeCl3) and iron depleted media (YNB+1mM ferrozine and 1 mM ascorbic acid). Increased apoptosis was observed with dihydrorhodamine-123 and rhodamine-123 staining in the iron starved mutant FTR1 when compared to empty plasmid, followed by increased extracellular ATP levels. In addition, DNA fragmentation and metacaspase activity were prominent in FTR1. In contrast, Rhizopus strains grown in iron-rich medium displayed minimal apoptosis. Our results demonstrate a metacaspase dependent apoptotic process in iron deprived condition and further support the role of iron starvation strategies as an adjunct treatment for mucormycosis, a mechanism by which iron starvation affects R. oryzae.

  17. Natural compounds containing a catechol group enhance the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kiyota, Naoko; Tsurushima, Keiichiro; Yoshitomi, Makiko; Mera, Katsumi; Sakashita, Naomi; Takeya, Motohiro; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Araki, Tomohiro; Nohara, Toshihiro; Nagai, Ryoji

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation is a potential strategy for the prevention of clinical diabetes complications. Screening for new AGE inhibitors revealed several natural compounds that inhibited the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a major antigenic AGE structure, whereas natural compounds containing a catechol group, such as gallic acid and epicatechin, significantly enhanced CML formation. A similar enhancing effect was also observed by culturing THP-1 macrophages in the presence of catechol compounds. Although 4-methylcatechol significantly enhanced CML formation from glycated HSA (gHSA), a model for Amadori proteins, analogues of catechol such as 5-methylresorcinol and methylhydroquinone showed no enhancing effect. Even though 1mM 4-methylcatechol, epicatechin, and gallic acid significantly enhanced CML formation from gHSA, it was significantly inhibited by decreasing their concentration. The enhancing effect of 1mM catechol compounds was inhibited in the presence of the glutathione peroxidase system, thus demonstrating that hydrogen peroxide generated from catechol compounds plays an important role in the enhancement of CML formation. Furthermore, administration of 500mg/kg/day epicatechin to STZ-induced diabetic mice for 45days enhanced CML accumulation at the surface area of gastric epithelial cells in the stomach. This study provides the first evidence that high amounts of catechol-containing structures enhance oxidative stress, thus leading to enhanced CML formation, and this phenomenon may explain the paradoxical effect that some flavonoids have on redox status.

  18. pH-dependent cross-linking of catechols through oxidation via Fe(3+) and potential implications for mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E; Barrett, Devin G; Miller, Dusty R; Kurutz, Josh W; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2014-01-01

    The mussel byssus is a remarkable attachment structure that is formed by injection molding and rapid in-situ hardening of concentrated solutions of proteins enriched in the catecholic amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA). Fe(3+), found in high concentrations in the byssus, has been speculated to participate in redox reactions with DOPA that lead to protein polymerization, however direct evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Using small molecule catechols, DOPA-containing peptides, and native mussel foot proteins, we report the first direct observation of catechol oxidation and polymerization accompanied by reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+). In the case of the small molecule catechol, we identified two dominant dimer species and characterized their connectivities by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the C6-C6 and C5-C6 linked species as the major and minor products, respectively. For the DOPA-containing peptide, we studied the pH dependence of the reaction and demonstrated that catechol polymerization occurs readily at low pH, but is increasingly diminished in favor of metal-catechol coordination interactions at higher pH. Finally, we demonstrate that Fe(3+) can induce cross-links in native byssal mussel proteins mefp-1 and mcfp-1 at acidic pH. Based on these findings, we discuss the potential implications to the chemistry of mussel adhesion.

  19. Development of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase-specific primers for monitoring bioremediation by competitive quantitative PCR

    SciTech Connect

    Mesarch, M.B.; Nakatsu, C.H.; Nies, L.

    2000-02-01

    Benzene, toluene, xylenes, phenol, naphthalene, and biphenyl are among a group of compounds that have at least one reported pathway for biodegradation involving catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes. Thus, detection of the corresponding catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes can serve as a basis for identifying and quantifying bacteria that have these catabolic abilities. Primes that can successfully amplify a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene fragment from eight different bacteria are described. The identities of the amplicons were confirmed by hybridization with a 238-bp catechol 2,3-dioxygenase probe. The detection limit was 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} gene copies, which was lowered to 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 1} gene copies of hybridization. Using the dioxygenase-specific primers, an increase in catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes was detected in petroleum-amended soils. The dioxygenase genes were enumerated by competitive quantitative PCR and a 163-bp competitor that was amplified using the same primers. Target and competitor sequences had identical amplification kinetics. Potential PCR inhibitors that could coextract with DNA, nonamplifying DNA, soil factors (humics), and soil pollutants (toluene) did not impact enumeration. Therefore, this technique can be used to accurately and reproducibly quantify catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes in complex environments such as petroleum-contaminated soil. Direct, non-cultivation-based molecular techniques for detecting and enumerating microbial pollutant-biodegrading genes in environmental samples are powerful tools for monitoring bioremediation and developing field evidence in support of natural attenuation.

  20. Surface charge-transfer complex formation of catechol on titanium(IV) oxide and the application to bio-sensing.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yusuke; Hori, Hiroshige; Taga, Atsushi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-11-15

    Adsorption properties of 2-hydroxyphenol (catechol) on TiO2 particles has been studied at 298K. The adsorption proceeds from the aqueous solution with the Langmuir type behavior. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of the catechol-adsorbed TiO2 suggested that catechol is adsorbed on TiO2 solution via the chelation to the surface Ti ions. The adsorption induces a strong absorption in the whole visible region, of which intensity increases with an increase in the adsorption amount. Photoelectrochemical experiments and molecular orbital calculations indicate that the absorption stems from the charge-transfer (CT) transition from the HOMO of catechol to the conduction band of TiO2. Time courses for the adsorption of catechol on mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline film-coated glass was traced by measuring the change in the absorbance of the CT band, and analyzed on the basis of the Langmuir model. This study would present a new simple technique for sensing of important biomolecules bearing the catechol moiety.

  1. Evolution of CO{sub 2} during birnessite-induced oxidation of {sup 14}C-labeled catechol

    SciTech Connect

    Majcher, E.H.; Chorover, J.; Bollag, J.M.; Huang, P.M.

    2000-02-01

    Phenolic compounds undergo several transformation processes in soil and water (i.e., partial degradation, mineralization, and polymerization), many of which have been attributed primarily to biological activity. Results from previous work indicate that naturally occurring Mn oxides are also capable of oxidizing phenolic compounds. In the present study, {sup 14}C-labeled catechol was reacted with birnessite (manganese oxide) in aqueous suspension of pH 4. The mass of catechol-derived c in solid, solution, and gas phases was quantified as a function of time. Between 5 and 16% of the total catechol C was liberated as CO{sub 2} from oxidation and abiotic ring cleavage under various conditions. Most of the {sup 14}C (55--83%) was incorporated into the solid phase in the form of stable organic reaction products whereas solution phase {sup 14}C concentrations increased from 16 to 39% with a doubling of total catechol added. Polymerization and CO{sub 2} evolution appear to be competitive pathways in the transformation of catechol since their relative importance was strongly dependent on initial birnessite-catechol reaction conditions. Solid phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra are consistent with the presence of phenolic, quinone, and aromatic ring cleavage products. Carbon dioxide release appears to be limited by availability of reactive birnessite surface sites and it is diminished in the presence of polymerized reaction products.

  2. Effects of biochar and the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi on fate of (14)C-catechol in an agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jun; Wang, Yongfeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Wenqiang; Ji, Rong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-01

    Both biochar and earthworms can exert influence on behaviors of soil-borne monomeric phenols in soil; however, little was known about the combined effects of biochar and earthworm activities on fate of these chemicals in soil. Using (14)C-catechol as a representative, the mineralization, transformation and residue distribution of phenolic humus monomer in soil amended with different amounts of biochar (0%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 5%) without/with the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi were investigated. The results showed biochar at amendment rate <0.5% did not affect (14)C-catechol mineralization, whereas 5% biochar amendment significantly inhibited the mineralization. Earthworms did not affect the mineralization of (14)C-catechol in soil amended with <0.5% biochar, but significantly enhanced the mineralization in 5% biochar amended soil when they were present in soil for 9 d. When earthworms were removed from the soil, the mineralization of (14)C-catechol was significantly lower than that of in earthworm-free soil indicating that (14)C-catecholic residues were stabilized during their passage through earthworm gut. The assimilation of (14)C by earthworms was low (1.2%), and was significantly enhanced by biochar amendment, which was attributed to the release of biochar-associated (14)C-catecholic residues during gut passage of earthworm.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of catechols in human subjects intravenously receiving XueBiJing injection, an emerging antiseptic herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuxue; Cheng, Chen; Wang, Fengqing; Huang, Yühong; Jia, Weiwei; Olaleye, Olajide E; Li, Meijuan; Li, Yanfen; Li, Chuan

    2016-02-01

    XueBiJing injection, prepared from a five-herb combination, is extensively used as add-on therapy in routine sepsis care in China. Catechols, derived from the component herb Salvia miltiorrhiza roots (Danshen), are probably important because of their reported antiseptic properties. This study was designed to characterize pharmacokinetics of major circulating Danshen catechols in human subjects intravenously receiving the injection at the label doses. A total of 17 Danshen catechols were detected in XueBiJing injection (content level, 0.1-139.3 μmol/L). After dosing, tanshinol and salvianolic acid B exhibited relatively high levels of systemic exposure with mean elimination half-lives of 0.38 and 0.29 h, respectively. The total plasma clearance and apparent volume of distribution at steady state of tanshinol were 1.07 L/h/kg and 0.40 L/kg, respectively, whereas those of salvianolic acid B were 0.43 L/h/kg and 0.13 L/kg, respectively. Protocatechuic acid and five other catechols were also detected in plasma but at low exposure levels. Although protocatechuic aldehyde had the highest content level in the injection, like the remaining eight catechols, it was undetected in plasma. Protocatechuic aldehyde was extensively converted into protocatechuic acid and other metabolites. The information gained here facilitates understanding the roles of Danshen catechols in therapeutic actions of XueBiJing injection.

  4. A novel L-arabinose-responsive regulator discovered in the rice-blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (Magnaporthe oryzae).

    PubMed

    Klaubauf, Sylvia; Zhou, Miaomiao; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy

    2016-02-01

    In this study we identified the L-arabinose-responsive regulator of Pyricularia oryzae that regulates L-arabinose release and catabolism. Previously we identified the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor (TF), AraR, that has this role in the Trichocomaceae family (Eurotiales), but is absent in other fungi. Candidate Zn2Cys6 TF genes were selected according to their transcript profiles on L-arabinose. Deletion mutants of these genes were screened for their growth phenotype on L-arabinose. One mutant, named Δara1, was further analyzed. Our analysis demonstrated that Ara1 from P. oryzae is the functional analog of AraR from A. niger, while there is no significant sequence similarity between them.

  5. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction data collection of topoisomerase IV ParE subunit from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Jeong; Yun, Mirim; Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Heo, Yong Seok

    2009-06-01

    Topoisomerase IV is involved in topological changes in the bacterial genome using the free energy from ATP hydrolysis. Its functions are the decatenation of daughter chromosomes following replication by DNA relaxation and double-strand DNA breakage. In this study, the N-terminal fragment of the topoisomerase IV ParE subunit from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.15 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belonged to space group P4(2)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 105.30, c = 133.76 A. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule, with a corresponding V(M) of 4.21 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 69.6%.

  6. Mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae deficient in general secretory pathway are virulence deficient and unable to secrete xylanase.

    PubMed

    Ray, S K; Rajeshwari, R; Sonti, R V

    2000-04-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. A virulence- and xylanase-deficient mutant of Xoo was isolated following ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. A cosmid clone that restored virulence and xylanase secretion was obtained from a genomic library by functional complementation. Transposon mutagenesis and marker exchange studies revealed genes on the cloned DNA that were required for xylanase production and virulence. Sequence analysis with transposon-specific primers revealed that these genes were homologues of xps F and xps D, which encode components of a protein secretion system in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Enzyme assays showed xylanase accumulation in the periplasmic space and cytoplasm of the xps F mutant and the complementing clone restored transport to the extracellular space.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the XoGroEL chaperonin from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tran, Huyen Thi; Pham, Tan Viet; Ngo, Ho Phuong Thuy; Hong, Myoung Ki; Kim, Jeong Gu; Lee, Sang Hee; Ahn, Yeh Jin; Kang, Lin Woo

    2014-05-01

    Along with the co-chaperonin GroES, the chaperonin GroEL plays an essential role in enhancing protein folding or refolding and in protecting proteins against misfolding and aggregation in the cellular environment. The XoGroEL gene (XOO_4288) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was cloned and the protein was expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified XoGroEL protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a crystal diffracted to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with 14 monomers in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding VM of 2.7 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 54.5%.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of DNA gyrase GyrB subunit from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha Yun; Lee, Ki Jeung; Kim, Kyung Ha; Hyoung, Ji Hye; Han, Mi Ra; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Kang, Lin-Woo; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Heo, Yong-Seok

    2010-01-01

    DNA gyrase is a type II topoisomerase that is essential for chromosome segregation and cell division owing to its ability to modify the topological forms of bacterial DNA. In this study, the N-terminal fragment of the GyrB subunit of DNA gyrase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.10 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belonged to space group I4(1), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 110.27, c = 70.75 A. The asymmetric unit contained one molecule, with a V(M) of 2.57 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 50.2%.

  9. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of peptide deformylase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Phuong-Thuy Ho; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Kim, Hyesoon; Jung, Junho; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2008-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the removal of the N-formyl group from the N-terminus of newly synthesized polypeptides; this process is crucial for cell survival. As it is an antibacterial drug target against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), PDF from Xoo was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Native PDF crystals diffracted to 2.7 A resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 59.0, c = 266.3 A. One monomer is present in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding crystal volume per protein weight of 3.50 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 64.9%.

  10. The thiG Gene Is Required for Full Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by Preventing Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoyue; Liang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Kexue; Dong, Wenxia; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Ming-guo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is an important serious bacterial diseases of rice in many rice-growing regions, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The thiG gene from Xoo strain ZJ173, which is involved with thiazole moiety production in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway, is highly conserved among the members of Xanthomonas. The thiG deletion mutant displayed impaired virulence and growth in thiamine-free medium but maintained its normal growth rate in the rice tissues, indicating that the thiG gene is involved in Xoo virulence. Compared to the wild type strain, the formation of cell-cell aggregates was affected in thiG deletion mutants. Although biofilm formation was promoted, motility and migration in rice leaves were repressed in the thiG mutants, and therefore limited the expansion of pathogen infection in rice. Quorum sensing and extracellular substance are two key factors that contribute to the formation of cell-cell aggregates. Our study found that in the thiG mutant the expression of two genes, rpfC and rpfG, which form a two-component regulatory signal system involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by a second messenger cyclic di-GMP is down-regulated. In addition, our study showed that xanthan production was not affected but the expression of some genes associated with xanthan biosynthesis, like gumD, gumE, gumH and gumM, were up-regulated in thiG mutants. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the role of the thiazole biosynthsis gene, thiG, in virulence and the formation of aggregates in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:26222282

  11. Effects of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid on the biology of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shu; Pan, Xiayan; Luo, Jianying; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Zehua; Liang, Xiaoyu; He, Yawen; Zhou, Mingguo

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the casual agent of bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases of rice. The antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), which is primarily produced by Pseudomonas spp., was found and previously reported very effective against Xoo. However, the biological effects of PCA on Xoo remain unclear. In this study, we found that PCA increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Xoo. Xoo was more sensitive to H2O2 than Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), and had a much lower expression of CAT genes. In addition, proteomic analysis indicated that PCA inhibited carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient uptake in Xoo, and analysis of carbon source utilization further confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism in Xoo was repressed by PCA. In conclusion, PCA acted as a redox-cycling agent that disturbed the redox balance in Xoo and reduced CAT and SOD activities, resulting in higher accumulation of ROS, altered carbohydrate metabolism, and lower energy production and nutrient uptake. Moreover, a deficient antioxidant system in Xoo made it very sensitive to PCA.

  12. Transcriptome-Based Identification of Differently Expressed Genes from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Exhibiting Different Virulence in Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Tae-Hwan; Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Hong-Il; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcription patterns of two Xoo strains (KACC10331 and HB1009), which showed different virulence patterns against eight rice cultivars, including IRBB21 (carrying Xa21). In total, 743 genes showed a significant change (p-value < 0.001 in t-tests) in their mRNA expression levels in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 strain (K1 race). Among them, four remarkably enriched GO terms, DNA binding, transposition, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, and cellular macromolecule metabolic process, were identified in the upregulated genes. In addition, the expression of 44 genes was considerably higher (log2 fold changes > 2) in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain than in the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain. Furthermore, 13 and 12 genes involved in hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) and two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), respectively, were upregulated in the HB1009 (K3a race) strain compared with the Xoo KACC10331 (K1 race) strain, which we determined using either quantitative real-time PCR analysis or next-generation RNA sequencing. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of Xoo and to gain a better insight into the Xoo–rice interactions. PMID:26907259

  13. New Hybrid Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Surface Modified With Catecholate Type Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, Ivana A.; Šaponjić, Zoran V.; Džunuzović, Enis S.; Nedeljković, Jovan M.

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å) with bidentate benzene derivatives (catechol, pyrogallol, and gallic acid) was found to alter optical properties of nanoparticles. The formation of the inner-sphere charge-transfer complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for chelating surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes (catecholate type of binuclear bidentate binding-bridging) thus restoring in six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From the Benesi-Hildebrand plot, the stability constants at pH 2 of the order 103 M-1 have been determined.

  14. Structure-based drug design of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors for CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiguo; Liu, Hongming; Wu, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is of great importance in pharmacology because it catalyzes the metabolism (methylation) of endogenous and xenobiotic catechols. Moreover, inhibition of COMT is the drug target in the management of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as Parkinson's disease due to its role in regulation of the dopamine level in the brain. The X-ray crystal structures for COMT have been available since 1994. The active sites for cofactor and substrate/inhibitor binding are well resolved to an atomic level, providing valuable insights into the catalytic mechanisms as well as the role of magnesium ions in catalysis. Determination of how the substrates/inhibitors bind to the protein leads to a structure-based approach that has resulted in potent and selective inhibitors. This review focuses on the design of two types of inhibitors (nitrocatechol-type and bisubstrate inhibitors) for COMT using the protein structures. PMID:23713800

  15. Polymeric Framboidal Nanoparticles Loaded with a Carbon Monoxide Donor via Phenylboronic Acid-Catechol Complexation.

    PubMed

    van der Vlies, André J; Inubushi, Ryosuke; Uyama, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Urara

    2016-06-15

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an essential gaseous signaling molecule in the human body. Toward the controlled delivery of CO to the target tissues or cells, nanomaterial-based CO donors have attracted growing attention. Here, we present CO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles (CONPs) prepared by simple mixing of phenylboronic acid-containing framboidal nanoparticles with the catechol-bearing CO-donor Ru(CO)3Cl(L-DOPA) via phenylboronic acid-catechol complexation. The CONPs release CO in response to cysteine and suppress the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin 6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. This CONP platform may show promise in therapeutic applications of CO.

  16. Catechol Removal from Aqueous Media Using Laccase Immobilized in Different Macro- and Microreactor Systems.

    PubMed

    Tušek, Ana Jurinjak; Šalić, Anita; Zelić, Bruno

    2017-01-23

    Laccase belongs to the group of enzymes that are capable to catalyze the oxidation of phenols. Since the water is only by-product in laccase-catalyzed phenol oxidations, it is ideally "green" enzyme with many possible applications in different industrial processes. To make the oxidation process more sustainable in terms of biocatalyst consumption, immobilization of the enzyme is implemented in to the processes. Additionally, when developing a process, choice of a reactor type plays a significant role in the total outcome.In this study, the use of immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor for biocatalytic catechol oxidation was explored. Two different methods of immobilization were performed and compared using five different reactor types. In order to compare different systems used for catechol oxidation, biocatalyst turnover number and turnover frequency were calculated. With low consumption of the enzyme and good efficiency, obtained results go in favor of microreactors with enzyme covalently immobilized on the microchannel surface.

  17. Robust Alginate-Catechol@Polydopamine Free-Standing Membranes Obtained from the Water/Air Interface.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Florian; Le Houerou, Vincent; Zafeiratos, Spyridon; Gauthier, Christian; Garnier, Tony; Jierry, Loic; Ball, Vincent

    2017-03-07

    The formation of polydopamine composite membranes at the water/air interface using different chemical strategies is reported. The use of either small molecules (urea, pyrocatechol) or polymers paves the way to understand which kind of compounds can be used for the formation of PDA-composite free-standing membranes produced at the water/air interface. On the basis of these screening results, we have found that alginate grafted with catechol groups allows the formation of robust free-standing films with asymmetric composition, stimuli-responsiveness, and self-healing properties. The stickiness of these membranes depends on the relative humidity, and its adhesion behavior on PDMS was characterized using the JKR method. Thus, alginate-catechol polydopamine films appear as a new class of PDA composites, mechanically robust through covalent cross-linking and based on fully biocompatible constituting partners. These results open the door to potential applications in the biomedical field.

  18. Theoretical calculations of a compound formed by Fe(+3) and tris(catechol).

    PubMed

    Kara, İzzet; Kara, Yeşim; Öztürk Kiraz, Aslı; Mammadov, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds generally have special smell, easily soluble in water, organic solvents (alcohols, esters, chloroform, ethyl acetate), in aqueous solutions of bases, colorless or colorful, crystalline and amorphous materials. Phenols form colorful complexes when they form compounds with heavy metals. In this study, the structural properties of a compound formed by catechol and Fe(+3) are investigated theoretically. The electronic and thermodynamic properties of the complex were also investigated in gas phase and organic solvents at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The formation of Fe-tris(catechol) complex compound is exothermic, and it is difficult to obtain the complex as the temperature increases. The observed and calculated FT-IR and geometric parameters spectra are in good agreement with empirical.

  19. Regiocomplementary O-Methylation of Catechols by Using Three-Enzyme Cascades.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Jutta; Aschwanden, Simon; Mordhorst, Silja; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael; Andexer, Jennifer N

    2015-12-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent enzymes have great potential for selective alkylation processes. In this study we investigated the regiocomplementary O-methylation of catechols. Enzymatic methylation is often hampered by the need for a stoichiometric supply of SAM and the inhibitory effect of the SAM-derived byproduct on most methyltransferases. To counteract these issues we set up an enzyme cascade. Firstly, SAM was generated from l-methionine and ATP by use of an archaeal methionine adenosyltransferase. Secondly, 4-O-methylation of the substrates dopamine and dihydrocaffeic acid was achieved by use of SafC from the saframycin biosynthesis pathway in 40-70 % yield and high selectivity. The regiocomplementary 3-O-methylation was catalysed by catechol O-methyltransferase from rat. Thirdly, the beneficial influence of a nucleosidase on the overall conversion was demonstrated. The results of this study are important milestones on the pathway to catalytic SAM-dependent alkylation processes.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a catechol-O-methyltransferase/inhibitor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. L.; Bonifácio, M. J.; Soares-da-Silva, P.; Carrondo, M. A.; Archer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase has been co-crystallized with a novel inhibitor, which has potential therapeutic application in the Parkinson’s disease therapy. Inhibitors of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are used as co-adjuvants in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease. A recombinant form of the soluble cytosolic COMT from rat has been co-crystallized with a new potent inhibitor, BIA 8-176 [(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)phenylmethanone], by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6K as precipitant. Crystals diffract to 1.6 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.77, b = 79.63, c = 61.54 Å, β = 91.14°.

  1. Catechols and 3-hydroxypyridones as inhibitors of the DNA repair complex ERCC1-XPF.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Timothy M; Gillen, Kevin J; Wallace, Claire; Lee, Maximillian T; Bakrania, Preeti; Khurana, Puneet; Coombs, Peter J; Stennett, Laura; Fox, Simon; Bureau, Emilie A; Brownlees, Janet; Melton, David W; Saxty, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Catechol-based inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF endonuclease activity were identified from a high-throughput screen. Exploration of the structure-activity relationships within this series yielded compound 13, which displayed an ERCC1-XPF IC50 of 0.6 μM, high selectivity against FEN-1 and DNase I and activity in nucleotide excision repair, cisplatin enhancement and γH2AX assays in A375 melanoma cells. Screening of fragments as potential alternatives to the catechol group revealed that 3-hydroxypyridones are able to inhibit ERCC1-XPF with high ligand efficiency, and elaboration of the hit gave compounds 36 and 37 which showed promising ERCC1-XPF IC50 values of <10 μM.

  2. Removal of catechol from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto organophilic-bentonite.

    PubMed

    Shakir, K; Ghoneimy, H F; Elkafrawy, A F; Beheir, Sh G; Refaat, M

    2008-02-11

    Organophilic-bentonite, produced by exchange of cetyltrimethylammonium cation for metal cations on the bentonite, was exploited as adsorbent for removal of catechol from aqueous solutions using batch technique. The dependence of removal on various physico-chemical parameters, such as contact time (1-250 min), concentration (0.8-15.3 mmol L(-1)), temperature (30, 40, 50+/-1 degrees C) and pH (5-12) of the adsorptive solution were investigated. Obtained results show that catechol could be removed efficiently ( approximately 100%) at pH values > or =9.9. The uptake process follows first-order rate kinetics and the equilibrium data fit well into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms over a wide range of concentration (1-10 mmol L(-1)). The magnitude of change of free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were determined.

  3. Catechol-substituted L-chicoric acid analogues as HIV integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yeol; Yoon, Kwon Joong; Lee, Yong Sup

    2003-12-15

    HIV integrase catalyzes the integration of HIV DNA copy into the host cell DNA, which is essential for the production of progeny viruses. L-Chicoric acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids, isolated from plants, are well known potent inhibitors of HIV integrase. The common structural features of these inhibitors are caffeic acid derivatives connected to tartaric acid or quinic acid through ester bonds. In the present study, we have synthesized and tested the inhibitory activities of a new type of HIV IN inhibitors, which has catechol groups in place of caffeoyl groups in the structure of L-chicoric acid. Upon substitution of catechol groups at succinic acid, pyrrole-dicarboxylic acid, maleimide or maleic anhydride, the inhibitory activities (IC(50)=3.8-23.6 microM) were retained or remarkably increased when compared to parent compound L-chicoric acid (IC(50)=13.7 microM).

  4. Ancient origin and recent range expansion of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais, and its genealogical relationship to the rice weevil S. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A S; Vinson, C C; Braga, L S; Guedes, R N C; de Oliveira, L O

    2017-02-01

    Archeological records attest the early association of Sitophilus with stored cereals from the beginning of agriculture on Asia. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) became particularly damaging to maize, a cereal crop domesticated on Mesoamerica. We investigated the late evolutionary history of the maize weevil to gain insights on its origin, timing of association with maize, and genealogical relationship to the almost morphologically indistinguishable rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae). Two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome oxidase subunit II) and the nuclear ribosomal gene region were partially sequenced. Analyses showed that the maize weevil shared no haplotypes with the rice weevil; instead, each species exhibited distinct mitogroups and ribogroups. The two weevil species likely split about 8.7 million years ago (95% highest posterior density: 4.0-15.0). Microsatellite data analyses sorted the 309 specimens from 15 populations of the maize weevil into three genotypic groups, which displayed low genetic differentiation and widespread occurrence worldwide. The maize weevil and the rice weevil are each a distinct species; both of which emerged prior to the onset of agriculture. The maize-maize weevil association took place after maize became widespread as a global crop. The maize weevil populations lack spatial genetic structure at the regional, continental, and intercontinental scales.

  5. The promoting effects of alginate oligosaccharides on root development in Oryza sativa L. mediated by auxin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhong; Yin, Heng; Zhao, Xiaoming; Wang, Wenxia; Du, Yuguang; He, Ailing; Sun, Kegang

    2014-11-26

    Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), which are marine oligosaccharides, are involved in regulating plant root growth, but the promotion mechanism for AOS remains unclear. Here, AOS (10-80 mg/L) induced the expression of auxin-related gene (OsYUCCA1, OsYUCCA5, OsIAA11 and OsPIN1) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues to accelerate auxin biosynthesis and transport, and reduced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase activity in rice roots. These changes resulted in the increase of 37.8% in IAA concentration in rice roots, thereby inducing the expression of root development-related genes, promoting root growth in a dose-dependent manner, which were inhibited by auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA) and calcium-chelating agent ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA). AOS also induced calcium signaling generation in rice roots. Those results indicated that auxin mediated AOS regulation of root development, and calcium signaling may act mainly in the upstream of auxin in the regulation of AOS on rice root development.

  6. High production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to various reader proteins by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by Aspergillus oryzae. These fusion proteins consisted of N-terminal reader proteins, VHH, and a C-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of VHH and the respective reader proteins. The apparent high molecular weight reader protein glucoamylase (GlaB) was found to be suitable for efficient VHH production. The GlaB-VHH-His protein bound its antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and was detectable by a new ELISA-based method using a coupled assay with glucoamylase, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, maltose, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. Addition of potassium phosphate to the culture medium induced secretion of 0.61 mg GlaB-VHH-His protein/ml culture medium in 5 days.

  7. Computational Investigation of the Interplay of Substrate Positioning and Reactivity in Catechol O-Methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Patra, Niladri; Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-01-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a SAM- and Mg2+-dependent methyltransferase that regulates neurotransmitters through methylation. Simulations and experiments have identified divergent catecholamine substrate orientations in the COMT active site: molecular dynamics simulations have favored a monodentate coordination of catecholate substrates to the active site Mg2+, and crystal structures instead preserve bidentate coordination along with short (2.65 Å) methyl donor-acceptor distances. We carry out longer dynamics (up to 350 ns) to quantify interconversion between bidentate and monodentate binding poses. We provide a systematic determination of the relative free energy of the monodentate and bidentate structures in order to identify whether structural differences alter the nature of the methyl transfer mechanism and source of enzymatic rate enhancement. We demonstrate that the bidentate and monodentate binding modes are close in energy but separated by a 7 kcal/mol free energy barrier. Analysis of interactions in the two binding modes reveals that the driving force for monodentate catecholate orientations in classical molecular dynamics simulations is derived from stronger electrostatic stabilization afforded by alternate Mg2+ coordination with strongly charged active site carboxylates. Mixed semi-empirical-classical (SQM/MM) substrate C-O distances (2.7 Å) for the bidentate case are in excellent agreement with COMT X-ray crystal structures, as long as charge transfer between the substrates, Mg2+, and surrounding ligands is permitted. SQM/MM free energy barriers for methyl transfer from bidentate and monodentate catecholate configurations are comparable at around 21-22 kcal/mol, in good agreement with experiment (18-19 kcal/mol). Overall, the work suggests that both binding poses are viable for methyl transfer, and accurate descriptions of charge transfer and electrostatics are needed to provide balanced relative barriers when multiple binding poses are

  8. Extraction of metals from metal ion-catechol-quaternary base systems.

    PubMed

    Vrchlabský, M; Sommer, L

    1968-09-01

    Methods are given for the extraction of iron(III), molybdenum(VI), titanium(IV), niobium(V), vanadium(IV), uranium(VI) and tungsten(VI) as ternary complexes with catechol and a quaternary cation such as n-butyltriphenylphosphonium, n-propyltriphenylphosphonium, tetraphenylarsonium, cetylpyridinium, cetyltrimethylammonium and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium, the solvent being chloroform. By use of masking agents and pH control, some of these elements can be separated from each other by this means.

  9. Secretion, but not overall synthesis, of catecholate siderophores contributes to virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Caza, Mélissa; Lépine, François; Dozois, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) use siderophores to sequester iron during infection. Enterobactin and salmochelins are catecholate siderophores produced by some ExPEC strains and other pathogenic enterobacteria. Siderophore export and synthesis mutants of avian ExPEC strain χ7122 were tested in a chicken infection model. In single-strain infections, siderophore-negative (ΔentDΔiuc), ΔentS and ΔentSΔiroC export mutants were attenuated in tissues and blood, whereas the ΔiroC export mutant was only attenuated in blood. Interestingly, the ΔentD mutant, producing only aerobactin, retained full virulence, and loss of entD in the ΔentSΔiroC mutant restored virulence. LC-MS/MS quantification of siderophores in export mutants demonstrated that loss of entS impaired enterobactin and mono-glucosylated enterobactin secretion, whereas loss of iroC impaired di- and tri-glucosylated enterobactin secretion. Loss of entS and/or iroC resulted in intracellular accumulation and increased secretion of siderophore monomers. Catecholate siderophore export mutants also demonstrated decreased fitness in a co-challenge infection model. By contrast, catecholate siderophore synthesis mutants (ΔentD and ΔiroB) competed as well as the wild-type strain. Results establish that EntS and IroC mediate specific export of catecholate siderophores and the role of these exporters for ExPEC virulence is contingent on enterobactin synthesis, which is not required when other siderophores like aerobactin are functional.

  10. Computational Investigation of the Interplay of Substrate Positioning and Reactivity in Catechol O-Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Niladri; Ioannidis, Efthymios I.

    2016-01-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a SAM- and Mg2+-dependent methyltransferase that regulates neurotransmitters through methylation. Simulations and experiments have identified divergent catecholamine substrate orientations in the COMT active site: molecular dynamics simulations have favored a monodentate coordination of catecholate substrates to the active site Mg2+, and crystal structures instead preserve bidentate coordination along with short (2.65 Å) methyl donor-acceptor distances. We carry out longer dynamics (up to 350 ns) to quantify interconversion between bidentate and monodentate binding poses. We provide a systematic determination of the relative free energy of the monodentate and bidentate structures in order to identify whether structural differences alter the nature of the methyl transfer mechanism and source of enzymatic rate enhancement. We demonstrate that the bidentate and monodentate binding modes are close in energy but separated by a 7 kcal/mol free energy barrier. Analysis of interactions in the two binding modes reveals that the driving force for monodentate catecholate orientations in classical molecular dynamics simulations is derived from stronger electrostatic stabilization afforded by alternate Mg2+ coordination with strongly charged active site carboxylates. Mixed semi-empirical-classical (SQM/MM) substrate C-O distances (2.7 Å) for the bidentate case are in excellent agreement with COMT X-ray crystal structures, as long as charge transfer between the substrates, Mg2+, and surrounding ligands is permitted. SQM/MM free energy barriers for methyl transfer from bidentate and monodentate catecholate configurations are comparable at around 21–22 kcal/mol, in good agreement with experiment (18–19 kcal/mol). Overall, the work suggests that both binding poses are viable for methyl transfer, and accurate descriptions of charge transfer and electrostatics are needed to provide balanced relative barriers when multiple binding poses are

  11. Carbonyl side-chain of catechol compounds is a key structure for the suppression of copper-associated oxidative DNA damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ando, Motozumi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Nishino, Yoshihiko; Ohbayashi, Manabu; Ueda, Koji; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Kojima, Nakao

    2010-12-15

    Catechol is possibly carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC). The key mechanism could include its oxidative DNA-damaging effect in combination with reductive-oxidative metals like Cu. We found that DNA damage was suppressed by introducing an α-carbonyl group to catechol at C4-position to produce carbonyl catechols. During the oxidative DNA-damaging process, catechols but not carbonyl catechols were oxidized to o-quinone; however, coexisting Cu(II) was reduced to Cu(I). Carbonyl catechols were possibly arrested at the oxidation step of semiquinones in the presence of Cu(II). Cu(I)-binding to DNA was stronger than Cu(II)-binding, on the basis of the circular dichroism spectral change. None of the carbonyl catechols induced such change, suggesting sequestration of Cu(I) from DNA. Solid-phase extraction experiments and spectrophotometric analyses showed the formation of semiquinone chelates with Cu(I). Thus, chelate formation could explain the suppression mechanism of the Cu-catechol-dependent DNA damage by terminating the reduction-oxidation cycle. Structural modifications such as introducing an α-carbonyl group to catechol at C4-position would contribute to reducing the risk and improving industrial and medical potentials of aromatic/phenolic compounds sustaining our daily lives.

  12. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  13. Natural Compounds as Modulators of NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals generated ubiquitously by all mammalian cells, but their relative unbalance triggers also diseases through intracellular damage to DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the only known enzyme family with the sole function to produce ROS. The NOX physiological functions concern host defence, cellular signaling, regulation of gene expression, and cell differentiation. On the other hand, increased NOX activity contributes to a wide range of pathological processes, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, organ failure, and cancer. Therefore targeting these enzymatic ROS sources by natural compounds, without affecting the physiological redox state, may be an important tool. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role of NOX enzymes in physiology and pathology and provides an overview of the currently available NADPH oxidase inhibitors derived from natural extracts such as polyphenols. PMID:24381714

  14. Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of oxidases contains a group of extracellular copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking of collagen and elastin by oxidation, thus maintaining the rigidity and structural stability of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Aberrant expression or activation of LOX alters the cellular microenvironment, leading to many diseases, including atherosclerosis, tissue fibrosis, and cancer. Recently, a number of studies have shown that LOX is overexpressed in most cancers and that it is involved in the regulation of tumor progression and metastasis. In contrast, a few reports have also indicated the tumor-suppressing role of LOX. In this short review, we discuss recent research on the correlations between LOX and cancer. Further, the role of LOX in tumor microenvironment remodeling, tumorigenesis, and metastasis and the underlying mechanisms have also been elucidated. PMID:28036074

  15. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the Gram-positive Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: quantitative structure/activity relationship and the crystal structures of native enzyme and catechols adducts.

    PubMed

    Matera, Irene; Ferraroni, Marta; Kolomytseva, Marina; Golovleva, Ludmila; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2010-06-01

    The first crystallographic structures of a catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP (Rho 1,2-CTD), a Fe(III) ion containing enzyme specialized in the aerobic biodegradation of catechols, and its adducts with catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol (benzene-1,2,3-triol), 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) have been determined and analyzed. This study represents the first extensive characterization of catechols adducts of 1,2-CTDs. The structural analyses reveal the diverse modes of binding to the active metal iron ion of the tested catechols thus allowing to identify the residues selectively involved in recognition of the diverse substrates by this class of enzymes. The comparison is further extended to the structural and functional characteristics of the other 1,2-CTDs isolated from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover the high structural homology of the present enzyme with the 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase from the same bacterium are discussed in terms of their different substrate specificity. The catalytic rates for Rho 1,2-CTD conversion of the tested compounds are also compared with the calculated energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) of the substrates. A quantitative relationship (R=0.966) between the ln k(cat) and the calculated electronic parameter E(HOMO) was obtained for catechol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, 3-chlorocatechol, 4-chlorocatechol. This indicates that for these substrates the rate-limiting step of the reaction cycle is dependent on their nucleophilic reactivity. The discrepancies observed in the quantitative relationship for 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol and protocatechuate are ascribed to the sterical hindrances leading to the distorted binding of such catechols observed in the corresponding structures.

  16. Effect of Metal Ions on the Formation of Trichloronitromethane during Chlorination of Catechol and Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Gan, Guojuan; Mei, Rongwu; Qiu, Lin; Hong, Huachang; Wang, Qingjun; Mazumder, Asit; Wu, Shikai; Pan, Xiangliang; Liang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Catechol, nitrite, and dissolved metals are ubiquitous in source drinking water. Catechol and nitrite have been identified as precursors for halonitromethanes (HNMs), but the effect of metal ions on HNM formation during chlorination remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of metal ions (Fe, Ti, Al) on the formation of trichloronitromethane (TCNM) (the most representative HNM species in disinfected water) on chlorinating catechol and nitrite. Trichloronitromethane was extracted by methyl tert-butyl ether and detected by gas chromatography. The results show that metal ions promoted the formation of TCNM and that the enhancement efficiency followed the order of Fe > Ti > Al. Trichloronitromethane formation increased greatly within 2 h, and a basic condition (pH 8-9) favored TCNM formation more than acidic or neutral conditions. The conjoint effect of the metal-ion mixtures was shown to be similar to that of the single metal ion having the highest promoting effect on TCNM formation. Our results strongly suggest that metal ions play a significant role in enhancing TCNM formation.

  17. Cloning and expression of a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-02-04

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson's disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson's disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog.

  18. Secondary Organic Aerosol formation from the gas-phase reaction of catechol with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coeur-Tourneur, C.; Tomas, A.; Guilloteau, A.; Henry, F.; Ledoux, F.; Visez, N.; Riffault, V.; Wenger, J. C.; Bedjanian, Y.; Foulon, V.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol from the gas-phase reaction of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) with ozone has been studied in two smog chambers (at the LPCA in France and at the CRAC in Ireland). Aerosol production was monitored using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The overall organic aerosol yield (Y) was determined as the ratio of the suspended aerosol mass corrected for wall losses (Mo) to the total reacted catechol concentrations, assuming a particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Analysis of the data clearly shows that Y is a strong function of Mo and that secondary organic aerosol formation can be expressed by a one-product gas/particle partitioning absorption model. The aerosol formation is affected by the initial catechol concentration, which leads to aerosol yields ranging from 17% to 86%. The aerosol yields determined in the LPCA and CRAC smog chambers were comparable and were also in accordance with those determined in a previous study performed in EUPHORE (EUropean PHOto REactor, Spain).

  19. A catechol biosensor based on a gold nanoparticles encapsulated-dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra P

    2011-03-21

    Tyrosinase has been immobilized on a Au nanoparticles encapsulated-dendrimer bonded conducting polymer on a glassy carbon electrode for the estimation of catechol. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and AFM techniques. The principle of catechol estimation was based on the reduction of biocatalytically liberated quinone species at +0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl (3 M KCl), with good stability, sensitivity, and featuring a low detection limit (about 0.002 μM) and wide linear range (0.005 μM-120 μM). The electrochemical redox peak of catechol on the GCE/PolyPATT/Den(AuNPs)/tyrosinase was also investigated. A response time of 7 s, reusability up to 5 cycles and a shelf life of more than 2 months under refrigerated conditions were reported. Various parameters influencing biosensor performance have been optimized including pH, temperature, and applied potential. The utility and application of this nanobiosensor was tested in a real water samples.

  20. Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: purification and properties.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R N; Hou, C T; Felix, A; Lillard, M O

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the purification of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from extracts of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain ADP-96 are described. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by ultracentrifugation and acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme contained 2 g-atoms of iron per mol of protein. The enzyme had a broad substrate specificity and catalyzed the oxidation of catechol, 4-methylcatechol, 3-methylcatechol, and 3-isopropyl catechol. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by heavy metals, sulfhydryl inhibitors, and substrate analogues. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 85,000 as estimated by filtration on Bio-Gel agarose and 81,000 as estimated by sedimentation equilibrium analysis. The subunit size determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis was 40,000. The amino terminal amino acid was methionine. The amino acid composition and spectral properties of 1,2-dioxygenase are also presented. Antisera prepared against the purified enzyme cross-reacted and inhibited enzyme activity in crude extracts from the other strain of A. calcoaceticus, but failed to cross-react and inhibit isofunctional enzyme from organisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Nocardia. Images PMID:58860

  1. Three-Dimensional Metal-Catecholate Frameworks and Their Ultrahigh Proton Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung T T; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Gándara, Felipe; Trickett, Christopher A; Jeong, Hyung Mo; Cordova, Kyle E; Yaghi, Omar M

    2015-12-16

    A series of three-dimensional (3D) extended metal catecholates (M-CATs) was synthesized by combining the appropriate metal salt and the hexatopic catecholate linker, H6THO (THO(6-) = triphenylene-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakis(olate)) to give Fe(THO)·Fe(SO4) (DMA)3, Fe-CAT-5, Ti(THO)·(DMA)2, Ti-CAT-5, and V(THO)·(DMA)2, V-CAT-5 (where DMA = dimethylammonium). Their structures are based on the srs topology and are either a 2-fold interpenetrated (Fe-CAT-5 and Ti-CAT-5) or noninterpenetrated (V-CAT-5) porous anionic framework. These examples are among the first catecholate-based 3D frameworks. The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of the Fe-CAT-5 shows bound sulfate ligands with DMA guests residing in the pores as counterions, and thus ideally suited for proton conductivity. Accordingly, Fe-CAT-5 exhibits ultrahigh proton conductivity (5.0 × 10(-2) S cm(-1)) at 98% relative humidity (RH) and 25 °C. The coexistence of sulfate and DMA ions within the pores play an important role in proton conductivity as also evidenced by the lower conductivity values found for Ti-CAT-5 (8.2 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 98% RH and 25 °C), whose structure only contained DMA guests.

  2. Adsorptive removal of aniline by granular activated carbon from aqueous solutions with catechol and resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Srivastava, V C; Mishrab, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, the removal of aniline by adsorption process onto granular activated carbon (GAC) is reported from aqueous solutions containing catechol and resorcinol separately. The Taguchi experimental design was applied to study the effect of such parameters as the initial component concentrations (C(0,i)) of two solutes (aniline and catechol or aniline and resorcinol) in the solution, temperature (T), adsorbent dosage (m) and contact time (t). The L27 orthogonal array consisting of five parameters each with three levels was used to determine the total amount of solutes adsorbed on GAC (q(tot), mmol/g) and the signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the ANOVA shows that m is the most important parameter in the adsorption process. The most favourable levels of process parameters were T = 303 K, m = 10 g/l and t = 660 min for both the systems, qtot values in the confirmation experiments carried out at optimum conditions were 0.73 and 0.95 mmol/g for aniline-catechol and aniline-resorcinol systems, respectively.

  3. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0–30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation. PMID:26621792

  4. Cloning and expression of a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase in common marmosets

    PubMed Central

    UEHARA, Shotaro; UNO, Yasuhiro; INOUE, Takashi; SASAKI, Erika; YAMAZAKI, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson’s disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson’s disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog. PMID:27890888

  5. Less is more: reduced catechol production permits Pseudomonas putida F1 to grow on styrene.

    PubMed

    George, Kevin W; Hay, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Pseudomonas putida F1 is unable to grow on styrene due to the accumulation of 3-vinylcatechol, a toxic metabolite that is produced through the toluene degradation (tod) pathway and causes catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) inactivation. In this study, we characterized a spontaneous F1 mutant, designated SF1, which acquired the ability to grow on styrene and did not accumulate 3-vinylcatechol. Whereas adaptation to new aromatic substrates has typically been shown to involve increased C23O activity or the acquisition of resistance to C23O inactivation, SF1 retained wild-type C23O activity. Surprisingly, SF1 grew more slowly on toluene, its native substrate, and exhibited reduced toluene dioxygenase (TDO) activity (approximately 50 % of that of F1), the enzyme responsible for ring hydroxylation and subsequent production of 3-vinylcatechol. DNA sequence analysis of the tod operon of SF1 revealed a single base pair mutation in todA (C479T), a gene encoding the reductase component of TDO. Replacement of the wild-type todA allele in F1 with todA(C479T) reduced TDO activity to SF1 levels, obviated vinylcatechol accumulation, and conferred the ability to grow on styrene. This novel 'less is more' strategy - reduced catechol production as a means to expand growth substrate range - sheds light on an alternative approach for managing catechol toxicity during the metabolism of aromatic compounds.

  6. Isolation and characterization of two novel halotolerant Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenases from a halophilic bacterial consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guang; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Chongyang; Huang, Yong; Tian, Fang; Cui, Qijia; Wang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Study of enzymes in halophiles will help to understand the mechanism of aromatic hydrocarbons degradation in saline environment. In this study, two novel catechol 2,3-dioxygenases (C23O1 and C23O2) were cloned and overexpressed from a halophilic bacterial consortium enriched from an oil-contaminated saline soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the novel C23Os and their relatives formed a new branch in subfamily I.2.A of extradiol dioxygenases and the sequence differences were further analyzed by amino acid sequence alignment. Two enzymes with the halotolerant feature were active over a range of 0-30% salinity and they performed more stable at high salinity than in the absence of salt. Surface electrostatic potential and amino acids composition calculation suggested high acidic residues content, accounting for their tolerance to high salinity. Moreover, two enzymes were further characterized. The enzymes activity both increased in the presence of Fe3+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and showed no significant inhibition by other tested metal ions. The optimal temperatures for the C23Os were 40 °C and 60 °C and their best substrates were catechol and 4-methylcatechol respectively. As the firstly isolated and characterized catechol dioxygenases from halophiles, the two halotolerant C23Os presented novel characteristics suggesting their potential application in aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

  7. Computational studies of catechol and water interactions with titanium oxide nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Redfern, P. C.; Zapol, P.; Curtiss, L. A.; Rajh, T.; Thurnauer, M.

    2003-10-16

    The interaction of catechol and water with titanium oxide nanoparticles was investigated using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. Hydrogen-terminated TiO{sub 2} clusters were used to model the surface of anatase nanoparticles. The calculations indicate that catechol reacts with a Ti{double_bond}O defect site on the surface to form a bidentate structure that is favored over dissociative or molecular adsorption on the (101) anatase surface. The dissociative adsorption of catechol at the defect site leads to a much larger red shift in the TiO{sub 2} excitation energy than molecular adsorption on the (101) anatase surface on the basis of ZINDO/S calculations. This is consistent with recent experimental results on small (<2 nm) titania nanoparticles. The calculations on water adsorption indicate that it can also add to the Ti{double_bond}O double bond site. However, molecular adsorption of water on the (101) anatase surface is more favorable.

  8. Catechol-rhodanine derivatives: Specific and promiscuous inhibitors of Escherichia coli deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR).

    PubMed

    Zinglé, Catherine; Tritsch, Denis; Grosdemange-Billiard, Catherine; Rohmer, Michel

    2014-07-15

    To develop more effective inhibitors than fosmidomycin, a natural compound which inhibits the deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), the second enzyme of the MEP pathway, we designed molecules possessing on the one hand a catechol that is able to chelate the magnesium dication and on the other hand a group able to occupy the NADPH recognition site. Catechol-rhodanine derivatives (1-6) were synthesized and their potential inhibition was tested on the DXR of Escherichia coli. For the inhibitors 1 and 2, the presence of detergent in the enzymatic assays led to a dramatic decrease of the inhibition suggesting, that these compounds are rather promiscuous inhibitors. The compounds 4 and 5 kept their inhibition capacity in the presence of Triton X100 and could be considered as specific inhibitors of DXR. Compound 4 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The only partial protection of NADPH against the inhibition suggested that the catechol-rhodanine derivatives did not settle in the coenzyme binding site. This paper points out the necessity to include a detergent in the DXR enzymatic assays to avoid false positive when putative hydrophobic inhibitors are tested and especially when the IC50, are in the micromolar range.

  9. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxic control of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Erler, Janine T; Giaccia, Amato J

    2006-11-01

    Hypoxic cancer cells pose a great challenge to the oncologist because they are especially aggressive, metastatic, and resistant to therapy. Recently, we showed that elevation of the extracellular matrix protein lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic disease and is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In an orthotopic rodent model of breast cancer, a small-molecule or antibody inhibitor of LOX abolished metastasis, offering preclinical validation of this enzyme as a therapeutic target.

  10. Ligand interactions with galactose oxidase: mechanistic insights.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, M M; Whittaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between galactose oxidase and small molecules have been explored using a combination of optical absorption, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies to detect complex formation and characterize the products. Anions bind directly to the cupric center in both active and inactive galactose oxidase, converting to complexes with optical and EPR spectra that are distinctly different from those of the starting aquo enzyme. Azide binding is coupled to stoichiometric proton uptake by the enzyme, reflecting the generation of a strong base (pKa > 9) in the active site anion adduct. At low temperature, the aquo enzyme converts to a form that exhibits the characteristic optical and EPR spectra of an anion complex, apparently reflecting deprotonation of the coordinated water. Anion binding results in a loss of the optical transition arising from coordinated tyrosine, implying displacement of the axial tyrosine ligand on forming the adduct. Nitric oxide binds to galactose oxidase, forming a specific complex exhibiting an unusual EPR spectrum with all g values below 2. The absence of Cu splitting in this spectrum and the observation that the cupric EPR signal from the active site metal ion is not significantly decreased in the complex suggest a nonmetal interaction site for NO in galactose oxidase. These results have been interpreted in terms of a mechanistic scheme where substrate binding displaces a tyrosinate ligand from the active site cupric ion, generating a base that may serve to deprotonate the coordinated hydroxyl group of the substrate, activating it for oxidation. The protein-NO interactions may probe a nonmetal O2 binding site in this enzyme. PMID:8386015

  11. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  12. Tetrazolium Oxidase Polymorphism in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Yoshida, Akira

    1972-01-01

    Tetrazolium oxidase from the blood and liver of rainbow trout was found to be genetically polymorphic. The inheritance pattern of the liver enzyme was compatible only with a one locus-two allele hypothesis. The enzymes in the blood while having an electrophoretically identical polymorphism could differ genotypically from that of the liver in a given fish. The significance of these findings to the understanding of the evolution of the salmonid genome is discussed. PMID:4675090

  13. High Affinity Iron Permease is Required for Virulence of Rhizopus oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizopus oryzae is the most common cause of mucormycosis. Clinical and animal model data clearly demonstrate that the presence of elevated available serum iron predisposes the host to develop mucormycosis. The high affinity iron permease gene (rFTR1) is required for R. oryzae iron transport in iro...

  14. Alternatively spliced transcripts of Pi-ta blast resistance gene in Oryza sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae containing its cognate avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is a single-copy gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. In the present study, w...

  15. Identification, Biochemical Characterization, and Evolution of the Rhizopus oryzae 99-880 Polygalacturonase Gene Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A search of the recently sequenced Rhizopus oryzae strain 99-880 genome database uncovered 18 putative polygalacturonase genes with 2 genes being identical and only 1 with similarity to a previously reported R. oryzae polygalacturonase gene. The 17 different genes share 50% to greater than 90% iden...

  16. Characterization of field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae with mating type, DNA fingerprinting, and pathogenicity assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the harmful nature of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, it is beneficial to characterize field isolates to help aid in the deployment of resistance (R) genes in rice. In the present study, 190 field isolates of M. oryzae, collected from rice fields of Yunnan province in China, were a...

  17. Exploring the use of Oryza species to enhance the lipid fraction of cultivated rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few several years, efforts to collect rice germplasm were broadened to collect more widely from the Oryza genepool. The Oryza genus includes only 23 species, but it is remarkably diverse in-terms of its ecological adaptation. This diversity may not only be restricted to ecological charac...

  18. Arabidopsis alternative oxidase sustains Escherichia coli respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A M; Söll, D

    1992-01-01

    Glutamyl-tRNA reductase, encoded by the hemA gene, is the first enzyme in porphyrin biosynthesis in many organisms. Hemes, important porphyrin derivatives, are essential components of redox enzymes, such as cytochromes. Thus a hemA Escherichia coli strain (SASX41B) is deficient in cytochrome-mediated aerobic respiration. Upon complementation of this strain with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, we isolated a clone which permitted the SASX41B strain to grow aerobically. The clone encodes the gene for Arabidopsis alternative oxidase, whose deduced amino acid sequence was found to have 71% identity with that of the enzyme from the voodoo lily, Sauromatum guttatum. The Arabidopsis protein is expressed as a 31-kDa protein in E. coli and confers on this organism cyanide-resistant growth, which in turn is sensitive to salicylhydroxamate. This implies that a single polypeptide is sufficient for alternative oxidase activity. Based on these observations we propose that a cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway operates in the transformed E. coli hemA strain. Introduction of this pathway now opens the way to genetic/molecular biological investigations of alternative oxidase and its cofactor. Images PMID:1438286

  19. Xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase conversion in ischemic rat intestine

    SciTech Connect

    McKelvey, T.G.; Engerson, T.D.; Elmore, C.R.; Jones, H.P. )

    1990-02-26

    The ischemic conversion of the NADH-producing xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to an oxidase form, that produces both superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, has been proposed as an important step in initiating oxygen radical-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury. It has also been reported that two forms of converted oxidase are produced in ischemic rat liver; a reversible xanthine oxidase produced through sulfhydryl oxidation, that can be reconverted to XDH by incubation with 10mM dithiothreitol (Dtt) at 37{degrees}C, and a Dtt-irreversible oxidase produced via proteolysis. The authors report that increased oxidase in the ischemic rat intestine results from significant increases in both the Dtt-reversible and Dtt-irreversible forms of xanthine oxidase. Total oxidase activity (Irreversible + Dtt-reversible) was 19% of the total enzyme activity (XDH + XO) in control ileum and distal jejunum, increased to 26% after 1 hour of ischemia at 37{degrees}C, and significantly to 36% after 1.5 hours. After 3 hours 73% of the activity was in the oxidase form. Irreversible oxidase comprised 15% of the total activity in control intestine, significantly increased to 25% after 2 hours, and further to 42% after 3 hours. Dtt-reversible oxidase was 3% of the total activity in controls, increased to 13% after 1.5 hours, and significantly to 29% after 2 hours.

  20. In-vitro oxidation of bisphenol A: Is bisphenol A catechol a suitable biomarker for human exposure to bisphenol A?

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2011-01-01

    The extensive use of bisphenol A (BPA) in the manufacture of consumer products results in widespread human exposure to the chemical. In the body, BPA undergoes first-pass metabolism to form BPA glucuronide, considered to be a major BPA byproduct. Concentrations of total (free plus conjugated) urinary species of BPA are used to assess human exposure to BPA. However, because BPA can be present in numerous consumer and household products, potential contamination with parent BPA during collection and handling may pose a challenge when measuring BPA in such biological samples as blood or urine. In this study we investigated the in-vitro phase I metabolism of BPA in rat and human liver microsomes by using on-line solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify phase I metabolites (e.g., BPA oxidation products) that could be used as potential alternative biomarkers of BPA exposure. We unambiguously identified 5-hydroxy BPA (BPA catechol) as an in-vitro oxidative metabolite of BPA, but human microsomes oxidized only about 10% of BPA to BPA catechol. We evaluated the usefulness of BPA catechol as a potential biomarker of human exposure to BPA by measuring total concentrations of BPA catechol and BPA in 20 urine samples. We detected BPA catechol at much lower concentrations and frequency than those of BPA. Furthermore, we found that free BPA catechol was rather unstable in urine, which highlights the importance of sampling techniques to adequate interpretation of biomonitoring data. Together, these findings suggest that BPA catechol may not be a suitable biomarker of environmental exposure to BPA, but could be used to confirm BPA exposure in special populations or in situations when urine specimens were potentially contaminated with BPA.

  1. Impacts of surface adsorbed catechol on tropospheric aerosol surrogates: heterogeneous ozonolysis and its effects on water uptake.

    PubMed

    Woodill, Laurie A; O'Neill, Erinn M; Hinrichs, Ryan Z

    2013-07-11

    Surface adsorbed organics are ubiquitous components of inorganic tropospheric aerosols and have the potential to alter aerosol chemical and physical properties. To assess the impact of adsorbed organics on water uptake by inorganic substrates, we used diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy to compared water adsorption isotherms for uncoated NaCl and α-Al2O3 samples, samples containing a monolayer of adsorbed catechol, and adsorbed catechol samples following ozonolysis. Adsorption of gaseous catechol on to the inorganic substrates produced vibrational features indicating physisorption on NaCl and displacement of surface hydroxyl groups forming binuclear bidentate catecholate on α-Al2O3, with surface concentrations of 2-3 × 10(18) molecules m(-2). Subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis produced muconic acid at a rate 4-5 times faster on NaCl compared to α-Al2O3, with predicted atmospheric lifetimes of 4.3 and 18 h, respectively, assuming a tropospheric ozone concentration of 40 ppb. Water adsorption isotherms for all NaCl samples were indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty, indicating that these organic monolayers had negligible impact on coadsorbed water surface concentrations for these systems. α-Al2O3-catechol samples exhibited dramatically less water uptake compared to uncoated α-Al2O3, while oxidation of surface adsorbed catechol had no effect on the extent of water uptake. For both substrates, adsorbed organics increased the relative abundance of "ice-like" versus "liquid-like" water, with the effect larger for catechol than oxidized ozonolysis products. These results highlight the importance of aerosol substrate in understanding the heterogeneous ozonolysis of adsorbed polyphenols and suggest such coatings may impair ice nucleation by aluminosilicate mineral aerosol.

  2. Intervention of glutathione in pre-mutagenic catechol-mediated DNA damage in the presence of copper(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Hepel, Maria; Stobiecka, Magdalena; Peachey, Janet; Miller, Jeremiah

    2012-07-01

    The catechol-mediated DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) ions involves oxidation of guanine to 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and DNA strand scission. It proceeds through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The mutagenicity of 8-oxoG lesions is due to its miscoding propensity reflected in GC→TA transversion taking place during the DNA repair process. To gain new insights into the nature of catechol-mediated DNA damage and its prevention, we have investigated the changes in DNA melting characteristics and 8-oxoG formation as the indicators of DNA damage in a model calf-thymus DNA system. A novel fluorescence method for DNA melting temperature determination, based on DAPI fluorescent-probe staining, has been proposed. The DNA melting-onset temperature has been found to be more sensitive to DNA damage than the standard melting temperature due to the increased width of the melting transition observed in oxidatively damaged DNA. We have found that the efficiency of Fenton cascade in generating DNA-damaging ROS is higher for catechol than for GSH, two strong antioxidants, mainly due to the much longer distance between ROS-generating radical group in GS to nucleobases than that of semiquinone radical group to nucleobases (2.1nm vs. 0.27nm), making the ROS transport from GSH an order of magnitude less likely to damage DNA because of short lifetime of HO radicals. The antioxidant and DNA-protecting behaviors of GSH have been elucidated. We have found that the redox potential of GSH/GSSG couple is lower than that of catechol/semiquinone couple. Hence, GSH keeps catechol in the reduced state, thereby shutting down the initial step of the catechol-mediated Fenton cascade. The catechol-induced DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) ions has also been confirmed in studies of ON-OFF hairpin-oligonucleotide beacons.

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of sphaeropsidins and chemical derivatives toward Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Venturi, Vittorio; Masi, Marco; Degrassi, Giuliano; Cimmino, Alessio; Maddau, Lucia; Andolfi, Anna

    2011-12-27

    Sphaeropsidin A, the main phytotoxin produced by Diplodia cupressi, as well as the two natural analogues sphaeropsidins B and C and 14 derivatives obtained by chemical modifications were assayed for antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and Burkholderia glumae, the causal agents of severe bacterial rice diseases. The results showed a strong and specific activity of sphaeropsidin A against X. oryzae pv. oryzae, while no activity was observed against the other two pathogens. The results of structure-activity relationship studies showed that structural features important to impart this antibacterial activity are the presence of the C-7 carbonyl group and the hemiketalic lactone functionality. The C-13 vinyl group, the double bond of ring C, and/or the tertiary C-9 hydroxy group, as well as the pimarane arrangement of the tricylic carbon skeleton, were also important for the antibacterial activity. These findings may be useful in designing novel compounds for practical applications in agriculture.

  4. The ColRS system of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is required for virulence and growth in iron-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Pandey, Alok; Vishnu Priya, M R; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, produces siderophores only under iron-limiting conditions. We screened 15 400 mTn5-induced mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and isolated 27 mutants that produced siderophores even under iron-replete conditions. We found that the mTn5 insertions in 25 of these mutants were in or close to six genes. Mutants with insertions in five of these genes [colS, XOO1806 (a conserved hypothetical protein), acnB, prpR and prpB] exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. Insertions in a sixth gene, XOO0007 (a conserved hypothetical protein), were found to affect the ability to grow on iron-limiting medium, but did not affect the virulence. Targeted gene disruptants for colR (encoding the predicted cognate regulatory protein for ColS) also exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. colR and colS mutants were defective in the elicitation of hypersensitive response symptoms on the nonhost tomato. In addition, colR and colS mutants induced a rice basal defence response, suggesting that they are compromised in the suppression of host innate immunity. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that a functional ColRS system is required for the optimal expression of several genes encoding components of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Our results demonstrate the role of several novel genes, including colR/colS, in the promotion of growth on iron-limiting medium and the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  5. Substrate specificity of guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase and bovine milk xanthine oxidase for methyl- and nitrobenzaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Kouretas, Demetrios; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2006-01-01

    Both aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of N-heterocycles and aldehydes. These enzymes are important in the oxidation of N-heterocyclic xenobiotics, whereas their role in the oxidation of xenobiotic aldehydes is usually ignored. The present investigation describes the interaction of methyl- and nitrosubstituted benzaldehydes, in the ortho-, meta- and parapositions, with guinea pig liver aldehyde oxidase and bovine milk xanthine oxidase. The kinetic constants showed that most substituted benzaldehydes are excellent substrates of aldehyde oxidase with lower affinities for xanthine oxidase. Low Km values for aldehyde oxidase were observed with most benzaldehydes tested, with 3-nitrobenzaldehyde having the lowest Km value and 3-methylbenzaldehyde being the best substrate in terms of substrate efficiency (Ks). Additionally, low Km values for xanthine oxidase were found with most benzaldehydes tested. However, all benzaldehydes also had low Vmax values, which made them poor substrates of xanthine oxidase. It is therefore possible that aldehyde oxidase may be critical in the oxidation of xenobiotic and endobiotic derived aldehydes and its role in such reactions should not be ignored.

  6. The RpfB-Dependent Quorum Sensing Signal Turnover System Is Required for Adaptation and Virulence in Rice Bacterial Blight Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Yu; Zhou, Lian; Yang, Jun; Ji, Guang-Hai; He, Ya-Wen

    2016-03-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, produces diffusible signal factor (DSF) family quorum sensing signals to regulate virulence. The biosynthesis and perception of DSF family signals require components of the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors) cluster. In this study, we report that RpfB plays an essential role in DSF family signal turnover in X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A. The production of DSF family signals was boosted by deletion of the rpfB gene and was abolished by its overexpression. The RpfC/RpfG-mediated DSF signaling system negatively regulates rpfB expression via the global transcription regulator Clp, whose activity is reversible in the presence of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate. These findings indicate that the DSF family signal turnover system in PXO99A is generally consistent with that in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Moreover, this study has revealed several specific roles of RpfB in PXO99A. First, the rpfB deletion mutant produced high levels of DSF family signals but reduced extracellular polysaccharide production, extracellular amylase activity, and attenuated pathogenicity. Second, the rpfB/rpfC double-deletion mutant was partially deficient in xanthomonadin production. Taken together, the RpfB-dependent DSF family signal turnover system is a conserved and naturally presenting signal turnover system in Xanthomonas spp., which plays unique roles in X. oryzae pv. oryzae adaptation and pathogenesis.

  7. NAD(P)H oxidase and renal epithelial ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for cellular vitality is the maintenance of plasma ion concentration within strict ranges. It is the function of the kidney to match urinary excretion of ions with daily ion intake and nonrenal losses to maintain a stable ionic milieu. NADPH oxidase is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within many cell types, including the transporting renal epithelia. The focus of this review is to describe the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS toward local renal tubular ion transport in each nephron segment and to discuss how NADPH oxidase-derived ROS signaling within the nephron may mediate ion homeostasis. In each case, we will attempt to identify the various subunits of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species involved and the ion transporters, which these affect. We will first review the role of NADPH oxidase on renal Na+ and K+ transport. Finally, we will review the relationship between tubular H+ efflux and NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21270341

  8. Monocyte-mediated damage to Rhizopus oryzae hyphae in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, R D; Haudenschild, C C; Erickson, N F

    1982-01-01

    Clinicopathological correlations from human cases and experimental animal studies suggest that neutrophils are critical components of the host response to mucormycosis but that other cellular defense mechanisms appear to be important as well. Since our previous studies demonstrated that Rhizopus oryzae hyphae which are too large to be ingested completely can be damaged and probably killed by human neutrophils, we studied the antihyphal activity of human monocytes. As with neutrophils, light and electron microscopic studies indicated that monocytes attached to hyphae and appeared to destroy them in the absence of serum. As judged by our previously described assay for the leukocyte-induced inhibition of [14C]uracil uptake by hyphae, quantitative damage to hyphae by monocytes was 40.8 +/- 2.2% in 54 experiments. Neither attachment to nor damage of hyphae by monocytes was augmented by the presence of 10% human serum. As with neutrophils, monocyte-mediated damage of R. oryzae was significantly decreased by some inhibitors of oxidative metabolism and scavengers of the potentially microbicidal oxidative leukocyte products, which included 10(-4)M sodium azide, 10 (-3) M sodium cyanide, catalase, 10(-3) M histidine, 10(-3) M tryptophan, and 10(-4) M 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]octane but not superoxide dismutase, 1.4 X 10(-2) M dimethyl sulfoxide, and 4.0 X 10(-1) M mannitol. Moreover, monocytes from three patients with chronic granulomatous disease failed to damage hyphae at all. In contrast to our previous data for neutrophils, polyanions (10(-5) M polyaspartic or polyglutamic acid) did not inhibit monocyte-mediated hyphal damage. Thus, monocytes can damage and probably kill R. oryzae hyphae by oxidative mechanisms and so may be involved in host defense mechanisms against mucormycosis. Images PMID:7141693

  9. [Expression of endopolygalacturonase A of Aspergillus oryzae in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhao, Qing-Xin; Zhu, Hong; Sun, Jing; Han, Feng-Min; Yuan, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Pectinases are mainly used in the food industry to clarify fruit juices and wine, improve oil extraction, remove the peel from the citrus fruit, increase the firmness of some fruits and degum fibres. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, used for the production of traditional fermented foods, only could produce less pectinases under general conditions. So far only a few of PGs expressed in yeast or E. coli were reported but they did not show higher activity. The cDNA of mature PGA (without signal peptide) was synthesized with specific primers from total RNA of Aspergillus oryzae by RT-PCR. PGA cDNA was ligated into pET-28a( + ) expression vector, creating plasmid pET-28a( + )-pgA. The plasmid pET-28a( + )-pgA was transformed into E. coli Turner (DE3) plac I cells to express PGA heterogeneously. For improving the efficiency of PGA expression in E. coli, the conditions for expression of the PGA in E. coli were optimized. E. coli Turner (DE3) plac I cells with pET-28a( + )-pgA was first cultivated at 37 degrees, 220r/min until OD600nm reached about 0.8. Then, cultivation broth was added with 0.5 mmol/L IPTG and incubated at 15 degrees C, 170r/min for other 24 h for induced-expression of PGA. Our data showed that the activity of recombinant expressed PGA could reach to 70u/mL medium, which is 87.5-fold of the activity of PGA produced in culture of A. oryzae and superior than known recombinant expression amount of PGA reported by other researchers.

  10. Evidence for biotrophic lifestyle and biocontrol potential of dark septate endophyte Harpophora oryzae to rice blast disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhen-Zhu; Mao, Li-Juan; Li, Na; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Li-Wei; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long

    2013-01-01

    The mutualism pattern of the dark septate endophyte (DSE) Harpophora oryzae in rice roots and its biocontrol potential in rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae were investigated. Fluorescent protein-expressing H. oryzae was used to monitor the colonization pattern. Hyphae invaded from the epidermis to the inner cortex, but not into the root stele. Fungal colonization increased with root tissue maturation, showing no colonization in the meristematic zone, slight colonization in the elongation zone, and heavy colonization in the differentiation zone. H. oryzae adopted a biotrophic lifestyle in roots accompanied by programmed cell death. Real-time PCR facilitated the accurate quantification of fungal growth and the respective plant response. The biocontrol potential of H. oryzae was visualized by inoculation with eGFP-tagged M. oryzae in rice. H. oryzae protected rice from M. oryzae root invasion by the accumulation of H2O2 and elevated antioxidative capacity. H. oryzae also induced systemic resistance against rice blast. This systemic resistance was mediated by the OsWRKY45-dependent salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, as indicated by the strongly upregulated expression of OsWRKY45. The colonization pattern of H. oryzae was consistent with the typical characteristics of DSEs. H. oryzae enhanced local resistance by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and high antioxidative level and induced OsWRKY45-dependent SA-mediated systemic resistance against rice blast.

  11. Electro-catalytic Oxidation of Catechol at Poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone)-SDS Composite Film.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, Hossein; Solbi, Malihe

    2016-12-01

    An electro-chemically active composite film containing the environmentally friendly surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(1-amino-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAAQ) is used as an electron transfer mediator in the electro-chemical oxidation of catechol. Compared with the bare platinum (Pt) electrode, the Pt/PAAQ-SDS modified electrode remarkably lowers the anodic peak potential of catechol, and increases the peak currents. The results obtained indicate that the activation energy for the electro-chemical oxidation of catechol at the polymer film is low (7.05 kJ mol-1). The influence of the operational conditions on the response current of the catechol sensor is also investigated. Studying the surface morphology of the modified electrode reveals a more porous structure for it due to the incorporation of the anionic surfactant on the PAAQ film. The modified electrode displays a linear response in the concentration range of 0.01-8.0 mM for catechol. A lower detection limit was obtained to be 2.60 μM. The ability of the modified electrode is also examined for the electro-chemical detection of hydroquinone (HQ) with simplicity.

  12. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bae; González-Cabezas, Carlos; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2015-08-10

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe(3+) additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe-catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives.

  13. Fewer fluctuations, higher maximum concentration and better motor response of levodopa with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Muhlack, Siegfried; Herrmann, Lennard; Salmen, Stephan; Müller, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor addition to levodopa/carbidopa formulations improves motor symptoms and reduces levodopa fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease. Objectives were to investigate the effects of entacapone and tolcapone on plasma behaviour of levodopa, its metabolite 3-O-methyldopa and on motor impairment. 22 patients orally received levodopa/carbidopa first, then levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone and finally levodopa/carbidopa plus tolcapone within a 4.5 h interval twice. Maximum concentration, time to maximum level and bioavailability of levodopa did not differ between all conditions each with 200 mg levodopa application as a whole. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition caused less fluctuations and higher baseline levels of levodopa after the first intake and less 3-O-methyldopa appearance. The maximum levodopa concentrations were higher after the second levodopa intake, particularly with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition. The motor response to levodopa was better with catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition than without, tolcapone was superior to entacapone. More continuous levodopa brain delivery and lower 3-O-methyldopa bioavailability caused a better motor response during catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition.

  14. Comparison between the removal of phenol and catechol by modified montmorillonite with two novel hydroxyl-containing Gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuening; Gao, Manglai; Gu, Zheng; Luo, Zhongxin; Ye, Yage; Lu, Laifu

    2014-02-28

    Na-montmorillonites were modified with two novel hydroxyl-containing Gemini surfactants, 1,3-bis(hexadecyldimethylammonio)-2-hydroxypropane dichloride (BHHP) and 1,3-bis(octyldimethylammonio)-2-hydroxypropane dichloride (BOHP), via ion-exchange reaction in this study. The modified samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Phenol and catechol were removed from aqueous solution by these two kinds of organo-montmorillonites in a batch system. Important parameters have been investigated, which affect the adsorption efficiency, such as the amount of modifier, temperature, pH and contact time. The adsorption kinetics of phenol and catechol were discussed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model. It indicated that the experimental data fitted very well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the equilibrium adsorption data was proved in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm. The result also showed the adsorption capacity of catechol was higher than that of phenol in the same conditions, which might result from the extra hydroxyl in the structure of catechol. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), the enthalpy (ΔH°), and the entropy change of sorption (ΔS°) were also determined. These parameters suggested the adsorption of phenol was a spontaneous and exothermic process, while the sorption of catechol was endothermic.

  15. Evaluation of the sorption mechanism of catechol and its chlorinated derivatives in a Palouse silt loam soil

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    Catechol and its chlorinated derivatives are important in soil as intermediary metabolites in the degradation of many synthetic and naturally-occurring aromatics. This study examined the sorption mechanisms of catechol, 4-chlorocatechol, 4,5-dichlorocatechol, and tetrachlorocatechol in a Palouse silt loam soil. Sorption was evaluated by the batch equilibration method using /sup 14/C-labeled chemicals and varying solvent combinations and conditions. Data were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation. All the catechols were strongly sorbed with isotherm slopes of one or greater indicating strong intermolecular associations upon adsorption. Sorption decreased as the catechol molecule became more chlorinated, except tetrachlorocatechol which was one of the most sorbed. Increasing the ionic strength of the solution increased sorption of dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol. Increasing quantities of acetone or 2-propanol in the equilibration solution produced little change in the sorption of catechol and chlorocatechol, but a slight decrease in the sorption of dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol. These results indicate that solubility and hydrophobicity had s significant effect on the adsorption of dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol.

  16. Ultrasensitive voltammetric determination of catechol at a gold atomic cluster/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanocomposite electrode.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Sindhu R; Aneesh, Padamadathil K; Rao, Talasila P

    2013-09-07

    A novel gold atomic cluster-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (AuAC/PEDOT/Au) nanocomposite modified gold electrode has been designed for the trace level sensing of catechol. The addition of copper(II) enhanced the electro-catalytic oxidation of catechol via the formation of copper(I). The electrochemically synthesized PEDOT/Au and the AuAC/PEDOT/Au hybrid films were characterized by electrochemical and morphological methods. Under optimal conditions the nanocomposite modified electrode offers a wider calibration range of 1 × 10(-4) to 10 μM with a lowest detection limit of 6.3 pM for catechol. Moreover, the developed electrochemical sensor exhibited good selectivity and acceptable reproducibility (1.23% for 1 nM of catechol) and could be used for the routine detection and quantification of catechol in natural water samples. To gain a better understanding of such an excellent sensor performance achieved with this electrode, studies were undertaken to pinpoint electrode kinetics of charge transfer processes.

  17. Development of analytical method for catechol compounds in mouse urine using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Takahiro; Isokawa, Muneki; Funatsu, Takashi; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2015-03-15

    An analytical method for catecholamines and related compounds using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with native fluorescence detection has been developed. We found that ZIC-cHILIC with phosphorylcholine was suitable for the separation of catechol compounds with good peak shapes among six different HILIC columns (Inertsil SIL, Inertsil Amide, Inertsil Diol, TSKgel NH2-100, ZIC-HILIC, and ZIC-cHILIC). Using ZIC-cHILIC, eight catechol compounds (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid, and internal standard 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine) were separated within 15min. The limit of detection at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 3-28nM. An improved sensitivity was obtained as compared to that of reversed-phase liquid chromatography. This was partly attributed to the increase in the fluorescence intensity of the catechol compounds in the acetonitrile-rich mobile phase. Solid phase extraction using a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column with phenylboronate moieties, which have affinity to catechol compounds, was performed for the selective extraction of catechol compounds from mouse urine. Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were successfully quantified in mouse urine.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase PheB from Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Matsufuzi, Kazuki; Ohnuma, Hiroaki; Senda, Miki; Fukuda, Masao; Senda, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    PheB, an extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, and diffracts to 2.3 Å resolution. Class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenase, a key enzyme of aromatic compound degradation in bacteria, cleaves the aromatic ring of catechol by adding two O atoms. PheB is one of the class II extradiol-cleaving catecholic dioxygenases and shows a high substrate specificity for catechol derivatives, which have one aromatic ring. In order to reveal the mechanism of the substrate specificity of PheB, PheB has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as a precipitant. The space group of the obtained crystal was P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.5, b = 119.2, c = 158.7 Å. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution.

  19. Catechol-Functionalized Synthetic Polymer as a Dental Adhesive to Contaminated Dentin Surface for a Composite Restoration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a synthetic polymer functionalized with catechol groups as dental adhesives. We hypothesize that a catechol-functionalized polymer functions as a dental adhesive for wet dentin surfaces, potentially eliminating the complications associated with saliva contamination. We prepared a random copolymer containing catechol and methoxyethyl groups in the side chains. The mechanical and adhesive properties of the polymer to dentin surface in the presence of water and salivary components were determined. It was found that the new polymer combined with an Fe3+ additive improved bond strength of a commercial dental adhesive to artificial saliva contaminated dentin surface as compared to a control sample without the polymer. Histological analysis of the bonding structures showed no leakage pattern, probably due to the formation of Fe–catechol complexes, which reinforce the bonding structures. Cytotoxicity test showed that the polymers did not inhibit human gingival fibroblast cells proliferation. Results from this study suggest a potential to reduce failure of dental restorations due to saliva contamination using catechol-functionalized polymers as dental adhesives. PMID:26176305

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of ionically unbound polyphenol oxidase from Musa paradisiaca leaf.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Sanjeev Kumar; Mishra, Sarad Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An ionically unbound and thermostable polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from the leaf of Musa paradisiaca. The enzyme was purified 2.54-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 40 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 40 kD and a faint band at around 15 kD, which might be isozymes. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50°C temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0-9.0) and temperature (30-90°C). From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-75°C, the half-life (t(1/2)) values of the enzyme ranged from 17 to 77 min. The inactivation energy (Ea) value of PPO was estimated to be 91.3 kJ mol(-1). It showed higher specificity with catechol (K(m) = 8 mM) as compared to 4-methylcatechol (K(m) = 10 mM). Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K(+), Na(+), Co(2+), kojic acid, ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  1. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+,Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

  2. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion

  3. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect

  4. Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.H.

    1997-04-22

    The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

  5. In situ formation of adhesive hydrogels based on PL with laterally grafted catechol groups and their bonding efficacy to wet organic substrates.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingming; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Juntao; Yuan, Xubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-01

    Adhesives with catechol moieties have been widely investigated in recent years. However, actually how much catechol groups for these mussel bio-inspired adhesives, especially in their natural form under physiological condition, is appropriate to bond with organic substrates has not been studied intensively. This study blends ε-polylysine (PL), featuring laterally grafted catechols under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), with oxidized dextran to form a hydrogel in situ via the Schiff base without introducing small cytotoxic molecules as crosslinking agents. It finds that the amount of catechol groups imposes an obvious influence on gelation time, swelling behavior, and hydrogel morphology. Both the storage modulus and adhesion strength are found to increase first and decrease afterwards with an increase of pendent catechol content. Furthermore, catechol hydrogen interactions and the decrease in the crosslink density derived from the decrease of amino groups on PL are simultaneously found to affect the storage modulus. Meanwhile, multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions of catechol with amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, which are in abundance on the surface of tissue, are mainly found to provide an adhesive force. The study finds that with more catechol, there is a greater chance that the cohesive force will weaken, making the entire adhesion strength of the hydrogel decrease. Using a cytotoxicity test, the nontoxicity of the hydrogel towards the growth of L929 cells is proven, indicating that hydrogels have potential applications in soft tissue repair under natural physiological conditions.

  6. Individual variation in hepatic aldehyde oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Salmy, H S

    2001-04-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdo-flavo enzyme expressed predominantly in the liver, lung, and kidney. AO plays a major role in oxidation of aldehydes, as well as oxidation of various N-heterocyclic compounds of pharmacological and toxicological importance including antiviral (famciclovir), antimalarial (quinine), antitumour (methotrexate), and nicotine. The aim of this study was to investigate cytosolic aldehyde oxidase activity in human liver. Cytosolic AO was characterised using both the metabolism of N-[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA) and benzaldehyde to form DACA-9(10H)-acridone (quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection) and benzoic acid (quantified spectrophotometrically). Thirteen livers (10 female, 3 male) were examined. The intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of DACA varied 18-fold (0.03-0.50 m/min/mg). Vmax ranged from 0.20-3.10 nmol/ min/mg, and Km ranged from 3.5-14.2 microM. In the same specimens, the intrinsic clearance for benzaldehyde varied 5-fold (0.40-1.8 ml/min/mg). Vmax ranged from 3.60-12.6 nmol/min/mg and Km ranged from 3.6-14.6 microM. Furthermore, there were no differences in AO activity between male and female human livers, nor was there any relationship to age of donor (range 29-73 years), smoking status, or disease status. In conclusion, our results showed that there are variations in AO activity in human liver. These variations in aldehyde oxidase activity might reflect individual variations or they might be due to AO stability during processing and storage.

  7. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  8. Novel insights into the regulatory roles of gene hshB in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwei; Zhao, Yancun; Qian, Guoliang; Odhiambo, Benard Omondi; Liu, Fengquan

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causes leaf streak disease of rice. The gene hshB is a newly identified virulence-associated gene that is co-regulated by diffusible signal factor signaling and global regulator Clp in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Our previous study showed that mutation of hshB remarkably impaired the virulence, extracellular protease activity, extracellular polysaccharide production and resistance to oxidative stress of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. In this study, the regulatory role of hshB in X. oryzae pv .oryzicola was expanded. Results showed that hshB was also required for cell swimming motility. Transcriptome analysis showed that 305 genes were significantly differentially expressed after deletion of hshB in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Further analysis of transcriptome data indicated that the differentially expressed genes focused on two aspects: namely, cell motility and cell signal transduction. This finding strongly identified the closely related function of hshB to cell motility and signal transduction. In addition, the mutation of hshB of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola enhanced biofilm formation. Collectively, the study showed novel functions of gene hshB in cell motility and biofilm formation by transcriptome analysis, thus expanding our understanding of the roles of gene hshB in the pathogenic X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

  9. Gene cloning and enzyme structure modeling of the Aspergillus oryzae N74 fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mauro A; Sánchez, Oscar F; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J

    2011-02-01

    The fructooligosaccharides (FOS) represent an important source of prebiotic compounds that are widely used as an ingredient in functional foods. Recently, the strain Aspergillus oryzae N74 was reported as a potential microorganism for the industrial production of FOS, due to its high yields of FOS production. In this work, we used a PCR-cloning strategy to clone the A. oryzae N74 ftase gene as a previous step for recombinant enzyme production. Ftase showed a 1630 bp size with a 99% similarity with other A. oryzae strains and between 1 to 68% identities with other Aspergillus strains. This gene encodes for a 525 amino acids protein with 99% similarity with other A. oryzae strains and between 11 to 69% similarities with other Aspergillus strains. Finally, an A. oryzae N74 FTase tertiary structure model was predicted base on its similarity with other glycoside hydrolase 32 family members. The active site was located inside the β-propeller domain and was formed for non-charged polar and charged amino acids. In summary, these results shows the high level of sequence conservation between A. oryzae strains and represent a first step towards the development of a FOS production industrial process using recombinant microorganism carrying the ftase gene from A. oryzae N74.

  10. Separation of putrescine oxidase and spermidine oxidase in foetal bovine serum with the aid of a specific radioactive assay of spermidine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Gahl, W A; Vale, A M; Pitot, H C

    1980-01-01

    1. A sensitive and specific assay for spermidine oxidase is described. The method involves the separation of [14C]spermidine (substrate) from [14C]putrescine (product) and other 14C-labelled products on a Dowex 50 cation-exchange column: 92% of the putrescine applied to the column was eluted by 2.3 M-HCl, but this treatment left 96% of the spermidine bound to the column. Unchanged spermidine could be removed from the column by elution with 6 M-HCl. 2. By means of this assay, foetal and adult bovine serum were each shown to contain spermidine oxidase activity, putrescine being a major product of the oxidation of spermidine by the serum enzymes. 3. In foetal bovine serum, spermidine oxidase activity is separable from putrescine oxidase activity by chromatography on a cadaverine-Sephadex column, by gel filtration and by ion-exchange column chromatography. Putrescine oxidase was purified 1900-fold and spermidine oxidase 130-fold by these procedures. The former oxidized putrescine but not spermidine, and spermidine oxidase exhibited no activity with putrescine as substrate. PMID:7406861

  11. Transcript Profiling Reveals the Presence of Abiotic Stress and Developmental Stage Specific Ascorbate Oxidase Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Batth, Rituraj; Singh, Kapil; Kumari, Sumita; Mustafiz, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress and climate change is the major concern for plant growth and crop yield. Abiotic stresses lead to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) consequently resulting in cellular damage and major losses in crop yield. One of the major scavengers of ROS is ascorbate (AA) which acts as first line of defense against external oxidants. An enzyme named ascorbate oxidase (AAO) is known to oxidize AA and deleteriously affect the plant system in response to stress. Genome-wide analysis of AAO gene family has led to the identification of five, three, seven, four, and six AAO genes in Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor genomes, respectively. Expression profiling of these genes was carried out in response to various abiotic stresses and during various stages of vegetative and reproductive development using publicly available microarray database. Expression analysis in Oryza sativa revealed tissue specific expression of AAO genes wherein few members were exclusively expressed in either root or shoot. These genes were found to be regulated by both developmental cues as well as diverse stress conditions. The qRT-PCR analysis in response to salinity and drought stress in rice shoots revealed OsAAO2 to be the most stress responsive gene. On the other hand, OsAAO3 and OsAAO4 genes showed enhanced expression in roots under salinity/drought stresses. This study provides lead about important stress responsive AAO genes in various crop plants, which could be used to engineer climate resilient crop plants.

  12. Transcript Profiling Reveals the Presence of Abiotic Stress and Developmental Stage Specific Ascorbate Oxidase Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Batth, Rituraj; Singh, Kapil; Kumari, Sumita; Mustafiz, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    Abiotic stress and climate change is the major concern for plant growth and crop yield. Abiotic stresses lead to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) consequently resulting in cellular damage and major losses in crop yield. One of the major scavengers of ROS is ascorbate (AA) which acts as first line of defense against external oxidants. An enzyme named ascorbate oxidase (AAO) is known to oxidize AA and deleteriously affect the plant system in response to stress. Genome-wide analysis of AAO gene family has led to the identification of five, three, seven, four, and six AAO genes in Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor genomes, respectively. Expression profiling of these genes was carried out in response to various abiotic stresses and during various stages of vegetative and reproductive development using publicly available microarray database. Expression analysis in Oryza sativa revealed tissue specific expression of AAO genes wherein few members were exclusively expressed in either root or shoot. These genes were found to be regulated by both developmental cues as well as diverse stress conditions. The qRT-PCR analysis in response to salinity and drought stress in rice shoots revealed OsAAO2 to be the most stress responsive gene. On the other hand, OsAAO3 and OsAAO4 genes showed enhanced expression in roots under salinity/drought stresses. This study provides lead about important stress responsive AAO genes in various crop plants, which could be used to engineer climate resilient crop plants. PMID:28261251

  13. Concentration dependent effects of commonly used pesticides on activation versus inhibition of the quince (Cydonia Oblonga) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, Sami; Raboudi-Fattouch, Faten; Ponce, José Vicente Gil; Forment, Josep Vicent; Lukovic, Dunja; Marzouki, Nejib; Vidal, Daniel Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to their respective quinones which undergo autopolymerization and form dark pigments. The interaction of PPO with various substrates and effectors remains the focus of intensive investigations due to the enzyme's key role in pigments biosynthesis including animal melanogenesis and fruit/fungi enzymatic browning. In this study, the effect of a range of commonly used pesticides on the enzyme activity has been evaluated using the purified quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) PPO. The biochemical analysis showed that, in the presence of high pesticide concentrations, the enzyme was competitively inhibited, particularly with benomyl, carbaryl, deltamethrine and parathion methyl for which inhibition constants (K(i)) were 8.3, 5.7, 12 and 4 microM, respectively. At lower pesticide concentrations (2-10 microM), however, the catecholase activity was significantly activated (p<0.01), suggesting a homotropic behavior of these chemical compounds. Furthermore, the use of in silico structure-based analyses, known as computational docking, highlighted the nature of the PPO-pesticides interactions and confirmed the in vitro observations. Catechol substrate and parathion methyl inhibitor showed lower total energy scores of -120.06 and -117.4 3 kcal mol(-1), indicating that these ligands had higher PPO-binding affinities. The obtained data bring to light new pesticide functional features of great interest in the medicinal, agro-chemical and environmental circles.

  14. The conformational state of polyphenol oxidase from field bean (Dolichos lablab) upon SDS and acid-pH activation.

    PubMed

    Kanade, Santosh R; Paul, Beena; Rao, A G Appu; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2006-05-01

    Field bean (Dolichos lablab) contains a single isoform of PPO (polyphenol oxidase)--a type III copper protein that catalyses the o-hydroxylation of monophenols and oxidation of o-diphenols using molecular oxygen--and is a homotetramer with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. The enzyme is activated manyfold either in the presence of the anionic detergent SDS below its critical micellar concentration or on exposure to acid-pH. The enhancement of kcat upon activation is accompanied by a marked shift in the pH optimum for the oxidation of t-butyl catechol from 4.5 to 6.0, an increased sensitivity to tropolone, altered susceptibility to proteolytic degradation and decreased thermostability. The Stokes radius of the native enzyme is found to increase from 49.1+/-2 to 75.9+/-0.6 A (1 A=0.1 nm). The activation by SDS and acid-pH results in a localized conformational change that is anchored around the catalytic site of PPO that alters the microenvironment of an essential glutamic residue. Chemical modification of field bean and sweet potato PPO with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodi-imide followed by kinetic analysis leads to the conclusion that both the enzymes possess a core carboxylate essential to activity. This enhanced catalytic efficiency of PPO, considered as an inducible defence oxidative enzyme, is vital to the physiological defence strategy adapted by plants to insect herbivory and pathogen attack.

  15. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Güllçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Oktay, Münir

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and was used for its characterization. The PPO showed activity to catechol, 4-methylcatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-tyrosine, p-cresol, pyrogallol, catechin and trans-cinnamic acid. For each of these eight substrates, optimum conditions such as pH and temperature were determined and L-tyrosine was found to be one of the most suitable substrates. Optimum pH and temperature were found at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C respectively and Km and Vmax values were 7.90 x 10(-4) M, and 11290 EU/mL for with L-tyrosine as substrate. The inhibitory effect of several inhibitors, L-cysteine chloride, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, thiourea, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate, beta-mercaptoethanol and sodium metabisulfite were tested. The most effective was found to be sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate which acted as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.79 x 10(-9)M. In addition one isoenzyme of PPO was detected by native polacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

  16. Metabolism of benzene and phenol by a reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 and the electron-donor, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were isolated from phenobarbital induced rat liver microsomes. Both benzene and its primary metabolite phenol, were substrates for the reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system. Benzene was metabolized to phenol and the polyhydroxylated metabolites; catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4 benzenetriol. Benzene elicited a Type I spectral change upon its interaction with the cytochrome P-450 while phenol's interaction with the cytochrome P-450 produced a reverse Type I spectra. The formation of phenol showed a pH optimum of 7.0 compared with 6.6-6.8 for the production of the polyhyrdoxylated metabolites. Cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, such as metyrapone and SKF 525A, diminished the production of phenol from benzene but not the production of the polyhydroxylated metabolites from phenol. The radical trapping agents, DMSO, KTBA and mannitol, decreased the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites, from /sup 14/C-labeled benzene and/or phenol. As KTBA and DMSO interacted with OH. There was a concomitant release of ethylene and methane, which was measured. Desferrioxamine, an iron-chelator and catalase also depressed the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites. In summary, benzene and phenol were both substrates for this reconstituted purified enzyme system, but they differed in binding to cytochrome P-450, pH optima and mode of hydroxylation.

  17. Competitive coordination aggregation for V-shaped [Co3] and disc-like [Co7] complexes: synthesis, magnetic properties and catechol oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Singha Mahapatra, Tufan; Basak, Dipmalya; Chand, Santanu; Lengyel, Jeff; Shatruk, Michael; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ray, Debashis

    2016-09-14

    Unique dependence on the nature of metal salt and reaction conditions for coordination assembly reactions of varying architecture and nuclearity have been identified in V-shaped [Co3L4] and planar disc-like [Co7L6] compounds: [CoL2(μ-L)2(μ-OH2)2(CF3CO2)2] (1) and [Co(μ-L)6(μ-OMe)6]Cl2 (2) (HL = 2-{(3-ethoxypropylimino)methyl}-6-methoxyphenol). At room temperature varying reaction conditions, cobalt-ligand ratios and use of different bases allowed unique types of coordination self-assembly. The synthetic marvel lies in the nature of aggregation with respect to the two unrelated cores in 1 and 2. Complex 1 assumes a V-shaped arrangement bound to L(-), water and a trifluoroacetate anion, while 2 grows around a central Co(II) ion surrounded by a {Co} hexagon bound to methoxide and L(-). Magnetic measurements revealed that the intermetallic interactions are antiferromagnetic in nature in the case of complex 1 and ferromagnetic in the case of 2 involving high spin cobalt(ii) ions with stabilization of the high-spin ground state in the latter case. In MeCN solutions complexes 1 and 2 showed catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBCH2) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) in air. The kinetic study in MeCN revealed that with respect to the catalytic turnover number (kcat) 2 is more effective than 1 for oxidation of 3,5-DTBCH2.

  18. Molecular structure and catechol oxidase activity of a new copper(I) complex with sterically crowded monodentate N-donor ligand.

    PubMed

    Kupán, Adám; Kaizer, József; Speier, Gábor; Giorgi, Michel; Réglier, Marius; Pollreisz, Ferenc

    2009-03-01

    The attempted alkylation of 1,3-bis(2'-pyridylimino)isoindoline (indH) by the use of n-BuLi and subsequent alkyl halides led to quaternization of the pyridine nitrogens and the zwitterionic monodentate N-ligand (Me(2)ind)I was formed. By the use of the ligand the copper(I) complex [Cu(I)(Me(2)ind)I(2)] was prepared and its structure determined. It was found to be good catalyst for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (DTBCH(2)) to 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DTBQ) and H(2)O(2) by dioxygen. Detailed kinetic studies revealed first-order dependence on the catalyst and dioxygen concentration and saturation type behavior with respect to the substrate.

  19. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara.

  20. Safety evaluation of a lipase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Greenough, R J; Perry, C J; Stavnsbjerg, M

    1996-02-01

    A programme of studies was conducted to establish the safety of a lipase artificially expressed in Aspergillus oryzae to be used in the detergent industry and as a processing aid in the baking industry. Laboratory animal studies were used to assess general and inhalation toxicity, skin sensitization, and skin and eye irritation. Its potential to cause mutagenicity and chromosomal aberrations was assessed in microbial and tissue culture in vitro studies. The pathogenicity of A. oryzae, the organism used to produce the lipase, was also assessed in laboratory animals. Basic ecotoxicity in a variety of test species was studied. General and inhalation toxicity was low. There was evidence of mild skin irritation. There was no evidence of eye irritation, skin sensitization, mutagenic potential, chromosomal aberrations, exotoxicity or notable pathogenicity. Comparison of these results with human exposure levels and previously published data indicates that the lipase appears safe for consumers in the given applications, requires no special occupational health precautions in manufacture and is of low environmental impact. Furthermore, the organism used in production of the lipase hs no notable pathogenicity.

  1. Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azizi, P; Rafii, M Y; Abdullah, S N A; Nejat, N; Maziah, M; Hanafi, M M; Latif, M A; Sahebi, M

    2016-01-01

    The blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, causes serious disease on a wide variety of grasses including rice, wheat and barley. The recognition of pathogens is an amazing ability of plants including strategies for displacing virulence effectors through the adaption of both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors. The pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were reported as two main innate immune responses in plants, where PTI gives basal resistance and ETI confers durable resistance. The PTI consists of extracellular surface receptors that are able to recognize PAMPs. PAMPs detect microbial features such as fungal chitin that complete a vital function during the organism's life. In contrast, ETI is mediated by intracellular receptor molecules containing nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine rich repeat (LRR) domains that specifically recognize effector proteins produced by the pathogen. To enhance crop resistance, understanding the host resistance mechanisms against pathogen infection strategies and having a deeper knowledge of innate immunity system are essential. This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant-pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

  2. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  3. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A.; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. PMID:27345721

  4. Biomimetic PEG-catecholates for stabile antifouling coatings on metal surfaces: applications on TiO2 and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Faiza; Franzmann, Elisa; Ramcke, Julian; Dakischew, Olga; Lips, Katrin S; Reinhardt, Alexander; Heisig, Peter; Maison, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Trimeric catecholates have been designed for the stable immobilization of effector molecules on metal surfaces. The design of these catecholates followed a biomimetic approach and was inspired by natural multivalent metal binders, such as mussel adhesion proteins (MAPs) and siderophores. Three catecholates have been conjugated to central scaffolds based on adamantyl or trisalkylmethyl core structures. The resulting triscatecholates have been immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. In a proof of concept study we have demonstrated the high stability of the resulting nanolayers at neutral and slightly acidic pH. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates of our triscatecholates have been synthesized and were immobilized on TiO2 and stainless steel. The PEG coated surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties upon exposure to human blood and bacteria as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, ellipsometry and a bacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, our PEG-triscatecholates showed no cytotoxicity against bone-marrow stem cells on TiO2.

  5. A biosensor based on gold nanoparticles, dihexadecylphosphate, and tyrosinase for the determination of catechol in natural water.

    PubMed

    Campanhã Vicentini, Fernando; Garcia, Lívia L C; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C S; Janegitz, Bruno C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a biosensor using a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tyrosinase (Tyr) within a dihexadecylphosphate film is proposed. Cystamine and glutaraldehyde crosslinking agents were used as a support for Tyr immobilization. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cyclic voltammetry in the presence of catechol. The determination of catechol was carried out by amperometry and presented a linear concentration range from 2.5×10(-6) to 9.5×10(-5)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.7×10(-7)molL(-1). The developed biosensor showed good repeatability and stability. Moreover, this novel amperometric method was successfully applied in the determination of catechol in natural water samples. The results were in agreement with a 95% confidence level for those obtained using the official spectrophotometric method.

  6. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox−/−) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox−/− mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox−/− mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  7. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M; Braun, Caroline L; Davis, Lawrence C; Kanost, Michael R; Gorman, Maureen J

    2015-04-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surprising because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism.

  8. Multicopper oxidase-1 orthologs from diverse insect species have ascorbate oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zeyu; Dittmer, Neal T.; Lang, Minglin; Brummett, Lisa M.; Braun, Caroline L.; Davis, Lawrence C.; Kanost, Michael R.; Gorman, Maureen J.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the multicopper oxidase (MCO) family of enzymes can be classified by their substrate specificity; for example, ferroxidases oxidize ferrous iron, ascorbate oxidases oxidize ascorbate, and laccases oxidize aromatic substrates such as diphenols. Our previous work on an insect multicopper oxidase, MCO1, suggested that it may function as a ferroxidase. This hypothesis was based on three lines of evidence: RNAi-mediated knock down of Drosophila melanogaster MCO1 (DmMCO1) affects iron homeostasis, DmMCO1 has ferroxidase activity, and DmMCO1 has predicted iron binding residues. In our current study, we expanded our focus to include MCO1 from Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, and Manduca sexta. We verified that MCO1 orthologs have similar expression profiles, and that the MCO1 protein is located on the basal surface of cells where it is positioned to oxidize substrates in the hemolymph. In addition, we determined that RNAi-mediated knock down of MCO1 in A. gambiae affects iron homeostasis. To further characterize the enzymatic activity of MCO1 orthologs, we purified recombinant MCO1 from all four insect species and performed kinetic analyses using ferrous iron, ascorbate and two diphenols as substrates. We found that all of the MCO1 orthologs are much better at oxidizing ascorbate than they are at oxidizing ferrous iron or diphenols. This result is surpring because ascorbate oxidases are thought to be specific to plants and fungi. An analysis of three predicted iron binding residues in DmMCO1 revealed that they are not required for ferroxidase or laccase activity, but two of the residues (His374 and Asp380) influence oxidation of ascorbate. These two residues are conserved in MCO1 orthologs from insects and crustaceans; therefore, they are likely to be important for MCO1 function. The results of this study suggest that MCO1 orthologs function as ascorbate oxidases and influence iron homeostasis through an unknown mechanism. PMID:25701385

  9. Electrochemical sensor for catechol and dopamine based on a catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer-conducting polymer hybrid recognition element.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Bossi, Alessandra; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Fowler, Steven A; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    One of the difficulties with using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and other electrically insulating materials as the recognition element in electrochemical sensors is the lack of a direct path for the conduction of electrons from the active sites to the electrode. We have sought to address this problem through the preparation and characterization of novel hybrid materials combining a catalytic MIP, capable of oxidizing the template, catechol, with an electrically conducting polymer. In this way a network of "molecular wires" assists in the conduction of electrons from the active sites within the MIP to the electrode surface. This was made possible by the design of a new monomer that combines orthogonal polymerizable functionality; comprising an aniline group and a methacrylamide. Conducting films were prepared on the surface of electrodes (Au on glass) by electropolymerization of the aniline moiety. A layer of MIP was photochemically grafted over the polyaniline, via N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter) activation of the methacrylamide groups. Detection of catechol by the hybrid-MIP sensor was found to be specific, and catechol oxidation was detected by cyclic voltammetry at the optimized operating conditions: potential range -0.6 V to +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), scan rate 50 mV/s, PBS pH 7.4. The calibration curve for catechol was found to be linear to 144 microM, with a limit of detection of 228 nM. Catechol and dopamine were detected by the sensor, whereas analogues and potentially interfering compounds, including phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, serotonin, and ascorbic acid, had minimal effect (< or = 3%) on the detection of either analyte. Non-imprinted hybrid electrodes and bare gold electrodes failed to give any response to catechol at concentrations below 0.5 mM. Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  10. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, Joseph M.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is necessary to elicit its neurotoxic effects. Perturbations in phase I and phase II hepatic enzymes can alter the neurotoxic profile of systemically administered MDMA. In particular, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a critical role in determining the fraction of MDMA that is converted to potentially neurotoxic metabolites. Thus, cytochrome P450 mediated demethylenation of MDMA, or its N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxyamphetamine, give rise to the catechols, N-methyl-α-methyldopamine and α-methyldopamine, respectively. Methylation of these catechols by COMT limits their oxidation and conjugation to glutathione, a process that ultimately gives rise to neurotoxic metabolites. We therefore determined the effects of modulating COMT, a critical enzyme involved in determining the fraction of MDMA that is converted to potentially neurotoxic metabolites, on MDMA-induced toxicity. Pharmacological inhibition of COMT in the rat potentiated MDMA-induced serotonin deficits and exacerbated the acute MDMA-induced hyperthermic response. Using a genetic mouse model of COMT deficiency, in which mice lack a functional COMT gene, such mice displayed greater reductions in dopamine concentrations relative to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Neither WT nor COMT deficient mice were susceptible to MDMA-induced decreases in serotonin concentrations. Interestingly, mice devoid of COMT were far more susceptible to the acute hyperthermic effects of MDMA, exhibiting greater increases in body temperature that ultimately resulted in death. Our findings support the view that COMT plays a pivotal role in determining the toxic response to MDMA. PMID:24591155

  11. Bioinspired copper(I) complexes that exhibit monooxygenase and catechol dioxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Aline; Metzinger, Ramona; Limberg, Christian

    2015-01-12

    New tripodal ligand L2 featuring three different pyridyl/imidazolyl-based N-donor units at a bridgehead C atom, from which one of the imidazolyl units is separated by a phenylene linker, was synthesized and investigated with regards to copper(I) complexation. The resulting complex [(L2)Cu]OTf (2(OTf)), the known complex [(L1)Cu]OTf (1(OTf); L1 differs from L2 in that it lacks the phenylene spacer) and [(L3)Cu]OTf (3(OTf)), prepared from a known chiral, tripodal, N-donor ligand featuring pyridyl, pyrazolyl, and imidazolyl donors, were tested as catalysts for the oxidation of sodium 2,4-di-tert-butylphenolate (NaDTBP) with O2. Indeed, they mediated NaDTBP oxidation to give mainly the corresponding catecholate and quinone (Q). None of the complexes 1(OTf), 2(OTf), and 3(OTf) is superior to the others, as yields were comparable and, if the presence of protons is guaranteed by concomitant addition of the phenol DTBP, the oxidation can also be performed catalytically. For all complexes stoichiometric oxidations under certain conditions (concentrated solutions, high NaDTBP content) were found to also generate products typical for metal-mediated intradiol cleavage of the catecholate with O2. As shown representatively for 1(OTf) this dioxygenation sets in at a later stage of the reaction. Initially a copper species responsible for the monooxygenation must form from 1(OTf)/NaDTBP/O2, and only thereafter is the copper species responsible for dioxygenation formed and consumes Q as substrate. Hence, under these circumstances complexes 1(OTf)-3(OTf) show both monooxygenase and catechol dioxygenase activity.

  12. pH Responsive and Oxidation Resistant Wet Adhesive based on Reversible Catechol-Boronate Complexation.

    PubMed

    Narkar, Ameya R; Barker, Brett; Clisch, Matthew; Jiang, Jingfeng; Lee, Bruce P

    2016-08-09

    A smart adhesive capable of binding to a wetted surface was prepared by copolymerizing dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) and 3-acrylamido phenylboronic acid (AAPBA). pH was used to control the oxidation state and the adhesive property of the catechol side chain of DMA and to trigger the catechol-boronate complexation. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the complex at pH 9, which was not present at pH 3. The formation of the catechol-boronate complex increased the cross-linking density of the adhesive network. Most notably, the loss modulus values of the adhesive were more than an order of magnitude higher for adhesive incubated at pH 9 when compared to those measured at pH 3. This drastic increase in the viscous dissipation property is attributed to the introduction of reversible complexation into the adhesive network. Based on the Johnson Kendall Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics test, adhesive containing both DMA and AAPBA demonstrated strong interfacial binding properties (work of adhesion (Wadh) = 2000 mJ/m(2)) to borosilicate glass wetted with an acidic solution (pH 3). When the pH was increased to 9, Wadh values (180 mJ/m(2)) decreased by more than an order of magnitude. During successive contact cycles, the adhesive demonstrated the capability to transition reversibly between its adhesive and nonadhesive states with changing pH. Adhesive containing only DMA responded slowly to repeated changes in pH and became progressively oxidized without the protection of boronic acid. Although adhesive containing only AAPBA also demonstrated strong wet adhesion (Wadh ∼ 500 mJ/m(2)), its adhesive properties were not pH responsive. Both DMA and AAPBA are required to fabricate a smart adhesive with tunable and reversible adhesive properties.

  13. Phorbol myristate acetate and catechol as skin cocarcinogens in SENCAR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Van Duuren, B.L.; Melchionne, S.; Seidman, I.

    1986-09-01

    The enhancement of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and ..beta..-propiolactone (BPL) by the mouse skin cocarcinogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and catechol were examined in female SENCAR mice, 30 per group. The carcinogen and cocarcinogen were applied simultaneously, three times weekly for 490-560 days. B(a)P and BPL were used at constant doses of 5 and 50 ..mu..g, respectively, in all experiments. PMA was used at three doses, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 ..mu..g per application, and catechol was used at one dose, 2 mg per application. Control groups included animals that received carcinogen only, cocarcinogen only, acetone only, and no treatment. The carcinogenicity of B(a)P and BPL were enhanced by the cocarcinogens, particularly in terms of tumor multiplicity. For both carcinogens, the most marked cocarcinogenic effects were observed at the lowest dose of PMA used (0.5 ..mu..g per application). This observation applied for days to first tumor, animals with tumors, tumor multiplicity, and incidence of malignant skin tumors. Catechol applied alone did not induce any tumors; with PMA alone there were significant incidences of benign and malignant tumors, e.g., at a dose of only 0.5 ..mu..g per application, 15 of 30 animals had 28 tumors, 5 of which were squamous carcinomas. In two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and PMA as promoter, SENCAR mice showed a greater susceptibility to tumor induction when compared to ICR/Ha mice used in earlier work. This susceptibility was most notable in terms of rate of tumor appearance and tumor multiplicity.

  14. Cleavage of the Nb=O bond of oxoniobium(V) porphyrins. Synthesis and characterization of novel niobium(V) porphyrins with two distinct catechols

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Masato; Kotoh, Noriyuki; Kojima, Takahiko

    1995-09-13

    A novel catecholato complex, Nb{sup v}(tpp)(cat)(Hcat), where cat and Hcat are two distinct catechol ligands (a bidentate catecholate dianion and a monodentate catecholate monoanion, respectively) and tpp is 5, 10, 15, 20-tetaphenylporphyrin dianion, has been isolated in the reaction of Nb{sup v} (tpp)(O)(AcO) with catechol, where AcO is an acetatoligand. Its molecular structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystal data: monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, a = 14.592(3) {Angstrom}, b = 23.46(1) {Angstrom}, c = 14.415(4) {Angstrom}, {beta} = 100.95(2){degrees}, R = 0.079. The heptacoordinate niobium atom is displaced by 1.02 {Angstrom} from the mean plane of the four nitrogen atoms. The structure of the complex in solution and the mechanism of the Nb=O cleavage were investigated by means of {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. The bidentate catechol is oriented in C{sub s} symmetry with respect to the porphyrin plane, and the monodentate catechol is located perpendicularly to both the bidentate catechol and the porphyrin plane. Two intermediates with the bidentate catechol were observed after addition of 2 equiv of catechol to Nb(tmp)(O)(AcO) at -30 {degrees}C, where tmp denotes the 5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrin dianion. These intermediates were determined to be Nb(tmp)(cat)(OH) and Nb(tmp)(cat)(AcO). Thus, the Nb=O bond of Nb(tmp)(O)(AcO) was easily cleaved to create the two intermediates. The authors propose a unique route to the Nb=O cleavage that involves an intramolecular electron transfer from the catechol ligand coordinated at the first stage through a ligand exchange with AcO. Both protonation and electron transfer to the Nb=O moiety play important roles in the Nb=O cleavage.

  15. Cell wall degrading enzyme induced rice innate immune responses are suppressed by the type 3 secretion system effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN (-) mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN (-) xopX (-) double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN (-) xopQ (-) xopX (-) xopZ (-) quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S(-) mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses.

  16. Cell Wall Degrading Enzyme Induced Rice Innate Immune Responses Are Suppressed by the Type 3 Secretion System Effectors XopN, XopQ, XopX and XopZ of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Dipanwita; Gupta, Mahesh Kumar; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Ranjan, Ashish; Sonti, Ramesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses are induced in plants and animals through perception of Damage Associated Molecular Patterns. These immune responses are suppressed by pathogens during infection. A number of studies have focussed on identifying functions of plant pathogenic bacteria that are involved in suppression of Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. In comparison, there is very little information on functions used by plant pathogens to suppress Damage Associated Molecular Pattern induced immune responses. Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, a gram negative bacterial pathogen of rice, secretes hydrolytic enzymes such as LipA (Lipase/Esterase) that damage rice cell walls and induce innate immune responses. Here, we show that Agrobacterium mediated transient transfer of the gene for XopN, a X. oryzae pv. oryzae type 3 secretion (T3S) system effector, results in suppression of rice innate immune responses induced by LipA. A xopN- mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae retains the ability to suppress these innate immune responses indicating the presence of other functionally redundant proteins. In transient transfer assays, we have assessed the ability of 15 other X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S secreted effectors to suppress rice innate immune responses. Amongst these proteins, XopQ, XopX and XopZ are suppressors of LipA induced innate immune responses. A mutation in any one of the xopN, xopQ, xopX or xopZ genes causes partial virulence deficiency while a xopN- xopX- double mutant exhibits a greater virulence deficiency. A xopN- xopQ- xopX- xopZ- quadruple mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae induces callose deposition, an innate immune response, similar to a X. oryzae pv. oryzae T3S- mutant in rice leaves. Overall, these results indicate that multiple T3S secreted proteins of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can suppress cell wall damage induced rice innate immune responses. PMID:24086651

  17. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Garcinia esculenta twigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lun-Lun; Fu, Wen-Wei; Watanabe, Shimpei; Shao, Yi-Nuo; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Hong; Tan, Chang-Heng; Xiu, Yan-Feng; Norimoto, Hisayoshi; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2014-12-01

    The EtOAc-soluble portion of the 80 % (v/v) EtOH extract from the twigs of Garcinia esculenta exhibited strong xanthine oxidase inhibition in vitro. Bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and griffipavixanthone (8) as the main xanthine oxidase inhibitors, along with six additional compounds (1, 2, 4-7), including two new compounds (1 and 2). This enzyme inhibition was dose dependent with an IC50 value of approximately 1.2 µM for 3 and 6.3 µM for 8. The inhibitory activity of 3 was stronger than the control allopurinol (IC50 value: 5.3 µM). To our knowledge, compound 8 is the first bixanthone that demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, and the optical properties and absolute stereochemistry of racemic (±) esculentin A (2) were further determined by the calculation of the DP4 probability and analysis of its MTPA ester derivatives.

  18. Synthesis and optimization of N-heterocyclic pyridinones as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhijian; Harrison, Scott T; Schubert, Jeffrey W; Sanders, John M; Polsky-Fisher, Stacey; Zhang, Nanyan Rena; McLoughlin, Debra; Gibson, Christopher R; Robinson, Ronald G; Sachs, Nancy A; Kandebo, Monika; Yao, Lihang; Smith, Sean M; Hutson, Pete H; Wolkenberg, Scott E; Barrow, James C

    2016-06-15

    A series of N-heterocyclic pyridinone catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors were synthesized. Physicochemical properties, including ligand lipophilic efficiency (LLE) and clogP, were used to guide compound design and attempt to improve inhibitor pharmacokinetics. Incorporation of heterocyclic central rings provided improvements in physicochemical parameters but did not significantly reduce in vitro or in vivo clearance. Nevertheless, compound 11 was identified as a potent inhibitor with sufficient in vivo exposure to significantly affect the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and indicate central COMT inhibition.

  19. Luminescent Cyclometalated Platinum Complexes with π-Bonded Catecholate Organometallic Ligands.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Jamal; Loch, Aruny; Chamoreau, Lise-Marie; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Bandini, Elisa; Barbieri, Andrea; Amouri, Hani

    2017-02-20

    A series of cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes of the type [(ppy)Pt(LM)](n+) (n = 0, 1) with π-bonded catecholates acting as organometallic ligands (LM) have been prepared and characterized by analytical techniques. In addition, the structures of two complexes of the series were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The packing shows the formation of a 1D supramolecular assembly generated by dPt-πCp* interactions among individual units. All complexes are luminescent in the solid state and in solution media. The results of photophysics have been rationalized by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT investigations.

  20. Torsional Motion of the Chromophore Catechol following the Absorption of Ultraviolet Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. D.; Staniforth, M.; Paterson, M. J.; Stavros, V. G.

    2015-06-01

    The ability to probe energy flow in molecules, following the absorption of ultraviolet light, is crucial to unraveling photophysical phenomena. Here we excite a coherent superposition of vibrational states in the first excited electronic state (S1 ) in catechol, resulting in a vibrational wave packet. The observed quantum beats, assigned to superpositions of the low-frequency, and strongly mixed, O-H torsional mode τ2 , elegantly demonstrate how changes in geometry upon photoionization from the S1 state to the ground state of the cation (D0 ) enables one to probe energy flow at the very early stages of photoexcitation in this biological chromophore.

  1. Catechol-derivatized poly(vinyl alcohol) as a coating molecule for magnetic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnand, David; Monnier, Christophe A.; Redjem, Anthony; Schaefer, Mark; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Kilbinger, Andreas; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2015-04-01

    Surface functionalization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) remains indispensable in promoting colloidal stability and biocompatibility. We propose a well-defined and characterized synthesis of a new catechol-functionalized RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer, which can be anchored onto hydrophobic SPIONs via a one-pot emulsion ligand exchange process. Both single and clustered nanoparticles are obtained and can be separated from each other. As clustered SPIONs are receiving increasing attention, this new macroligand might be of considerable interest for both basic and applied sciences.

  2. Experimental and Computational Evidence for the Mechanism of Intradiol Catechol Dioxygenation by Non-Heme Iron(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzebski, Robin; Quesne, Matthew G; Weckhuysen, Bert M; de Visser, Sam P; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2014-01-01

    Catechol intradiol dioxygenation is a unique reaction catalyzed by iron-dependent enzymes and non-heme iron(III) complexes. The mechanism by which these systems activate dioxygen in this important metabolic process remains controversial. Using a combination of kinetic measurements and computational modelling of multiple iron(III) catecholato complexes, we have elucidated the catechol cleavage mechanism and show that oxygen binds the iron center by partial dissociation of the substrate from the iron complex. The iron(III) superoxide complex that is formed subsequently attacks the carbon atom of the substrate by a rate-determining C=O bond formation step. PMID:25322920

  3. Application of p-toluidine in chromogenic detection of catechol and protocatechuate, diphenolic intermediates in catabolism of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D. )

    1992-08-01

    In the presence of p-toluidine and iron, protocatechuate and catechols yield color. Inclusion of p-toluidine in media facilities the screening of microbial strains for alterations affecting aromatic catabolism. Such strains include mutants affected in the expression of oxygenases and Escherichia coli colonies carrying cloned or subcloned aromatic catabolic genes which encode enzymes giving rise to protocatechuate or catechol. The diphenolic detection system can also be applied to the creation of vectors relying on insertion of cloned DNA into one of the latter marker genes.

  4. Tyrosinase and Layer-by-Layer supported tyrosinases in the synthesis of lipophilic catechols with antiinfluenza activity.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Tiziana; Botta, Giorgia; Delfino, Michela; Onofri, Silvano; Saladino, Raffaele; Amatore, Donatella; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Nencioni, Lucia; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2013-12-15

    Catechol derivatives with lipophilic properties have been selectively synthesized by tyrosinase in high yield avoiding long and tedious protection/deprotection steps usually required in traditional procedures. The synthesis was effective also with immobilized tyrosinase able to perform for more runs. The novel catechols were evaluated against influenza A virus, that continue to represent a severe threat worldwide. A significant antiviral activity was observed in derivatives characterized by antioxidant activity and long carbon alkyl side-chains, suggesting the possibility of a new inhibition mechanism based on both redox and lipophilic properties.

  5. Five phylogenetically close rice SWEET genes confer TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Streubel, Jana; Pesce, Céline; Hutin, Mathilde; Koebnik, Ralf; Boch, Jens; Szurek, Boris

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas strains translocate transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors into plant cells to function as specific transcription factors. Only a few plant target genes of TAL effectors have been identified, so far. Three plant SWEET genes encoding putative sugar transporters are known to be induced by TAL effectors from rice-pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We predict and validate that expression of OsSWEET14 is induced by a novel TAL effector, Tal5, from an African Xoo strain. Artificial TAL effectors (ArtTALs) were constructed to individually target 20 SWEET orthologs in rice. They were used as designer virulence factors to study which rice SWEET genes can support Xoo virulence. The Tal5 target box differs from those of the already known TAL effectors TalC, AvrXa7 and PthXo3, which also induce expression of OsSWEET14, suggesting evolutionary convergence on key targets. ArtTALs efficiently complemented an Xoo talC mutant, demonstrating that specific induction of OsSWEET14 is the key target of TalC. ArtTALs that specifically target individual members of the rice SWEET family revealed three known and two novel SWEET genes to support bacterial virulence. Our results demonstrate that five phylogenetically close SWEET proteins, which presumably act as sucrose transporters, can support Xoo virulence.

  6. Genetic engineering of the Xa10 promoter for broad-spectrum and durable resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xuan; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Zhou, Zhiyun; Yang, Xiaobei; Luo, Yanchang; White, Frank F; Yin, Zhongchao

    2015-09-01

    Many pathovars of plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas species inject transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors into plant host cells to promote disease susceptibility or trigger disease resistance. The rice TAL effector-dependent disease resistance gene Xa10 confers narrow-spectrum race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight disease in rice. To generate broad-spectrum and durable resistance to Xoo, we developed a modified Xa10 gene, designated as Xa10(E5) . Xa10(E5) has an EBE-amended promoter containing 5 tandemly arranged EBEs each responding specifically to a corresponding virulent or avirulent TAL effector and a stable transgenic rice line containing Xa10(E5) was generated in the cultivar Nipponbare. The Xa10(E5) gene was specifically induced by Xoo strains that harbour the corresponding TAL effectors and conferred TAL effector-dependent resistance to the pathogens at all developmental stages of rice. Further disease evaluation demonstrated that the Xa10(E5) gene in either Nipponbare or 9311 genetic backgrounds provided broad-spectrum disease resistance to 27 of the 28 Xoo strains collected from 11 countries. The development of Xa10(E5) and transgenic rice lines provides new genetic materials for molecular breeding of rice for broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance to bacterial blight.

  7. An H-NS-like protein involved in the negative regulation of hrp genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kametani-Ikawa, Yumi; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu

    2011-06-01

    hrp genes encode components of a type III secretion (T3S) system and play crucial roles in the pathogenicity of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). A histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein binds DNA and acts as a global transcriptional repressor. Here, we investigated the involvement of an h-ns-like gene, named xrvB, in the expression of hrp genes in Xoo. Under the hrp-inducing culture condition, the expression of a key hrp regulator HrpG increased in the XrvB mutant, followed by activation of the downstream gene expression. Also, in planta, the secretion of a T3S protein (XopR) was activated by the mutation in xrvB. Gel retardation assay indicated that XrvB has DNA-binding activity, but without a preference for the promoter region of hrpG. The results suggest that XrvB negatively regulates hrp gene expression and that an unknown factor(s) mediates the regulation of hrpG expression by XrvB.

  8. The Fd-GOGAT1 mutant gene lc7 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Li, Chunrong; Liu, Liping; Zhao, Jiying; Cheng, Xuzhen; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Disease resistance is an important goal of crop improvement. The molecular mechanism of resistance requires further study. Here, we report the identification of a rice leaf color mutant, lc7, which is defective in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis but confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo). Map-based cloning revealed that lc7 encodes a mutant ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase1 (Fd-GOGAT1). Fd-GOGAT1 has been proposed to have great potential for improving nitrogen-use efficiency, but its function in bacterial resistance has not been reported. The lc7 mutant accumulates excessive levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in the leaves, causing the leaf color to become yellow after the four-leaf stage. Compared to the wild type, lc7 mutants have a broad-spectrum high resistance to seven Xoo strains. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and qRT-PCR analysis indicate that many defense pathways that are involved in this broad-spectrum resistance are activated in the lc7 mutant. These results suggest that Fd-GOGAT1 plays an important role in broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance, in addition to modulating nitrogen assimilation and chloroplast development. PMID:27211925

  9. Molecular and pathogenic characterization of new Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains from the coastline region of Fangchenggang city in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Qing; Liu, Shu-Yan; Zhao, Shuai; Yu, Yan-Hua; Li, Rong-Bai; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2013-04-01

    Virulence assays and DNA polymorphism analyses were used to characterize 33 Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strains collected from the coastline region of Fangchenggang city in China. Two new pathogenic races (FXP1 and FXP2), were determined by leaf-clipping inoculation of 12 near-isogenic International Rice-Bacterial Blight (IRBB) rice lines, each containing a single resistance gene. Race FXP1 consisted of twenty-eight strains that were incompatible on IRBB5 and IRBB7, while race FXP2 included five strains that were incompatible on IRBB5 and IRBB7 and moderately virulent on IRBB8 containing the xa8 gene. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that each probe of avrXa10 and IS1112 resolved two haplotypes. In a dendrogram generated from the combined RFLP data, the 33 Xoo strains were resolved into two clusters. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.53) between race and haplotype. All of the rice cultivars planted in the coastline region of Fangchenggang city were susceptible to the representative Xoo strains tested above. However, we found that four rice cultivars used as breeding materials in the laboratory could fully resist infection by the Xoo strains, suggesting that the isolated Xoo strains could be used to detect resistant rice cultivars suitable for planting in the local rice field.

  10. Crystal structures of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae alone and in complex with nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thanh Thi Ngoc; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Ngo, Ho-Phuong-Thuy; Tran, Huyen-Thi; Cha, Sun-Shin; Min Chung, Kyung; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2014-03-01

    D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (DDL) catalyzes the biosynthesis of d-alanyl-d-alanine, an essential bacterial peptidoglycan precursor, and is an important drug target for the development of antibacterials. We determined four different crystal structures of DDL from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causing Bacteria Blight (BB), which include apo, ADP-bound, ATP-bound, and AMPPNP-bound structures at the resolution between 2.3 and 2.0 Å. Similarly with other DDLs, the active site of XoDDL is formed by three loops from three domains at the center of enzyme. Compared with d-alanyl-d-alanine and ATP-bound TtDDL structure, the γ-phosphate of ATP in XoDDL structure was shifted outside toward solution. We swapped the ω-loop (loop3) of XoDDL with those of Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DDLs, and measured the enzymatic kinetics of wild-type XoDDL and two mutant XoDDLs with the swapped ω-loops. Results showed that the direct interactions between ω-loop and other two loops are essential for the active ATP conformation for D-ala-phosphate formation.

  11. Isolation and purification of the cytochrome oxidase of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Jurtshuk, P; Mueller, T J; Wong, T Y

    1981-09-14

    A membrane-bound cytochrome oxidase for Azobacter vinelandii was purified 20-fold using a detergent-solubilization procedure. Activity was monitored using as ascorbate-TMPD oxidation assay. The oxidase was 'solubilized' from a sonic-type electron-transport particle (R3 fraction) using Triton X-100 and deoxycholate. Low detergent concentrations first solubilized the flavoprotein oxidoreductases, then higher concentrations of Triton X-100 and KCl solubilized the oxidase, which was precipitated at 27-70% (NH4)2SO4. The highly purified cytochrome oxidase has a V of 60-78 microgatom O consumed/min per mg protein. TMPD oxidation by the purified enzyme was inhibited by CO, KCN, NaN3 and NH2OH; NaNO2 (but not NaNO3) also had a potent inhibitory effect. Spectral analyses revealed two major hemoproteins, the c-type cytochrome c4 and cytochrome o; cytochromes a1 and d were not detected. The Azotobacter cytochrome oxidase is an integrated cytochrome c4-o complex, TMPD-dependent cytochrome oxidase activity being highest in preparations having a high c-type cytochrome content. This TMPD-dependent cytochrome oxidase serves as a major oxygen-activation site for the A. vinelandii respiratory chain. It appears functionally analogous to cytochrome a+a3 oxidase of mammalian mitochondria.

  12. Molecular Evolution of Cytochrome bd Oxidases across Proteobacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro; Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis Eduardo; Bolaños, Luis Manuel; Rosenblueth, Monica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    This work is aimed to resolve the complex molecular evolution of cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, a nearly ubiquitous bacterial enzyme that is involved in redox balance and bioenergetics. Previous studies have created an unclear picture of bd oxidases phylogenesis without considering the existence of diverse types of bd oxidases. Integrated approaches of genomic and protein analysis focused on proteobacteria have generated a molecular classification of diverse types of bd oxidases, which produces a new scenario for interpreting their evolution. A duplication of the original gene cluster of bd oxidase might have occurred in the ancestors of extant α-proteobacteria of the Rhodospirillales order, such as Acidocella, from which the bd-I type of the oxidase might have diffused to other proteobacterial lineages. In contrast, the Cyanide-Insensitive Oxidase type may have differentiated into recognizable subtypes after another gene cluster duplication. These subtypes are widespread in the genomes of α-, β-, and γ-proteobacteria, with occasional instances of lateral gene transfer. In resolving the evolutionary pattern of proteobacterial bd oxidases, this work sheds new light on the basal taxa of α-proteobacteria from which the γ-proteobacterial lineage probably emerged. PMID:25688108

  13. Detection and characterization of a multicopper oxidase from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Thomas J; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2011-01-01

    Blue copper oxidase (BCO) is a multicopper oxidase (MCO) found in Nitrosomonas europaea as well as in other ammonia-oxidizing organisms. In this chapter, we detail methods used to detect, isolate, and characterize BCO from N. europaea. A method for identifying and classifying MCOs commonly found in nitrifiers based on primary sequence is also described.

  14. Immunological identification of the alternative oxidase of Neurospora crassa mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Lambowitz, A M; Sabourin, J R; Bertrand, H; Nickels, R; McIntosh, L

    1989-01-01

    Neurospora crassa mitochondria use a branched electron transport system in which one branch is a conventional cytochrome system and the other is an alternative cyanide-resistant, hydroxamic acid-sensitive oxidase that is induced when the cytochrome system is impaired. We used a monoclonal antibody to the alternative oxidase of the higher plant Sauromatum guttatum to identify a similar set of related polypeptides (Mr, 36,500 and 37,000) that was associated with the alternative oxidase activity of N. crassa mitochondria. These polypeptides were not present constitutively in the mitochondria of a wild-type N. crassa strain, but were produced in high amounts under conditions that induced alternative oxidase activity. Under the same conditions, mutants in the aod-1 gene, with one exception, produced apparently inactive alternative oxidase polypeptides, whereas mutants in the aod-2 gene failed to produce these polypeptides. The latter findings support the hypothesis that aod-1 is a structural gene for the alternative oxidase and that the aod-2 gene encodes a component that is required for induction of alternative oxidase activity. Finally, our results indicate that the alternative oxidase is highly conserved, even between plant and fungal species. Images PMID:2524649

  15. Lysyl oxidase activity in human normal skins and postburn scars.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Hino, N; Fuyamada, H; Nagatsu, T; Aoyama, H

    1976-09-06

    Lysyl oxidase activity of human normal skins derived from the frontal thighs of 33 subjects showed large variations and the mean value was 11 455 +/- 7 172 (S.D.) cpm/g of wet weight tissue. The age of lesion affected the lysyl oxidase activity in postburn scars. Granulation tissues showed a fairly low activity; however, the activity increased sharply within 2--3 months, and reached a significantly higher value than that of normal skin. The high level of activity continued for up to 2--3 years, then gradually decreased to normal range after 5 years or so. Lysyl oxidase activity was detected only after 4 M urea treatment of tissues. Benzylamine oxidase activity also showed large variations in both normal skins and postburn scars, with mean values of: 0.128 +/- 0.077 (S.D.) and 0.145 +/- 0.090 (S.D.) mmol/g of wet weight/h, respectively. No correlation was observed between lysyl oxidase and benzylamine oxidase activities. The granulation tissues showed significantly high values of benzylamine oxidase activity in contrast to the low values of lysyl oxidase activity.

  16. Induced systemic resistance responses in perennial ryegrass against Magnaporthe oryzae elicited by semi-purified surfactin lipopeptides and live cells of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Alamgir; Uddin, Wakar; Wenner, Nancy G

    2015-08-01

    The suppressive ability of several strains of cyclic lipopeptide-producing Bacillus rhizobacteria to grey leaf spot disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae has been documented previously; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) remains unknown. Root-drench application of solid-phase extraction (SPE)-enriched surfactin and live cells of mutant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42-AK3 (produces surfactin, but not bacillomycin D and fengycin) significantly reduced disease incidence and severity on perennial ryegrass. The application of the treatments revealed a pronounced multilayered ISR defence response activation via timely and enhanced accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), elevated cell wall/apoplastic peroxidase activity, and deposition of callose and phenolic/polyphenolic compounds underneath the fungal appressoria in naïve leaves, which was significantly more intense in treated plants than in mock-treated controls. Moreover, a hypersensitive response (HR)-type reaction and enhanced expression of LpPrx (Prx, peroxidase), LpOXO4 (OXO, oxalate oxidase), LpPAL (PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase), LpLOXa (LOX, lipoxygenase), LpTHb (putative defensin) and LpDEFa (DEFa, putative defensin) in perennial ryegrass were associated with SPE-enriched surfactin and live AK3 cell treatments, acting as a second layer of defence when pre-invasive defence responses failed. The results indicate that ISR activity following surfactin perception may sensitize H2O2 -mediated defence responses, thereby providing perennial ryegrass with enhanced protection against M. oryzae.

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of Aspergillus oryzae strains 3.042 and RIB40 for soy sauce fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong

    2013-06-17

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 (Chinese strain) is a close relative of A. oryzae RIB40 (Japanese strain), which is the important agent used for soy sauce fermentation. The genome of A. oryzae 3.042 was sequenced and compared with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different soy sauce flavors are produced by these strains. The A. oryzae 3.042 chromosome is 36,547,279bp and contains 11,399 protein-encoding genes. MUMmer analysis revealed that the genomes of A. oryzae 3.042 and RIB40 are mostly collinear. Genome sequence data and comparative analysis of the two strains identified several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in cell growth, salt tolerance, environmental resistance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to salt tolerance, especially genes for K(+) transport, while others were associated with ester formation and amino acid metabolism, which likely contribute to flavor formation. In conclusion, comparative genome analysis provided insights into the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains. The unique genes that we found in A. oryzae would make sense to the soy sauce fermentation.

  18. The complex roles of NADPH oxidases in fungal infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Deborah; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary NADPH oxidases play key roles in immunity and inflammation that go beyond the production of microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS). The past decade has brought a new appreciation for the diversity of roles played by ROS in signaling associated with inflammation and immunity. NADPH oxidase activity affects disease outcome during infections by human pathogenic fungi, an important group of emerging and opportunistic pathogens that includes Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. Here we review how alternative roles of NADPH oxidase activity impact fungal infection and how ROS signaling affects fungal physiology. Particular attention is paid to roles for NADPH oxidase in immune migration, immunoregulation in pulmonary infection, neutrophil extracellular trap formation, autophagy and inflammasome activity. These recent advances highlight the power and versatility of spatiotemporally controlled redox regulation in the context of infection, and point to a need to understand the molecular consequences of NADPH oxidase activity in the cell. PMID:24905433

  19. The NADH oxidase-Prx system in Amphibacillus xylanus.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Youichi

    2007-01-01

    Amphibacillus NADH oxidase belongs to a growing new family of peroxiredoxin-linked oxidoreductases including alkyl hydroperoxide reductase F (AhpF). Like AhpF it displays extremely high hydroperoxide reductase activity in the presence of a Prx, thus making up the NADH oxidase-Prx system. The NADH oxidase primarily catalyzes the reduction of oxygen by NADH to form H2O2, while the Prx immediately reduces H2O2 (or ROOH) to water (or ROH). Consequently, the NADH oxidase-Prx system catalyzes the reduction of both oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to water with NADH as the preferred electron donor. The NADH oxidase-Prx system is widely distributed in aerobically growing bacteria lacking a respiratory chain and catalase, and plays an important role not only in scavenging hydroperoxides but also in regenerating NAD in these bacteria.

  20. Genomic analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae isolates from rice grown in the United States reveals substantial divergence from known X. oryzae pathovars.

    PubMed

    Triplett, L R; Hamilton, J P; Buell, C R; Tisserat, N A; Verdier, V; Zink, F; Leach, J E

    2011-06-01

    The species Xanthomonas oryzae is comprised of two designated pathovars, both of which cause economically significant diseases of rice in Asia and Africa. Although X. oryzae is not considered endemic in the United States, an X. oryzae-like bacterium was isolated from U.S. rice and southern cutgrass in the late 1980s. The U.S. strains were weakly pathogenic and genetically distinct from characterized X. oryzae pathovars. In the current study, a draft genome sequence from two U.S. Xanthomonas strains revealed that the U.S. strains form a novel clade within the X. oryzae species, distinct from all strains known to cause significant yield loss. Comparative genome analysis revealed several putative gene clusters specific to the U.S. strains and supported previous reports that the U.S. strains lack transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors. In addition to phylogenetic and comparative analyses, the genome sequence was used for designing robust U.S. strain-specific primers, demonstrating the usefulness of a draft genome sequence in the rapid development of diagnostic tools.

  1. Convergent Loss of Awn in Two Cultivated Rice Species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima Is Caused by Mutations in Different Loci.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Tomoyuki; Komeda, Norio; Asano, Kenji; Uehara, Kanako; Gamuyao, Rico; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Nagai, Keisuke; Doi, Kazuyuki; Wang, Diane R; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Wu, Jianzhong; McCouch, Susan R; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2015-09-02

    A long awn is one of the distinct morphological features of wild rice species. This organ is thought to aid in seed dispersal and prevent predation by animals. Most cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, however, have lost the ability to form long awns. The causal genetic factors responsible for the loss of awn in these two rice species remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated three sets of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) in a common O. sativa genetic background (cv. Koshihikari) that harbor genomic fragments from Oryza nivara, Oryza rufipogon, and Oryza glaberrima donors. Phenotypic analyses of these libraries revealed the existence of three genes, Regulator of Awn Elongation 1 (RAE1), RAE2, and RAE3, involved in the loss of long awns in cultivated rice. Donor segments at two of these genes, RAE1 and RAE2, induced long awn formation in the CSSLs whereas an O. sativa segment at RAE3 induced long awn formation in O. glaberrima. These results suggest that the two cultivated rice species, O. sativa and O. glaberrima, have taken independent paths to become awnless.

  2. Genotypic Variation in Cytokinin Oxidase from Phaseolus Callus Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaminek, Miroslav; Armstrong, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Genotypic variation in cytokinin oxidase has been detected in enzyme preparations from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern and Phaseolus lunatus L. cv Kingston callus cultures. Although cytokinin oxidase preparations from Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues appear to have very similar substrate specificities, the cytokinin oxidase activities from the two callus tissues were found to differ in a number of other properties. The cytokinin oxidase from P. vulgaris cv Great Northern callus tissue exhibited a pH optimum of 6.5 (bisTris) and had a strong affinity for the lectin concanavalin A. The cytokinin oxidase from P. lunatus cv Kingston callus tissue exhibited a pH optimum of 8.4 (Taps) and did not bind to concanavalin A. The two enzymes also differed in position of elution when chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose. Both cytokinin oxidase activities exhibited enhanced activity and lower pH optima in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes, but the optimum copper-imidazole ratio and the magnitude of enhancement differed for the two activities. In both callus tissues, transient increases in the supply of exogenous cytokinins induced increases in cytokinin oxidase activity. The differences in pH optima and in glycosylation (as evidenced by the observed difference in lectin affinity) of the cytokinin oxidases from Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues suggest that the compartmentation of cytokinin oxidase may differ in the two callus tissues. The possibility that enzyme compartmentation and isozyme variation in cytokinin oxidase may play a role in the regulation of cytokinin degradation in plant tissues is discussed in relation to known differences in the rates of cytokinin degradation in Great Northern and Kingston callus tissues. Images Figure 6 PMID:16667652

  3. Effect of hydrothermal processing on antioxidant contents and capacities in pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple and red bran rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) are rich sources of antioxidants including lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologues and '-oryzanol), soluble phenolics (including anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins), and cell-wall-bound phenolics. This study investigated impacts of hydroth...

  4. Mimicking the intradiol catechol cleavage activity of catechol dioxygenase by high-spin iron(III) complexes of a new class of a facially bound [N2O] ligand.

    PubMed

    Panda, Manas K; John, Alex; Shaikh, Mobin M; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2008-12-15

    A series of high-spin iron(III) complexes, {N-R-2-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]acetamide}FeCl(3) [R = mesityl (1b), 2,6-Et(2)C(6)H(3) (2b), and 2,6-i-Pr(2)C(6)H(3) (3b)], that functionally emulate the intradiol catechol dioxygenase enzyme are reported. In particular, these enzyme mimics, 1b, 2b, and 3b, which utilized molecular oxygen in carrying out the intradiol catechol cleavage of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol with high regioselectivity (ca. 81-85%) at room temperature under ambient conditions, were designed by employing a new class of a facially bound [N(2)O] ligand, namely, N-R-2-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]acetamide [R = mesityl (1a), 2,6-Et(2)C(6)H(3) (2a), and 2,6-i-Pr(2)C(6)H(3) (3a)]. The density functional theory studies revealed that the intradiol catechol cleavage reaction proceeded by an iron(III) peroxo intermediate that underwent 1,2-Criegee rearrangement to yield the intradiol catechol cleaved products analogous to the native enzyme.

  5. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of excited state relaxation dynamics in phenol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Ruth A.; Thompson, James O. F.; Iljina, Marija; Donaldson, Ross J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2012-11-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the dynamical evolution of the initially prepared S1 (ππ*) excited state of phenol (hydroxybenzene), catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), and hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) following excitation at 267 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster and CASSCF levels of theory. In all cases, we observe rapid (<1 ps) intramolecular vibrational redistribution on the S1 potential surface. In catechol, the overall S1 state lifetime was observed to be 12.1 ps, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than in the other three molecules studied. This may be attributed to differences in the H atom tunnelling rate under the barrier formed by a conical intersection between the S1 state and the close lying S2 (πσ*) state, which is dissociative along the O-H stretching coordinate. Further evidence of this S1/S2 interaction is also seen in the time-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distributions we have observed. Our data analysis was assisted by a matrix inversion method for processing photoelectron images that is significantly faster than most other previously reported approaches and is extremely quick and easy to implement.

  6. Formation of catechols via removal of acid side chains from ibuprofen and related aromatic acids.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Robert W; Hay, Anthony G

    2005-10-01

    Although ibuprofen [2-(4-isobutylphenyl)-propionic acid] is one of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, little is known regarding its degradation by environmental bacteria. Sphingomonas sp. strain Ibu-2 was isolated from a wastewater treatment plant based on its ability to use ibuprofen as a sole carbon and energy source. A slight preference toward the R enantiomer was observed, though both ibuprofen enantiomers were metabolized. A yellow color, indicative of meta-cleavage, accumulated transiently in the culture supernatant when Ibu-2 was grown on ibuprofen. When and only when 3-flurocatechol was used to poison the meta-cleavage system, isobutylcatechol was identified in the culture supernatant via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Ibuprofen-induced washed-cell suspensions also metabolized phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylpropionic acid to catechol, while 3- and 4-tolylacetic acids and 2-(4-tolyl)-propionic acid were metabolized to the corresponding methyl catechols before ring cleavage. These data suggest that, in contrast to the widely distributed coenzyme A ligase, homogentisate, or homoprotocatechuate pathway for metabolism of phenylacetic acid and similar compounds, Ibu-2 removes the acidic side chain of ibuprofen and related compounds prior to ring cleavage.

  7. Degradation of Phenolic Compounds and Ring Cleavage of Catechol by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Leatham, Gary F.; Crawford, R. L.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1983-01-01

    POL-88, a mutant of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was selected for diminished phenol-oxidizing enzyme activity. A wide variety of phenolic compounds were degraded by ligninolytic cultures of this mutant. With several o-diphenolic substrates, degradation intermediates were produced that had UV spectra consistent with muconic acids. Extensive spectrophotometric and polarographic assays failed to detect classical ring-cleaving dioxygenases in cell homogenates or in extracts from ligninolytic cultures. Even so, a sensitive carrier-trapping assay showed that intact cultures degraded [U-14C]catechol to [14C]muconic acid, establishing the presence of a system capable of 1,2-intradiol fission. Significant accumulation of [14C]muconic acid into carrier occurred only when evolution of 14CO2 from [14C]catechol was inhibited by treating cultures with excess nutrient nitrogen (e.g., l-glutamic acid) or with cycloheximide. l-Glutamic acid is known from past work to repress the ligninolytic system in P. chrysosporium and to mimic the effect of cycloheximide. The results here indicate, therefore, that the enzyme system responsible for degrading ring-cleavage products to CO2 turns over faster than does the system responsible for ring cleavage. PMID:16346340

  8. Mechanics of metal-catecholate complexes: the roles of coordination state and metal types.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping

    2013-10-10

    There have been growing evidences for the critical roles of metal-coordination complexes in defining structural and mechanical properties of unmineralized biological materials, including hardness, toughness, and abrasion resistance. Their dynamic (e.g. pH-responsive, self-healable, reversible) properties inspire promising applications of synthetic materials following this concept. However, mechanics of these coordination crosslinks, which lays the ground for predictive and rational material design, has not yet been well addressed. Here we present a first-principles study of representative coordination complexes between metals and catechols. The results show that these crosslinks offer stiffness and strength near a covalent bond, which strongly depend on the coordination state and type of metals. This dependence is discussed by analyzing the nature of bonding between metals and catechols. The responsive mechanics of metal-coordination is further mapped from the single-molecule level to a networked material. The results presented here provide fundamental understanding and principles for material selection in metal-coordination-based applications.

  9. Suicide inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-halocatechols

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, I.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Reineke, W.

    1984-03-01

    The inactivation of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 by 3-chloro- and 3-fluorocatechol and the iron-chelating agent Tiron (catechol-3,5-disulfonate) was studied. Whereas inactivation by Tiron is an oxygen-independent and mostly reversible process, inactivation by the 3-halocatechols was only observed in the presence of oxygen and was largely irreversible. The rate constants for inactivation (K/sub 2/) were 1.62 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-chlorocatechol and 2.38 x 10/sup -3/ sec/sup -1/ for 3-fluorocatechol. The inhibitor constants (K/sub i/) were 23 ..mu..M for 3-chlorocatechol and 17 ..mu..M for 3-fluorocatechol. The kinetic data for 3-fluorocatechol could only be obtained in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Besides inactivated enzyme, some 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid as the actual suicide product of meta-cleavage. A side product of 3-fluorocatechol cleavage is a yellow compound with the spectral characteristics of a 2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoci acid indicating 1,6-cleavage. Rates of inactivation by 3-fluorocatechol were reduced in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, formate, and mannitol, which implies that superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical exhibit additional inactivation. 64 references.

  10. Bio-inspired multifunctional catecholic assembly for photo-programmable biointerface.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    This article reports a novel multifunctional mussel-inspired zwitterionic catecholic assembly to form a photoresponsive biointerface. The assembly is the combination of the antifouling sulfobetaine and photocleavable o-nitrophenyl moieties into a molecule, becoming sulfobetaine nitrodopamine (SB-nDA). We demonstrated the formation of a compact thin SB-nDA film on TiO₂ by using the pH transition approach. The film thickness, surface wettability and elemental composition were characterized using ellipsometry, contact angle goniometer, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The SB-nDA thin films can effectively resist adhesion of both Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa by more than 95% relative to bare TiO₂. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor was employed for protein fouling tests, showing the comparable antifouling property of SB-nDA with thiol- or silane-based surface ligands. More importantly, the spatiotemporal control over the bioinertness by UV irradiation has been studied with bacterial and protein adsorption. Therefore, the catecholic chemistry can be used for programmable tailoring of interfacial properties, permitting potential application in light-guided targeting for nanomedicine.

  11. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of excited state relaxation dynamics in phenol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Ruth A; Thompson, James O F; Iljina, Marija; Donaldson, Ross J; Sussman, Benjamin J; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2012-11-14

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the dynamical evolution of the initially prepared S(1) (ππ*) excited state of phenol (hydroxybenzene), catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), and hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) following excitation at 267 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster and CASSCF levels of theory. In all cases, we observe rapid (<1 ps) intramolecular vibrational redistribution on the S(1) potential surface. In catechol, the overall S(1) state lifetime was observed to be 12.1 ps, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than in the other three molecules studied. This may be attributed to differences in the H atom tunnelling rate under the barrier formed by a conical intersection between the S(1) state and the close lying S(2) (πσ*) state, which is dissociative along the O-H stretching coordinate. Further evidence of this S(1)/S(2) interaction is also seen in the time-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distributions we have observed. Our data analysis was assisted by a matrix inversion method for processing photoelectron images that is significantly faster than most other previously reported approaches and is extremely quick and easy to implement.

  12. Human catechol-O-methyltransferase: Cloning and expression of the membrane-associated form

    SciTech Connect

    Bertocci, B.; Miggiano, V.; Da Prada, M.; Dembic, Z.; Lahm, H.W.; Malherbe, P. )

    1991-02-15

    A cDNA clone for human catechol-O-methyltransferase was isolated from a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) cDNA library by hybridization screening with a porcine cDNA probe. The cDNA clone was sequenced and found to have an insert of 1226 nucleotides. The deduced primary structure of hCOMT is composed of 271 amino acid residues with the predicted molecular mass of 30 kDa. At its N terminus it has a hydrophobic segment of 21 amino acid residues that may be responsible for insertion of hCOMT into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The primary structure of hCOMT exhibits high homology to the porcine partial cDNA sequence (93%). The deduced amino acid sequence contains two tryptic peptide sequences (T-22, T-33) found in porcine liver catechol-O-methyltransferase (CEMT). The coding region of hCOMT cDNA was placed under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter to transfect human kidney 293 cells. The recombinant hCOMT was shown by immunoblot analysis to be mainly associated with the membrane fraction. RNA blot analysis revealed one COMT mRNA transcript of 1.4 kilobases in Hep G2 poly(A){sup +} RNA.

  13. Ormosil gels doped with engineered catechol 1,2 dioxygenases for chlorocatechol bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Micalella, Chiara; Caglio, Raffaella; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Valetti, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Giunta, Carlo; Bruno, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes entrapped in wet, nanoporous silica gel have great potential as bioreactors for bioremediation because of their improved thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability with respect to enzymes in solution. The B isozyme of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens and its mutants of Leu69 and Ala72, designed for an increased reactivity toward the environmental pollutant chlorocatechols, were encapsulated using alkoxysilanes and alkyl alkoxysilanes as precursors in varying proportions. Encapsulation of the mutants in a hydrophobic tetramethoxysilane/dimethoxydimethylsilane-based matrix yielded a remarkable 10- to 12-fold enhancement in reactivity toward chlorocatechols. These gels also showed a fivefold increase in relative reactivity toward chlorocatechols with respect to the natural substrate catechol, thus compensating for their relatively low activity for these substrates in solution. The encapsulated enzyme, unlike the enzyme in solution, proved resilient in assays carried out in urban wastewater and bacteria-contaminated solutions mimicking environmentally relevant conditions. Overall, the combination of a structure-based rational design of enzyme mutants, and the selection of a suitable encapsulation material, proved to be a powerful approach for the production and optimization of a potential bioremediation device, with increased activity and resistance toward bacterial degradation.

  14. Facile fabrication of gold nanoparticle on zein ultrafine fibers and their application for catechol biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Dawei; Li, Guohui; Luo, Lei; Ullah, Naseeb; Wei, Qufu; Huang, Fenglin

    2015-02-01

    A novel laccase biosensor based on a new composite of laccase-gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers (CZUF) has been fabricated for catechol determination in real solution samples. Firstly, crosslinked zein ultrafine fibers containing gold nanoparticles (A-CZUF) were prepared by combining electrospinning and one-step reduction method using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as reducing and crosslinking agent. A smooth morphology and relative average distribution of A-CZUF were depicted by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that PEI molecules attached to the surface of the zein ultrafine fibers via the reaction of functional groups between PEI and glyoxal. The results obtained from ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for A-CZUF confirmed the existence of Au NPS coated on the surface of CZUF. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to detect the electrochemical performance of the proposed biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor possessed a high sensitive detection to catechol, which was attributed to the direct electron transfer (DET) facilitated by Au NPs and high catalytic ability obtained from laccase. In addition, the proposed biosensor exhibited good reproducibility, stability and selectivity.

  15. Single micelle force microscopy reveals the coordination interaction between catechol and Fe33+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiran; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    Metal coordination bonds are widely found in natural adhesive, load-bearing, and protective materials, which are thought to be responsible for their high strength and toughness. However, it remains unknown how the metal-ligand complexes could give rise to such superb mechanical properties. Here, combining single molecule force spectroscopy and quantum calculation, we study the mechanical properties of individual catechol-Fe3 + complexes, the key elements accounting for the high toughness and extensibility of byssal threads of marine mussels. We find that catechol-Fe3 + complexes possess a unique combination of mechanical features, including high mechanical stability, fast reformation kinetics, and stoichiometry-dependent mechanics. Therefore, they can serve as sacrificial bonds to efficiently dissipate energy in the material, quickly recover the mechanical properties when load is released, and be responsive to environmental conditions. Our study provides the mechanistic understanding of the coordination bond-mediated mechanical properties of biogenetic materials, and could guide future rational design and regulation of the mechanical properties of synthetic materials.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Weiss, Noel S.; Chen, Chu; Li, Christopher I.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Farin, Federico M.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway altered the risk of breast cancer alone or in combination, as well as whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) modified the effect of these SNPs on breast cancer risk. Methods In a population-based case-control study of breast cancer, 891 cases and 878 controls were genotyped for six functional SNPs in the COMT, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genes. Results Women homozygous with the T allele in CYP1B1*2 (Ser119; rs1056827) were at 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–2.46) times the risk of women homozygous with the G allele; women homozygous with the G allele in GSTP1 (Val105; rs1695) were at 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54–0.99) times the risk of breast cancer compared to women homozygous with the A allele. No other SNPs tested were associated with breast cancer to any appreciable degree. Potential gene-gene and gene-HT interactions were investigated. Conclusion With the exception of GSTP1 and possibly CYP1B1*2, our findings do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in the catechol estrogen metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women. PMID:19383894

  17. Expression of the alternative oxidase complements cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Dassa, Emmanuel P; Dufour, Eric; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Paupe, Vincent; Hakkaart, Gertjan A J; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, ranging from early onset devastating encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy, to neurological diseases in adulthood and in the elderly. No method of compensating successfully for COX deficiency has been reported so far. In vitro, COX-deficient human cells require additional glucose, pyruvate and uridine for normal growth and are specifically sensitive to oxidative stress. Here, we have tested whether the expression of a mitochondrially targeted, cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis could alleviate the metabolic abnormalities of COX-deficient human cells either from a patient harbouring a COX15 pathological mutation or rendered deficient by silencing the COX10 gene using shRNA. We demonstrate that the expression of the AOX, well-tolerated by the cells, compensates for both the growth defect and the pronounced oxidant-sensitivity of COX-deficient human cells. PMID:20049701

  18. Alternative oxidase and plastoquinol terminal oxidase in marine prokaryotes of the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Allison E; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2005-04-11

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) represents a non-energy conserving branch in mitochondrial electron transport while plastoquinol terminal oxidase (PTOX) represents a potential branch in photosynthetic electron transport. Using a metagenomics dataset, we have uncovered numerous and diverse AOX and PTOX genes from the Sargasso Sea. Sequence similarity, synteny and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the large majority of these genes are from prokaryotes. AOX appears to be widely distributed among marine Eubacteria while PTOX is widespread among strains of cyanobacteria closely related to the high-light adapted Prochlorococcus marinus MED4, as well as Synechococcus. The wide distribution of AOX and PTOX in marine prokaryotes may have important implications for productivity in the world's oceans.

  19. Cloning and characterization of two flavohemoglobins from Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shengmin; Fushinobu, Shinya; Nakanishi, Yoshito; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2009-03-27

    Two flavohemoglobin (FHb) genes, fhb1 and fhb2, were cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The amino acid sequences of the deduced FHb1 and FHb2 showed high identity to other FHbs except for the predicted mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminus of FHb2. The recombinant proteins displayed absorption spectra similar to those of other FHbs. FHb1 and FHb2 were estimated to be a monomer and a dimer in solution, respectively. Both of the isozymes exhibit high NO dioxygenase (NOD) activity. FHb1 utilizes either NADH or NADPH as an electron donor, whereas FHb2 can only use NADH. These results suggest that FHb1 and FHb2 are fungal counterparts of bacterial FHbs and act as NO detoxification enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. This study is the first to show that a microorganism contains two isozymes of FHb and that intracellular localization of the isozymes could differ.

  20. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.